Custom and Courtesies Essay

Custom and Courtesies Essay.

A custom is an established practice of doing things which are acceptable within a specific organization, and abhorrence or a refrain from doing things that are unacceptable to such an organization. In the Marines in particular, such customs constitute legislative laws that govern the army or cordial, gentlemen behavior in executing the duties of a military officer or personnel. Military courtesy on the other hand relates to the good relations between and amongst soldiers, fostered trough stipulated gestures and behavior towards, personnel, officers or NCO, depending on the rank.

They include mutuality, respect gestures such as salute and standing reveille. Such courtesies are mostly legislated within the army manifesto and are binding to the entire army contingent.

However, the gestures have some relaxation and applicatory allowances, offered by the senior officer being accorded the courteous gesture or depending on the circumstances. In this essay, the writer enumerates some of the customs and courtesies, legislative or non-legislative within the organizational unit, with special emphases on the mutual relation between the army personnel and NCO (Non-Commissioned Officers).

The writer also illustrates some compromisory tendencies in these customs and courtesy relations, and their impediment to the overall discipline amongst and between the armed forces and other organizational institutions. Such a laxity in the military, if extrapolated to the execution of its duties, can contribute to a mission failure.

Customs

Customs of executing a duty by a soldier are inbuilt within his cognitive being by decades of military engagement with the enemy. These customs define both the relations amongst the soldiers and between him and the civilians. Soldiers are not required to express their personal opinion concerning their regimental commanders, or a countries politics to the general public. The regimental commanding officers also include the NCOs. He is also supposed to respect and strictly follow the bureaucratic ladder of military administration in executing his duties or giving orders.

This requires a soldier also to give instructions or orders in his or her own voice. An escapist attempt in rendering respectful gestures to a senior is grossly censured in the military, with the soldier being required to respond to every question intoned by his or her superiors. Some customs are observed as gentlemen’s agreement of good cordial relations, with strict customs being legislated and inviting heavy penalty, if violated through censures or other setout disciplinary actions.

Courtesies

Courtesy among the army is fostered in form of good behavior in dealing with the civilian or fellow officers and personnel. Among the army courteous gestures such as salute, are as an accordance of mutual respect rather that an obligatory responsibility. An army personnel or office is required to salute a higher ranked officer outdoors, when in uniform, reservedly if under practicable circumstances, without escapism maneuvers. The salute is also to be accorded to officers of friendly nations. Several standing reveille are also required of the Marine Corps personnel or officer while addressing or being addressed by a higher ranking officer. When addressing a higher ranked officer, a soldier is required to stand at attention, with relaxation allowances to the standing reveille being offered only to the instruction of the senior officer being addressed.

However if such a relaxation is allowed in the standing reveille, the soldier is still required to stand at attention and salute on delivering the report, or on exit of the senior officer. A call by a superior officer in personnel room, calls for attention standing reveille requiring no salute indoors. However if the officer is an NCO, the personnel are only required to be hush and be calm, but they can continue being seated. The soldiers are also required to walk on the left hand side of their superior officers including NCOs, with a soldier being required to salute the NCOs by title on such outdoors encounter. In reporting to such an officer, the soldier is required to address him sir or ma’am, at attention two steps from him, with his headgear on or off, depending on whether he is armed or not (P. G. Kivett, Esquire, 2006).

Custom and Courtesies Essay

Technical Description Essay

Technical Description Essay.

Since its invention during the Vietnam War, the AR15 platform has remained the most popular semi-automatic rifle for military personnel, state police, and civilian enthusiasts alike. What many people may not know is an AR15 is actually not a specific rifle, it is a class of civilian rifle modeled after the original M16 service rifle used by American soldiers in Vietnam. There are many different variations of the rifle, made by several different companies, but all of them use the same basic platform.

The example used in this description is the Panther Arms DPMS rifle.

What Is A Gas Operated Rifle?

Many people who are new to firearms, or those who want to learn more about them, would benefit from learning about how a semi-automatic rifle works. Semi-automatic rifles, such as the Panther Arms DPMS, typically function using the same gas operated system. Gas operated systems are considered by many in the world of firearms to be the best system for these types of rifles.

All gas operated rifles have the same basic process, the force of the bullet exiting the barrel is used to cycle the rifle and chamber another round.

Components Of The Rifle

Before operating a firearm such as the DPMS, it is important to understand its main components and how the function. Below is an exploded view of the rifle’s components.

A DPMS AR15 is composed of 6 primary parts, the barrel, bolt, magazine, trigger, hammer, and the gas piston. Each part relies on one another for proper function.

Operating The Rifle: How The System Works

To begin, a magazine is loaded with cartridges and inserted into the rifle. With the magazine snapped into place, the user manually chambers the first round using the charging handle, which engages the bolt and locks a round into the chamber. When a round is chambered, the user pulls the trigger, which releases the hammer. The hammer then strikes the primer of the bullet, igniting the powder inside the cartridge. The force of the burning powder inside the enclosed cartridge propels the bullet down the barrel.

The force of some of the gas created by the bullet is captured by a second tube attached to the barrel which contains the gas piston. The gas piston uses the force of the escaping gasses to push the bolt backward. When the bolt is forced back, a small spring inside the chamber ejects the spent cartridge. At the same time, a spring inside the magazine pushes a new cartridge upward into the chamber, the new round in then caught by the bolt and inserted into the rifles chamber. The process is then repeated again when the user pulls the trigger. Uses And Practicality

The gas operated platform used by AR15 rifles is considered the most reliable for the class. As long as the platform is kept clean the rifle will continue to function. The reduced amount of felt recoil from the system allows the user to make quick follow-up shots and allows them to better stay on target. Law enforcement will find the platform most useful, as well as homeowners looking for a home defense weapon.

Technical Description Essay

Military Discipline Essay

Military Discipline Essay.

1.General.The word discipline comes from the Latin word disciplīna which means “to instruct”. Discipline is a specific form of instruction which develops self-control, character, and efficiency.

Military discipline is that mental attitude and state of training which renders obedience instinctive under all conditions. It is founded upon respect for, and loyalty to properly constituted authority. While it is developed primarily by military drill, every feature of military life has its effects on military discipline. It is generally indicated in an individual or unit by smartness of appearance and action; by cleanliness and neatness of dress, equipment, or quarters; by respect for seniors; and by prompt and cheerful execution by subordinates of both the letter and the spirit of legal orders of their lawful superiors.

2.Discipline Definition.

a.According to the dictionary, discipline is:

(1)Training that is expected to produce a specific character or pattern of behaviour, especially training that produces moral or mental improvement.
(2)Controlled behaviour resulting from disciplinary training.

(3)A systematic method to obtain obedience.
(4)A state of order based upon submission to rules and authority.
(5)To train by instruction and control.

b.Discipline is a learned behaviour. It is much more than blind obedience and punishment. Rather, it is a state of order and obedience that is a result of regulations and orders. You must be disciplined to achieve your goals. Discipline is training that develops, moulds, strengthens, or perfects mental faculties and character. It involves placing group goals above your own, being willing to accept orders from higher authority, and carrying out those orders effectively. Part of the job of a cadet is to make their fellow cadets aware of the purpose and meaning of discipline.

c.Military Discipline. It is the training that develops self control, character, and efficiency and as the result of such training implies subjection to control exerted for he good of the group. It is the state of order existing within a command. 2.History.Romans were considered as the first one who had started high level of discipline in the military. Historian has admired the Roman army discipline, that really fascinated them. It fascinated everyone. It shocks today. It was strict to the point of inhumanity. Take guard duty. Everyone has to stand guard occasionally—everyone in all armies everywhere. Nights are long and mostly there is no enemy out there beyond the wall.

Just before daybreak you, a picket, might find yourself with a heavy head—you might even jerk and find that you have dozed off. Now in the Roman army if that happens to you—if you let it happen—and you are discovered, it means your disgrace and your death. There is a summary court-martial that same morning and a swift sentence. The tribune approaches you with a cudgel—a club—and taps you symbolically on the shoulder. A warning? No: it is the signal for your comrades to come and beat you to death with clubs and stones. There is no appeal. “The consequence of the extreme severity of this penalty and of the absolute impossibility of avoiding it is that the night watches of the Roman army are faultlessly kept,” says Polybius. You better believe it.

Beating to death was the punishment for several other offences, such as giving false evidence, stealing, homosexual practice, and committing the same fault three times. Leaving your post out of fear and throwing away any of your weapons on the battlefield was also punished with death. “For this reason,” says Polybius, “men who have been posted to a covering force are often doomed to certain death. This is because they will remain at their posts even when they are overwhelmingly outnumbered on account of their dread of the punishment that awaits them.” And: “Those who have lost a shield or a sword or any weapon on the battlefield often hurl themselves upon the enemy hoping that they will either recover the weapon they have lost, or else escape by death from the inevitable disgrace and the humiliations they would suffer at home.”

Sometimes it happened (though not very often and you will soon see why) that a whole body of soldiers turned tail in a battle. Maybe a whole squadron deserted its post. In this case, the court handed down the famous, the ghastly, sentence of decimation. The tribune called the legion on parade and ordered to the front those who were guilty of desertion of their ranks. He reprimanded them, called them every name he could think of. This was not just another sermon.

Everyone knew how it was going to end. “Now I want each of you to choose a number,” he told them. And by lot one out of every ten men was chosen to pay the penalty. What penalty? On the tribune’s order, the army fell on these men—their comrades—and clubbed them to death, mercilessly. The rest of the guilty men were allowed to live, but possibly they thought death was preferable to the humiliation they had to suffer then. They were told to quarter themselves outside the camp walls, where they were unprotected; and they were given rations of barley—horse food—rather than wheat for sustenance. Their disgrace would live as long as they did.

“But it isn’t only your severe punishments that produce right conduct,” Polybius told the Romans. “That alone wouldn’t make men brave. You encourage them to act heroically by holding out all kinds of rewards and incentives.”

A soldier who acted in battle with extraordinary valour was praised by his general in front of all the troops and presented with gifts. He received a spear if he wounded an enemy—not in a pitched battle, of course, but in a skirmish or in any clash where it wasn’t necessary to engage in single combat. The hero had voluntarily and deliberately exposed himself to danger. An infantryman was awarded with a cup if he killed and stripped an enemy; a cavalryman was presented with horse-trappings. The first man to scale the wall of an enemy city was given a golden crown. And a crown was also given to a soldier who had saved a comrade’s life; “and the comrade whose life he had saved revered him for the rest of his life and treated him as his own father”.

The men who receive those awards were honoured not just in the army but back home too, where they were given a place of preference in the religious processions. They showed up wearing their decorations—they were the only ones allowed to do that. And their trophies were hung up in their houses in conspicuous places to remind everyone of their valour. A Roman boy, growing up with those trophies around him, hearing the war stories of his father and friends, and seeing the respect given to the heroes, could hardly wait to join the army and perform deeds like theirs, or greater ones.

4.Value of Discipline.

a.Discipline is not peculiar, strange, or exclusive to military organization but to civilian society as well.
b.No business organization could operate without it.
c.Everybody is subject to discipline of police regulations, proper sanity rules, etc.
d.The desirable and happy citizen is one who has a healthy and proper concept of discipline.
e.Signs of discipline is manifested:
(1)In a smart salute.
(2)Proper wearing of uniform.
(3)Prompt and correct action in case of emergency.
(4)In battle, efficiency that brings victory in war.
f.True discipline:
(1)Demands but reasoned obedience to command obedience that preserved initiative and function even without supervision.
(2)To ensure affectivity of a group not only for the specified purpose but also for emergencies. 3.Purpose. Discipline is required for any activity where people work together toward a common objective. The opposite of discipline is anarchy, where each person does what he wants without concern for others. Any organization, from a civilized state to a football team to a brownie troop depends on group cooperation, and cooperation cannot be achieved without discipline.

Discipline is the structure and order within an individual or within a group that allows for true cooperation, real support of the mission and the members of the team or organization. 3.The Importance of Discipline.Discipline is of the utmost importance in order to ensure the efficiency of the military organization as a whole as well that of the individual units. Efficiency helps to ensure that goals are met and that the highest level of professionalism is maintained at all times. The level of discipline directly affects a soldier’s conduct so the two concepts are directly related and of equal importance.

Discipline is important in life as well as in the Army. The core values of the British Army are: courage, discipline, respect for others, integrity, loyalty and selfless commitment. While all these values should be followed individually, discipline is needed to apply the correct application for all of them. If you lack the discipline needed to correctly apply the core values you are not only letting yourself down but all the others around you making yourself an individual; not a team player. Basically discipline is what is needed in order for order and control to be maintained.

There will always come a time where you want to do wrong or even do wrong, and with that thought you will be able to make a conscious decision to know what you are doing or done is the right thing. It is believed that if you work on something long and hard enough that it will pay off in the end, which is a personal trait that once it is at a level where you feeling comfortable will allow you to face any situation and be able to know the right thing to do.

3.Why Military Discipline is Important.extreme discipline is necessary for all of our armed forces because of the extreme duty that they have. Nothing in the world is as important as going to fight a war for your country. This is the most extreme situation that I can think of so it requires measures which are extreme in themselves in order to get our troops ready. First of all let’s remember that all branches of our armed forces are huge and have to have the same exacting standards in place in order to deal with the large numbers of troops that they contain. There must be a method to the madness and order to the organization. Order and discipline are the intangibles that make the organizations respond and do what our nation’s leaders need for them to do. Without some kind of order all of the branches of our armed forces would be nameless entities which would not be able to perform clear functions as needed. Without discipline troops could not be counted on to perform their duties as required.

Discipline causes troops to hang in there when the going is hard and accomplish those things that would overwhelm the ordinary person. Discipline is required to insure that the military operates in the extreme conditions in which warfare is conducted. The military must operate in all kinds of weather and under all types of conditions. Military equipment must be very well maintained so that it will work in extreme environments. If the driver or crew is lackadaisical about doing their job the result may be an equipment failure at the wrong time. Troops must have the fortitude to continue to perform their jobs despite bad weather, lack of food and water, at night, during dust storms and natural disasters. They must be able to fight through fatigue and cold. They also have to have the fortitude to continue despite the gruesome horrors of combat.

Military combat is chaotic and the disciplined soldier can maintain a sense of normalcy throughout this chaos. He or she can overcome the horrors that would paralyze the undisciplined mind with fear. The well trained soldier will continue to perform his duties in time of hardship. He or she won’t deviate from their training because of the circumstances of the situation. The well disciplined troop can be counted on to accomplish the mission regardless of the hardships which he or she will encounter in doing so. In addition because people do die in combat troops will sometimes have to replace those who have been killed. There must be a standard for all to use and it has to be the same. Military units must be uniform in order and function so that they can carry out their assigned duties.

4.Examples of Military Discipline.

a.English Civil War.When King Charles I raised the Royal Standard at Nottingham Castle on 22 August 1642 and declared war on his own people he did so with his customary appeal to regal pomp and circumstance. Yet the ceremony degenerated into farce as Charles made last minute corrections to the Proclamation which the Herald then haddifficulty reading out, and when the Standard was blown down in a storm on the same night it was interpreted by many as a bad omen. This fiasco symbolised the incompetence which hampered the Royalist campaign, and compared unfavourably with the organisation displayed by the Parliamentarian military forces during the years of conflict. For after raising the armies and an indecisive period of hostilities, what proved to be the determining factor in the war was the command, discipline and conviction of the New Model Army. Simon Court explains.

b.The War of Austrian Succession.Frederick the Great (1740-1786) was king of Prussia, of the Hohenzollern dynasty, and is described as the foremost solider of his time. During the time of his ascension Prussia was comprised of various disparate territories both within and outside the Holy Roman Empire. Frederick II inherited an army of 80,000 soldiers from his father Frederick William II. His objective upon becoming king was to unite these disconnected and vulnerable lands into one contiguous and secure empire. This began to be accomplished in a series of wars including the three Silesian Wars, also known as the War of Austrian Succession (1740-48), fought with Austria and the Seven Years war (1756-63). As a result of the Silesian wars Prussia acquired a resource rich and productive region of Austria which was to be contested between the two powers for much of the 19th century.

The Seven Years war is notable as being the last major war prior to the French Revolution which involved all of Europe’s great military powers. On one side were allied France, Austria, Saxony, Sweden and Russia. On the other side were allied Prussia, Hanover, and Great Britain. During this war Prussia was able to hold off armies that attacked from several fronts and despite some setbacks ultimately prevailed. Frederick defeated an army of French and German troops at Rossbach in Thuringia in 1757 despite being outnumbered two to one. The losses were 7000 for the enemy army as compared with 550 for his own. A similar result followed a month later against the Austrians.

The success of Frederick the Great’s army rested mainly on superior training of which discipline was a major component. It should be noted that Frederick also inherited some of this training and other tactical details from his predecessor. Still he used them to great effect and added others which gave him an edge over enemies who were similarly equipped but lacked the same training or discipline. More specifically, the Prussian army used a drill system, uniform throughout the army, but which was unheard of in most European armies prior to 1740.

The system was practiced continuously. It focused on marching in step even under intense combat situations. The objective was to maintain (and present) a coherent line of attack when advancing on enemy lines. This technique was not unheard of in European armies of the period it was just not adhered to in intense situations. This began to be changed under Frederick the Great, although not always with the consistency he sought to achieve. 5.Military Discipline in Modern Army.

6.Famous Military Quotes.
a.”Discipline is the soul of an army. It makes small numbers formidable; procures success to the weak, and esteem to all.”
George Washington
b.”If we don’t discipline ourselves, the world will do it for us.”
William Feather
c.”Man must be disciplined, for he is by nature raw and wild.”
Immanuel Kant
d.”Some people regard discipline as a chore. For me, it is a kind of order that sets me free to fly.”
Julie Andrews
e.”Nothing can be more hurtful to the service, than the neglect of discipline; for that discipline, more than numbers, gives one army the superiority over another.”
George Washington

7.Conclusion.
Discipline within a unit increases its effectiveness and gives it structure. At encampment, the development of discipline serves two purposes. First, it gives the flight structure and increases the effectiveness of the training program. Second, it provides to the cadet the advantage of working in a disciplined organization and helps him to understand how to build discipline in himself and his unit. For those reasons, the importance of setting of a good example, of developing and maintaining a well-disciplined organization, and helping cadets to understand how discipline effects a group cannot be understated. A well-disciplined flight will develop as a productive team with high morale, and is key in establishing an educational, worthwhile encampment experience.

Military Discipline Essay

Charge of the light brigade Essay

Charge of the light brigade Essay.

Compare how conflict is presented in the charge of the light brigade and one other poem form the conflict cluster. The two poems “Charge of the light brigade” and “Bayonet charge” both present conflicts. Conflict often has harmful effects, including causing death and destruction, so it is usually viewed negatively. However, conflict can also bring out positive traits in people, and the people involved in it may be respected. “The Charge of The Light Brigade” recounts the story of the charge made by the Light Brigade in the Battle of Balaclava.

“Bayonet Charge” imagines a soldier’s experience in battle. Tennyson reflects on conflict within the poem when discussing the subject of war, where someone had “Blunder’d” impending doom upon many soldiers. The original charge of the light brigade took place in the Crimean War. The poem describes a disastrous battle between the British and cavalry and Russian force. Instead of retaking guns, the commanding officer imperatively commanded “Forward, the Light Brigade! Charge for the guns” this command sent the cavalry, only armed with swords, and into battle with the Cossack’s, armed with guns, practically defenceless against their enemies.

The soldiers very obedient, and with their sense of duty- Don’t question their command officer. “Bayonet charge” describes the pain and fears single solider experiences during battle. The solider is a helpless victim, “running”, “stumbling” and “sweating”. Fighting has also destroyed the patriotic feeling that the solider had to begin with – “king, honour, human dignity, etcetera/ Dropped like luxuries. One way conflicted is presented in “Bayonet Charge” is through the use of language. The language used, portrays the soldier and his actions/movements. Ted Hughes uses sibilance to portray the soldier’s actions as well as feelings. For example, “raw-seamed hot khaki, his sweat heavy/ Stumbling…” The use of sibilance here mimics the squelching mud. The repetitive sounds recreate an image of the soldier walking through mud. The word ‘khaki’ suggests that the person being described is a soldier as it is normally associated with the military uniforms.

The word ‘heavy’ suggests that the soldier is uncomfortable and his movements are unnatural. The word ‘stumbling’ suggests that the soldier is disoriented and could also suggest that his movements are clumsy. The language used in the poem is contrasting to what you would expect of a poem about conflict, words such as “dazzled” are used, which do not reflect the general thought of war. Alternatively words like “sweating” and “running” help to create a sense of urgency within the poem. The contrasting words together could be showing the mixed emotions felt by the soldier. Another way language is used to present conflict is through the use of similes. For example, “Sweating like molten iron from the centre of his chest”. The phrase ‘molten iron’ suggests a burning, abject terror at the heart of his being. On the other hand, “The Charge of the Light Brigade” uses metaphors such as “Valley of Death” to present conflict. This phrase forebodes the charge as it makes it sound certain that the soldiers are going to die. It also suggests the commander has made a mistake as he has sent them into the ‘valley of death’.

This makes the soldiers more courageous as they are marching into their own deaths. It also creates the allusion to psalm, where faith instils courage in the face of death. The form of “bayonet charge” is regular; the stanzas are eight, seven and eight lines long: this suggests the soldier’s strong sense of purpose as well as the thick mud he has to run through. The length of the lines, however changes: there are long lines ending in his destination (lines 3 and 19) showing the long distance he has to run; there are also short lines presenting images of violence and fear (lines 4 and 18). Tennyson uses the form of the poem to illustrate both the battlefield he describes (the long, narrow valley) and the memorials he wants built to honour those who took part (six stanzas like memorial stones to the 600).

The stanzas get longer and the rhymes more frequent after the calm opening stanza. This poem is nightmarish in the illusion it creates of horror in describing a bayonet charge. It is about a soldier’s experience of a violent battle. It describes his thoughts and actions as he desperately tries to avoid being shot. The soldier’s overriding emotion and motivation is fear, which has replaced the more patriotic ideals that he held before the violence began. The poem ends with ‘His terror’s touchy dynamite.’ Dynamite is clearly linked to the violence of war; being touchy implies the volatility of his emotions under these circumstances, as though he has emotionally become the violence of war. In the face of the ‘yelling alarm’ of battle, all sense of ‘honour’ and ‘dignity’ are blown away by ‘His terror’s touchy dynamite’ and the poem ends leaving the reader with a chaotic collage of images of nightmarish violence and horror.

Both ‘The charge of the light brigade’ and ‘Bayonet charge’ deal with conflict, but their message is very different, Tennyson wants us to enthusiastically “Honour the light brigade” and remember how brave they were. We also sympathise with the soldier in ‘Bayonet charge’ who is “running”, “stumbling and “swearing” to survive.

You may also be interested in the following: bayonet charge and charge of the light brigade comparison

Charge of the light brigade Essay

Military Spending Essay

Military Spending Essay.

Examine the extent to which expenditure on arms and the armed forces is justifiable in the modern world.

With all its wars, terrorist attacks and genocides, history might suggest that the armed forces has a critical and unquestionable role in any nation-state. However, as Steven Pinker puts it “We believe our world is riddled with terror and war, but we may be living in the most peaceable era in human existence’. Since the peak of the cold war in the 1970s and 80s, organised conflicts of all kinds, such as civil wars, genocides, repression by autocratic governments, terrorist attacks, have declined throughout the world and their death tolls have declined even more precipitously.

Despite the trend of the New Peace, world military expenditure in 2013 is estimated to have reach $1.747 trillion and 2012 saw the highest total military spending than in any year since World War 2. Are these military spendings a good return on its national-security “investment’, for it is clearly an investment intended for peace and security.

This essay aims to show that expenditure on arms and armed forces are justifiable in the modern world to a very small extent because it facilitates violence, results in power imbalance and its money can be put to better use.

First, expenditure on arms and armed forces is not justifiable as such military spendings facilitate violence and thus violates human rights. Countries without military capability cannot easily undertake “wars of choice” or wars whose purposes evolve, as in Iraq, from dismantling wars of mass destruction to promoting democracy. The last five major wars that the United States undertook, namely Korea 1950, Vietnam 1955, Kuwait 1990, Afghanistan 2001 and Iraq 2003 were the ones in which the United States attacked countries that had not directly attacked the United States. Furthermore, wars involving powers that have the military and economic capability allows for such conflicts to exist for prolonged periods of time. For example, four out of the five wars mentioned above are still unresolved.

The United States possession of military establishment that has a capability far beyond its ability to defend the homeland hence gives it a capability to undertake wars of choice, to the extent that Vietnam and Iraq prove to be miscalculations and strategic blunders. In the UK, the Ministry of Defence redefines the purpose of the armed forces as “meeting a wider range of expeditionary tasks, at greater range from the UK and with everincreasing strategic, operational and tactical tempo” which “could only conceivably be undertaken alongside the US”. This means that their ‘defence capability’ is now retained for the purpose of offence. Expenditure on arms and armed forces is hence not justified on the grounds that they facilitate violence in the world as countries claim moral authority to launch attacks on other countries in the name of benign foreign intervention.

Second, the disproportionate expenditure on arms and the armed forces is not justifiable because wars are no longer the biggest threat to a nation. A report published by the Oxford Research Group argues that modern defence policies are self-defeating. They concentrate on the wrong threats and respond to them in a manner which is more likely to exacerbate than to defuse them. The real challenges, it contends, are presented by climate change, competition over resources, the marginalisation of the poor and our own military deployments. By displacing people from their homes and exacerbating food shortages, climate change will cause social breakdown and mass migration. Competition for resources means that the regions which possess them – particularly the Middle East – will remain the focus of conflict.

As improved education is not matched by better prospects for many of the world’s poor, the resulting sense of marginalisation provides a more hospitable environment for insurrection. Aids leaves a generation of orphaned children vulnerable to recruitment by paramilitary groups and criminal gangs. The war on terror has created the threats it was supposed to defeat, by driving people to avenge the civilians it has killed. By developing new weapons of mass destruction, the rich nations challenge others to try to match them. In 2012, the United States allocated 37% of its budget on military spendings but only 2% on diplomacy, development and war prevention. This is also more than spendings on healthcare and responses to poverty combined. The budget would contribute far more to security if it was spent on energy efficiency, foreign aid and arms control.

Furthermore, the danger and paradox of military spending is that the bigger the budget, the more powerful the lobby because which can fight for its own survival. This leads to loose budget  constraints and poor control over spendings and programmes. In Saudi, the corrupt relations that have been cultivated with the princes result in civil servants defending not the realm but the arms companies. Even in countries with reputable governments such as the UK, some abuses in military activities arise because Congress cannot possibly effectively oversee such a large operation where programs involving $24 billion are enacted as a single line item. Hence, military spendings intention of protecting the state may be compromised by other motivations.

Last, the expenditure on arms and armed forces is not justifiable because the disproportionate distribution of military expenditure leads to an unjustifiable imbalance of power. In 2013, nearly four-fifths of all military expenditure was made by 15 states and just 2 states, the United States and China, made nearly half of all military expenditure. American primacy in the global distribution of capabilities is one of the most salient features of the contemporary international system. Their expenditures on arms is more than the next 14 countries combined together. This extraordinary imbalance leads to a unipolar world likely to be built around rules and institutions as desired by the United States.

The extent to which the powerful countries can translate its formidable capabilities into meaningful political influence is debatable as the United State’s selective involvement in Vietnam or Iraq but lack thereof in Cambodia during the Khmer Rouge era seems to reflect that America’s foreign policy , especially after 2001, has been a reflection simply of the idiosyncratic and provocative strategies of the Bush administration itself rather than a manifestation of the deeper structural features of the global system of power. Hence, expenditure on arms and armed forces is justifiable to a small extent as it has allowed for the presence of many ‘bullies’ on the world stage.

However, expenditure on armed forces can also be justified as nations do have the sovereignty and right to protect their own nations. Ironically due to the current situation of massive military spendings, the world is still vulnerable to threats, especially from terrorism, in the modern century. The drastic increase in United State’s military spending in the last decade can also be justified by the September 11 terrorist attacks. Hence, it is in the nation’s interests to be as prepared as they possibly can. Since the beginning of civilisations, violence has had an unmistakable role in societies and there is little evidence to indicate its extinction in the near future. Some argue that it is human nature to challenge, oppose and expand.

Furthermore, mistakes in history such as when Neville Chamberlain wanted to cut Defence spending in Britain and “appease Hitler” to achieve “peace in our time” have resulted in world leaders who are well guarded against making the same mistakes. Military capability is also an important source of legitimacy for governments. For countries like the United States, their formidable military capability is also a source of national identity and pride. From yet another perspective, it is also the responsibility of governments to deliver and ensure that the security of its people is ensured within its means as stated in Rousseau’s social contract. Under these arguments, the expenditure on arms and armed forces still seem to have a justifiable place in a country’s budget.

Yet, it is important to keep in mind that there are means other than a larger military force to ensure these security needs are met. Despite the initial failures of League of Nations, defence treaties such as NATO founded in 1949 are encouraging initiatives that have successfully reduced military spendings. The organisation constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by any external party. Such institutions allow smaller nations to rely on the more powerful ones so that their budget can be more efficiently allocated to build their economies and such is the case in countries like Hungary, Poland and Ukraine.

History shows that countries can reduce spendings quickly if they so desire. In the United states, military spendings declined by 74 percent in the first year after World War II and 23 percent in the first two years after the Korean War ended. Today’s slow decline in spending on obsolete systems arises not because of the increasing threat of war but because there are weak budgetary and virtually non-existent political pressures on military spendings. Given that expenditures on arms and armed forces facilitate violence, leads to inefficient allocation of budgets and global power imbalances, it is justified to a very small extent.

Military Spending Essay

The Importance of Following Instructions Essay

The Importance of Following Instructions Essay.

The following essay will be a collection of thoughts about the importance of following instructions and having the proper gear. These two important topics should actually be written about in separate essays, but for the sake of the negative counseling I was written, they will be woven into one.

Following Instructions is a basic fundamental skill taught from an early age. While it may seem like common sense to follow instructions and bring the proper gear to the motor pool on Monday mornings, it is not always so straightforward.

Communication between Soldiers and their superiors can be unclear at times, especially when said Soldier is new to the unit and possibly misunderstood the instructions given. This, however, is another topic saved for another day.

The ability to follow instructions is an integral part of the Army, and is conducive to good order and discipline within a unit. When the instructions to be followed are to have the proper gear at a specified place, it will allow for the formation to maintain uniformity.

A few things that can happen if you do not follow instructions are: getting screamed at and spit on, having to do a few push-ups, receiving negative counselings, and having to write essays during four day weekends. If a Soldier does not want these things to happen, one should follow instructions and bring the proper gear to the motor pool. When a Soldier is wasting precious time writing essays, one could be doing more important things like spending time with family, changing oil in one’s truck, sleeping in on Monday morning, or just anything other than writing an essay.

Having the proper gear is an important part of military life. It will keep the Soldier from getting in trouble on Monday morning. When a Soldier has the necessary equipment, the Soldier will be ready to wear the gortex jacket when told to do so. Following instructions by having the proper equipment in the motorpool shows that one can follow those same instructions on a mission, especially if one is new to a unit and one’s non commissioned officers do not know you. If a Soldier can follow instructions to bring a gortex jacket to a formation at the motorpool, then the Soldier can follow instructions to bring binoculars to an observation post. Going on any mission in the Army without the necessary equipment is dangerous. A Soldier can not be ready to engage the enemy without the proper gear.

Following instructions is of the utmost importance in the military. Obedience is what enables the military to operate in an organized and effective manner, which is very important during challenging and stressful situations. If there were no instructions to follow, a unit would easily fall into chaos and become ineffective at completing its assigned mission.

The Importance of Following Instructions Essay

Gear accountability Essay

Gear accountability Essay.

Gear accountability is one of my most important things I must do as a United States marine. Many things go into keeping track of your own military gear as well as personal gear. Cif gear for example. All of the gear that is issued to me I must make sure I have everything at all times, otherwise if I lose a piece of gear I must fill out a missing gear statement, get it signed off by my section head, the platoon sergeant, and my platoon officer.

I always have to make sure that all my gear is clean before any kind of field op. I have miss placed gear before in the past because I didn’t keep track of it. Every day a marine loses a piece of gear, whether it is from a field op, moving barracks rooms, or when I am getting ready to go on annual leave.

When you first check into any unit, whether its recruit training, marine combat training, military occupational specialty, or your specific unit after all of your training is completed.

Even then, as a marine in the fleet marine force, you have chances to go to school which train you more in depth of your mos. When there, they issue you the basic things you need for that kind of training environment. Like motor vehicle operators course, you are given everything that was issued to you in boot camp. Flak Kevlar, sapi plates, main pack, cold weather gear, an assault pack, and many other things.

Some of the gear that is issued to you has a serial number on it. That number is specifically issued to you, so that way when you turn everything back in after you reenlist, got out of the military, pcs, or possibly change to a different mos, division supply can track exactly what was issued to you, and the date when it was actually issued to you directly.

Like I said before, you even have to keep track of your personal gear. For example, anything you wear, or something that you buy from the store, you either have to make sure that you keep track of who uses it, or who you lend it to. Cammies for example, you always have to make sure that you always look squared away otherwise you have to go buy more stuff to keep everything together.

But the biggest issue in the Marine Corps is actual cif gear none of it is cheap at all. For example, if you lose even just one sapi plate=e, you write the missing gear statement, then you go to ipac to file the paper work. Once all that is done then however much it cost to replace that item you either pay out of your own pocket, or that money comes directly out of your pocket.

People say gear adrift is a gift. But actually gear adrift can cause everything written above, plus if someone know who actually took the gear, and then it becomes theft. And on top of losing gear or misplacing gear, you your self is charged, and can be njp’d for those actions.

In personal experiences that I have had myself and my two roommates had got put on a working party and when we left our barracks room we had left the door unlocked along with a couple of locks on our personal stuff like coffin racks or wall lockers. So when we got back from our working party we realized that we were missing gear and we were freaking out trying to find out what had happened to a bunch of our gear come to find out that we left stuff unlocked and our sergeants came by our room to see if we were back from our working party yet. Once they realized that we were still gone they decided to take some of our cif gear to try to teach us a lesson. That lesson made all of us is to be more careful about making sure that we lock everything up. Once we realized how much money all of the gear we left unsecured would have costed us is what really made us realize that we had to be a lot more responsible and make sure everything was always secured if we were not in our room.

The gas mask was one of the things that was taken and that alone would have costed about $1500. You can’t be just laying stuff around without someone watching it at all times. If you leave your rifle lying around when you are in a combat zone then there is a chance of someone grabbing it and possibly hurting or even killing a lot of your fellow marines. If you lose a piece of gear while you are in the field then the entire field op will stop doing what they are doing and you will all search for that missing piece of serialized gear. Losing a piece of gear could also be a direct violation of article 108 of the UCMJ. Violation of article 108 could possibly be resulted by a court martial and bad conduct discharge and confinement for a year. If you are not being responsible about gear accountability then that could potentially find its way back and make your higher ups look bad. Another reason that gear accountability is important is because all of the gear that you are issued is re issued to another marine after you turn it back in that is why it is also important that you do not lose any of you gear no matter how big or small that piece of gear might be.

If you lose enough gear then when you get court martial then you are actually spending more of the marine corps money and making them waste their time doing all of the paper work because you did not want to be accountable for your gear. another reason why the marine corps is so strict on accountability is that out of all of the branches of the military the marine corps has the smallest amount of money and does not have to money to go out and buy more gear that marines lost.

Gear accountability is not just important when you get to the fleet marine force but it is also important through marine corps recruit training, marine combat training and also through your military occupational specialty school because if you have lost a piece of gear through any part of that training and did not replace it then you will either have to pay for it or they will not issue your gear when you get to the fleet marine force unless you find a way to straighten everything out with the issue department from the previous place that you were at. Gear accountability is so important it is ridiculous I don’t think that anyone wants to have to pay the money for any gear that is lost because a lot of our gear can get very expensive. Such as just our sapi plates alone could cost up to about $2400.

This is all also a good reason why you should not let other marines use your gear because they could lose your gear and then you are the one that ends up having to pay for it because you were the one that was issued that gear and most of it is serialized so they will know if some of the gear that you are turning in was issued to you or someone else. Every single marine is issued their own gear and is responsible for keeping track or accountability for every single piece of gear whether they think that piece of gear is important or not. It is their gear they are responsible for making sure that they have it. No matter what a marine should not leave any part of their gear lying on the ground and ask someone to watch it. They need to either go put their gear away where it belongs and make sure that they secure it or they just need to take it with them wherever they go.

Even when you are in the field you need to be constantly checking to make sure that you still have all of your gear because some marines look at the field as a chance to go and see if they can steal extra gear for themselves or gear that they are missing or that one of their buddies is missing. Reasons like this is why gear accountability is so important for every marine in the entire Marine Corps. No matter what your billet or rank is you need to know where every single piece of your gear is at all times weather you need it at the time or not because you never know when you are actually going to need any of your gear or certain pieces.

If you are not keeping accountability then when it comes time to grab certain pieces of gear you will not know where it is exactly and you will waste more time looking for it when you might not even have it anymore. But you would not know that until that moment happens because you were not being accountable of every single piece of your gear. You need to be sure that you are constantly checking to make sure that you still have all of your serialized gear at all times as well. This essay explains why it is important to keep track of every single piece of gear whether it is a piece of serialized gear or not.

Gear accountability Essay

Persuasive Essay: Military Service Essay

Persuasive Essay: Military Service Essay.

Many people can benefit from joining the Military service for a lot of different reasons. Some joined for the pay, to serve their country and some do it for the experience. There are many reason people join the United States Army. Some other reasons to join the Army could be job security, education benefits, health insurance benefits, life insurance benefits and career assessment to name a few. Serving your country for reason personal to you can come with great benefits and life-long lessons.

The three that are going to be focus on are job security, educational benefits and health insurance benefits.

Job security is the main reason most people join the military. The military offers job in poor economy when the employment rate is very low. The only stipulation is that you must meet the requirements when joining. The Army has over 190 job opportunities available to you when you enlist. You must first do a basic training which is usually 9 weeks longs.

Basic Combat Training is a training course that transforms civilians into Soldiers. It’s the initial period of training new personnel, involving physical activity and behavioral discipline.

Army called their enlisted jobs Military Occupation Specialties (MOS). There are many different job specialties in the Army. Some of the job opportunities are as following: Infantry, Aviation, Judge Advocate General’s Corp (JAG), Military Police, Civil Affair, Adjutant General’s Corp (office work), Public Affairs, Medical and Chaplains. There are many others jobs opportunities. Each MOS have training for them. They send you to various Army bases to complete your training for a specialty job. Training could be anywhere between 5 weeks to years of training. Once you finishing your training, you then go to work like a regular job. Most jobs are like a regular job 9 to 5. The only thing is you don’t have to worry about being laid-off. So that is one benefit so being in the Army.

Who would like to go to school free. In the Army there are many different ways to assistance you so you can go to school. Some of those ways are the Montgomery GI Bill, Up-Front Tuition Assistance Program and the Student Loan Repayment Program. The Montgomery GI Bill benefits are available for service members and veterans to help with education and training costs by providing a certain amount of cash and numerous support programs. They give you a certain amount of money over a 36 month period. MGIB can be used to pay for different programs. Some included are College, Business Technical or Vocational, Flight Training, Licensing and Certification Exams.

Tuition Assistance Program (TAP) pays 100% of the tuition and fees for mostly active duty soldiers and give you a certain amount per credit hour. As part of the Army Continuing Education program, soldiers use TAP to pay for classes they take during their off-duty time to advance their educations with little to no out of pocket cost. Then you have the College Loan Repayment Program (CLRP). This is use if you already have student loans when you join the Army they can possibly pay most of it back for you. It can pay off up to $65,000 dollars of back if you are enlisted more than three years. Reservist can pay off up to $40,000 with a six-year enlistment.

Nobody likes to worry about medical expenses. Medical benefits in the military are excellent and affordable. When you enlist in the Army, you and your family receive full medical and dental coverage. Even when you retire from the services you still are cover for health insurance. The Army offers benefits for Active Duty personnel, Retirees, Reservist & Guard and to certain family members. The Army basically uses Tricare for their services. Tricare offers different programs. Veterans also have certain health benefits. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) provides many health benefits for Veterans and family members if they are eligible under the Veterans Health Administration.

In conclusion, I would like to reiterate my three main points on joining the United States Army. There are many jobs opportunities in the Army that you can choose from. Why not choose from a list that has over 190 different jobs. Second, you can go to school on Uncle Sam’s dime and get you a degree in your choice of field. Last but not least, you will be provided with health insurance. You will be cover if anything was to happen to you. These were some of the reason you should join the Army.

References

United States Army. (2014). GoArmy. Retrieved from http://www.goarmy.com

VA Benefits Administration. (2014). Education and Training. Retrieved from http://www.benefits.va.gov

Persuasive Essay: Military Service Essay

The reasons for stalemate on the Western Front Essay

The reasons for stalemate on the Western Front Essay.

WW1 started as a war of quick lightning thrusts and high mobility, but degenerated into an astonishingly protracted war of static battle lines. The Western Front was the name given to the line of trenches stretching from the Belgium coast to Verdun. Following the Battle of Marne and Aisne of 1914, both sides dug in believing trenches to be temporary. The Front stretched for hundreds of miles, meshed with complex trench systems and barbed wire.

Why Stalemate

The military plans (Schlieffen, XVII…) had established a strict “war by timetable”.

However, aside from the quick mobilisation of nations, the plans failed. They were proved to be useless as modern warfare removed the momentum from conflict.

A poverty of strategic thought led to the stalemate. Both the British and French commanders were afflicted by the cult of the offensive. French generals Joffre and Nivelle were obsessed with the philosophy of esprit de corps – mass infantry charges (a reluctance to charge was linked to defeatism).

The British generals shared this outlook, as is superlatively demonstrated by Haig’s “Big Push”. The aim to engage the enemy and bleed them proved successful in the end, however it needed time over years to prove so.

The supremacy of defence due to technology helped prolong the war. WW1 was the first total war- a conflict between highly industrialized economies and militaries. Factories churned out ammunition; mass shells and people from both sides were conscripted. Barbed wire, machine guns, gas and rifles held out enemy advances. The absence of super weapons such as the tank and bomber were not yet developed and thus failed to counter these defensive tactics. The ability of the machine gun was equivalent to half a company of riflemen. Thus, sides were able to repel the enemy with relative ease.

The Somme illuminates the verity of the artilleries misjudgements. A massive 8-day bombardment of the Germans did very little, with 1/3 of the shells failing to explode. This also suggests the effectiveness of dugouts. The German dugouts were up to 8 metres deep, thus very few shells hit the troops.

Technology of mass transit systems also prolonged the war. Railroads and roads were used to bring ammunition and troops quickly to the front, to restock losses. Added to the unwillingness of generals to follow up on small victories, this led to neither side being outweighed by the other.

Attempts to break the stalemate

Both sides attempted to end the war quickly, however many of these strategies did the opposite. The development of tanks, gas and aerial support all served the purpose of shortening the war. Both the Battle of the Somme and Verdun represent the respective mass pushes to topple the enemy. However the Somme was left unchecked despite the huge casualties. Generals were set to sacrifice troops, and time for eventual strategic victory. The 1917 Battle of Cambrai also illustrates the successful use of the tank to mobilise the war. Entente tanks pushed through the German lines, giving an indication of how future battles would be fought. Total war- the attempt of both sides to sink all efforts to the waging of war, was for the purposes of breaking the stalemate. Troops were conscripted en masse, while an economic war was being fought. The naval blockades helped starve the enemy.

The reasons for stalemate on the Western Front Essay

Military Customs and Courtesies Essay

Military Customs and Courtesies Essay.

To the untrained eye there does not seem to be too many variations between the civilian world and the military world besides the evident like uniforms, stricter standards of living, and traveling. However, to the trained eye one huge difference stands out. That difference is mutual respect. The fact that mutual respect exists, and is demanded is a major difference between the civilian world and the military world. The Army has even come out with an Army Regulation, which is a manual on how to show proper respect and etiquette.

The manual covers such things as personal salutes and honors, courtesy visits within the Army, and even Inter Service and Military-Civilian visits all that I think are important things to know as a future officer in the Army.

A salute is defined as “show[ing] respect and recognition to (a military superior) by assuming a prescribed position” by the Merriam-Webster Dictionary. The exact origin of the salute is unknown. It is said that the salute began in late Roman times when assassinations were rampant.

When the citizens wanted to see a public official, they had to advance toward the official with their right hand raised to show that they did not have a weapon. The showing of the right hand eventually became a symbol of respect. It is also, in some form, used all around the world. Many historians think that the United States military salute derived from the “open hand” British Army salute that is palm down and toward the shoulder.

In the Army, any personnel in uniform are required to salute if they recognize persons entitled to the salute. Persons entitled to the salute include the President of the United States or Commander-in-Chief, Commissioned Officers, Warrant Officers, any Medal of Honor recipient, and Officers of friendly foreign countries. Salutes can and should be exchanged with soldiers of the United States Navy, the Air Force, the Marine Corps, and the Coast Guard. The only time that an Army soldier is not required to render a salute is when either party is in civilian attire.

The hand salute is not the only salute rendered in the Army. There is also the cannon salute. The tradition of firing cannons is also said to have derived from the British, though it is the British Navy this time. Back then firing a cannon would somewhat disarm the ship. Hence, the firing of cannons represents respect and more importantly trust because by firing you are leaving yourself open to attack. Cannon salutes also include the 21-gun salute, which is considered the highest honor a nation renders.

Another thing that I thought was important but was not really covered in Army Regulation 600-25 is what to do during the reveille or retreat. I do not know how many times I have seen someone honking his or her horn during it because someone stopped in the middle of the road. I do understand that different posts have different requirements. However, I think that it is important that we be aware of what is going on around us and know how to react. The reveille and retreat time is set by the installation commander. However, the times maybe different, your actions should be the same. If you are in civilian clothes, you should just stop your car and wait for it to finish. If you are in uniform, you have to stop, come to attention, and render a salute in the direction of the flag. Something simple but I see many people lost when it happens.

The Army Regulation also covers courtesy visits within the Army etiquette. It tells the dos and don’ts regarding keeping friends or more appropriately social contacts. Social contacts among officers of the Army are important. Mainly because keeping in contact with your fellow officers builds teamwork, respect, assurance, and common understanding. Having all of that insures sufficient military leadership. Though the manual outlines what should be done, it is ultimately up to the commander of the individual officers organizations to what extent the principles should be followed. I feel that as future officers this is very important. Some of us are graduating this winter and going on to be commanders of units.

According the Army Regulation, courtesy visits have to be done unless there are unforeseen circumstances that permit the visit. The regulation even tells how long a visit should be, “… of approximately 15 minutes’ duration”. It even suggests the use of Visiting cards. Visiting cards are used during the visits or in the absence of the senior ranking officer as a courtesy. Visiting cards are like giving out a regular business card. They should include the grade of rank in which the officer is serving and it can show the branch of the officer. Ultimately, the cards can be any size and type but “the most commonly accepted size is 3 ¼ by 1 ½ inches, with shaded Roman engraving”.

New officers and departing officers are also required to pay courtesy visits to their immediate superior. The only time that that officer is not required to pay a courtesy visit is if she or he is going into a company commander or a battalion commander position. In those cases, the officer should be visited by their highest-ranking subordinate.

Personal in the Army are required to show respect to officers of other services in two ways. The first is by rendering salutes when appropriate. The second is by the exchange of courtesy visits among the officers of other services. Paying courtesy visits to the members of other services also furthers mutual understanding.

The regulation goes on and on about the dos and don’ts regarding courtesy visits of officers on ship and on shore. The thing to be most concerned with is if the officer comes off the ship. If they stay on the ship, it is pretty much the commanders’ choice as to whether or not to send someone on board the ship to say hello. Otherwise, they are not required to go aboard and greet the officer on board the ship.

The Army’s customs and courtesies are guidelines that are used to show respect and act as a symbol of solidarity among soldiers in the army. The respect that Army personal shows each other is one of the key things that set military soldiers from everyone else. As a future officer or even as in existing officer, it is important to adhere to this regulation. It was put in place not to make you do “another thing” but because it creates a bond among Army personal which leads to a mutual respect and understanding.

Works Cited:

Department of the Army. Army Regulation 600-25: Salutes, Honors, and Visits
of Courtesy. Washington, DC: Electronic Publishing System, 2000.

Military Customs and Courtesies Essay