Motivation Essay

Motivation Essay.

1. Define and discuss motivation. Which theory of motivation offers the best chance, if handled properly, of increasing productivity in your workplace?

Motivation can be described as a process that accounts for an individuals intensity, direction and persisitence of efforts towards attaining a goal (Robbins, 2004). While general motivation is concerned with motivation towards the achievement of any goal, this paper will be discussing motivation in relation to organizational goals, as the focus is on work related behavior (Robbins, 2004).

With regards to the definition, there are 3 key elements related to motivation.

Intensity is concerned with how hard a person tries to achieve a goal. But in order for intensity to trnaslate into better performance it has to be channeled in the right direction. So, the quality of the intensity is very essential. Persistence is another dimension to motivation. It is a measure of how long a person can maintain his or her efforts.

There have been numerous theories on motivation, devised and tested multiple times.

But the theory I find most relevant and important to a workplace, the work be of any nature, is the expectacy theory, put forward by Victor Vroom (Robbins, 2004).

Expectancy theory focuses on three main relationships. The effort-performance relationship, performance-reward relationship and the reward-personal goal relationship.

In more practical terms, expectancy theory says that when an employee puts in effort o his job it is partly because he believes his effort will translate into better performance, but this performance alone would be useless to him, until and unless there are obvious benefits attached to better performance, i.e. rewards. These rewrds may be monetary or non-monetary and may vary from a promotion or pay increment to a pat on the back from the boss and a word or two of appreciation from the supervisor. This would motivate the workforce, as every individual will perceive that with this job he would be able accomplish his personal goals.

2. Define and discuss leadership. Which style is presently used in your own workplace? Which style is needed, or which style do you believe should be used to increase productivity?

Leadership theories have great applications in business settings. For example, some organizations look for leadership traits when choosing a candidate for a leadership position.  Most organizations that we normally encounter look for specific personality traits of individuals such as their openness to experience, social behavior, extraversion etc. These are the traits that are associated with good leaders. Extraversion is a trait that is mostly associated with leadership emergence because extraverted people are quick to establish contacts, have usually good communication skills and are emotionally aware of others. Similarly, openness to experience is a good indicator of a leader’s ability to encounter and deal with new situations.

Contemporary theories of leadership such as Charismatic leadership and Transformational leadership fit very well in the dynamic situation of the contemporary world. Contemporary leadership theories view leaders as individuals who inspire their followers through their words, ideas and behaviors. And this is so true of today’s successful leaders (Kotter, 1995).  Charismatic leadership theory can be applied to leaders such as New York mayor Rudy Guiliani, African President Nelson Mandela, and African-American leader Martin Luther King. Through his rhetoric, Martin Luther king was able to consolidate the civil rights movement and became one of the most inspiring leaders (Kotter, 1995).

Contemporary leadership theories are forward looking as they emphasize on leader’s vision. A clear vision is described as one of the qualities of charismatic leaders because it is their vision that binds their followers and becomes the impetus for change. Moreover, contemporary leadership theories put emphasis on leader-follower relationship as in Leader Exchange Theory (Robbins, 2004). As employees become more empowered, leader-follower relationship becomes even more important and contemporary leadership theories provide valuable information in this regard.

So, in essence, leadership has a huge role to play when it comes to the employees’ attitude towards work. Because, if a leader can inspire and motivate his or her followers, it may help bring out a more positive attitude from them, and ultimately this would have a positive impact on the productivity of the company.

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Motivation Essay

Herzbergs Two Factor Theory Essay

Herzbergs Two Factor Theory Essay.


Motivation is an important driver in an organisation and is crucial to the management of intellectual capital. Motivation underlies what employees choose to do (quality and/or quantity), how much effort they will put into accomplishing the task, and how long they will work in order to accomplish it. Employees who are motivated will work more effectively and efficiently and shape an organisation’s behavior. A motivated workforce will have a strong effect on an organisation’s bottom line.

Motivation is strongly tied to job satisfaction.

Job satisfaction is how individuals feel about the tasks they are supposed to accomplish and may also be influenced by the physical and social nature of the workplace. The more satisfied employees are with their jobs, the more motivated they will be to do their jobs well. There are several important studies relating to motivation.

These include Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Frederick Herzberg’s study of hygiene and motivational factors, Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y, Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory, and J.

Stacy Adams’ Equity Theory. It is worth noting that the paper will give some highlights of the above mentioned theories so as to give a bigger picture on the subject of motivation, further the paper will give brief definitions of some key concepts such as motivation and job satisfaction. It is also important to state here that the paper will restrict itself to the two factor theory by giving a brief explanation on the theory and then zero in on each of the hygiene factors in detail after which the position of the author on the subject under discussion will be outlined and the conclusion shall follow with the bibliography.


As posited by Vroom (1964), the word “motivation” is derived from the Latin word movere, which means “to move”. Motivation is an internal force, dependent on the needs that drive a person to achieve. Schulze and Steyn (2003) affirmed that in order to understand people’s behaviour at work, managers or supervisors must be aware of the concept of needs or motives, which will help “move” their employees to act. Locke (1976) defines job satisfaction as the positive emotional state stemming from valuation of a person’s experience associated with the job. Job satisfaction is associated with salary, occupational stress, empowerment, company and administrative policy, achievement, personal growth, relationship with others, and the overall working condition.

It has been argued that an increase in job satisfaction increases worker productivity (Wright & Cropanzano, 1997; Shikdar & Das, 2003). Therefore, job satisfaction has a major effect on people’s lives. Locke (1976) indicated that job satisfaction most commonly affects a person’s physical health, mental health and social life whereby people who are satisfied with their jobs will tend to be happy with their lives. Breed and Breda (1997) indicated that job satisfaction may affect absenteeism, complaints, and labour unrest. In view of this, satisfied workers will be much more productive and be retained within the organisation for a longer period, in contrast to displeased workers who will be less useful and who will have a greater tendency to quit their jobs (Crossman, 2003). More importantly, satisfied workers not only perform better but also provide better service to customers, which could result in improving customer satisfaction.

It is assumed that motivation and satisfaction are very similar and that, in many cases, they are considered to be synonymous terms. According to Hersey and Blanchard (1988), motivation and satisfaction are quite different from each other in terms of reward and performance. The authors point out that motivation is influenced by forward-looking perceptions about the relationship between performance and rewards, whereas satisfaction involves how people feel about the rewards they have received. In other words, motivation is a consequence of expectations of the future while satisfaction is a consequence of past events (Carr, 2005).

Researchers have given considerable attention to employee job satisfaction because it is closely related to the quality of the employee’s life. Jenner (1994) insisted that increasing the employee’s job satisfaction or morale is an important technique for eliminating absenteeism, reducing turnover, and eventually raising productivity. Barber (1986) found that job dissatisfaction was associated with greater absenteeism and higher turnover rates. With high job satisfaction, the employee tended to show stronger organizational commitment and higher intention to remain with the company.


Theories of motivation can help us understand why people behave as they do. No theory has a Universal approach to explain human behaviour, because people are too far complex (Donnelly, et al.1996). Two important groups of theories are content theories and process theories. Content theories are concerned with identifying what factors in an individual or the work environment energise and sustain behaviour. Process theories try to describe how behaviour is energised, directed, and sustained. Process theories first attempt to define variables in choice, i.e., Should I work hard? (Choice); how hard do I Work? (Persistence).

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs posits that behavior at a particular moment is determined by the strongest need. He placed them in a framework referred to as the hierarchy of needs because of the different levels of importance. Those needs that come first must be satisfied before a higher-level need comes into play. Equity Theory posits that perceived inequity is a Motivational force. Workers evaluate equity using a ratio of inputs to outputs. Inputs include qualification, experience, effort, and ability. Outcomes include benefits. Inequities occur when workers feel that outcomes are not compatible with inputs. Expectancy Theory asserts that employees are motivated to make choices among behaviors. If employees believe that effort will be rewarded, there will be motivated effort, that is, they will decide to work harder to receive a reward. Expectancy is the belief that certain behaviours will or will not be successful. Preferences are the values a person attaches to different outcomes.


Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation (1959) explains and studies the factors that play a key role in making the employees of an organisation satisfied or dissatisfied with their work and job profiles. The two factors are- hygiene factors and motivators. If hygiene factors are absent, they can lead to creation of dissatisfaction among workers, but when they are adequate, they alone cannot lead to satisfying workers in the work environment. On the other hand, motivators are the factors that are related to the nature of the job and play a significant role in providing satisfaction among workers and leading to higher level of motivation (Bassett-Jones and Lloyd 2005). Employees all over the world not only want job security but also want quality employment. They desire to be given ample opportunities for advancement, good working conditions, and fair treatment by managers, autonomy on their work, challenging jobs and responsibility (Miner 2003).

These factors are included in the motivator factors given by Herzberg and still hold true today in contemporary business environment. Today’s organisations focus on teamwork and cohesion among the group so as to create an inductive environment for work where employees are motivated to work and contribute to attaining the goals of the organisation. Cock and Davis (1990) demonstrate that work quality is one of the major factors that determine satisfaction among employees in terms of motivation. For instance, if an employee has adequate money, but he has no meaningful work, then the employee starts feeling lack of self value, which is again in coherence with the Herzberg’s theory that when money stops being the driving force of motivation for employees, psychological rewards take its place and become more crucial as well as significant in terms of acting as a driving force of motivation.

So, money stops acting as the motivator for employees beyond a certain threshold (Critical Analysis of Adam J. Stacy’s and Frederick Herzberg’s Theories on Job Satisfaction of Employees 2012). In today’s business scenario, sources of satisfaction at work and the ways in which jobs can be designed so as to make the work itself more challenging and enriching can motivate employees and help organisations attain their aims and goals as mentioned in Herzberg motivation theory (Locke and Latham 2004). Herzberg stated that the only way to motivate employees in the organisation is to give them challenging work so that they can feel a sense of responsibility as well as belonging towards the organisation. Today, employees are involved in decision making due to which they feel more responsibility as well as find themselves at a higher level of motivation.

Intrinsic drivers dominate over external stimuli in terms of motivation and lead to enhanced contributions towards organisational success. According to Herzberg’s book on Work and the Nature of Man 1973, he says man has two sets of needs: his need as an animal to avoid pain, and his need as a human to grow psychologically. The biblical personages of Adam and Abraham are used to illustrate and develop the duality of man’s nature. Briefly, as Adam, man is pictured as an animal whose overriding goal is to avoid the pain inevitable in relating to his environment. On the other hand, looking at man in his totality, in addition to his avoidance nature there exists a human being who is impelled to determine, to discover, to achieve, to actualise, to progress and to add to his existence. These needs summarise the Abraham concept of man Work and the Nature of Man 1973.

A basic understanding of the concept is that man exists as a duality and has two sets of needs present at the same time. Another interesting and important aspect of man’s dual nature follows in that the two sets of needs of man are essentially independent of one another. That is, each of the two concepts of man consists of a system of needs that operate in opposing directions. Furthermore, seething the needs of one facet of man (Adam) has little or no effect upon the needs of the other facet in man (Abraham).

It should be noted that since both sets of needs exist in man at the same time both must be served and one will not substitute for the other. To illustrate, one cannot find happiness simply by avoiding physical pain, or avoid pain by finding happiness. From this illustration it becomes apparent that happiness and pain are not polar opposites of the same feeling originating from the same source; that is, happiness and pain are not on the same continuum. This is the principal upon which the Herzberg two-factor theory is based.

Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction represent two separate and distinct continua just as observed earlier with respect to happiness and pain.

Herzberg offers another analogy-as follows-to help explain this way of thinking about job attitudes; let us characterise job satisfaction as vision and job dissatisfaction as hearing. It is readily seen that we are talking about two separate dimensions, since the stimulus for vision is light, and increasing and decreasing light will have no effect on man’s hearing. The stimulus for audition is sound, and, in a similar fashion, increasing or decreasing loudness will have no effect on vision. Herzberg analysed and classified the job content factors or satisfying experiences as follows –Achievement -Recognition -Work itself -Responsibility-Advancement –Growth. According to Herzberg, these factors stand out as strong determiners of job satisfaction.

Job responsibility and advancement being the most important relative to a lasting attitude charge. Achievement, more so than recognition, was frequently associated with such long-range factors as responsibility and the nature of the work itself. Recognition which produces good feelings about the job does not essentially have to come from superiors; it may come from subordinates, peers, or customers. It is interesting to note that recognition based on achievement provides a more intense satisfaction than does recognition used solely as a human relations tool divorced from any accomplishment, The latter does not serve as a satisfier, Rush, H. M. F. (1969- 92-93; 9:370)

Compared with the satisfiers or motivators are the factors which cause low job attitude situations or job dissatisfaction. Such factors were found from the analysis of the study results to be associated primarily with an individual’s relationship to the context or environment in which he does his work. These factors are extrinsic to the work itself and are referred to as dissatisfiers or hygiene (or maintenance) factors. Herzberg categorized the context or environmental factors causing dissatisfaction to include: Dissatisfies: – Company policy and administration – Supervision – Working conditions – Interpersonal relations (with peers, subordinates and superiors) – Status – Job security – Salary – Personal Life

3.0 Hygiene Factors Why, for instance, do hygiene factors serve as dissatisfiers? Why, on the other hand, do motivators affect motivation in the positive direction? Consider the answers to these questions in terms of the distinction between the two sets of human needs (Adam vs Abraham). One stems from man’s animal nature and his need to avoid pain. This set consists of the needs for which the hygiene factors are relevant. The word “hygiene” is a medical term meaning preventative and environmental.

This is an –appropriate term in view of the fact that the hygiene factors represent the environment to which man as an animal is constantly trying to adjust. The dissatisfies or hygiene factors previously listed are the major environment aspects of work. Because these factors serve only to reduce pain, they cannot contribute to positive satisfaction but only to the avoidance of dissatisfaction. Herzberg found, for example, that good working conditions (Physical, environment, congenial co-workers, good supervision) were rarely named as factors contributing to job satisfaction; however, poor working conditions were frequently cited as sources of dissatisfaction.

Herzberg argued that improvement in the hygiene factors would only minimise dissatisfaction but not increase satisfaction and motivation. In order to motivate employees, the managers must ensure to provide the hygiene factors and then follow the motivating factors. When hygiene factors are adequate, people will not be dissatisfied; but at the same time they may not be fully satisfied. They will be in a neutral state. If we want to motivate people on their jobs, it is suggested to give much importance on those job content factors such as opportunities for personal growth, recognition, responsibility, and achievement. These are the characteristics that people find intrinsically rewarding.

Herzberg model sensitises that merely treating the employees well through ‘good’ company policies is not sufficient to motivate them. Managers should utilise the skills, abilities, and talents of the people at work through effective job designing. In other words, the work given to employees should be challenging and exciting and offer them a sense of achievement, recognition, and growth. Unless these characteristics are present in the job, employees will not be motivated.

A company policy that treats workers well may not be motivation in itself if there is no clear career progression plan or it hinders progression whether through strict staff development policy or lack of provision of scholarships. For example, some companies have policies that a worker needs to serve a minimum of 8 years for them to be granted paid study leave without sponsorship; in view of the life expectancy which is significantly reduced, it may not be possible for an employee to wait for that long. Additionally, an employee may have added responsibilities such as taking his children to school thereby making it extremely difficult for them to pay for their own studies. It is important to note that even in situations where this policy is elaborate, it may not bring motivation in itself unless it be accompanied by a motivator such as personal growth or recognition.

There are a number of managerial styles that are adopted by different supervisors; some are strict and do not consult while others are open and make workers autonomous. The quality of supervision alone, however, will not motivate a worker. Even when the supervision is good, it may not motivate a worker unless this good supervision is coupled with achievement, where the worker is given a normal task load and these tasks are smart in nature. Only then can this be a source of motivation. Despite being good, the supervisor must be seen to apply the concept of equity in dealing with subordinates, if this aspect is absent, then the workers may be dissatisfied

Factors that involve the physical environment of the job: amount of work, facilities for performing work, light, tools, temperature, space, ventilation, and general appearance of the work place. In a company were working conditions are poor, workers will not be motivated to work. For example, a receptionist who works in a small and stuffy room will not be motivated to go for work the following day. Even if such a person worked in an air conditioned room with good chairs, but the company does not recognise her contribution to the organisation, she may decide to leave the organisation because she will not be motivated. So it is only when these factors are combined that one will be motivated. For example, when such a worker’s contribution is recognised even by management writing her a letter of appreciation, then there will be motivation and satisfaction.

When it comes to job security, which is employee’s job tenure and/or the company’s stability or instability, objective signs of the presence or absence of security, it is worth noting that when a job is secured it will produce a good feeling or the psychological well being of the employee will be good. However, on its own, it cannot provide motivation unless a balance is struck between the motivators and hygiene factors as outlined by Herzberg

In Herzberg’s two-factor model pay is a maintenance factor that should not contribute significantly to motivation. The money that employees receive is actually a package made up of salary, and other fringe benefits such as transport, housing, furniture, medical allowance. Others include meal subsidy and utility allowances. This pay is given across the board or is universal and, therefore, a worker will not feel anything special about this pay unless it is given to workers who have performed exceptionally well and not to everybody else. In this case, it becomes a merit pay.

For example, a government worker who has been in service for five years at a given position will be given the same salary as someone who has just graduated from the university because they have the same position and qualification and salary scale. In such a situation, salary will not be a motivation for the one who has served longer. In view of this, the employee who has worked for five years will only be motivated if his salary is different on account of performance and length in service. Here, we see an aspect of recognition coming into play. In expectancy theory, pay can satisfy a variety of needs and influence choice and behavior, while in equity theory, pay is a major outcome that one compares with other employees.

The relationships between the worker and his or her superiors, subordinates, and peers-by which we mean the related interactions and social interactions within the work environment-play a major role in determining how employees feel about their work. Ordinarily a good and warm relationship with one’s supervisor would entail no dissatisfaction on the part of the worker. However, if the company does not recognise one’s effort or contribution to the organisation, then they will not be motivated. In order to motivate, good supervision has to be coupled with a good company policy and recognition.

4.0 Conclusion The concept of Herzberg’s Two-factor theory is one that focuses on understanding the acceptable hygiene factors that prevent the employee from being dissatisfied. It must be noted, though, that hygiene factors do not do much to motivate the employee and the management of companies has to seek other ways of achieving this. The main idea behind such factors is that they may spell the difference in the perceptions that employees hold with regards to their work and their relationship with their organisation of choice. It must be noted that both factors (hygiene factors and motivation factors) must exist in order for the employee to be motivated in his work, in the best way that he/she possibly can.

If there are missing factors (whether they may be hygiene factors or motivation factors), it is possible for the employee to be dissatisfied and not perform in the best way that they can. If all the hygiene factors are present and even when there is more than enough of a hygiene factor present, then it is possible that the employee would still not be motivated. Thus, in order for managers to successfully motivate their employees, there is a need for them to determine the appropriate and the sufficient motivation factors to use. Although, it is not always necessary that motivators keep motivating employees all the time and hygiene factors cause dissatisfaction. Some of these factors can interchange their roles as well. Therefore, it is required on the part of managers to adopt more pragmatic approach and apply a blend of both motivator factors and hygiene factors to attain the individual as well as organizational goals with efficiency and effectiveness

Herzbergs Two Factor Theory Essay

Vals Analysis Essay

Vals Analysis Essay.

The result shows that my primary VALS™ type is Innovator, and my secondary type is achiever.

Although I do not see myself as a successful person, but this result could give me an insight that I have a potential to become a successful, sophistic, and high self-esteem leader. I agree that innovators are the most receptive to new ideas and technologies, because I am a very creative and innovative person. I like to enjoy variety excitements, to experience new things, and to seek challenges in my life.

Moreover, I love doing artwork in my spare time. I love travelling and go to places that I have never been. I love music and art, in which I can express my feelings, my personality, and my taste. As a customer, I would likely to pick brand products that have high recognition and quality. I believe these are the reasons that make me an innovator type customer.

As an achiever, I truly motivated by the desire for achievement.

I have a goal-orientated lifestyle and a deep commitment to career and family. In addition to my Asian culture influences, these characteristics become more important to me. On the website, it says many achievers have busy lives, so they are often interested in a variety of timesaving devices. It is interest to realize that the most frequent word out of my mouth is efficient. I want to do things fast and with good quality, although sometimes I give myself too much pressure on things that lead to results under my expectations. As a customer, I prefer simple, good-looking and high quality products, just like what the website described the achiever.

Doing the VALS™ research is an interesting experience for me. I did it once in 2011; my primary VALS™ type was an experience and my secondary type was a maker. I am not sure the questions I did today and two years ago are the same, but somehow they are similar. The different results show my changing in attitudes and lifestyle. This research would definitely help companies to identify its customers. Because factors like age, education, income, attitude heavily influence customers’ wants and needs, this research will give companies a good understanding of their customers’ lifestyle and shopping behaviors. For a customer like myself, VALS™ is also a good tool to help me understand my shopping behavior and myself too.

Vals Analysis Essay

Theories of Motivation Essay

Theories of Motivation Essay.

This essay will look at motivation to discuss the content theorist Abraham Maslow ‘Hierarchy of Needs’ relevance and his critics. The research of motivation is interested basically with why people act in certain ways. ’Why do people do what they do?’ In typical terms, motivation can be defined as the direction and perseverance of action. It is interested with why humans take a specific course of action in to others, and why they continue with a chosen endeavour, often sustained over long periods and in the face of difficulties and problems (Kerch D(ed) 1962).

From a review of motivational theory, ‘Mitchel’ pinpoints four common traits that are intrinsic in defining Motivation (Mitchel1982) Motivation is typified as an individual phenomenon. Every person is unique and all the major theories of motivation in one way or another allow for this uniqueness to be demonstrated.. Motivation is described, usually as intentional. Motivation is assumed to be under the workers control, and behaviours that are influenced by motivation, such as effort expended are seen as choices of action.

Motivation is multifaceted. The two factors of greatest importance are; 1 what gets people active (arousal); and 2 the force of an individual to engage in desired behaviour (direction or choice of behaviour). The purpose of motivational theories is to predict behaviour. Motivation is not the performance itself and it is not behaviour. Motivation concerns action and the external and internal factors that affect a persons choice of action. On the basis of these traits, Mitchell defines motivation as ‘the extent to which a person desires and adopts to engage in certain specific behaviours’.

Mullins (2010) quotes ‘Kathy Scholfield, Director of Human resources, HFC Bank which was sited in ’Engineering the Carrott, Management Today December 1995.p66’ “ You don’t motivate individuals. You provide them with an environment to be self motivated. It is a personal decision, but it’s managements job to provide the right environment”. Content theories of Motivation

Significant content theories of motivation include •Maslow’s hierarchy of needs •Alderer’s modified need hierarchy model •Herzberg two factor theory. •McClelland’s achievement motivation theory. Content theories try to clarify the specific things that actually motivate the employee at work and are concerned with the identification of their strengths and needs, and the goals they seek in order to fulfil their needs. The content theories focus on the important factors of needs and what motivates.

“The most widely recognised theorist in motivation was Abraham Maslow who founded the concept “Hierarchy of needs”, his content theory focused on the factors within a person that energise, sustain and stop behaviour and attempt to identify the distinguishing needs that motivate people.” (Mitchell 2008) Cole (2004) states ‘Maslow’s studies into human motivation led him to propose a theory of needs based hierachial model with the basic needs at the bottom and the higher needs at the top, as in Fig1. This theory made a considerable influence on developments in management theory during the 1950s/60s due to partly to the simplicity of the model and partly to the identification of higher levels of needs.’

“Maslow’s basic proposition is that people are wanting beings, they always want more and what they want depends on what they have already have (Mullins 2010 p261). Maslow identified eight needs, however the hierarchy of needs only shows five main levels, ranging from the lowest level of physiological needs then through to safety needs, love needs and self esteem needs to the final need of self actualisation.

Maslow developed his ‘Hierarchy of needs’ (Fig 1) motivation theory and it is probably the most popular and most read motivation theory. (Maslow1954) theory suggests that people have different needs, which can be grouped and ordered to display relative importance, and that within each person there is a hierarchy of needs and the individual must satisfy each level before they move onto the next.

There are five hierarchical levels and these are: Physiological needs: Food, shelter, sexual satisfaction i.e. those needs needed for basic survival. Safety needs: The need to feel safe and have security, freedom from threats of violence within your environment. Also refers to emotional and physical safety. Social needs: The need for love, friendship and belongingness Esteem needs: The need for self respect, status and recognition from others. Self actualisation: The point of reaching ones full potential. Are you capable at excelling yourself? Maslow theory proposes that once a lower level of need has been satisfied it is no longer becomes a motivator and the needs of the next upper level necessitate satisfaction and become the motivating factor. Only unsatisfied needs are the motivator for a person and that a satisfied need is no longer a motivator.

The most significant limitations of Maslow’s theory concern his methodology’ to define the characteristics of self acutalised individuals by undertaking a qualitive assessment method called biographical analysis. In short he looked at the writings and biographies of the people he decided as being self actualised.

This method is subjective and is entirely based on the researcher and personal opinions are prone to being bias, which reduces the validity of Maslow’s definition of self actualization and should not be accepted as fact. It is also quite difficult to empirically test Maslow theory of self actualization in a way that casual relationships can be established. Author and artists such as Rembrandt and Van Gough lived in poverty through their life and it could be argued that they achieved self actualization.

It is also apparent when looking at the poorer regions of the world and the poverty in which people exist, people are still capable of ascending to higher levels of needs such as belongingness and love. Furthermore this should not occur according to Maslow as people who are in financial hardship are failing to meet physiological needs such as shelter and food (McLeod 2007).

The Economist (2008) states ‘Maslow was described by Peter Drucker as “the father of humanist psychology”. But Drucker took issue with Maslow’shierarchy, complaining that he had not seen that “a want changes in the act of being satisfied”. Hence “ as a wants approaches satiety its capacity to reward, and with it its power of incentive diminishes fast”. And opinionates “so (as we all know well) top executives can never be paid enough for them to be satisfied.”

Conclusion Even after many years have passed since its inception and more and more flaws being applied when the hierarchy of needs principles are taken out of its simplistic form. Maslow’s theory of is still the most recognised and well known theory to date, being still written about and being applied in one form or other assisting managers in motivating employees in partnership with other management motivational theories.

Theories of Motivation Essay

Key Qualities of a Successful Entrepreneur Essay

Key Qualities of a Successful Entrepreneur Essay.

Being an entrepreneur is about more than just starting a business or two, it is about having attitude and the drive to succeed in business. All successful Entrepreneurs have a similar way of thinking and posses several key personal qualities that make them so successful in business. Successful entrepreneurs like the ambitious Richard Branson have an inner drive to succeed and grow their business, rather than having a Harvard Business degree or technical knowledge in a particular field.All successful entrepreneurs have the following qualities:Inner Drive to SucceedEntrepreneurs are driven to succeed and expand their business.

They see the bigger picture and are often very ambitious. Entrepreneurs set massive goals for themselves and stay committed to achieving them regardless of the obstacles that get in the way.

Strong Belief in themselvesSuccessful entrepreneurs have a healthy opinion of themselves and often have a strong and assertive personality. They are focused and determined to achieve their goals and believe completely in their ability to achieve them.

Their self optimism can often been seen by others as flamboyance or arrogance but entrepreneurs are just too focused to spend too much time thinking about un-constructive criticism. Search for New Ideas and InnovationAll entrepreneurs have a passionate desire to do things better and to improve their products or service. They are constantly looking for ways to improve.

They‘re creative, innovative and resourceful.Openness to ChangeIf something is not working for them they simply change. Entrepreneurs know the importance of keeping on top of their industry and the only way to being number one is to evolve and change with the times. They‘re up to date with the latest technology or service techniques and are always ready to change if they see a new opportunity arise.www.woopidoo.comCompetitive by NatureSuccessful entrepreneurs thrive on competition. The only way to reach their goals and live up to their self imposed high standards is to compete with other successful businesses.

Highly Motivated and EnergeticEntrepreneurs are always on the move, full of energy and highly motivated. They are driven to succeed and have an abundance of self motivation. The high standards and ambition of many entrepreneurs demand that they have to be motivated!Accepting of Constructive Criticism and RejectionInnovative entrepreneurs are often at the forefront of their industry so they hear the words ”it can‘t be done” quite a bit.

They readjust their path if the criticism is constructive and useful to their overall plan, otherwise they will simply disregard the comments as pessimism. Also, the best entrepreneurs know that rejection and obstacles are a part of any leading business and they deal with them appropriately.True entrepreneurs are resourceful, passionate and driven to succeed and improve. They‘re pioneers and are comfortable fighting on the frontline The great ones are ready to be laughed at and criticized in the beginning because they can see their path ahead and are too busy working towards their dream.

Key Qualities of a Successful Entrepreneur Essay

Motivation, Intelligence Essay

Motivation, Intelligence Essay.

Second language learning is the process of learning a different language other than one’s mother tongue resulting in the ability of an individual to use one or more languages different from his first language. It can take place in a natural setting or through classroom instructions; however, the degree of proficiency differs (Gomleksiz, 2001).

Learning is a conscious process that includes thorough explanation of grammar rules, practice of those rules, as well as memorizing lists of vocabulary, usually in a classroom setting (Wisniewski, 2007).

Learners usually use their culture, first language, environment, background and personal experiences among others to learn a second language.

Second Language learning is necessitated by the different situations of different people. For instance, it can be for social or academic purposes. Learners are affected by many factors in the second language acquisition process such as level of cognitive development, socio-economic and cultural background, age, motivation or ability and intelligence (Gomleksiz, 2001; Wisniewski, 2007). This paper will however concentrate on how intelligence or aptitude and motivation affect the learning of a second language.

According to (Wisniewski, 2007), second language learning process differs from first language acquisition, with the latter taking place usually from infancy in a community using a    specific language and affected mainly by neurological developments in the brain (McCain, 2000) while the former taking place usually in schools or later in life and affected by age and associated characteristics (McCain, 2000).

It is necessary to draw a distinction between foreign language and second language learning. According to (Wisniewski, 2007), a language learnt in a community that uses a different mother tongue, is said to be a foreign language, and the process, a foreign language learning. For instance, a Kenyan student learning French in Kenya is said to be learning a foreign language, since French is not the common language in Kenya. In contrast, a language learnt in a community that uses the language, is said to be a second language. For instance, a Kenyan student studying is Spain will study Spanish as a second language.

According to Holt (2001), motivation in second language learning is the learner’s orientation with regard to the goal of learning a second language. It is a desire for learning (Gomleksiz, 2001). That is, it is the inner force or strength that drives an individual toward learning a second language. A below average student with the motivation to learn a second language is likes to succeed than an intelligent student not motivated. Motivation is divided into two basic types- integrative and instrumental (Holt, 2001; McCain, 2000).

Integrative motivation is the learner’s positive attitude towards the target language group and the desire to integrate into that target language community. For instance, if an individual loves and would like to identify with the Maasai community, he would learn their language. It is thought that students most successful in learning a target language are those who like the people that speak the language, admire the culture and have a desire to become familiar with or even integrate into the society in which the language is used (J. Falk 1978) cited in Holt (2001).

This kind of motivation is essential in helping an individual assimilated in a community to develop some proficiency in the language and also in developing a social life with the people in the community, especially if it is the only language widely spoken. It becomes a necessity.

Instrumental motivation on the other hand, underlies the goal to gain some social or economic reward through the second language. It is a more functional reason for language learning. For instance, an individual who would like to be an air hostess may learn other languages to enable her easily get the job.

The end of instrumental motivation is basically utilitarian such as meeting the requirements of a school, job or achievement of higher social status (Holt, 2001). In this case, the second language acquisition takes place with little or no integration in the community using the language; however, this knowledge comes in handy if one is to ever visit the community. Factors other than social integration necessitate the acquisition of the second language.

Both forms of motivation are essential for success in the learning of a second language, however, integrative motivation has been found to sustain long term success (Crookes and Schmidt, 1991). Instrumental motivation has only been acknowledged as a significant factor in some research, whereas integrative motivation is continually linked to successful second language acquisition (Holt, 2001). According to Holt (2001),

Generally students select instrumental reasons more frequently than integrative reasons for the study of a second language. Those who choose an integrative approach to language study are usually more highly motivated and in overall more successful. (n.p)

Instrumental motivation can only be successful if the student is provided with an opportunity to actively use the language and possibly interact with the community of the target group; otherwise, the language is easily forgotten as it was only a means to an end. Interaction with the community of the target language helps the student learn more than what is learnt in class such as accent, expression and a whole new words and the context of usage; usually, the student is exposed more to language users than in a class setting. Interaction helps the learner solve his or her problems in the learning process.

The language becomes part of the student and the degree of proficiency is higher, this is why integrative motivation has far higher long term success rates. The knowledge of the language becomes more than just professional. For students however, instrumental motivation is usually the major underlying factor for the study of the language (Holt, 2001).

Holt (2001) in citing H. D. Brown (2000) states that, both integrative and instrumental motivations are not necessarily mutually exclusive. Learners rarely select one form of motivation when learning a second language, but rather a combination of both orientations. For instance, a Spanish student wishing to study in the U.K will learn English both as a requirement for academic purposes and also to enable her integrate well in the English community.

According to Teepen (n.d), intelligence and aptitude are significant virtually in all aspects of second language learning. Regardless of all other factors like age, personality, attitude and motivation, some people happen to be better at learning a second language than others (Bot, Lowie, and Verspoor, 2005).

The writers at (n.d) refer to intelligence as the mental abilities measured by an Intelligence Quotient (IQ) test, usually measuring the Verbal or Linguistic and Mathematical or Logical intelligence and in some cases, Spatial, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal and Musical intelligence (Bot, Lowie, and Verspoor, 2005).

Research findings indicate that intelligence, is a strong factor in language learning that involves language analysis and rule learning. In this case, intelligence has a strong positive relation with second language learning (Teepen, n.d.). It was however found to be of less importance in language learning that focuses on communication and interaction (, n.d.). Intelligence is complex as it has various dimensions thus giving people different abilities and strengths. Therefore, an individual with strong academic performance does not necessarily make a second language learning success story.

The writers at (n.d.) also describe aptitude as the potential for achievement and that it is designed to make a prediction about an individual’s future achievements. Aptitude can be seen as a characteristic that is similar to intelligence, which cannot be altered through training (Bot et al. 2005).

Aptitude for language learning is usually composed of; the ability to identify and memorize new sounds, the ability to understand the function of particular words in sentences, the ability to figure out grammatical rules from language samples and finally, the ability to memorize new words and phrases (Bot et al. 2005). A person’s inherent capability of second-language learning is called Language Learning aptitude (Bot et al. 2005).

A number of language aptitude tests have been developed to assess language aptitude, the most common being the Modern Language Aptitude Test (MLAT) by Carroll and Sapon (1959) and the Pimsleaur Language Aptitude Battery (PLAB) by Pimsleaur in 1966. Both tests have shown high correlations with proficiency scores in schools, however, the tests are completely geared towards formal second-language learning and in particular, the way in which the language is taught in classrooms (Bot et al. 2005).

Past researches have also revealed significant findings. A significant positive relationship between aptitude for language learning taught with grammar translation or audio-lingual methods, but irrelevant to second language learning taught with a more communicative approach, that is, with a focus on meaning rather than on form (, n.d). Just like in intelligence, successful language learners are not necessarily strong in all the components of aptitude.

In conclusion, success in second language learning depends on many factors; motivation, aptitude and intelligence are just a number of important ones. For motivation, it has been found that, motivated students are more successful than those not motivated. Motivation is the most important factor compared to intelligence and aptitude, though it has to be considered in light of other factors. This is because, as long as an individual is motivated, even if his IQ and aptitude are low, he will be able to succeed in language learning. In a nutshell, the greater the motivation, intelligence and aptitude levels of a student, the greater the chances of succeeding in learning a second language.


Bot, D. K., Lowie, W. and Verspoor, M. (2005). Second Language Acquisition: An advanced

Resource Book. Madison Avenue, New York: Routledge Applied Linguistics

Crookes, G., & Schmidt R.W. (1991). Motivation : Reopening the research agenda. Language

Learning, Vol. 41, No. 4, p. 469-512.

Gomleksiz, M. N. (2001). The effects of Age and Motivation in Second Language Acquisition.

Firat University Journal of Social Science, Vol. 11, No. 17, p. 217-224

Factors affecting Second Language Learning. Accessed April 29, 2010 from, n.d)

Holt, J. N. (2001). Motivation as a Contributing factor in Second Language Acquisition. The

Internet TESL Journal, Vol. 7, No. 6. Accessed April 28, 2010 from

McCain, J. (2000). Language Acquisition and affective Variables. Accessed April 28, 2010 from

Teepen, J. (n.d.). On the Relationship between Aptitude and Intelligence in

Second Language Acquisition. Columbia University Working Papers in TESOL & Applied Linguistics, Vol. 4. Accessed April 29, 2010 from

Motivation, Intelligence Essay

Problems Human Service Clients are facing Essay

Problems Human Service Clients are facing Essay.

Clients are rarely dealing with just one issue at a time. Individuals, groups, and communities are facing a wide range of problems. These problems could range from housing needs, food, mental illness, drug abuse, or family issues, which may be difficult to deal with on just one level. Those individuals or groups and the problems they are facing are the reason why professional Human Service Helpers are needed in the world. In this paper, I will be discussing some of the problems the clients face and what helping skills human service workers use to assist the client with dealing with those issues and acquiring a better quality of life.

The developmental perspective, according to the text, is described as human development being a continuous process and that there are certain phases and stages that individuals experience during their life span. (Woodside & McClam 2012) Even though every human will go through the 8 stages of life which is Basic trust vs. Basic mistrust; autonomy vs.

shame and doubt; initiative vs. guilt; industry vs. inferiority; identity vs. role confusion; intimacy vs. isolation; generativity vs. stagnation and ego integrity vs. despair, we don’t experience any of these stages the same. Erikson’s stage model is one of the many perspectives on the developmental of humans.

For example, the basic trust versus basic mistrust means humans learn at the infant stage to trust in an environment that consistently provides for their needs. If a child did not receive adequate care as a child, human development may be affected causing issues later on in the future. Developmental tasks are addressed within the individuals’ social context and the context may not support individual development. (Woodside & McClam 2012). Using a developmental model to view the clients’ problems may help give the human service helper with a basic understanding of the process of growth and change that individuals normally experience. Some clients deal with issues like losing a job, natural disasters, accidents and major changes in life are often viewed in the situational perspective. These are problems that occur because a client is in a particular place at a particular time. An example of situational perspective is a client at a group home for women was raped by a co-worker and was experiencing issues with trusting people which caused her to have issues with going to work and her work performance.

She was experiencing anxiety, anger and shame. She was referred to a legal team and different agencies that helped her deal with the situation and allowed her to take responsibility of the situation and change it. Differences in behavior, customs and traditions can be problems the clients deal with and can cause situational problems as well. Another situation that could create major problems for clients are unemployment, this situation could easily cause psychological and physiological issues as well. This situation can cause economic difficulties that the whole family may have to face as a whole. Professional helpers can identify a client’s problem by establishing whether the client’s needs are being met. This theory is called the Hierarchical perspective which was described by Abraham Maslow but later divided into two categories: (D) deficiency needs and (B) being needs. (Woodside & McClam 2012) This perspective states that if a person is not able to meet their needs such as food and shelter, they will not be able to focus on other needs such as self esteem and independence.

With problems such as child abuse, neglect or removing a child from a home, many of their physical, safety and self esteem needs may not be met and they will need help with getting these needs met in order to restore them to a supportive healthy environment. When needs are met, concern shifts to higher-order needs such as self esteem, independence and self actualization. (Woodside & McClam 2012) Within the societal perspective, problems are experienced by clients as a result of changes in the society that has left the client in an unfamiliar situation. A major societal problem that clients are dealing with is homelessness. I have learned that communities are experiencing homelessness on all levels due to high unemployment rates, mental illness and company downsizing and merging responsibilities now. The mental illness concerns are not being attended to adequately which is causing a lot of people to not be able to hold jobs, advance in jobs, etc. Some clients may turn to criminal behavior to make ends meet which causes other problems like clients ending up in the criminal justice system.

Other clients who may experience societal changes are veterans who are mentally ill and children who are not able to take care of themselves and are relying on other clients whose dealing with societal issues themselves. These children clients are at a higher risk for domestic abuse, living with family who are dealing with substance abuse or mental health issues such as depression or anxiety. The environmental influence perspective emphasizes the importance of an individual’s environment on the person’s history, living situation and current problems they are experiencing. (Woodside & McClam 2012) Understanding the influences of the environment to the client will definitely be helpful when it comes to helping the client identify their problem. The most immediate influence on an individual are family which include parents interactions coming up in life, age and gender of siblings, and whether or not a parent or guardian was absent from the clients life.

The client’s neighborhood could be an influence as well. These influences can determine a person thought process and problem solving abilities throughout life. For example if a child lives in an environment where the parents abused drugs, participated in gangs and crime, then more than likely those influences are going to stay with that child and they will grow up thinking it’s the norm to engage in that behavior. Problems can be viewed in many different perspectives and the range of problems a client has can occur at different stages in a client’s life span.

The ranges of problems faced by clients are vast and unique to each individual, therefore it is imperative for the human service worker to understand each client and how each perspective relates to the client. Clients become part of the human service delivery system because they are experiencing a range of problems that has affected their quality of life. In most cases, there is never just one problem the client is facing, therefor the human service worker should be skilled in communication, listening, and problem-solving skills as well as knowledge of human needs.

Woodside, M.R. & McClam, T. (2012). An Introduction to Human Services (7th ed).

Problems Human Service Clients are facing Essay

Monroe Motivated Sequence Design Essay

Monroe Motivated Sequence Design Essay.

Gain Attention:

We have all seen and heard the stories nationally and locally on the topic of the measles vaccination. Most recently, Disneyland in December of 2014, 59 cases were documented due to an outbreak at the amusement park. Out of those 59 cases 34 had their vaccinations ( Locally, according to the Reno Gazette Journal on February 12, 2015, there are 27 possible cases and four of them are confirmed. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention state that measles is the most deadly of all childhood illnesses.

We need to know our facts and be knowledgeable on the signs, risks, and potentials of getting this vaccine.

Establish a Need:

According to an article in the Washington Post, a survey performed showing 83% of Americans feel the measles vaccination is safe. The other 9% are Americans between the age of 18 and 29 are most likely to state that vaccinations are unsafe. That 9% is in the age group that hasn’t seen or witnessed the effects of the measles due to vaccinations requirements in the past.

Additional education must be taught in regards to the effects of not having this shot. We need to establish a guideline for those that do not wish to be vaccinated. By not educating yourself and others you are speculating on the chances of contracting the virus.

Provide Satisfaction:

Referencing the website for The Centers For Disease Control and Prevention, in the decade prior to the measles vaccine in 1963, an average of 549,000 measles cases and 495 measles deaths were reported. They speculate that 3-4 million measles cases occurred each year. After the implementation of the vaccine, cases declined dramatically in the US. Over the decade of 1989-1991 the epidemic came to the surface again when over 55,000 cases and 123 deaths were reported. It is stated this was caused by unvaccinated preschool age children who were not vaccinated.

Thus in turn created the need for a second dose to be recommended. In 2000, the measles were considered “eliminated from the United States. Now we are seeing the virus popping up again all over the country and locally, once again to non-vaccinated due to religious or health concerns with the vaccine. In addition, there is concerns with the importations of the virus from travelers coming in and out of the country. There is a reason this vaccine is available to the public and there should be a law restricting those who do not wish to have the vaccination.

Visualization (either utopia or tragic):

As we have seen throughout the decades this vaccination works and has proven result. When it is not administered we see the death rate increase. No one wants to see a child or a loved one suffer physical and mentally from the measles, if prevention is possible. Why risk your life or someone you love based on a uneducated decision. These cases have been reported and documented resent by the Disneyland outbreak. And how quickly this virus spread has multiplied. This could be you or someone that is unvaccinated that could cause the spread of this disease leading to death in some cases!

Call to Action – concrete, do-able, practical actions:

In conclusion, It is our own responsibility to take care of ourselves and the ones we love in life. We need to educate ourselves and look at the real statistics related to the measles vaccination. If we take the time to learn more about the virus its causes, risks, and effects, we can create a more thought out opinion to getting this vaccination. We all do not like the saying “could of, would of, should of”, don’t let that be you.

Monroe Motivated Sequence Design Essay

Case Study – Bob Knowlton Essay

Case Study – Bob Knowlton Essay.


Bob Knowlton was recently assigned to be a project head of the new photon unit at Simmons Laboratories. He received the assignment from Dr. Jerrold, the head of the laboratory. Unbeknownst to Knowlton, Jerrold had decided to bring in another person to the project, Simon Fester. Although Fester is obviously a brilliant individual, he lacks any sort of teamwork skills and derisively says the decisions made by groups exhibit a “high level of mediocrity”. This disturbs Knowlton because he feels that group participation in the meetings with all departments yields great decisions and builds camaraderie.

At a meeting between the sponsors of the research and the project heads, Fester controls the presentation and the coinciding after-meeting. Knowlton feels that Fester has taken control of his project and has started to look for positions at other companies. He tenders his resignation a few weeks later, surprising both Jerrold and Fester. Unfortunately Jerrold did not anticipate and had made plans to move Fester to another project, assuming Knowlton would continue to head up the project.

Now the once promising project is in shambles with no leadership.


Although the relationship between Jerrold and Knowlton seemed strong and they talked frequently, there was still an obvious communication disconnect between regarding Fester. Knowlton does not clearly state to Jerrold what his misgivings about Fester are. In addition, Knowlton appears not to have confidence in his abilities and basically allows Fester to run the show.


Knowlton believes that he “happened” into his new position and feels that he had some lucky breaks in obtaining it. Locus of control is used to explain whether or not individuals think their outcomes are controlled internally or externally (Luthan, 2011) . Knowlton is exhibiting an external locus of control since he credits his ascension to his current position as a “miracle”. This coupled with the fact that he is threatened by Fester looking at his graphs, running his meetings, etc., shows that Knowlton does not think his ability (internal locus of control) had anything to do with his promotion.


Jerrold should make an attempt to rehire Bob back into the company. He obviously faith in his abilities and needs Knowlton’s experience to run the photon project. Jerrold also needs to work with his subordinates – including Fester – on interactive communicating and teambuilding.


If Jerrold is unable to convince Knowlton to return to the company, he may have to pull back Fester from his new project to run the photon project or let the latter stagnate. However, unless Fester can learn to include team members in making decisions, the project will fail due to a lack of teamwork.

Luthan, F. (2011). Advanced Organizational Behavior. : McGraw Hill.

Case Study – Bob Knowlton Essay

Data Gathering Procedure Essay

Data Gathering Procedure Essay.

After the validation of the instrument, the researchers secured a written permit to the administrators of Alicia National High School, Records from the registrar office and guidance office are useful enough for the needed data on the list of student who are dropouts, repeaters, balik-arals and students with failed grades. After given permission, the researchers explained the purpose of the study to the selected respondents and then they made sure each participant corresponds to their predefined criteria. The researchers collected the data by means of survey questionnaire that comprises their age, gender, and year level and student status.

The problems encountered by the respondents will be identified through the second part of the survey questionnaire that was given to them. After, the respondents have taken the tests; the papers were checked, tallied, interpreted and analyzed.

Research Design

In this study, the descriptive-survey method was employed to identify the role and significance of The Computerized Library System of City of Cauayan, District II, Cauayan City, Isabela, Philippines.

To define the descriptive type of research, Creswell (1994) stated that the descriptive method of research is to gather information about the present existing condition. The aim of descriptive research is to verify formulated hypotheses that refer to the present situation in order to elucidate it. The descriptive approach is quick and practical in terms of the financial aspect. Moreover, this method allows a flexible approach, thus, when important new issues and questions arise during the duration of the study, further investigation may be conducted. A survey is a structured way of learning about a larger group of people by obtaining information from a representative sample of that particular group of people.

Some of the advantages of a survey are that it describes the characteristics of a large population and there is no other method of observation, which can provide this general capability. It allows many questions to be asked about a given topic by giving considerable flexibility to the analysis. A survey is also a single most widely used research design in educational research; therefore, it was used in this educational research as well (Kavetuna, 2009). Purposive sampling method was done for the sample selection. A purposive sample refers to the selection of units based on personal judgment rather than randomization.

This judgmental sampling is in some way “representative” of the population of interest without sampling at random. Purposive sampling can be very useful for situations where it is needed to reach a targeted sample quickly and where sampling for proportionality is not the primary concern. In relation with the study, the researchers identified The Computerized Library System of City of Cauayan, District II, Cauayan City, Isabela, Philippines. It seeks to provide information and examine the relationship among variables.

Theoretical Framework

According to Erik Erikson’s Psycho-Social Development of Personality, particularly the conflict stage of “industry versus inferiority,” that lasts from 6 to 11 years. In our culture, school life begins here. This stage is the beginning of life outside the family; a stage of systematic instruction, a movement from play to a sense of work. This stage describes that a child needs to do well and develop a sense of work completion and satisfaction in a job well done. Otherwise, the child develops a sense of inferiority and inequality. Another is the adolescence stage termed, “identity versus identity confusion” that occurs between 12 to 20 years, it emphasizes the difficult transition between childhood and adulthood that can be strongly affected by social limitations and possibilities. The adolescent is likely to suffer from confused roles. Doubts about one’s sexual attractiveness and sexual identity are common to this stage.

The inability to develop a sense of identification with an individual or cultural role model who gives direction to one’s life can lead to a period of floundering and insecurity. Another reaction is over identification with youth-culture heroes or clique leaders leading to a loss of identity. Because of these crucial stages where most high school students in the country are where at, many problems arises that can affect their functioning in their daily lives. An additional theory is from Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs, which points out the basic human needs. He believed that exposure to environmental conditions that permit or prohibit gratification of the basic needs prompts movement up or down the hierarchy of needs. Maslow suggests that, without the fulfilment of these needs, an individual may feel discouraged, weak and inferior.

In line with this study, if a student feels discouraged and inferior, his motivation may be affected and thus, there will certainly have inhibitions especially with his performance in school. Moreover, Carl Rogers’ Self-theory that points out that the ultimate goal of each one is to be a fully functioning person. It is a process in which the individual constantly pursues his or her actualizing tendency, and at the same time behaves in a manner that is true to the self. Rogers also described the characteristics of a fully functioning person these are: openness to experiences, existential living, self-trust, sense of freedom and creativity. With these theories, the researchers will conduct a study on The Computerized Library System of City of Cauayan, District II, Cauayan City, Isabela, Philippines as a basis for a proposed guidance intervention program.

Data Gathering Procedure Essay