Preparing for the BMAT (biomedical admissions test) Essay

Preparing for the BMAT (biomedical admissions test) Essay.

The biomedical admissions test was created to assist medical and veterinary schools in the admissions process. Some of the universities have much more applications than places and the majority of these applications are strong. The BMAT allows the universities to filter out the strongest candidates based on exam performance. The BMAT exam lasts for 2 hours and is split into 3 sections. The examination test date is 31st October 2008. This article will aim to provide you with some advice and give an overview to students who are planning on taking the BMAT exam.

• aptitude and skills (1 hour)

• scientific knowledge and application (30 minutes)
• writing task (30 minutes)
The universities which currently require you to take the BMAT are:
• The university of Cambridge
• The university of Oxford
• Imperial college London
• The royal veterinary college
• University of central London
Aptitude and Skills

This section aims to explore your problem solving skills, your ability to understand and interpret data and your analytical skills. It is multiple choice for the most.

This is the main reason as to why you should guess intelligently, take a look at the given data and take a guess. Practice is key in this section. For the problem solving element of this section look at all the given data carefully. Here are some techniques to help you. • Divide and conquer technique: Break down any large chunks of data into smaller chunks, making the smaller problems which are easier to solve and then once you have solved them put the data back together and form an answer. • Trial and error: Use different approaches to come to a final conclusion and answer. • Working backwards: start with one of the possible answers and work backwards from it.

• Incubation: This is a last resort method which seldom works. Put all of the starting details relating to a problem in your mind picture them and then stop focusing on them and carry on with the examination (take an intelligent guess). Your subconscious mind may come up with an answer during the rest of the examination The understanding and interpreting subset involves using the information in front of you, do not make assumptions unless it is appropriate to the question. Analyse all data given carefully not leaving anything out. The data analysis subset involves extracting certain points out of the data and using these to make suitable conclusions, to give the answer. Depending on the starting data you are provided with this could include using statistical methods, interpreting graphs, curve fitting or even eradicating unwanted information and prioritising said data.

Scientific knowledge and application

This section attempts to make students utilise their scientific knowledge to help them answer questions. Again this section is multiple choice, so make informed guesses when there is a need using the data given. This section also requires practice and revision of scientific principles in order to score high marks, so we advise you do some revision covering the basics of biology, chemistry and physics.

Writing task

The writing task is asking you to create an essay from a given question. Here are some general pointers to help you achieve a great score. • Read: Read articles, newspapers, journals and book. This will help you to gain an understanding of how to put forward logical thought and will also help improve your English writing skills • Partake in group discussions/debate forums: By doing this you will develop the skills that allow you to analyse certain situations and statements, in addition to developing the ability to generate a fair argument looking at both sides of the situation and can help you produce good conclusion.

• Good structure: Ensure you have an introduction, Main body and conclusion. By having an assigned essay structure your ideas will flow more freely and will follow a logical order that makes it easier for the reader to understand. • Snappy conclusion and introduction: the introduction and conclusion can be the sections of your essay that sell it to the reader. Because these are the first and last things they read and so will remain in their mind the longest. An extremely good conclusion will stick in the readers head and maybe it might help you to boost your mark.

Conclusion

One key aspect for revision regarding the UKCAT is to sit some mock BMAT examinations; this will allow you to get a feel for the allocated time slot for the exam and thus ensure that you can finish all the questions. Some final general pointers I would like to add are 1. Don’t waste too much time on one question.

2. Generate a short plan for your writing task, just pointing out what you are going to cover and in what order. 3. Make sure you get plenty of rest before the exam.

4. If you have time available at the end of the exam use it to check over your answers.

Preparing for the BMAT (biomedical admissions test) Essay

Biggest Problems Facing Medicare and Problems Key Similarities and Differences Essay

Biggest Problems Facing Medicare and Problems Key Similarities and Differences Essay.

Problems Facing Medicare and Medicaid

The Federal Government has sponsored Health insurance programs such as Medicare as well as the Medicaid. Medical insurance for the elderly, disabled, as well as low-income Americans are covered by these insurance programs. In 1965, these programs took effect and the Health Care Finance Administration or the HCFA, of the Department of Health and Human Services administered these programs. Health Care coverage is provided by the US government to a variety of groups such as federal employees, military personnel, veterans as well as the Native Americans.

However, the largest proportion of health care expenditures is accounted by the Medicare as well as Medicaid programs.

The program of Medicaid provides Health services as well as residential care to more than 50 million Americans wherein each has unique personal needs. Medicaid provides payment for prenatal care for about one-third of the children of the nation, long-term care for more than 20 percent of elderly citizens as well as health safety for people with disabilities are provided.

In addition to that several States works on similar initiative to cover the uninsured. Medicaid are facing severe crisis of sustainability. It was found that since 1990s a typical State was able to see that the medical costs have double the percentage of their budget and it was also projected that continued disproportionate growth is evident. In 2006, the combined federal as well as State expenditures totaled $320 billion and by 2016, they are projected to reach $580 billion (“Making Medicaid Work: A Practical Guide for Transforming Medicaid,” 2007).

The Annual Medicaid Budget Survey Report have indicated that at the beginning of the state fiscal year 2008, according to the description of the Medical Directors, State fiscal situation is generally improving, the state revenues are increasing that allowed Governors as well as the state legislatures to restore many cuts as well as restrictions that have been adopted during the economic downturn, and adopt positive changes in Medicaid such as increase in provider payment rates as well as expansion in benefits and eligibility. The State policy decisions for 2007 and 2008, includes a clear focus on improving coverage as well as quality of care provider under the program      (Smith V.K., Edwards, B.C. & Tolbert, J. (2008).

Across the states, however, signs that the economic climate was changing, emerged just a few months into state fiscal year 2008, in the fall of 2007. Studies have shown that the outlook was no longer positive as it had been in the case early in the state fiscal year (Smith V.K., Edwards, B.C. & Tolbert, J. (2008).

Different Issues Facing Medicare and Medicaid

Key Issues of Medicaid

A lot of key issues, concerns and priorities in mid fiscal year 2008, have been identified by Medicaid Directors. On top of it were the effects of an increase in fiscal stress across states, a lot of federal state issues such as those impacting Medicaid enrollment and access, as well as their current efforts to address the uninsured (Smith V.K., Edwards, B.C. & Tolbert, J. (2008).

Fiscal Stress across the States

As described by the directors of the State Medicaid, in the last half calendar 2007, economic situation in a lot of states leveled off unexpectedly and in some cases deteriorated. Results have shown that early in fiscal year 2008, the revenues came in below projections on which the state policy makers had based the state budget. Based on the report “as the state approached the mid-point in fiscal year 2008, the outlook for the immediate future was less optimistic than it had been at the beginning of the year.

The directors of Medicaid had also described in the budget survey that at the beginning of state fiscal year 2008, they strongly sense that the state economies were rebounding as compared to the recent years, according to recent rates of growth in state revenues. Due to Annual changes in each state’s federal Medicaid matching rate, the states budget is affected. It would be difficult to achieve significant Medicaid cost savings now than it had been during the last economic downturn and Medicaid cost control actions are not often easy and almost always have impacts on the effectiveness of the program (Smith V.K., Edwards, B.C. & Tolbert, J. (2008).

Issues of the Federal-State

The recent federal regulatory changes are adverse to the states, according to Directors of Medicaid, and it will provide negative impact on the programs including the proposed changes regarding the Medicaid benefit design as well as the Medicaid financing arrangements. They also have singled out the Health Information Technology as an example of the state-federal relations moving in a positive way (Smith V.K., Edwards, B.C. & Tolbert, J. (2008).

Improving Access in Medicaid

In Medicaid the issue of access had been perennial because of generally lower rates of provider reimbursement in most of the states, occasional budget-driven cuts or freezes, as well as rate increases occurring at certain intervals when authorized by state legislatures. Few providers of specific types as well as commercially insured patients encountered access problem for certain specialists such as psychiatrists, pediatric specialists in some states. Directors have also expressed concern over access to oral as well as mental health services. It was observed that in many states there are few dental health providers who participate in the Medicaid program. Moreover, participation has not been improved just by the rate of increases. In fact, one state reported that despite the rate adjustments, even dental clinic of public university would no longer serve Medicaid patients. In addition to that, while access to mental health services suffers from lack of providers, the issue gets more complicated by the lack of resources and need to coordinate with other agencies in order to provide non-medical services (Smith V.K., Edwards, B.C. & Tolbert, J. (2008).

Enrolment in Medicaid

“The total Medicaid enrollment dropped by -0.5% in fiscal year 2007on average across all states, with increase enrollment for almost half of the states and decrease enrollment for over half of the states. Reports indicated that Medicaid caseload was showing flat or continued downward-sloping caseload trend, and in addition to that, several state indicated that their current projections had been revised upward. Where the caseload was now increasing, the upward caseload trend was thought to be associated with a more sluggish economy (Smith V.K., Edwards, B.C. & Tolbert, J. (2008).

The Health Care Reform and Covering of the Uninsured

The Governors, as reported by the Medicaid directors are interested in reforming the health care system as well as the strategies to reduce the number of individuals who do not have health insurance coverage. A lot of states have proposed initiatives to address the problem of the continuous increase of the number of uninsured nationally. In some states their goal is universal coverage, on the other hand, others focused on increasing coverage options for the targeted populations (Smith V.K., Edwards, B.C. & Tolbert, J. (2008).

Key Issues of Medicare

One of the major problems of Medicare program is that financing mechanisms of Medicare will not be able to sustain it in the long run. Another concern is that the structure of the program which in large measure reflects health care delivery and political considerations in effect at the enactment, has failed to keep pace with the changes in the health care system as a whole. A lot of individual suggest that in order to address this problems major structural reform are required. However, to others the existing system should be improved rather than replaced. As of now, there has been no consensus reached. The major focus in the recent years has been on providing prescription drug coverage for beneficiaries. According to some observers, it would not be appropriate to add new costly benefit before structural reforms are enacted, while others stated that seniors, particularly low-income seniors, should not be required to wait for benefits until resolution of the entire restructuring issue (O’Sullivan, Chaikind, and Tilson, 2001).

Program financing is the major concern to policy makers. Another important issue that they are facing is whether the program has responded to changes in the health care delivery.

Another issue is fraud in Medicare. Sometimes beneficiaries are not safe, that is why Medicare is working hard in order to protect them from being a victim of fraud (Quick Facts About Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage and Protecting Your Personal Information).

Key similarities of the Problem

Both Medicare and Medicaid are having problems in sustaining the program.

“The biggest problem that the Federal Government is facing is fraud in Medicare as well as Medicaid. They wish to address the problem by teaching the beneficiaries of Medicare and Medicaid on how to avoid being the victims of fraud, waste and abuse. Mr. Clarkson stated that everyone is at stake in this since the money lost, in these practices has an impact on premiums and deductibles and could result in cutbacks to these programs” (“Medicare Fraud,” 2008).

Biggest Problems Facing Medicare and Problems Key Similarities and Differences Essay

Bioethics Essay

Bioethics Essay.

There are so many things in this world that people see an ethically unacceptable. A few topics are adoption, cloning, and consent. These are big topics because they are common and most of the public is aware of these controversies. To start, consent is a huge issue in America today. You will not find one thing in that does not require some kind of consent. Patient consent, consumer consent, or parental consent. In the medical field patients have to give full consent to all of their treatments, and or procedures.

If a patient does not give consent then the doctors cannot legally proceed with any type of medical treatment. Consent to any treatment is a vital part to both the doctor and the patient. The doctor can only tell the patient the information needed, and tell them what is best for their health, it is up to the patient to decide if they want to continue with treatment or not. For the patient to consent the treatment has to have a high percentage of success, of not they may look for other options.

Sometimes doctors will add or embellish information to get a certain response from their patient. It is important for the patient to fully understand their condition, and to know all of their options. A doctor cannot legally make a decision about a patient without that persons consent, and if they are physically/mentally unable to provide the consent the doctor needs, a family member or parent is put in place to make those decisions for the patient. The respect for the human body is determined by the patient.

If the doctor feels the patient does not care about how they become healthy, and only wants a positive outcome it leaves many doors open for the doctor to do what they feel necessary to benefit the patient. Ethics in the public sector, such as in hospitals and other health care organizations, cannot transcend politics completely, because the public sector is the political arena. For ethical guidelines to survive, however, they must be based not on political expediency but on sound ethical principles and reasoning.

As the knowledge of medicine, technology, and science continues to grow, the challenges of regulation, policy, and ethical issues in the hospital setting and elsewhere in the health care system will occupy physicians for some time to come. Medical informed consent is essential to the physician’s ability to diagnose and treat patients as well as the patient’s right to accept or reject clinical evaluation, treatment, or both. Medical informed consent should be an exchange of ideas that buttresses the patient-physician relationship.

The consent process should be the foundation of the fiduciary relationship between a patient and a physician. Physicians must recognize that informed medical choice is an educational process and has the potential to affect the patient-physician alliance to their mutual benefit. Physicians must give patients equality in the covenant by educating them to make informed choices. When physicians and patients take medical informed consent seriously, the patient-physician relationship becomes a true partnership with shared decision-making authority and responsibility for outcomes.

Physicians need to understand informed medical consent from an ethical foundation, as codified by statutory law in many states, and from a generalized common-law perspective requiring medical practice consistent with the standard of care. It is fundamental to the patient-physician relationship that each partner understands and accepts the degree of autonomy the patient desires in the decision-making process. As a matter of both ethics and the law, adult patients who have no cognitive impairments should be centrally involved as decision-makers during their medical care.

In ethics, the well-established principle of “respect for persons” that supports this perspective Because no one is usually better suited than adults themselves to appreciate what a diagnosis and treatment means for their lives, patients should ordinarily be respected as “experts” about the medical treatment that is desirable to them. Respecting patients as the central decision-maker also protects against paternalism, the view that health care practitioners should make decisions they believe to be in patients’ best interests.

The law converges with ethics in making it inadvisable for physicians to impose tests and treatments on patients without their knowledge or consent. In the United States, the law will treat medical treatment imposed without consent as a wrongful action. In response to a charge of unwanted treatment, Justice Benjamin Cardozo offered a classic legal opinion in the 1914 case Schloendorff v. Society of N. Y. Hospital: “every human being of adult years has a right to determine what shall be done with his own body; and a surgeon who performs an operation without his patient’s consent commits an assault for which he is liable in damages.”

Subsequent cases have underscored this right to accept or refuse treatment and underlined rights to self-determination and the right to be left alone – even if choices seem poorly made to others. Informed consent is therefore both a theory and a practice of patient involvement in health care. Its theory rests on well-established ethical and legal views in the United States. In practice, informed consent means providing information that enables someone to make a meaningful decision about the desirability of a medical test or treatment, as measured in terms of its risks and benefits.

Some states require that very specific information be provided when certain medical interventions are offered. For example, the U. S. Supreme Court upheld the right of states to require that physicians provide specific information to women seeking abortions. In Pennsylvania, physicians must advise a woman seeking an abortion about the state of fetal gestation, the availability of state-sponsored child support, legal and financial obligations of fathers, and so on. Proponents of this law argue that it is the state’s responsibility to ensure that women know this information before they make final decisions about abortions.

If physicians working in states that require specific information to be disclosed fail to do so, they open themselves up to various legal charges. For most medical tests and treatments, however, the state does not direct the specific information that must be disclosed. In most situations, it is physicians, their professional organizations, and institutions that set the standards for disclosure. Of course, the law still has a role to play, it requires that physicians provide all the information that a person could reasonably expect to receive and that the disclosure is consistent with a professional standard of care.

This information should be offered in a manner accessible to the patients and in languages they easily understand. Verbal consent is ordinarily sufficient for many if not all routine medical procedures such as blood draws, standard drug regimens, or standard tests. Written permission to test or treat can sometimes be useful documentation in medical records. Major interventions such as surgery or involvement in experimental protocols such as a drug study usually require written documentation of the consent process.

The standards of informed consent also forbid physicians from exceeding the scope of any test or treatment agreement, except in emergencies. There is continued debate about the extent of information that should be provided to a particular patient regarding a proposed test or procedure. For example, patients may not always be able to appreciate technical information and for that reason it is sometimes tempting to oversimplify explanations of medical tests and treatments. Research also shows that many people fail to recall central points of the information offered to them when they are told about medical tests and treatments.

Nonetheless, as a matter of ethics and the law, it is better to err on the side of more explanation rather than less when it comes to the explanation of medical treatments, and this advice increases in importance as the degree of risk associated with a treatment increases. In practice, health professionals will encounter patients who signal that they do not wish to make decisions themselves. In some instances, patients may not wish to participate at all in discussions about their care, or their family members will make clear that they wish their relative to be protected from medical information (especially if bad news or risk is involved).

Situations of this kind are a challenge to implementing practices of informed consent, but to the extent possible physicians should engage patients in discussions about the nature and consequences of their treatment. Parental consent is another issue in adoption. The birth mother does not have to consent to have their child removed for their custody. Adoption is an ethical issue because there are many factor in the adoption process, and the outcome of the child during and afterwards. When the birth parents come into play, things get even more complicated.

Many people adopt because they get financial aid from the government to help support the child, and the adoptive parents don’t always use the money for that child. It is important to provide all parties of the adoption with proper options and make sure no rights are violated. No child should be pulled out of their home unless there is a proper cause, and the child is in danger. Another Problem that is often seen with adoption is that the birth parents decided they want the child, or want to be a part of the child’s life. The court and the adoptive parents have to decide if this is a good idea or not.

In many cases it is not up to the kids, and they just get tossed where ever someone else feels necessary. Adoption is governed by State law in the United States. Laws and practice in each State vary. No matter where the adoption takes place, overarching ethical considerations should be applied consistently. Consent refers to the agreement by a parent, or a person or agency acting in place of a parent, to relinquish a child for adoption and release all rights and duties with respect to that child. Consent to adoption is regulated by State statutes, not by Federal laws, and States differ in the way they regulate consent.

In most States, the consent must be in writing and either witnessed and notarized or executed before a judge or other designated official. In all States, the court may determine that consent of the parent is not needed under specific circumstances, including when parental rights have been terminated, the child has been abandoned, the parent has been convicted of specified crimes against the other parent or the child, the parent has failed to support or establish a significant relationship with the child, or the parent is mentally incompetent or unfit due to abuse or neglect.

The court may terminate the rights of one or both parents for reasons including abandonment, failure to support the child, mental incompetence, or a finding of parental unfitness due to child abuse or neglect. An unwed father’s consent may not be needed if he has failed to establish legal paternity, is found to have abandoned or neglected the child or to be an unfit parent, or fails to respond to notice of an adoption proceeding. Nearly all States, the District of Columbia, American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the U. S.

Virgin Islands require that older children give consent to their adoption. Approximately 25 States, the District of Columbia, and the Virgin Islands set the age of consent at 14. Eighteen States, American Samoa, and Guam require a child’s consent at age 12, while six States, the Northern Mariana Islands, and Puerto Rico require consent of children age 10. In 11 States, the requirement can be dispensed with if the child lacks the mental capacity to consent. In 16 States and the Northern Mariana Islands, the court, in its discretion, may dispense with consent if it is in the best interests of the child.

Colorado requires that the child be provided with counseling prior to giving consent. In Maryland, a court may grant an adoption only if the child to be adopted is represented by an attorney. The manner in which consent can be executed varies considerably. In many States, the District of Columbia, American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, consent may be executed by a written statement witnessed and/or notarized by a notary public.

Other States may require an appearance before a judge or the filing of a petition of relinquishment. Some States require the parent to be provided with counseling, have his or her rights and the legal effect of relinquishment explained to him or her, or be provided with legal counsel prior to consent. In cases in which custody has previously been placed with an agency, the head of the agency may sign an affidavit of consent. In most States, a birth parent who is a minor is treated no differently than other birth parents.

However, in some States, the minor parent must be provided with separate counsel prior to the execution of consent, or a guardian ad litem must be appointed to either review or execute the consent. In five States, Guam, and Puerto Rico, the consent of the minor’s parents must be obtained. Adoption is meant to create a permanent and stable home for a child; therefore, a validly executed relinquishment and consent to adopt is intended to be final and irrevocable. As a result, the right of a birth parent to revoke consent is strictly limited. The territory of the U. S.

Virgin Islands makes no provisions in statute for revocation of consent; Massachusetts and Utah specifically require that all consents are irrevocable. In most States, the law provides that consent may be revoked prior to the entry of the final adoption decree under specific circumstances or within specified time limits. Idaho requires a parent who revokes consent to reimburse the adoptive parents for any expenses they may have paid on his or her behalf. In Michigan, consent may not be revoked if the child has been placed with an adoptive family unless an appeal of a termination of parental rights proceeding is pending.

Virginia permits one or both parents in a direct placement to waive the 7-day revocation period at the time of consent if the child is at least 10 days old and the waiving parent has received independent legal counsel. Waiver by one parent does not affect the right of the other parent to the revocation period. In all jurisdictions, consent becomes final and irrevocable once the court issues a final decree of adoption. Something else that has become a public issue is the consumption of cloned animal products. People want to know they are not eating something fake and man-made.

A lot of cloning issues revolve around animals and humans. Some people do not like this due to their religious beliefs because they don’t think you should artificially create someone, and that its God’s will who is created. They also have a problem with the fact that once an embryo is conceived it is a human life, and researchers use them for research and do not preserve the life. The researches do not see the embryo as a human life, and conduct many test on them. Scientists do not view these experiments as people with strong religious beliefs.

People often view this as a type of abortion because they are taking a life. People have decided that cloning today is unwise, and unnecessary, and in some cases criminal for humans, although in 2006 the government approved the distribution and consumption of cloned meats. This raised significant objections because the public wasn’t sure if they really wanted to be consuming cloned animals. Most of the ethical issues of cloning be it in animals or humans have been raised by the Catholic Church, as well as other religious organizations.

They all strongly oppose cloning as according to the religious belief life begins at conception and that life cannot be created artificially but from the unity of a man and a woman. At the same time, the church together with the other religious organizations argue against therapeutic cloning as well because, as mentioned above, they are guided by the idea that life starts at the conception and once the embryo exists it must be treated as a person, and thus destroying embryos and using them only for the purpose of research is not consistent with the religious view on the issue.

Concerns about cloning animals for food go beyond questions of food safety. In addition to concern for animal welfare, many people have ethical and moral qualms about animal cloning. According to recent surveys, for example, 64 percent of Americans think cloning is “morally wrong,” and another 63 percent would not buy cloned food even it were labeled as “safe. ” A fundamental argument of those who have ethical concerns about animal cloning is that just because scientists can clone animals for food, doesn’t mean they should.

The 2008 report by the Pew Commission on Industrial Farm Animal Production concluded that significant changes are needed in how farmed animals are raised in the U. S. , but cloning would move us in the opposite direction. Cloning promotes the objectification and commoditization of animals, treating these living sentient beings as mere machines for human manufacture.

In addition, as the public becomes increasingly aware of the treatment of farmed animals, many are concerned that cloning highly productive animals exacerbates animal welfare problems, because these animals tend to suffer from painful infections of the udder, lameness, and other ‘production-related’ diseases. In addition to concerns about animal welfare, many worry that the technology used to clone animals is the same that can be used to clone humans or produce transgenic animals, but the implications of such applications have yet to be fully examined.

Researchers in England and Australia have already backed proposals to create human-animal hybrids, for example by fusing a human cell to an animal egg to create embryos that are 99. 9 percent human and 0. 1 percent rabbit. People are concerned that cloning represents a dangerous ‘transgression’ of science. Many also feel that cloning is “not natural” because, overall, cloning requires a significantly greater level of involvement and interference with animals’ reproductive performance than conventional production methods.

Several religious groups, including from Protestant, Catholic, Jewish, Muslim, Hindu, and Buddhist faiths, have rejected animal cloning on ethical grounds. Cloning and genetic engineering are viewed by these groups as tantamount to “playing God. ” Nearly 90 percent of Americans want the government to factor in ethical considerations when making a decision on animal cloning. Such discussions are taking place around the world, with countries such as Canada, Taiwan, Japan, and the European Union saying they will consider the public’s concerns about animal cloning before deciding if they will accept the technology.

The European Commission, for example, asked the European Group on Ethics to issue an expert opinion on the ethical implications of cloning animals for food. The group concluded in early 2008 that, particularly due to the animal suffering involved, it could find no ethical justification for cloning animals. The European Food Safety Authority also concluded that, “The health and welfare of a significant proportion of clones has been found to be adversely affected.”

It was irresponsible for the FDA to allow cloned animals into the food supply without allowing similar discussions to take place in the U. S. Given the severity of the animal health problems associated with cloning, and the magnitude of ethical qualms Americans have with using the technology, there is both a pressing need and an overwhelming demand for the government to establish a proper regulatory framework to oversee animal cloning, one that takes into consideration both ethics and science.

In October 2006, AAVS joined with the Center for Food Safety and several other animal welfare, consumer, and environmental organizations to petition the FDA to establish an ethics Advisory Committee, similar to ones set up to discuss human genetic technologies, to provide an opportunity for public participation and transparency in the animal cloning debate.

An advisory committee, mirroring the Health and Human Services Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Genetics, Health, and Society, which serves as a public forum for deliberations on the broad societal issues raised by the development and use of genetic technologies in humans, would serve to deliberate both publicly and officially the ethical challenges presented by animal cloning.

Though the FDA chose to deny the petition, AAVS continues to work with federal agencies and Congress to ensure that the animal welfare and ethical implications of cloning are fully considered before the moratorium on animal clones is lifted. As surveys have shown, the public’s concerns for animal welfare and ethics have the potential to greatly impact the agricultural market and foreign trade, and consumers should have a voice in how their food is produced. However, the FDA has stated that it will not require food from cloned animals to be labeled.

That means that consumers who oppose animal cloning on animal welfare, religious, or moral grounds would be forced to unwittingly make purchases that violate their ethical principles. That is why AAVS is also supporting legislation that would require food from cloned animals and their offspring, if they are approved for sale, to be labeled. Consumers have a right to know how their food was produced so they can make informed decisions about what they buy and what they feed their families.

Bioethics Essay

The six rights of medication administration Essay

The six rights of medication administration Essay.

The six rights of medication administration are the right medication, the right dose, the right patient, the right route, the right time and the right documentation. I plan to implement all of these patient medication administration rights when I progress to working in the field. There are several parts of the medication administration process where errors can occur. Most commonly errors occur in prescribing, transcribing, dispensing, administering and monitoring medications. The nurse is the last line of defense for the patient and therefore it is the nurses responsibility to check and re-check all elements to the medication administration process and to question or correct and mistakes that have been made down the line.

I will incorporate the right medication, by checking and double checking labels and orders and making sure that the right medication is given to the right patient. I will also compare the prescriber’s orders with the medication administration record when it is first ordered.

Then when preparing the medication I will compare the label of the medication with the medication administration record three different times; first before removing the container, second as the medication is being removed from the container and lastly at the bedside of the patient before administering the medication.

There are many drugs that are spelled almost the same, but this does not mean that they are the same drug or that they are interchangeable. (Patricia A. Potter, 2013) I would also be sure to have the right dose to prevent over or under dosing. I would use measuring devices and conversions to calculate the correct dose and be sure to know which drugs can and cannot be crushed such as extended release tablets or specially coated tabs. An error in dosing can cost a nurse their license and potentially a patient’s life. I will make sure I am able to calculate the medication doses and know how to calculate drug doses by weight. I will also research the drug before administering it to know the recommended drug dosage range for the drug.

If the route or dosage of a drug is ever incorrect, I would contact the pharmacist or prescriber and document all communications. I would be sure to incorporate the right patient, by using two patient identifiers, one being a patient’s first and last name and the second being their date of birth or patient identification number. I would also utilize the electronic barcode scanner when giving medications if one is available. (Linda Lane Lilley, 2013) I would also be sure to know the right route and know which drugs can be given in which route. If a patient were given the wrong medication via an incorrect route, it can cause great damage. I would see what the prescriber has ordered as a route for a patient’s medication and if it is not listed, I would call the prescriber. The right route is necessary for the appropriate absorption of the medication and to ensure the patient is not harmed by administering the drug via the wrong route.

I would also use the right time in making sure that I know when a patient has received their medications and when their next ones are due. The right time is very important to be able to maintain an effective concentration of the medicine in the patient’s blood stream and maintain a therapeutic drug serum level. A dose given too soon can cause toxicity and missed doses can nullify the drug action and its effect. Medications may be given on half hour before or after the time prescribed. There may be circumstances which cause a delay or omission of a medication such as laboratory or diagnostic tests, and you must be sure to document this. Documentation is very important when a drug is administered; it must immediately be documented on the medication administration record with the time the drug was given and with the nurse’s initials, which will help to reduce the likelihood of mistakes or confusion.

I would make sure to keep the right documentation by before giving a medication, making sure that the medication administration record clearly stated the name and order for the patient fully written out. I would also record and chart each medication that was given, what it was given for, what drug was given, how much was given and what time; all immediately after giving the medication. If a drug is refused by the patient, there is a designated area to note the refusal in the medication administration record. (Patricia A. Potter, 2013) Distractions can be avoided when giving medications by not documenting until after a medication is given and after it is given it should be documented immediately after. Another way to avoid distraction is to not talk to anyone while preparing or administering your medication. This can totally distract you and maybe make it harder for you to concentrate or pay attention to what you are doing.

I would also make sure to prepare my medications for my patients in a quiet place to avoid all distraction. If the facility has a medication room then this would be the ideal place to prepare a medication. It is also okay to take your time and let others know that they need to be patient until you are finished with what you are doing. Never leave medications unattended or during the middle of a medication count. (Linda Lane Lilley, 2011) PINCH drugs are those drugs which have been labeled by the hospital or facility as high-alert medications. Medications on the PINCH list include Potassium, insulin, narcotics, chemotherapy and cardiac drugs, and heparin or other anti-clotting drugs. This system is in place to remind nurses of these drugs and which ones they are, so that they can be on a high-alert when administering them as well as using a double check system. When administering any of the PINCH drugs an RN must first have the order and medication verified by a second Registered Nurse before administering the medication. (M. Linda Workman, 2011)

Abbreviations you would not want to use when documenting anything including medications is (1) u/U for unit. This can be mistaken for the number four, number zero, or cc instead write out unit. Another abbreviation we do not use (2) is qd or qod; both could be mistaken for each other and instead we would write out daily or every other day. Another do not use abbreviation is (3) IU which can be mistaken for IV or the number ten, and instead we write out international unit. (4) We also will never use a trailing zero (9.0) or leave out the leading zero (0.9) or else the decimal point can easily be missed. Lastly, (4) we do not want to use the abbreviation MS which can mean morphine sulfate or magnesium sulfate, and so instead we write out the entire name. (Patricia A. Potter, 2013)

The nurse’s role and responsibilities in administering medications are to assess that the medication that is ordered is the correct medication. Assess the patient’s ability to administer their own medications, and decide when (time) a patient should receive a certain medication, administer medications appropriately and monitor the patient’s as well as the effects of the medications. The nurse is the last line of defense to save a patient from harm. It is the nurse’s responsibility to constantly follow through with these six rights of medication administration and make sure the patient is safe. The nurse must also take on the role of teaching patients and their family about the medications that the patient may be taking and assess the patient to ensure that the patient and/or the family is clear on instructions of medications and being able to administer them properly. (Patricia A. Potter, 2013)

The six rights of medication administration Essay

The Medicines Company Case Analysis Essay

The Medicines Company Case Analysis Essay.

Background

The Medicines Company’s business model is to acquire or lease products in the development stage from leading pharmaceutical companies. Essentially, they will acquire or lease drugs that have been abandoned or shelved due to lack of early stage research results. The company’s success lays on their being able to save “rejected” compounds, receive FDA approval for their use, and still turn a profit. This case study provides a look at the first few years of this start-up company, from the initial review of abandoned drugs to the release of their first drug Angiomax.

Angiomax is a direct competitor to Heparin, the leading anticoagulant used in the market. The company continued research on this drug, which was licensed from Biogen in 1997, and received approval for marketing in 2001 for use in coronary angioplasty procedures. The company continued working towards approval for the use of Angi0max in treating arterial thrombosis and other related conditions.

Problems

Analysis of the Medicines Company case revealed several critical aspects that need to be addressed.

The pharmaceutical industry can be very profitable, but is also very risky. As described in the case, bringing a new drug to market is a costly and lengthy process requiring an average of 10 years. Big Pharmaceutical companies struggle to keep upcoming drugs in their pipeline to provide revenue when existing drugs come off patent and are replaced by generic compounds. With 1 in 4000 compounds making it to market, there is significant risk of failure that can be reduced by having many compounds in development. Additionally, a drug company’s reputation can easily be tarnished by safety issues with a compound, dramatically affecting their sales.

Large pharmaceutical companies tend to focus on blockbuster drugs to gain more profits so there may be compounds that are discarded because they hold smaller revenue potential. However, a business plan that focuses on “rescuing” these and other abandoned drugs holds many of the same risks and potentially more than Big Pharmaceutical companies face. The Medicines Company lacks a thorough business plan that addresses these issues and their own unique challenges which include:

1. Higher risk of product failure when acquiring an already “failed” drug

2. Lack of product pipeline for future revenue

3. Discarded compounds may come from a variety of different classes and targets requiring expertise in several areas

4. Marketing and selling plan and product to key decision makers

5. Pricing Angiomax, and other premium compounds, against existing commodity drugs

Analysis

The Medicines Company was founded in 1996 and to date has only one product on the market, Angiomax. The case describes two other compounds, IS-159 and CTV-05, that the company acquired which both seem to have been abandoned. It is apparent that the Medicines Company will face the same challenges as large pharmaceutical companies with product failure. Drug companies reject compounds for a variety of good reasons including safety, efficacy, profit potential, and other reasons. If the Medicines Company takes on these drugs they have to overcome these already identified challenges.

The Medicines Company established four selection criteria for acquiring compounds. These criteria rely heavily on assumptions about the remainder of the development process, product performance, and market potential. There is no guarantee that the product will fulfill these qualifiers or even if it does that it will be successful. CTV-05, which was acquired early in the development process, held even more risk since it was purchased without first knowing if it was effective.

Primary pharmaceutical companies have several drugs on the market generating revenue and several compounds in various stages of the development pipeline for future growth. This model creates a safeguard for drugs that fail in development or run into problems on the market. It also provides a source of future revenue when drugs come off patent and can be offered for a lower price by generic manufactures. The Medicines Company is able to acquire revenue from Angiomax, but does not have a solid plan for sustained growth. This may be even more of a challenge for the Medicine Company’s business model. Patent protection on the compounds it acquires may be shorter than average due to additional time needed to repeat previous testing.

The three compounds described in the case target very different applications and patients. Future potential products may come from a wide variety of different classes and may target many unique diseases or problems. To bring these products to market and make a profit, the Company will need expertise in the class of each particular drug to appropriately test, develop, and market the product. It could be very costly to acquire the personnel, knowledge, and equipment necessary to achieve success across this wide range of possibilities.

The Medicines Company appears to lack a clear marketing plan for Angiomax and other future drugs reaching FDA approval. While they carried out many marketing pieces and events no connection seems to be made from one piece to the next. The major piece, the direction the marketing should take, seems to be lost. Physicians and pharmacists are the gatekeepers to the ultimate decision makers, the administrators. There is little to no discussion on individual marketing to each group.

Like any other company, the Medicines Company will face a challenge in pricing their products appropriately. They especially face a challenge with Angiomax because an alternative commodity drug exists at a very low cost. The Company did not perform thorough price analysis that would demonstrate that Angiomax could be priced high enough based on its value to make a profit. The companies pricing approach needs to be addressed.

Recommendations

This section will focus on several recommendations that will improve the likelihood of creating a sustainable and profitable business. The following changes are based on challenges faced by the Medicines Company, its business plan and the key issues that lacked attention in the case:

1. Add additional screening criteria to product selection to reduce risk

2. Focus on a specific drug class/target to efficiently use knowledge and experience

3. Seek compounds that have multiple applications within the drug class for additional revenue potential

4. Develop a clear and focused marketing plan

5. Perform financial analysis of Angiomax and future compounds to ensure it can be priced appropriately

If the Medicines Company’s plan is to bring abandoned products to market, than compound selection needs to be a core competency. A thorough plan needs to be established which helps minimize the already high risks in their acquisitions. Additional selection criteria are needed to reduce the potential for failure and increase the speed to market. It appears they had success with Angiomax which was in Phase III trials and showed some efficacy prior to purchase. The Company should avoid acquiring compounds that are early in the development process (Phase I or II) where there is higher risk of failure and safety issues. Demonstrated efficacy in Phase III and no known safety issues should also be key qualifiers. The Medicines Company should also develop strengths in negotiation to minimize the price paid once a drug is chosen and make sure pharmaceutical companies are aware of their interest in evaluating their discarded products.

The Medicines Company not only obtained revenue from the commercialization of Angiomax, but a great amount of knowledge about the class of drug and its applications was obtained. It appears the market potential for these types of drugs to treat issues that arise due to coronary heart disease is large. The Company should leverage their information and experience and focus their product line on a specific area. They would also be able to take advantage of their existing relationships with the pharmacists and doctors using Angiomax to gain additional feedback when trying to select future compounds in the same treatment realm. Market analysis should be conducted to help define the scope of their market to ensure it is not too focused or broadly defined.

Building a promising product pipeline to create revenue after Angiomax’s patent runs out will be a challenge. One solution is to focus on drugs with multiple applications within the same general treatment arena. Angiomax fulfills such criteria because it has market potential in additional applications besides angioplasty including heart attack, unstable angina, and coronary artery bypass surgery. Targeting new applications should not require testing in Phase I and by having reached the market already some of the safety risks can be minimized. Multiple applications that are released at different times will create multiple product life cycles and additional revenue. The sales force may be able to use their existing product knowledge and contacts to sell the product which would reduce costs incurred during training.

Patent expiration limits the drug’s time on the market. Therefore, once the drug is approved the Company needs to move quickly to generate sales and capture its full market potential. Effective and efficient marketing also needs to be a core focus of the Medicines Company. A clear and concise marketing plan needs to be developed for all products, including Angiomax, that offers approaches tailored to each gatekeeper. At the same time, the marketing plan needs to look at the various marketing avenues available to the company (sales team, journal articles, trade shows, and advertising) and determine the impact of each piece on the overall marketing scheme as well as the individual pieces. A marketing plan would ensure that each journal article, advertisement, and event would have a specific purpose in terms of overall product marketing and would work in conjunction with each other to achieve the desired results.

In addition to tying all pieces of the plan together, the company needs to market to two different groups of decision makers: doctors and pharmacists. The company needs to win over these groups by providing the overall benefits of purchasing this premium drug over its commodity competitor. Highlighting the reduced number of patients facing complications due to Heparin should be a selling point. The doctors and pharmacists will need to be the salespeople of Angiomax to the hospital administrators and provide them with “selling tools” since the Medicines Company will not have direct access to the ultimate decision makers.

Pricing of Angiomax needs to be carefully determined. Breakeven price point analysis has been completed based on limited data from the case, see Exhibit 1. The breakeven price point was determined to be $249 per dose. The volume increase and operating cost estimates were designed to be very conservative.

True economic value (TEV) is the other key component for pricing Angiomax. TEV takes into account the value in the eyes of the customer. We have calculated a TEV breakeven point to understand the price point where economic value in the eyes of the customer changes from a loss to a gain.

TEV breakeven point was calculated to be $391.72 per dose, see Exhibit 2. The calculated TEV breakeven price is very close to the industry standard of a ten to one ratio of product cost (~$40 per dose) and a price of $400 per dose. This breakeven price point seems acceptable based on two key factors: increased indirect product value and low price sensitivity.

First, clinical trials have shown an increase in performance. An additional 49,000 treatments per year could be performed with no complications. Doctors administering the treatment have a focus on improved patient safety which this product delivers. The recommended price point is $391.72 per dose. See Exhibit 3 for estimated Operating Income from this price point.

Angiomax sales representatives will need to focus heavily on the drugs human benefits in order to make sales. Tools developed for the sales team need to maintain this focus.

Conclusion

Several key problems faced by the Medicines Company were presented. The problems faced by this company are very similar in nature to those faced by the Big Pharmaceutical companies. Careful consideration must be given to each problem in order for the Medicines Company to be successful.

To start, potential products must be carefully selected from the start. They will need to significantly improve the success rate of their products from the industry standard of 1 out 4000. Careful selection will allow the Company to keep R&D costs low by not requiring a broad range of expertise across the full range of drug offerings. R&D costs can also be kept in check by developing variants of successfully “rescued” products.

Marketing and sales will play a large roll in this Companies success. Proper price point analysis must be conducted to ensure profitability of a product that may not start generating revenue for several years after research begins. Tools need to be developed to aid in this analysis and ensure consistency. The sales force must focus on selling the products through the complex pharmaceutical chain. Relationships need to be formed with Doctors and Pharmacists that will carry from one product offering to another.

The Medicines Company has taken on a very risky business model. Success can be recognized but only through careful consideration and reaction to key risks.

The Medicines Company Case Analysis Essay

Benefits of Medical Marijuana Essay

Benefits of Medical Marijuana Essay.

Marijuana is perhaps one of the most controversial herbs rendered illegal by United States laws. Several sectors in the society advocate for the legalization of marijuana. These arguments usually point out to the medical benefits that marijuana contains. The supposed medical benefits of marijuana have been scrutinized by several scientific researchers and some of these claims have been supported by studies. By looking objectively at these medical claims can help people be more aware of the facts and the actual benefits that marijuana offers if there are any.

Medical Benefits of Marijuana Medical marijuana, according to some studies can help relieve pain, nausea and muscle spasms. Although these illnesses may be simple symptoms of more serious diseases, they are being experienced by a number of patients that are suffering from hepatitis and cancer among others. In this regard, medical marijuana can be a cheaper alternative for the treatment of these medical conditions (Legal Reefer, 2004). Another medical condition that marijuana can help treat is glaucoma, which impairs the vision because of intra-ocular pressure damage.

The reason behind this is that marijuana helps relieve the pressure felt in the eyes, thereby preventing glaucoma from worsening and leading to eventual blindness. Glaucoma, interestingly, is the leading cause of blindness in the United States. With the use of marijuana, therefore, this cause of blindness can be mitigated and more people can cherish their sight for a longer time in their lives. Glaucoma and the pain associated with it can be relieved with marijuana (Legal Reefer, 2004).

Other illnesses that marijuana helps treat includes tremors, unsteady gait, muscle pain, multiple sclerosis and spasms. Multiple sclerosis is one of the most debilitating neurological illnesses that afflict young adults in the US. With the help of marijuana, those who are suffering from epileptic seizures also find help. Arthritis, dysmenorrheal, depression and migraines also benefit from treatment with marijuana. The Legal Reefer (2004) reports that some courts and agencies of the US government have verified these findings.

Two compounds, Cannabidiol and Caryophyllene, are present in medical marijuana. These two compounds are responsible for the medical effects of marijuana. Cannabidiol helps relieve inflammation, nausea, inflammation and convulsion (Grlie, 1976). In addition, it also helps inhibit the growth of cancer. Caryophyllene, on the other hand, is responsible for reducing tissue inflammation. It usually comes in the form of oil and applied on the inflamed body part (Grlie, 1976).

Even if the issue of legalizing marijuana is contentious in the United States, medical practitioners are coming to a consensus that medical marijuana is needed helpful in relieving up to 250 medical conditions. This number is too huge to be ignored by the greater majority in the society. Legalizing Marijuana The literature in support of medical marijuana is robust and continues to grow. Medical marijuana has been shown to aid in the treatment of symptoms for AIDS and cancer. It can also serve as an immuno-modulator and analsgesic.

Furthermore, it can help treat asthma and other emotional and bipolar disorders (Lucido, 2008). The American College of Physicians (2008) have also come up with a position paper in support of research concerning medical marijuana and the exemption of medical marijuana from the prosecution of the law. In their paper, the organization cited the health benefits of marijuana in stimulating appetite, in treating glaucoma, neurological and movement disorders and its use as an analgesic. The position of the ACP gives credence to the claims that marijuana can really function as a good medicine.

The ACP, however, noted that there are adverse effects associated in marijuana. If smoked, marijuana can increase the heart rate of the user and help decrease the blood pressure. In addition to this, there are other psychoactive effects that are of a more serious nature. These may be manifested in short-term memory impairment, reduction of motor skills, attention and reaction times. There may also be some difficulties in organizing and processing information given to the one who used marijuana.

These effects are more severe for those who orally take medical marijuana. So this is certainly an adverse effect that should be carefully taken into account in the case that marijuana is approved as a medicine (Joy, Watson & Benson, 1999). Smoked marijuana also has important adverse effects similar to tobacco. If marijuana is smoked on a regular basis, it can help induce cancer, lung problems, pregnancy problems and even bacterial pneumonia. When taken orally, medical marijuana has less lethal toxicity than other psychoactive drugs being used in the world today.

Since medical marijuana will not be prescribed for smoking, then the dangers posed by the adverse effects will be mitigated and will be contained. In fact, these adverse effects are also within the acceptable range of effects present in other forms of medication. Marijuana: To Legalize or to Remain Illegal? With the support of the ACP for the continuation of research for the medical implications of marijuana. With such support, the impetus for legalization will be picked up by those who are advocating for the legalization of marijuana.

Another reason why people are pushing for the legalization of marijuana is the perceived economic benefits that it will bring to the government. Marijuana has often been compared with alcohol, which also have harmful contents but is being allowed to be marketed all over the country. If the government could legalize it, then it can derive huge revenues from the taxes and sales derived from marijuana. As it stands now, it is illegal. So the ones who benefit from the marijuana trade are the black market and organized criminals (Gerber & Sperling, 2004).

Marijuana is similar to alcohol and tobacco. The major difference is that marijuana offers therapeutic and medicinal effects while tobacco does not and alcohol only helps enhance health minimally. According to Herer and Cabarga (1998), those who are getting rich through the black market want it to remain illegal because if it becomes legal, the money will then have to be transferred to the hands of the government. Conclusion What is needed now is to strike the right balance between maximizing the medicinal effects while mitigating the negative effects of marijuana.

The answer to the question of legalization would be a controlled legalization. Marijuana could be used for medicinal purposes and alternative treatment. This means that it would have to be recommended by licensed physicians and that there should be a regulation in using it in the same way that certain narcotic pain killers are regulated in the market. Marijuana should not be offered as an over-the-counter medicine or offered like tobacco or alcohol as this would only make the negative effects of marijuana more prevalent in the society.

With government legislation and strict implementation of the law, the medicinal values of marijuana would be used by society while its negative effects would be avoided. Reference American College of Physicians (2008). Supporting Research into the Therapeutic Role of Marijuana. Philadelphia: American College of Physicians. Retrieved 25 September 2008 from http://www. acponline. org/advocacy/where_we_stand/other_issues/medmarijuana. pdf. Grlie, L (1976). “A comparative study on some chemical and biological characteristics of various samples of cannabis resin”.

Bulletin on Narcotics 14: 37–46. Herer, J. & Cabarga, L. (1998). The Emperor Wears No Clothes: Hemp and the Marijuana Conspiracy. New Jersey: Ah Ha Publishing. Joy, J. E. Watson SJ, Benson JA. (1999). Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base. National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC. Legal Reefer. (2004). Marijuana Offers Medicinal Benefits. Retrieved 17 June 2008 from http://www. legalreefer. com/article4. shtml Lucido, F. (2008). Therapeutic Effects. Retrieved 25 September 2008 from http://www. medboardwatch. com/wb/pages/therapeutic-effects. php

Benefits of Medical Marijuana Essay

Biomedical Engineering Essay

Biomedical Engineering Essay.

Biomedical Engineers are highly trained scientists who use engineering and life science principles to research biological aspects of animal and human life (1). Some tasks of a biomedical engineer include, developing new theories, modifying, testing, and proving existing theories, and designing health care instruments and devices or apply engineering principles to the study of human systems.

Biomedical engineering has been created by advancements in technology. It is an interdisciplinary field that brings together two respected professions, biology and engineering. The profession was developed primarily after 1945, as a new technology allowed for the application of engineering principles to biology (2).

Employers for biomedical engineers include hospitals, industry, research facilities of educational and medical institutions, teaching, and government regulatory agencies (1). The jobs involve working closely with life scientists, members of the medical profession, and chemists. Most work revolves around the laboratory. In biomedical engineering design, medical instruments and devices are developed. Engineers work on artificial organs and surgical lasers, for example. Engineers design and build systems that will update hospital, laboratory, and clinical procedures.

They also train health care personnel in the proper use of this new equipment.

Within biomedical engineering, and individual may concentrate on a particular specialty area. Some of the well-established areas are bioinstrumentation, biomechanics, biomaterials, systems physiology, clinical engineering, and rehabilitation engineering (2). All of these areas depend on each other in order to be successful. Biomechanics is mechanics applies to biological or medical problems. Examples include the artificial heart or kidney. Bioinstrumentation is the application of electronics and measurement principles and techniques to develop devices used in diagnosis and treatment of disease (2).

“Educational requirements include a strong commitment to learning and being scientifically inclined” (1). Being able to apply knowledge in problem solving is a large part of biomedical engineering. Becoming a biomedical engineer requires long years of schooling because a biomedical engineer needs to be an expert in the fields of engineering and biology. Being familiar with chemical, material, and electrical engineering as well as physiology and computers is important (1). Most engineers have an undergraduate degree in biomedical engineering or a related field and a Ph.D. in some facet of biomedical engineering. At least a bachelor’s degree is needed in engineering to become a biomedical engineer. It usually takes four or five years to earn this degree (3).

The salary scale for biomedical engineering varies with the amount of education and experience. The federal government pay scale for holders of a bachelor’s degree starts at approximately $23,000. Biomedical engineers with a master’s degree could start at about $26,000,and those with a doctorate at around $28,000. The average salary for all engineers in the federal government is $38,000 a year. Instructors earn about $26,800 and professors earn about $63,000 (1). Earnings in the private sector generally run higher than those in government or education careers (2).

In the 1990’s, there were more than four thousand biomedical engineers in the United States. They are employed in all parts of the country in hospitals, colleges and universities, medical and engineering schools, federal and state agencies, and private industry. “It is expected that there will be greater need for skilled biomedical engineers through the 1990’s” (2). Prospects look particularly good in the large health care industry, which will continue to grow rapidly, primarily because people are living longer (1). New jobs will become available to biomedical research in prosthetics, artificial internal organs, computer applications, instrumentation, and other medical systems. In addition, a demand will exist for teachers to train the biomedical engineers needed to fill these positions (1).

Works Cited

“Biomedical Engineers.” Encyclopedia of Careers and Vocational Guidance.

10th ed. 1997.

“Biomedical Engineers.” Careers in Engineering. Chicago: Ferguson Publishing Company, 1999.

“Biomedical Engineering.” Career Information Center. Ed. Richard Lidz. 6th ed.

13 vols. New York : Simon & Schuster Macmillan, 1996.

Biomedical Engineering Essay

Medicaid Essay Essay

Medicaid Essay Essay.

As I understood Medicaid are those personal cares services which are fundamental, non-acute services provided to facilitate recipients who require assistance with the activities of daily living to remain in their home or community, maintain their current health status and prevent, delay, or minimize deterioration of their condition. Personal care services are intended to supplement care provided by a recipient’s family or primary caregiver, not replace it. Services may be provided in the home or in setting outside the home, when necessary.

The government took an active role in the economy during the 1960’s and 1970’s. In order to stimulate the economy, they ran annual budgets in a conscious attempt to spend more than they collected in revenue. Spending, inflation, and budget deficits were viewed as calculated efforts in expanding the economy. As a result this application Medicaid was created in 1965.

Medicaid is a social program which provides health and medical assistance to families with low incomes and resources. Medicaid is funded by both the Federal Government and individual states.

Each state is responsible for developing its own guidelines which must include: legibility, amount of services to be available, rate of payments for services, and administering its own programs.

These conditions vary from state to state and are subject to change on a yearly basis. The qualifications of Medicaid recipients may differ according to each state’s guidelines

Medicaid is the largest program run by the Federal Government and states that assists low income families that can not otherwise afford the high costs of health care. Medicaid pays for more services for which Medicare does not.

Medicaid rules vary depend on each state. Medicaid information is accessible at your local district social services, interests or Department of Human Services Offices. In many states, Medicaid covers services and costs Medicare do not cover, including prescription drugs, diagnostic and preventive care and eyeglasses. In some states, Medicaid charges consumers small amounts for certain services.

In New England, for example the deficits are causing government directors to turn to cuts in many critical areas, including health department budgets. The states are in the point of making difficult decisions that will certainly have lethal affects on the health care system. The Congress should support short term fiscal relief to help the state through this budget crisis. Through fiscal year in 2003 Budget Ax hit Medicaid for second time, approximately every state has targeted health insurance programs for the poor, elderly and disabled to balance sever budget deficits, and two thirds of those states are on their second round of such cuts. One of the reason states are targeting Medicaid programs for cuts, is because health care programs are the most likely to be over budget.

A proposition of eliminating health care coverage for about 300,000 low income parents by lowering the eligibility sill from 100% of the poverty level to 61% was held in California. Also New Jersey has started the phase out conscription for stumpy profits parents in the state’s joint Medicaid. Tennessee has already implemented changes that will abolish health care treatment for between 160,000 and 250,000 adults and children. Oklahoma lawmakers have accepted cuts to Medicaid that will quickly cause about 80,000 children, adults, seniors, and disabled people to be dropped from coverage, as well as near elimination of the state’s plan.

More than one quarter of adult Medicaid enrolls have at least one chronic condition. They often finish taking conflicting medications. Florida is a good example of heavily touted cost savings are proving elusive in several states that have tried the approach. There are so many poor and disabled people on Missouri’s Medicaid program that would chip in for their medical costs under one money saving measure proposed by Governor Bob Holden. He recommended $280 million in budget cuts and savings and a part of it to changes related to the Medicaid health insurance program.

Most of the Missouri’s Medicaid recipients do not pay for doctor’s visits, although many do pay co payments on prescription drugs. The Missouri Medicaid Program provides health care access to low income people who are 65’s or over, blind, disabled, or members of families with dependent children. The Missouri Medicaid program is jointly financed by the federal government and Missouri State Government, and is administered by the State of Missouri, charged with administration of the Medicaid program is the Division of Medical Services, a division within the Department of Social Services.

The state also has a limited medical assistance program which is funded with General Revenue and Blind Pension funds. In Washington, said that two thirds of the states are cutting Medical benefits, increasing co payments, restricting eligibility or removing poor people from the rolls because of soaring costs and plunging revenues. A new survey of all fifty states, finds that 16 are cutting Medicaid benefits, fifteen are restricting or reducing eligibility and four are increasing the co payments charged to beneficiaries. Medicaid provides health care for more than 40 million people, at an annual cost of more that $250 billion.

The federal government and the states share cost, which rose 13 percent in the last fiscal year, the biggest increase. Washington State and Oregon took pride in expanding Medicaid and other health programs a decade ago, but now are wrestling with the unlikable alternative of whether to cut benefits or end legibility for some recipients. In California, proposed cutbacks that would remove nearly 500,000 low income parents from Medicaid, and state officials say even more saving will be needed. New Jersey is curtailing coverage for low income parents, by stridently dropping the greatest profits for new applicants. In Connecticut, the governs, recently planned eliminating coverage for thousands of parents in households with incomes from 100 percent to 150 percent of the deficiency level.

States are giving some flexibility in providing coverage to its needy citizens because of the cost of the Medicaid program is shared by the state and federal governments. An individual who is chosen in South Carolina is not necessarily eligible in another state. South Carolina pays its physicians among the lowest Medicaid fees in the country, which is especially hard on doctors who treat a high proportion of patients who are enrolled in the program. Medicaid is already the largest and the fastest growing element of most state budgets. This had made it a prime target of cost cutting efforts that nearly every states is now undertaking to make up for large budget shortfalls.

Some states like South Carolina, have included, Medicaid cuts as part of across the board spending reductions. Others, such as Indiana and Illinois, have specifically targeted their Medicaid programs for reduction of hundreds of millions of dollars. There are many reasons for variation in Medicaid coverage and expenditures, these variations incentives that are inherent in the federal matching formula. But they also reflect a state’s ability to pay for these services, its political philosophy toward welfare families, and its recent efforts to expand coverage to pregnant women and children. The states make different decision with regard to coverage and benefits in both acute and long term care.

Medicaid financed together by the federal government and the states, is the major foundation of health care funding for the low profits population in the United States. While states have considerable flexibility within federal guidelines, Medicaid programs differ across states in the numbers of community they cover and the amounts they splurge on services.

Medicaid Essay Essay