The Effect of Temperature on the Rate of Yeast Respiration Essay

The Effect of Temperature on the Rate of Yeast Respiration Essay.

Abstract

Carbon dioxide is a waste product of yeast respiration. A series of experiment was conducted to answer the question; does temperature have an effect on yeast respiration? If the amount of carbon dioxide is directly related to temperature, then varying degrees of temperature will result in different rates of respiration in yeast. The experiment will be tested using yeast and sugar at different water temperatures. I predict the warm temperature will be optimal for yeast respiration therefore the most carbon dioxide will be released.

The experiments tested yeast respiration in both, warm water at 42 degrees Celsius and at room temperature. The outcome of the experiment indicates the warm water is optimal for yeast respiration in comparison to cold water.

Introduction

Respiration is the process that converts sugar known as glucose to energy, in this case ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate). This process is found in all living organisms. Respiration can occur in two ways, aerobic and anaerobic. Aerobic respiration requires oxygen to produce energy.

Anaerobic respiration does not require oxygen to produce energy. In yeast respiration the yeast cells are capable of respiration in the absence of oxygen (Kelly, et. al, 2001). Yeast has the ability to breakdown sugar into glucose, which causes the release of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is a waste product of yeast respiration.

Yeast is a living organism therefore optimal temperature is needed for activation of energy production. The cellular respiration rate in yeast can be affected by temperature. Temperature can alter the amount of oxygen needed for respiration and the amount of energy used. If a high temperature is present, the yeast will die and no cellular respiration will take place. Does temperature have an effect on yeast respiration? If the amount of carbon dioxide is directly related to temperature, then varying degrees of temperature will result in different rates of respiration in yeast.

The experiment will be tested using yeast and sugar at different water temperatures. I predict the warm temperature will be optimal for yeast respiration therefore the most carbon dioxide will be released. The cold temperature will have the least yeast respiration, which will affect the amount of carbon dioxide produced. Further experiments using different dependent variable were also be used to test temperatures effect. The different dependent variables will be agave syrup, molasses, and karo syrup mixed with yeast in independent solutions. I predict for these experiments the type of sugar used will determine the amount of carbon dioxide produced.

Methods

Two pipettes were sealed at the narrow ends using parafilm. Yeast and sugar were added to distilled water and mixed thoroughly to activate the yeast. Once activated, 10 mL of the yeast/sugar mixture were filled into the pipette using disposable Pasteur pipette. A test tube was placed over the open end of the pipette then inverted. The fluid level on the pipette was recorded. One tube was placed in a warm water bath at 42 degrees Celsius and the other was placed in a cold water bath at room temperature. The level of the liquid was recorded every five minutes until no more reading could be read.

Four pipettes were sealed at the narrow ends using parafilm. Yeast and sugar were added to distilled water and mixed thoroughly to active the yeast. Another mixture was made with yeast and agave syrup. Once yeast was activated in both solutions, 10 mL of the mixture were filled into the pipette using disposable Pasteur pipette. Yeast/sugar mixture was transferred into two pipettes. A test tube was placed over the open end of the pipettes then inverted. The fluid level on the pipettes were recorded. Both tubes were placed in a warm water bath. Yeast/agave mixture was transferred into two pipettes. A test tube was placed over the open end of the pipettes then inverted. The fluid level on the pipettes were recorded. Both tubes were placed in a warm water bath. The level of the liquid was recorded every five minutes until no more reading could be read.

Two pipettes were sealed at the narrow ends using parafilm. Yeast and molasses were added to distilled water and mixed thoroughly to activate the yeast. Once activated, 10 mL of the yeast/molasses mixture were filled into the pipette using disposable Pasteur pipette. A test tube was placed over the open end of the pipette then inverted. The fluid level on the pipette was recorded. One tube was placed in a warm water bath and the other was placed in a cold water bath. The level of the liquid was recorded every five minutes until no more reading could be read.

Two pipettes were sealed at the narrow ends using parafilm. Yeast and sugar were added to distilled water and mixed thoroughly to active the yeast. Another mixture was made with yeast and karo syrup. Once yeast was activated in both solutions, 10 mL of the mixture were filled into the pipette using disposable Pasteur pipette. Yeast/sugar mixture was transferred into the pipette. A test tube was placed over the open end of the pipette then inverted. The fluid level on the pipette was recorded. The tube was placed in a warm water bath. Yeast/karo syrup mixture was transferred into the pipettes. A test tube was placed over the open end of the pipette then inverted. The fluid level on the pipette was recorded. The tube was also placed in a warm water bath. The level of the liquid was recorded approximately even three to four minutes until no more reading could be read.

Results

The results indicate at the start of the experiment the reading was consistent for all three attempts using yeast and sugar placed in warm and cold water. In two experiments the tubes placed in the warm water bath both produced more carbon dioxide faster than the tube in cold water, whereas in the third experiment there was no change then a sudden change in both tubes. See Table 1.0 -1.2 for results. Table 1.0 Comparison between temperatures effect on yeast respiration. Time (Minutes)

Discussion

Yeast will undergo cellular respiration by way of anaerobic respiration when supplied with sugar. As we know, anaerobic respiration uses available sugars to produce energy with carbon dioxide as a waste by product. Temperature is a factor on cellular respiration in yeast because as the temperature increases it reaches an optimal temperature to produced the most energy and waste. Similarly cold temperatures and hot temperatures will not have the same effect. The results of the experiment proved the hypothesis to be correct. The experiments conducted proved cellular respiration in yeast, produced carbon dioxide at a faster rate when done at a warm temperature, therefore optimal temperature is required for the most productivity.

Limitations I found in these experiments could be the amount of yeast used can have an effect on the amount of respiration that will occur. Yeast that is considered old could also play a factor in the amount of respiration that will occur to produce energy. Mixing the yeast solutions for a longer period of time could also affect the outcome of the experiment. The experiment could also be done using a smaller range of different temperatures for more accuracy on finding an optimal temperature to view the effects of temperature on yeast respiration.

A similar experiment was conducted to test the effect of increased temperature on baker’s yeast in dough. The results in the experiment coincided with the results of the yeast respiration lab. The bakers yeast in dough placed at 37 degrees Celsius produced carbon dioxide faster and helped the dough rise compared to yeast in dough placed at 28 degrees Celsius (Aboaba & Obakpolor, 2010). In conclusion temperature has an effect on yeast respiration, however an optimal temperature is required.

Reference
Aboaba, O., & Obakpolor, E. (2010). The leavening ability of baker’s yeast on dough prepared with composite flour (wheat/cassava). African Journal of Food Science Vol., 4(6), 325-329. Retrieved from http://www.academicjournals.org/ajfs/pdf/pdf2010/Jun/Aboaba and Obakpolor.pdf Kelly DJ, Hughes NJ, Poole RK. Microaerobic Physiology: Aerobic Respiration, Anaerobic Respiration, and Carbon Dioxide Metabolism. In: Mobley HLT, Mendz GL, Hazell SL, editors. Helicobacter pylori: Physiology and Genetics. Washington (DC): ASM Press; 2001. Chapter 10. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2411/

The Effect of Temperature on the Rate of Yeast Respiration Essay

How has a process in nature been used as a medical intervention? Essay

How has a process in nature been used as a medical intervention? Essay.

The process in nature is the chemical in fireflies that causes them to light up. It’s being used as a medical intervention by using them to directly measure energy levels inside our living hearts. What does the level of ATP tell scientists about the functioning of the heart? What the level of ATP says about the function of the heart is that high levels of ATP indicate a high level of O2 constant function and need for O2. What are potential applications of this research? How can this type of test help patients? The tests could help patients with heart diseases and could detect a potential heart attack and prevent it from happening.

Conclusion

1 Based on what you learned in PBS, what are three foods that would be considered good energy sources? Explain your choices. Brown rice- it’s rich in manganese that helps produce proteins and carbs. It will give you energy to last all day. Sweet potato- high in carbohydrates, and prevents fatigue.

Has vitamin A and C Honey- it’s equivalent to an energy drink, and the sweetener acts as a time-released muscle fuel during exercise and helps replenish muscles post-workout. 2 Name three specific body processes that require energy in the form of ATP. -Active transport

-cellular respiration
-photosynthesis
-metabolism
-endocytosis
-exocytosis
-reproduction

1. You hear someone mention the molecule “AMP.” Based on what you learned about the structure of ATP and the way in which energy is released, what do you think AMP stands for and how do you think it would be created? Adenosine monophosphate. It can be produced during ATP synthesis by the enzyme adenylate kinase by combining two ADP molecules: 2 ADP → ATP + AMP. 2. Explain how the recycling of ATP helped save Mauro Prosperi. Why is the ability to recycle this molecule an advantage? The recycling of ATP helped save Mauro Prosperi by allowing him to have energy even though he didn’t have much food.

The ability to recycle this molecule is an advantage because if we were ever in the same circumstance we would be able to survive longer without much food. It would allow us to have energy even though we didn’t have much food to be produced into ATP. 3. Based on what you have read in this activity, explain the role food, water and oxygen play in the creation of ATP or the release of energy from this molecule. In order to make ATP, you need food (sugar) and oxygen. You need oxygen to unlock the energy that’s in the food. Â Cellular respiration also explains why we are breathing oxygen and why we exhale carbon dioxide.

How has a process in nature been used as a medical intervention? Essay

Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis Essay

Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis Essay.

Photosynthesis and respiration are both processes that are necessary for the survival of organisms. However, in numerous ways these two processes are very diverse as they are responsible for distinct necessities. Therefore they both have similarities and differences. One major difference between the two is that photosynthesis takes place completely in plants while respiration occurs equally in plants and animals. Nevertheless to understand Photosynthesis and respiration, we need to understand what is photosynthesis and cellular respiration and examine each of these processes in detail and associate them to the parts of a cell responsible for each function.

Photosynthesis is the procedure in which green plants use sunlight, carbon dioxide and water to make food and oxygen and cellular respiration is the process where cells use this food to release stored energy. With that being said we can beginPlant cells retain chloroplasts. These functions within the plant cells use a compound named chlorophyll to obtain energy through the sun and combine with water and carbon dioxide to fabricate glucose (type of sugar) and oxygen.

The chemical equation describing this effect, photosynthesis is written this way: 6CO2+6H2O+energy →6O2+C6H12O6. By this meaning that each separate reaction, the chloroplast requires 6 water molecules and 6 carbon molecules, and additionally little sunlight energy. From these it can produce, by breaking down the molecules and reorganizing the particular atom, exactly 1 glucose molecule and 6 oxygen molecules.

Containing a total of 24 atoms, the glucose molecule is large. It takes energy to generate this large molecule and this energy remains stored in the molecule awaiting to be released in respiration. Thus, energy can be moved from place to place.

Other functions within the cell utilize the glucose molecule; this cell section is called mitochondria. Every mitochondrion obtains glucose, breaks it down into atoms, and by combining it with atoms from more oxygen, creates carbon dioxide, water and energy; energy in a form that can be used by all cells. The chemical equation describing this outcome, cellular respiration, is written this way: 6O2+C6H12O6→6H2O+6CO2+energy. By this meaning that each particular reaction, the mitochondrion requires a glucose molecule and 6 oxygen molecules. From these, using the energy stored in the bonds of glucose molecule, it can generate 6 water molecules, 6 carbon dioxide molecules and a new type of energy.

Cellular respiration can utilize other molecules beside glucose, but it always results in energy, water and carbon dioxide. When the energy is manufactured this way by the mitochondria it is a form that can be easily used by all cells.

The energy is stored by constructing a special molecule called ATP, or adenosine triphosphate, by which the covalent bonds between atoms (between phosphate components of the molecule) store a lot of energy.

The other products of respiration, carbon dioxide and water, can be reused by the cells doing photosynthesis. The ATP is transmitted to the other cells in the organism to provide them with an energy source. This is specifically important, for plants, because they can’t get new energy when the sun isn’t available, so ATP also offers a way for them to store up energy supplies.

The tissues of the plant contain organic compounds (compounds created by a living organism) and all these compounds contain some ATP the plant has created. Hence, the plant becomes an energy source for other organisms; consumers like insects or cows, which eat the plants.

In conclusion, photosynthesis and cellular respiration are the main pathways of energy flow in living things. In the end we see that both photosynthesis and cellular respiration are necessary for living organisms. Both work as biochemical pathways, always recycling and continuing the process. There are some differences and some similarities between them.

Bibliography

http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/globalchange1/current/lectures/kling/energyflow/PSN_primer.htmlhttp://www.ecochem.com/resource_transpiration.htmlhttp://encyclopedia.farlex.com/Photosynthesis+and+Respirationhttp://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~deis/photosynth.htmlhttp://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookPS.htmlhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellular_respiration

Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis Essay

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Essay

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Essay.

Cells of all organisms are capable in acquiring the energy necessary to fuel chemical reactions for growth, repair, survival, and reproduction. Photosynthesis & cellular respiration are the main pathways of energy flow in living things. Photosynthesis is a process by which plants and some other organisms convert, light energy from the sun, CO2 from the air & H2O from the earth, into chemical energy stored in molecules like glucose. Cellular respiration is a process in which O2 is delivered to cells in an organism & metabolic process in cells leads to the production of ATP by the breakdown of organic substances.

Cellular respiration occurs in the mitochondrion of the cell and photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplast. There are some similarities between the process involved however their products and reactants are the exact opposite.

Photosynthesis can be divided into two stages: Light Reaction & Calvin Cycle. The process of photosynthesis begins when excited its electrons go into a primary electron acceptor (PEA).

They are then passed onto a series of molecules known as the electron transport chain (ETC). The electrons eventually combine with a proton and NADP+ to form NADPH. Another process called chemiosmosis also occurs in the light reaction. Chemiosmosis is a process in which ATP (energy) is produced. So, light, H2O, ADP and NADP+ are required for the light reaction and O2, ATP & NADPH is produced. The ATP and NADPH molecules then go into the dark reactions.

In the dark reactions, an enzyme combines CO2 with a five-carbon compound (RuBP). This process makes two G3P molecules. One G3P goes into the production of organic compounds and the other G3P goes back into Calvin Cycle as RuBP. In this reaction, CO2, ATP and NADPH are needed to make ADP, RuBP & NADP+. ADP & NADP+ further go back into light reaction that produces the reactants of dark reactions. This cycle is called a bio-chemical pathway. Sometimes plants can’t produce 3-carbon compounds. There are two types of solutions that plants use: C4 and the CAM Pathway. In C4 pathways, plants synthesize CO2 as a 4-carbon compound and in CAM pathways, plants synthesize their food at night.

Like plants, humans and other animals depend on glucose as an energy source, but they are unable to produce it on their own and must rely eventually on plants for food. Cellular Respiration is the process in which an organism obtains ATP by reacting O2 with glucose to give H2O, CO2 and ATP. Cellular Respiration can be divided into 2 stages: Glycolysis & Aerobic Respiration. Glycolysis takes a six carbon sugar, splits it into two molecules of three-carbon molecules of pyruvic acid. In glycolysis, NAD+ changes to NADH. Four molecules of ATP are produced with a net yield of two molecules. The next step in cellular respiration depends upon whether O2 is present or not. Ifthe O2 isn’t present then cells carry out a different process known as anaerobic respiration (respiration without O2; also called fermentation).

Their main task isn’t producing ATP but recycling NAD+ from NADP. If this didn’t occur then glycolysis would stop because it would use up all the NAD+. Two types of fermentation are lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation. The other process is aerobic respiration. There are two steps in aerobic respiration: Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain. In Krebs cycle, acetyl CoA, which comes from pyruvic acid, is broken down into CO2, hydrogen atoms & ATP. The 2nd stage of aerobic respiration is ETC & chemiosmosis, where most ATP is produced. ETC of both processes is just about the same. So, CO2, H2O & ATP gets produced. The reactants are O2 & C6H12O6.

There are many similarities between photosynthesis and cellular respiration. For example, the most important is the steps it goes through. Although they don’t occur at same places, they do follow a general guideline but involving different reactants. In photosynthesis, plants can change their process if somehing isn’t avalable (CAM and C4 plants) and so can animals in cellular respiration (aerobic and fermentation). ETC in both processess has the same task and the same process. There are other differences too, however. Photosynthesis occurs a cell structure called chloroplasts. Pancake-like sections, called thylakoids, divide chloroplasts. A stack of thylakoid is called grana (granum, plu). A grana is enclosed by stroma. The rate of photosynthesis is affected by the amount of CO2, light intensity and the temperature.

Respiration occurs in the mitochondria of a cell. Krebs Cycle occurs in mitochondrial matrix, the region of space in the inner membrane. The ETC and chemeosmosis occur in the cristae of the mitochondria. Respiration is the opposite of photosynthesis that is explained by this equation: C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ATP This equation means that O2 combines with sugars to break molecular bonds, releasing ATP. By-products of this reaction are CO2 and H2O. The process of photosynthesis can be assessed as: 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Light Energy → C6H12O6 + 6 O2 This equation means that CO2 from the air and H2O combine in the presence of sunlight to form sugars; O2 is released as a by-product of this reaction.

In the end, we see that both phtosynthesis and cellular repiration are necessary for living organisms. Both work as biochemical pathways, always recycling and continuing the process. There are some differences and some similiraties betwenn themm, too. Plant cells contain chloroplasts. These little ‘factories’ within the plant cells use the compound chlorophyll to take the energy from sunlight, and combine it with carbon dioxide and water to produce oxygen and glucose. Other ‘factories’ within the cell make use of the glucose molecule; these cell parts are called the mitochondria. Each mitochondrion takes glucose, breaks it down into atoms, and by mixing it with the atoms from more oxygen, and produces carbon dioxide, water and energy in a form that can be used by all cells.

Bibliography:

1) OnLine Biology Book. Photosynthesis. June 5, 2007. http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookPS.html#Table%20of%20Contents2)OnLine Biology Book. Cellular Metabolism And Fermentation. June 5, 2007. http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookGlyc.html

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Essay