Do the Press Have Too Much Freedom Essay

Do the Press Have Too Much Freedom Essay.

Freedom of expression has always been emphasized as an essential basis for the democratic functioning of a society. The reasons for this are: the right of an individual to self-fulfillment, which right requires the communication of thought and an attempt which is frustrated if information is suppressed or comment blocked. For this we need press and it has to be free for being unbiased. Newspapers is an important source of information spreads news in an unlimited way.

Furthermore, newspapers spread appropriate information to the readers and motivate them to think and to be aware about current events that affect society; additionally they can undermine important people’s public image by spreading biased information.

They do so, in order to provide exclusive stories with the objective of selling more. What is more, distortion of information, invasion of privacy and the dissemination of unfounded news are only a part of a long list of felonies that the written media commits in order to be read all over the world.

For instance, many artist are victims of newspaper’s harassment and slander on their good names.

In this sense, journalists invade actors or actresses’ privacy or invent stories that affect their integrity and self-image with the aim of getting the scoop. Nevertheless, how is it to be a newsman? My understanding of a reporter is that it is their job to report the news. That doesn’t mean anything beyond telling exactly what happened. The opinions and the slants put on the news by every network, cable and broadcast, are not reporting. They are television. They are looking for advertisers and ratings. They are looking for the best story instead of the truth. They are reality TV – scripted shows pretending to be spontaneous.

Now, I do understand that a news reporter has to pre-write the story so they are not sitting there grumping trying to find the words. So, do newspapers have too much freedom? This question lead us to think about how powerful newspapers are and their real incidence in our lives. Moreover, how much freedom is too much? All of this needs to be looked into and needs to be answered. In addition, the media needs to be held much more accountable for the way they cover the news. Otherwise, history is going to show that our democracy fell apart because it was taken advantage of.

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Do the Press Have Too Much Freedom Essay

Books are Mass Media Essay

Books are Mass Media Essay.

In the aspect of communication, there are many elements and factors commonly considered in the pursuit of achieving effectiveness in this field. Among the different concerns are the two main elements namely the medium to be as the vehicle of the communication and the target audience to which the idea aimed to have an impact upon. Considering these two factors is important to achieve the desired effectiveness in the communication field particularly as required by the significance of the information to be transmitted.

Considering the factor of audience population range, the element of medium is considered important as this is directly relative to the effective achievement of the distribution and scope aim of the communication. In the said concern, the role of books as a medium for mass media is commonly debated upon as the nature of this element commonly contradict the definition of mass communication considering its application in the actual scenario.

For the book to achieve successfully its communication cycle, it must be written and read by its target population thus, imparting the idea and information contained in its pages.

However, in the actual population, books are not always preferred and patronize by the public as resulted from its sales percentages compare thus, making its saturation level in the population awareness to be somewhat insignificant. However, despite of the said nature of the book medium, the approach of book publication is still considered as a form of mass media in terms of its communication influence.

In actual view, the publication sale of each book does not generally reflect its influence wherein eventhough a book’s sale is low, the spread of its ideas contained in its pages still expand through its impact on the few readers. Indeed, as part of the circulation and communication cycle of each book, the primary reader is influenced by the book and after which he or she communicates the said idea to others thus, creating the mass population scope of the said book in terms of its communication capability.

In addition, books are also effective medium for storing and continuously expanding its influence, as their ideas are effectively preserve within their pages and the readers who are affected by their topics. This influence can be realized in the actual impact of some books that left notable impact on the society in terms of their influence in mass media communication such as the book The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri, Noli me Tangere by Jose Rizal, War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy, The Kite Runner by Khaled Housinni, and others which have influenced large population regardless of their lesser publication sales.

In general, the impact of books in terms of mass communication is not only reflected upon its publication sales and economic value but in terms of its influence and effectiveness on enticing the interest and emotion of its mass audience. With this nature and capability, the book medium indeed is considered as a medium for mass communication able to promote ideas and concepts for wide range and scale of human population. Bibliography Hoveyda, Fereydoun (2000). The Hidden Meaning of Mass Communications: Cinema, Books, and Television in the Age of Computers. Praeger Publishers. ISBN-10: 0275969967.

Books are Mass Media Essay

Why media is termed “consciousness industries”? Essay

Why media is termed “consciousness industries”? Essay.

What is the thing or person that everyone must get access to everyday? It is probably not your parents or your friends, but the media. Teenagers listen to pop music and read magazines so that they will have same topic with their friends. Middle-aged people read newspapers to know about the current affairs. The elderly are entertained through watching soap operas. Through various forms of media such as television, newspaper, magazine, internet, radio, film, advertisement, music and video games, people get to know about what is happening around us and it facilitates communication.

To have a deeper understanding of media, this essay concerns itself with examining why media will be termed “consciousness industries” and followed by that, it will discuss how the media construct social and political attitudes and values with examples. It will also look at the influence that this has on an individual’s perception of their social world.

Media is termed to be “consciousness industries” and it is not the same as any other industries.

Like any other industries, media helps the advertisers sell products and services to its potential consumers. However, other than that, the media sells something else that is intangible but more fundamental to its audience and that is ways of thinking, seeing and talking about the world around us. The conception of the world that we gain through media has a great impact on what we think, how we think and what we think about and thanks to this reason; media is called “consciousness industries” and it does play an important role in constructing social and political attitudes and values. (Graeme Turner and Stuart Cunningham)As I have mentioned before, social and political attitudes and values are constructed by the media and it is closely related to the impact of ideology. Ideology can be defined as the influence of ideas on people’s beliefs and actions.

The concept can be divided into two strands: the neutral conception of ideology and the critical conception of ideology. The neutral conception of ideology refers to the “science of ideas” while the critical one regards ideology as “false consciousness” which means powerful groups are able to control the beliefs and actions of the powerless by dominating the ideas circulating in the society. As a result, the powerful groups of people can keep their power and their status can be justified and strengthened. (Giddens A. 2001) Take television as an example to prove this.

Television is a common appliance which every household would probably have one. Everyday, there are thousands and thousands of different sorts of television programs like news roundup, soap operas, commercials, films and music videos broadcast and the information is sent to every household. In this situation, audiences who sit in front of the television everyday are assumed that they are primarily powerless in the face of television messages and after the continuous repetition of programs, people’s conception such as class, wealth, poverty, racism and male-dominant gender roles are fostered. As a consequence, such objectionable ideologies are developed and social attitudes and values are constructed.

Another theory that is concerned about how the media construct social and political attitudes and values is McDonaldisation. It is ‘the process by which the principles of the fast-food restaurant are coming dominate more and more sectors of American society as well as the rest of the world.’ (Ritzer) McDonald’s is a very popular symbol in the society today and they are located everywhere, with more than 30,000 in the United States and shops in 119 countries out of the United States. (Newman) Everyone living in the society knows the McDonalds.

However, McDonaldisation is not only a business model, but also applies to the media. Information can be sent to everywhere of the world very quickly thanks to the development of technology and common access to different forms of media. This is just like McDonaldisation. This efficient transfer of information benefits the whole world as all the people are able to know what is happening around us so that we can make the right decision in particular field. Nevertheless, this can also be problematic when the information spread are false or biased, especially when it comes to current affairs. False information may cause instability in stock market, public panic. This would possibly affect individual’s perception towards the society and politics.

The social and political attitudes and values in a society will have an impact on one’s perception of the society and politics. Firstly, due to the ideology theory in media, individuals would develop social conceptions like sexism, racism, class, wealth and poverty. Because of these concepts, individual may consider the wealthy are noble while the poor should be looked down. This will probably form an unhealthy society. Secondly, as everyone can acquire news and entertainment from the media, people can get to know more about around us and there are same topics for individuals to talk about. However, if wrong information is spread, individual may be affected and they may make wrong decision and cause troubles.

To conclude, media, the social and political attitudes and values and the perception of individual are very closely connected and they are interacted to each other. Media is a very special industry that it is selling their audience intangible goods like thoughts and feelings. The ways that media construct social and political attitudes and values are elaborated by the media theories ideology and McDonaldisation. And this would influence individual’s perception toward their social world.


1.Graeme Turner and Stuart Cunningham, The Media and Communication in Australia Today2.Giddens A. 2001, Sociology, 4th Edition, Polity Press, Cambridge3.Newman D. M., 2004, Sociology: Exploring the Architecture of Everyday Life, 5th edition, Pine Forge Press. Thousand Oaks, CA.

Why media is termed “consciousness industries”? Essay

The Big 6 Media Conglomerates Essay

The Big 6 Media Conglomerates Essay.

The holdings of the Big 6 Giants clearly prove that the media industry is dominated by a few firms in oligopoly. I am sure that most people are unaware of the fact that only a few conglomerates dominate mainstream media. Nonetheless, it is clearly true—the nine current media conglomerates together own more than 90% of the media market. In determining how oligopoly in the media industry affects the messages that people receive, its necessary not only to look at the market share controlled by conglomerates in aggregate, but rather by each conglomerate.

I contend that if a single conglomerate controls a substantial portion of the media market, it carries huge control over peoples perceptions and values as a whole.

When a single conglomeration controls a variety of media, it avoids antitrust law through the use of synergy. The problem with synergy is that a major company has the capacity to use the same pieces of information and alter them slightly to fit the audiences of different networks and media.

Because there is less competition over media space, and because the use of a single perspective might be considered more cost effective, audience members are unable to witness as many unique perspectives when watching television or listening to the radio. Instead, we hear the same stories over and over again, but altered slightly to sustain an illusion of choice.

Michael Eisner claims that synergy doesnt hurt society as long as the quality of programs remains high. Eisners argument thus seems to be a restatement of the skyscraper model—as long as television conglomerates promote high culture, we have nothing to fear. The unfortunate problem is that quality is subjective. One countrys quality is another countrys low culture. In addition, the idea of broadcasting on the basis of quality in and of itself seems to demand that we pander to the preferences of mainstream America. We can not guarantee that a program is accurate or valuable, but we can certainly guarantee that it furthers the goals of Americas elite. As a result, we see fewer and fewer stories and perspectives, and those that especially threaten mainstream America, such as the promotion of solidarity amongst the lower class—fall by the wayside.

General Electric seems to carry the largest share out of all the other conglomerations. The rest of the Big 6 carry smaller but comparable sizes of market share. I think that if any company poses a threat to the democratization of information and culture, General Electric is it. Controlling networks such as NBC, USA, A&E, and the Sci-Fi Channel, General Electric has the capacity to influence audiences understandings of American culture, history, and science. Not only that, General Electrics stakes in military production and consumer products throw into question its capacity to provide fair and unbiased stories to the public. Could it be that the diversity of GEs product line lends itself to conflicts of interest?


Media & Culture: An Introduction to Mass Communications vol.6 (Campbell, Martin, Fabos)Text book used as a guideline, no direct quotes are taken

The Big 6 Media Conglomerates Essay

NY Times Paywall Essay

NY Times Paywall Essay.

However the long-term prospects of paywalls remained uncertain. The subscriber growth was slowing down, and many of the paid subscribers of The Times were enticed by the introductory offer of 99 cents for a 4-week subscription. A previous experiment with a paywall, TimesSelect, was abandoned in 2007 after The Times secured 227,000 paying customers. Was the paywall a good idea for the long-term? Would it provide a foundation for a sustainable business model as The Times approached an ever-evolving technology and media landscape? Company Background

The New York Times Company was a leading global multimedia news and information company with 2011 revenues of .

3 billion and an operating profit of $57 million, and operated The New York Times, the International Herald Tribune, The Boston Globe, and About. com. (See Exhibit 1 for company structure, Exhibit 2 for business units and their revenues, and Exhibit 3 for company financials. ) The company defined its core purpose as “enhance[ing] society by creating, collecting and distributing high quality news, information and entertainment. ”7

The New York Times, the flagship daily newspaper of the company, was founded on September 18, 1851, by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond, and former banker George Jones.

By 2011, the newspaper had won 106 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of any news organization. Reflecting on The Times’s importance, Michael Hirschorn, the contributing editor of the Atlantic, remarked: The Times still, I think to a remarkable degree, does set the agenda. You really can trace almost any major story these days to something that originally appeared in The Times. The problem is that once it reaches the public, they may not even know it came from The Times.

8 In spite of its prize-winning journalism, The Times was facing significant pressures. Its subscription and revenues had steadily declined over the years (see Exhibits 3 and 4). Its advertising revenues in 2011 were down by over 6% compared with 2010 ad revenues, and in spite of cost cutting, the operating profit in 2011 was 76% less than the previous year. In January 2012, the company sold its Regional Media Group consisting of 16 regional newspapers for $143 million in cash. 9 2 This document is authorized for use only by Karen Lao in Marketing Management taught by A. Prasad from August 2013 to December 2013.

For the exclusive use of K. LAO The New York Times Paywall 512-077 The Newspaper Industry The New York Times was not alone in feeling this pressure—the entire newspaper industry was facing significant challenges. Overall circulation in the industry for both weekday and weekend newspapers was declining (Exhibit 5). Traditional sources of newspaper revenues—subscription, retail, and classified advertising—were also declining (Exhibit 6). In contrast, most of the costs for editorial staff, production, and distribution were fixed and had very little room for reduction. Table A shows the revenue and cost structure of a typical U. S. newspaper.

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