Dubliners: “Araby” By James Joyce

Dubliners: “Araby” By James Joyce

  1. Introduction

The short story, “Araby” by James Joyce, presents a narrative about the life of an unnamed boy who is infatuated by his friend’s sister. As a demonstration of his love for her, the boy seeks out to buy his sweetheart a gift as the Araby bazaar, which he considers as the best shop to get this gift. Using the various characters in the story, the author puts his message regarding immature idealism and desire, which is subjected to disappointment.

The use of setting in the short story, “Araby” in James Joyce’s Dubliners has been receive a considerable amount of contest regarding the connotation and meaning that it provides its readers (Doloff 113-115). This is, specifically, in relation to bringing out the theme of love in the story. While some believe that the setting in “Araby” has been used to present love as being ideal (Müller 1-36), others argue that the setting has been used to illustrate love as being pragmatic. The former believe that the narrative regards a story about a desire for an ideal love, whereas the latter hold the notion that the boy’s infatuation presents a negative romantic irony (Ehrlich 309-331).

This paper examines the use of setting in James Joyce’s short story, “Araby”. Specifically, the paper examines how the setting has been used to reinforce the different themes and characters in the story, as well as, bring out the idea of dream versus reality. The paper argues the setting in the short story, “Araby”, brings out the theme of love as both ideal and pragmatic.

  1. Background Information

The stories presented in Dubliners are based on James Joyce’s conviction that Dublin, in the years around the 1900’s, was characterized by extreme devout paralysis (Ehrlich 309-331). For that reason, all the stories presented in his book shared a common setting, which was the old Dublin. In most work of literature, the setting defines the atmosphere or the tone of the narrative. Not only does a narrative’s setting set the tone for the story being told, it also gives the narrative its resultant connotation and effect on readers. The short story, “Araby” is devoted to the use of setting to bring out various themes in the story, as well as, build on the characters in the book. Arguably, without the narrative’s setting, the story would not carry the meaning and significance that it does, and for that reason, would not have been a story at all (Doloff 113-115). Primarily, the setting presented in “Araby” portrays Dublin as a place where individuals are presented with an array of dehumanizing experiences.

  1. Place Setting

Just like in all the other stories in the novel, Dubliners, the place setting of “Araby” is in Dublin, Ireland. Specifically, the story is set in the quiet North Richmond Street in Dublin. The most part of the story takes place at the narrator’s home, which is integrated with the scenes in various parts of his neighborhood (Ehrlich 309-331). The Araby bazaar is the second location setting used in the narrative, and it is in this setting that the readers are introduced to the different themes of the story.

  1. Time Setting

The time setting presented in “Araby”, is between the late 19th century and the early 20th century. This can be picked from the small descriptions of the boy’s world, which are associated with the character of the Dublin society during this time.

  1. Presentation of Setting

The setting in “Araby” is presented in two main ways including dream versus reality and darkness versus light. This presentation assists in the development of the various themes in the story, as well as, the character development.  

  1. Dream versus Reality

In the story, the boy, who is also the central character of the narrative is presented as  person who is hopeful for a world of fantasy. His life in ‘reality’ is presented as being drab, ugly, and free from love (Doloff 113-115). For that reason, he yearns for a different life from the one he is living. In the story, the author explains a young boy’s world that is inimical to his ideals and dreams. To, further, illustrate the boy’s dreams and desires, the author provides a comparison of the boy’s differing views about his real world, as well as, the world in which he hopes to live. The real world is defined as being loveless, dark, and isolated, and it is a world, which the boy is striving to escape from. His dream world, however, is brought out as being vibrant and full of love, a love that he intends to share with the girl of his dreams (Müller 1-36). The contrast between these two worlds is further illustrated when the boy’s disappointment occurs, as he is forced to face reality, and awaken to the world around him.

  1. Darkness versus Light

In the story, “Araby”, the author utilizes imagery of darkness and light, obscurely, to illustrate the boys dreams and reality (Ehrlich 309-331). The usage of darkness, as well as, other gloomy references creates the overall mood of the boy’s life and world. His real life is dull and boring, hence the need for a dark description to help the readers believe his story much better. Contrastingly, light is used by the author as a definition of what the boy considers as his ideal life. Observably, light is used in the boy’s description of Mangan’s sister, with whom he has been infatuated with. For that reason, light is used for the creation of the boy’s fairytale world, a world of dreams and illusions (Müller 1-36). Whereas darkness is used to describe a worldly, dull atmosphere, light is used to describe a heavenly and joyful atmosphere, which the boy longs for.

  1. Impact of the Use of Setting (Arguments)

The immediate effect of the use of setting in the short story is that it illustrates the difference between idealism and realism. Additionally, the readers are introduced to a character that survives on his tawdry superficiality, and, in turn, ends up suffering for it. In essence, literalists agree that the impact of the story to readers involves the provision of a contrast between dreams and reality (Doloff 113-115). However, the connotation of this contrast cannot be established as they cannot agree on whether or not love is presented as a good thing. Spiritual paralysis, which further builds on the concept of dream versus reality is also illustrated in the narrative and assists in explaining the contrasting ways in which love is presented by the author.

Literalists who believe that love is brought out as something that is ideal in the story, explain that the setting in the story embodies a form of spiritual paralysis whereby the ideal, which is love, cannot be attained (Ehrlich 309-331). The setting of the boy’s world defies the fulfillment of his love, as he does not receive the love he has for his friend’s sister back. The argument here is that the boy’s realistic world prevents him from achieving his ideal state of life. The setting, in such a case, is presented in the view of darkness versus light. The dark tone presents the boy’s real life, whereas the light tone presents his ideal dream.

Opposers of the argument, also the supporters of the presentation of love in a pragmatic nature, argue that love is represented as an empty and futile flirtation. They argue that, the boy’s immature infatuation regarding love, prevented him from living his ideal life, as he kept hoping for something that he knew very well he could not achieve (Ehrlich 309-331). In essence, love is presented as a state of disillusionment where people cannot separate the ideal from the real. In this argument, the boy attained his ideal life when he finally grows up and receives gratification for true life and true living (Müller 1-36). In this case, the setting is used with special relation to dreams versus reality, whereby there is emphasis on living the real life as opposed to a hopeless dream.

  1. Conclusion

After a careful analysis of the opposing arguments regarding the real nature of love as brought out in the novel, I have come to the conclusion that love if neither ideal or pragmatic. This is because, throughout the novel, the concept of love is presented from the perception of the boy, and for that reason cannot be concluded as having any tangible effect on an individual. Accordingly, the theme of love as brought out in “Araby” can be both pragmatic or ideal, depending on the lone of thought that one chooses to take.

Work Cited

Barney, Rick et al. Analyzing “Araby” as Story and Discourse: A Summary of the MURGE

Project. James Joyce Quarterly, 18.3(1981): 237-254.

Collins, Ben L. Joyce’s “Araby” and the “Extended Simile”. James Joyce Quarterly, 4.2(1967):


Doloff, Steven. Aspects of Milton’s Paradise Lost in James Joyce’s “Araby”. James Joyce

Quarterly, 33.1(1995): 113-115.

Ehrlich, Heyward. “Araby” in Context: The “Splendid Bazaar,” Irish Orientalism, and James

Clarence Mangan. James Joyce Quarterly, 35.2/3(1998): 309-331.

Joyce, James. “Araby”, in Dubliners. Forgotten books, 1954. Web. 22 December 2011.


Morse, Donald E. Sing Three Songs of Araby: Theme and Allusion in Joyce’s “Araby”. College

Literature, 5.2(1978): 125-132.

Müller, Sarah. Adolescence, Love and Sex in James Joyce’s Short Stories “Araby” and “An

Encounter”.  United Kingdom: GRIN Verlag, 2009. Print.

Sosnoski, James J. Story and Discourse, and the Practice of Literary Criticism: “Araby,” a Test

Case. James Joyce Quarterly, 18.3(1981): 255-265.

Stone, Harry. “Araby” and the Writings of James Joyce. The Antioch Review, 25.3 (1965):


Robinson, David W. The Narration of Reading in Joyce’s “The Sisters” “An Encounter,” and

“Araby”. Texas Studies in Literature and Language, 29.4(1987): 377-396

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Little Women

Little Women

This paper presents a critical examination of the relationship between Jo, Amy and Laurie in the novel, Little Women by Louisa May Alcott.

Apart from the obvious family relationship and ties that exit between Jo Amy and Laurie, these three characters in the novel, inherently, bring out and build each other with relation to the novel. Alcott has used each of the characters in her novel to bring out the various themes of the novel, as well as, help in the development of the story. Jo, who is evidently the central character of the story, is Amy’s elder sister, and she is seen as the character who sets the pace for all other characters in the novel. At the outset, as the girls’ parents wish to teach the girls lessons regarding poverty, she is the first one to learn and catch what their parents are trying to teach them. She is very outspoken and outgoing, and for that reason, helps the readers understand the natures and characters of other people in the novel.

When she came out as the first sister to help Laurie when he was sick, and also as the first sister to develop an intimate relationship with him, most readers assume that these two characters will eventually marry each other. However, they do not marry each other, and instead she marries her professor who is atud bit older than her. Arguably, readers can see that her actions towards Laurie during the time of need, were a way of setting an example for her younger sister Amy, as to which actions are moral and good. Observably, Jo is quick to take on the role of a mother in her mother’s absence, something that Amy may not have been so amused about. For that reason, Jo can be considered also as a guide and parental figure to Amy, as well as, the other March sisters. In the development of Jo’s character, Alcott created her as a strong and independent woman, which in turn, illustrates her relation to Laurie as a character. She rebelliously refuses Laurie’s offer of marriage, which sequentially breaks his heart and compels him to look for marriage from the other sister in the family. He does eventually gain the love of Amy, which in turn builds on Jo’s character as a pacesetter and a guide.

The second character in the novel is Amy who is the youngest March sister. As a character, she is quite manipulative and she, in one way or another, influences most people in the book to do things her way. However, because Jo steps in to act as her mother, she is unable to manipulate Jo, and for that reason, the readers are exposed to a number of fights and disagreements between the two. She is a people pleaser, which explains, her relationship with Laurie. Readers can assume that being the youngest March sister, she observed how Jo treated Laurie and emulated these actions to make him fall in love with her.   Fundamentally, her relationship with Jo and Laurie can be observed from two different perspectives. Whereas she accentuates Jo’s character in the novel, and provides a contrast between the natures of women, her relationship with Laurie carries plenty of romantic connotations. Amy is a lovable character, which helps reader understand why Laurie fell in love with her in the first place.  By the novel’s end, she bares a child for Laurie, hence bringing out another relationship to him, as the mother of his child.  

Laurie is the last character in the Novel who clearly has been brought out as having a unique relationship between the two sisters Jo an Amy. In both cases, the relationship with the two sisters is that of a romantic love, with an added friendship between himself and Jo. As a character, Laurie is intelligent and charming, which in turn explains why the sisters grew fond of him throughout the novel. The readers first observe his relationship with Jo in the first sections of the book, where the two experience a strong friendship with each other. They are there for one another at all times, especially in times of sorrow, thus illustrating the deepness of their friendship. However, their relationship to each other takes a turn where the two do not get married, as readers would expect. Arguably, this illustrates the strength of the bond between these two characters, as one can see that they are more than lovers, and are the best of friends. Readers may assume that this relationship is based on the similarity in their personal lives where they both struggle to become what the society expects them to be. As for his relationship with Amy, readers can see that the two are romantically involved as they fall in love and get married. The two also start a family with each other, further illustrating their relationship with each other. They have no ill feeling regarding Jo, and for that reason bring out the theme of family and its importance in the novel.

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Lynching Gyneolatry

Lynching Gyneolatry


Gyneolatry may be defined as the worship of women or simply as the adoration of women with some religious zeal. Lynching gyneolatry in American literature will call attention to the murders, rapes, and assaults related to racism in America. In the American history, the lynching or the acts of killing people by extrajudicial means, occurred many times in the late Eighteenth century up to the 1960s.

Angela (194–195) argues that these launchings were mainly associated with black supremacy chiefly in the southern parts just after the American Civil War during the reconstruction era between 1865 and 1877, civil rights were being granted to freedmen which aroused anxieties within the white communities. These anxieties were mainly about white men blaming the black folks for the hardships, economic downfall, and loss of social privilege. The amounts of the lynching peaked in between 19th and early 20th centuries, before the southern state enacted the segregation laws and Jim Crow laws to reaffirm white supremacy. The freedmen or former slaves were black folks who had been released from slaver either by legal means; slaves became free by either manumission where they were granted freedom by their owner or emancipation where freedom was granted as part of a larger group. Slaves were also able to earn freedom if they were well educated and trained, as a reward for long dedicated service, or at the attrition of their owners. Some became free by buying their freedom through their peculium money personal possessions.These freed slaves was generally referred to as the Free Negroes.

Motivations of the Mob killings

A great number of lynchings of civil rights workers in Mississippi in the 1960s, contributed to galvanizing public support for civil rights legislation. The civil rights movements mounted resistance to these murders in a number of ways. Intellectuals and journalists came out to encourage public education to advocate for, protest, and lobby against the killings by mob violence together with the complicity of the government to the mob violence. The term lynching probably originated during the American Revolution when Charles Lynch who was a Virginia justice of the peace, mandated extralegal punishment for loyalist. Within the southern states before the civil war, members of the abolitionist movement and those opposed to slavery were always targets of lynch mobs.

According to Davis, (123), the motivations for these racially instigated mob killings, particularly, in the southern states was the the enactment of social conventions, which enforced punishment of those perceived to have violated the customs, that were later known as Jim Crow Laws that supported the segregation of blacks and whites. Another motivation could have been the ability to establish economic and political control, and financial gain. The properties of the lynched African American Farmers or the immigrant merchants often became available to whites. These lynchings could also occur in frontier areas where legal recourse was remote. The law enforcement authorities participated and operated to promote white social dominance. During the 21st century, the dispute between the Cherokee Nation and the descendants of Free Negroes of Cherokee masters over the rights of Free Negroes to citizenship. This dispute arose because of the benefits of citizenship or membership of freedmen.

            Real lynchings that occurred in early years of Western United States in the violent American history were not so focused on crime prevention, but shared many racists and partisan dimensions as compared to lychnings in the south. The mob killings in the Old West were mainly carried out to accused criminals in custody, and did not particularly favour a social class or racial group. The lynchings might have occurred not just because of the absence of law, but also because of the social instability of those societies, and their dispute for property, position, and the description of social order. The mob killings after the civil war were mainly associated with the southern states, especially during the period of the reconstruction. This saw the founding of the Ku Klux Klan in 1866 and was associated with heavy violence. White democrats waged attacks to both black and white republicans, which were the result of the mob violence by the insurgent secret vigilante groups. This heavy mob violence was associated with the partisan political under tones which was followed by more acts of violence that was purely racial. During the mid 1870s, the Democratic Party worked with White Line groups like the White Camellia to terrorize, bully, and slay African American in an effort to regain power. They suppressed black voting and control voting using armed militia to assassinate political leaders, community members, and suppressing civil rights (Jane, 83)


            Most lynchings in the the early 20th century of African Americans, after the Democrats had regained political power, occurred in the south forcing most blacks off the voters lists, and preventing them from serving on juries. Between 1880s and 1890s, lynchings took a seasonal pattern, with the coder months being the most deadly, due to increasing economic pressures. By the late 19th century, lynching was performed by small groups of white vigilantes at night, where they were like mass spectacles with a festival like atmosphere. Children also attended these public lynchings, and were announced in the newspapers. Even photographs were taken of the lynching processes

Lynching Gyneolatry

            Lynching gyneolatry is associated with the killings of black folks by white folks in a mythological sense to uphold the supremacy of the white woman. Some of the most intriguing aspects of the white image of the black mind in representing the white women is idealization. In the African American literature the supremacy of the white woman by the media, those defending racism, and black writers, has been clearly against the idealism of the white woman. Many white feminists have been particular of the irony that this idealization has imprisoned to the pedestals of serving the interests of the white man. Many black folks have responded to this psychosexual representation of the white female image by both white men and white women against blacks (Angela, pp. 194–195)

Whatever lies behind the mythology of the purity of the white womanhood, and the myth of the desirability of black men by white women is the demystification priority of black writers. These myths probably arise out of white women to become a liberating condition for black male to white female relationships. The image of the white woman has been used in defence of racism, a part of an ambition towards psychological and physical freedom from racism. Many literary works such as “The ways of White Folks” and others have tried to expose this image as a black liberating mythology.

In most cases where the aspect of blacks liberating mythology against the white woman’s image is that psychological liberation is equated to violence against white women. The American killings and violence against the black folks does not reign on sex, such that where there sex, there is violence. According to Richard Wright novels, The Long Dream (1958) gives the understanding of the representation of the white woman. Many cases of lynching gneolatry happened both in the northern and southern states. For example, in 1892, a police officer who attempted to end the lynching of African American blacks man around Port Jervis, New York, and the lynch mob put a noose round his neck to scare him. The black man was wrongly accused of assaulting a white woman, even at the inquest the police officer was able to identify eight people who were involved in the lynching, and the jury still determine that the murder was committed by unknown people (Pfeifer, 2004). 

In 1920, Duluth, Minnesota, three young African American travellers were killed after  the community accused them of rape and violation of the rights of a white woman. The justifications of protecting white woman and the rhetoric around the lynchings were actions that attempted to to maintain the domination of the whites in a fast changing society, and the anxieties brought about by social change. These lynchings created victims who were just mere scapegoats of other wider societal problems such as the white man’s attempts to control the economy, agriculture, labour, and education.

In Harper Lee’s novel of 1960, To Kill a Mockingbird, Tom Robinson was a black man who was wrongly accused of rape and narrowly escaped lynching. He was later killed while attempting to escape from prison. Another artistic work that epitomized with lynching is the song “Strange Fruit” by Billie Holiday, and was then written as a poem by one Abel Meeropol in 1939. The song was popular with the anti lynching movement, and contributed to the activities of the American Civil Rights Movement.


Lynching or acts of violence committed by a mob targeted at black folks were very common in America, but historically they are virtually non existence today. The logic of lynching gyneolatry in essence is the promotion of the white woman as the ideal, and the quintessential attraction or repulsion complex held by some blacks against the whites. The portrayal of the white woman as the ideal to the blacks creates a feeling of resentment and hatred of the black folks by the whites and promoting the white supremacy.

Works Cited:

 Pfeifer M. Rough justice Lynching and American society, 1874-1947. University of Illinois         Press, (2004).            Print

 Davis W. Goodbye, Judge Lynch: The End of a Lawless Era in Wyoming’s Big Horn Basin.         University of Oklahoma Press, (2006). Print

Jane D. The white image in the Black mind: a study of African American literature. Volume 194 of Contributions in Afro-American and African studies Greenwood Press, (2000) Print

Angela Y, Women, Race & Class. New York: Vintage Books, pp. 194–195. (1983). Print

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Rise of American Literature in the 17th century


Like any other of the national literatures, American literature was molded by the history of the country itself. For approximately one hundred and fifty years, America was simply a cluster of colonies spread near the eastern seashore of the continent of North America (Paul 110). Several colonies, which did not want to be part of the north decided to move towards the western side. After succeeding in rebelling against the motherland, the colonies came together to form the United States of America, an independent nation. The nation continued to expand even more, and by the end of the nineteenth century it had reached the Gulf of Mexico to the south, the 49th parallel to the north, and the pacific to the west (Paul 120). By the end of the same century it had found its place among the most powerful countries in the World. Its wealth attracted interest of other nations, and eventually it involved itself in both world wars. The emergence of science as well as industry, coupled with the change of people’s way of thinking and feelings all contributed to the development of the American Literature. The following is the history of literature in United States of America form the 17th century to the birth of a new nation (Paul 130).

Rise of American Literature in the 17th century

The American literature was initially a colonial literature, it was first written by men of, English origin.  The person who initiated the American literature was a soldier, by the name of John Smith who wrote down his thoughts (Paul 160). His renowned books include, A True Relation of … Virginia … (1608). The general History of Virginia, New England, and the Summer Isles (1624) .Even though these earlier works were mostly on praise of the authors themselves, they were to help other Englishmen get more colonies (Paul 180). With each passing day, more works were authored, every work describing a certain colony. Such work included Daniel Denton’s work in 1670 where he described New York, William Penn’s work in 1682 description of Pennsylvania, and Thomas Ashe’s description of Carolina (Paul 200). These are a few, among many works, which were in praise of America. These authors swore allegiance to the British Government, even though others had a different opinion that motivated the colonists to relocate from their own motherland. More significant, is the issues raised by the writers, questioning the government involvement with the church. The position that most authors felt was no right, was the one taken by Nathaniel Ward in 1647, where he defended the colonists who had sponsored innovative ideas in Massachusetts, in the aftermath more authors published their satisfaction with the position taken by Nathaniel (Paul 230).

 Some religious works that were also published include the work of William Bradford that described the history of the Plymouth Plantation, which showed the separation of the pilgrims Separatists from the Anglicans (Paul 250). Other published religious work includes Roger William’s work, which was more drastic as it called for the church and the state to go different ways.  He also advocated for the church to be given powers and called upon religious tolerance (Paul 270).  Some poetry work were published, in 1650 Anne Bradstreet published her work titled in The Tenth Muse. The work consisted mainly, of her feelings about the relationship between religion, and family.  Another work was that of Edward Taylor whose work was a reflection of his happiness in the beliefs of Christianity and experience (Paul 300). All works from different authors that was done in the 17th century had the British influence.

The 18th century

At the beginning of this century, some writers that included Cotton Mather, continued with the work that the older generation of writers had left. Mather’s enormous history of the Puritan in New England, Edwards was another author who tried to continue with the works from the older generation his work, the Great Awakening, the two authors work was on defense of the prehistoric convictions of the puritan’s (Paul 280). Even so the authors were putting up a defense for a hopeless cause. Other writers like John Wise, a minister moved to another less strict belief. Samuel Sewall wrote down some other changes in his diary, despite the fact that he was genuinely religious(Paul 230).. His daily records portrayed how the secular life was taking over from the stiff Puritanism.  The other work by Mme Sara Kemble which she describes her journeys to New York, her comments were from a view of an Orthodox believer. But her comments were not as rigid as the ones of the other Pilgrim founders. Down south William Byrd from Virginia differed harshly with the older generation. His major works include Restoration wit(Paul 240).  The struggle of the revolution, in America enhanced the division between the political ideas of America, and the British.

The American Revolution struggle was inspired by some of the political writers, even though the colonizers knew that a revolution was on the offing they still proceeded with the war. Of all the political writers the ones that stand out are these two writers, Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Paine. Franklin was born in 1706 started to publish his works on a newspaper which was owned by his brother. Franklins experience to write various articles, and reports helped in his compilation of the issues he wrote in connection to the difference of opinion with Britain. Thomas Paine relocated to Philadelphia from Britain he got a job as a editor, approximately 14 months later Paine became the most  efficient propaganda peddler in aiding the colonialists. (Paul 300). His other work includes the pamphlet which motivated the colonialists to proclaim independence. The crisis paper of America motivated the Americans to fight through the most difficult years of the war.       

The new Nation

After the war, some of the persuasive men were not able to bring people to listen. Both Paine and Samuel could not persuade the people who were interested in making up the new administration. Others succeeded, like Franklin who practiced tolerance in addressing the constitution. However a dissimilar faction of authors became leaders during the new period. Hamilton later became the federal party leader, after writing approximately 51 papers for the federals (Paul 350). In which he persuaded the bestowment of power to the national government as opposed to the state governments. Thomas Jefferson remained an influential writer during and after the war (Paul 370). His greatest work was the summary he did on the Declaration of independence.

The most outstanding works of the period

During this period, the works that were now recognizable included poetry, which was used as a weapon during the revolution (Paul 390). The most outstanding poet in America during this period is Philip Freneau, whose poems revolved around satires; he later changed his poems to reflect on other areas of the American diverse culture like love, and in that he wrote some romantic poems (Paul 400). Such as on a honey Bee, and To a Caty-did. They formed the important part of poetry in 19th century.

Work Cited

Finkelman, Paul. Encyclopedia of African American history, 1896 to the present: from the age of segregation to the twenty-first century. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.

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In Zora Neale Hurston’s novel, Their Eyes Were Watching God.

The first pdf is the short story you will be writing about; read it and have a good understanding. You can research if wanted/need it.

The second pdf is the directions for the outline; choose a structure of your liking that would fit the short story best.

Some things to think about:

  1. What literary element(s) will you work with (setting, character, etc.)?
  2. What arguable assertion/thesis statement about the literary element do you plan to develop (Aylmer is the true protagonist, the central theme of Robert Frost’s poem “‘Out, Out – ‘” is …, etc.)? i.e. Write your thesis statement. Consider the format of the example below. Be sure to use the author’s first and last name and the title of text. Titles of poems and short stories are in quotation marks, and titles of plays and novels are in italics. Please ensure that your thesis is not merely a statement of fact.
  3. Write your forecasting statement. List three to five reasons why you think your assertion is valid. Consider the format of the example below.

(Example) Thesis Statement:

This is the main point of your writing, and it should be clearly stated. The entire writing will attempt to prove this point. Example: In Zora Neale Hurston’s novel Their Eyes Were Watching God, Hurston utilizes images from nature to portray Janie’s metamorphosis from naivety to maturity. 

(Example) Forecasting Statement:

This is a clear and concise statement (or statements) that explains how the thesis will be supported or proven. (If the thesis is where your writing is going, the forecasting statement is how you will get there.) Note that you may be unable to fit all of your reasons in one sentence, which is fine.
Example: The blossoming pear tree, the tide, the hurricane and the horizon all beautifully and powerfully illustrate Janie’s transformation.

In order to earn full credit for this assignment, you must place the thesis and forecasting statement at the top of the outline and then thoroughly outline the major points of your literary analysis including pointing to specific textual support that will be utilized. 

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Romanticism: Self versus state

Romanticism: Self versus stateIntroduction to the Salon and the Royal Academy (essay from The Met) A beginner’s guide to Romanticism
FranceRomanticism in Francequiz Baron Antoine-Jean Gros, Napoleon Bonaparte Visiting the Pest House in Jaffa, 1804 Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, La Grande Odalisque, 1814 (and essay), quiz Théodore Géricault Raft of the Medusa, 1818-19, quiz Portraits of the Insane, 1822 Eugène Delacroix Scene of the Massacre at Chios, 1824 The Death of Sardanapalus, 1827 Liberty Leading the People (July 28, 1830), 1830, quiz François Rude, La Marseillaise (The Departure of the Volunteers of 1792), 1833-36
United StatesThomas Cole  The Oxbow, 1836 The Architect’s Dream, 1840 The Hunter’s Return, 1845 George CatlinThe White Cloud, Head Chief of the Iowas, 1844-45 Emanuel LeutzeWashington Crossing the Delaware, 1851 Frederic Edwin ChurchNiagara, 1857, and Heart of the Andes, 1859
Issues in RomanticismOrientalism

From William Wordsworth’s Preface to Lyrical Ballads, 1802

The principal object, then, which I proposed to myself in these Poems was to chuse incidents and situations from common life, and to relate or describe them, throughout, as far as was possible, in a selection of language really used by men; and, at the same time, to throw over them a certain colouring of imagination, whereby ordinary things should be unusually presented to the mind; and, further, and above all, to make these incidents and situations interesting by tracing in them, truly though not ostentatiously, the primary laws of our nature: chiefly, as far as regards how we associate ideas in a state of excitement. Low and rustic life was generally chosen, because in that condition, the essential passions of the heart find a better soil in which they can attain their maturity, are less under restraint, and speak a plainer and more emphatic language; because in that condition of life our elementary feelings co-exist in a state of greater simplicity, and, consequently, may be more accurately contemplated, and more forcibly communicated; because the manners of rural life germinate from those elementary feelings; and, from the necessary character of rural occupations, are more easily comprehended, and are more durable; and lastly, because in that condition the passions of men are incorporated with the beautiful and permanent forms of nature. The language, too, of these men is adopted (purified indeed from what appear to be its real  defects, from all lasting and rational causes of dislike or disgust) because such men hourly communicate with the best objects from which the best part of language is  originally derived; and because, from their rank in society and the sameness and narrow circle of their intercourse, being less under the influence of social vanity they  convey their feelings and notions in simple and unelaborated expressions. Accordingly, such a language, arising out of repeated experience and regular feelings, is a  more permanent, and a far more philosophical language, than that which is frequently substituted for it by Poets, who think that they are conferring honour upon  themselves and their art, in proportion as they separate themselves from the sympathies of men, and indulge in arbitrary and capricious habits of expression, in order  to furnish food for fickle tastes, and fickle appetites, of their own creation.

Source: University of Pennsylvania, Department of English


Explain Romanticism by picking two works of Romantic art covered in this week’s presentation (i.e the attach power point) and the corresponding SmartHistory material.

Explore form, content, and the ideas behind them.

APA format

1 ½ page

12 point font double spacing

Please ensure the references are from the materials provided.

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Personal Response on ‘Consider the Lobster’

Personal Response on ‘Consider the Lobster’

The article by Wallace clearly outlines the concern in the swift change in the interest of lobster, once considered food for the poor and institutionalized. However, the contemporary world has witnessed drastic interest in lobster, underlined by the famous Lobster Festival in Maine (Wallace 50). The article uses a clear outline to describe the current concerns: Notably, people fail to consider the impact of the lobster festival on the creatures while the rising interest in their consumption can prove threatening to this species. Wallace (56) offers crucial insight on his thoughts about lobsters acknowledging that they are considered as summer foods. However, the concern arises from various issues such as the fact that lobsters should be alive when being put in the kettle. Therefore, the article uses a unique and yet clear approach in outlining the main issue.

The author slowly creates a path before getting to the central theme of the article. The author starts by describing lobsters and what they entail before asking whether it is okay to boil a sentient creature alive to offer people the gustatory pleasure (Wallace 60). Importantly, the author comes up with a practical approach to keep the readers entertained and offers them crucial information about what he intends to talk about before eventually pointing out the main issue. Conclusively, the article manages to remain on topic while relating to realistic things such as outlining the process of watching the lobsters being piled over each other before they are inhumanly boiled. All in all, the author presents an engaging piece on an issue that will have diverse thoughts as numerous people appreciate the festivals.

Work Cited

Wallace, David. Consider the Lobster. Gourmet, 2004, pp. 50-64.

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Analyzing a Crime Fiction Genre

Analysing a Crime Fiction Genre

 A crime fiction genre is a type of genre that tends to fictionalize on crime scenes, criminals, detection, and their daily life motives. The crime fiction genre tends to distinguish itself from other mainstream fiction and another type of fantasy generics, such as science fiction and historical fiction through the use of boundaries which are instinct. The crime fiction genre consists of multiple other subgenres, which include detective fiction, courtroom drama, legal thrillers, and hard-boiled fictions.

 The crime fiction genre is most used or found in crime-related areas, for example, courts and other places whereby a crime has taken place. The main reason for the genre is the analyses and presenting the information as it is at the crime scene. The genre is mostly used in case there is a crime or during a session of crime investigation. The users of the genre tend to interact with the ecology or the environment in many ways, for example, during   the collecting of samples such as blood which are present on the crime scene.

A crime fiction genre mainly handles matters concerning crime scene, in this case, the ideas which revolve in the genre is the reason, the cause and how the crime has affected the ecology or the environment. There are some questions used in this genre, for example, how did the crime occur? Who is offended? How did the offence affect the environment or the offended and finally who was in the wrong during the criminal actions? The users of this genre tend to interacts as they dig deep finding justice on a particular crime issue.

In most cases, the participants or the users of the crime fiction genre are the police, the criminal investigation department and the lawyers.  The reader of the genre is mostly the judges and the prosecutor in the court of law as they try to find the facts about a particular issue. The readers of the genre may be multiple or even individual, for example, there are cases which need the secondary support to verify and support the issue at hand. The characteristics of the readers, in this case, they are strict and straight to the point to avoid any shortcoming or to leave any issue unattended. As the reader presents the genre, there is strict consideration which the reader operates. The court of law has a defined way and requirement which the reader needs to follow as he or she presents the case. The primary purpose of the genre is to reveal the truth and even present justice where it is required through proper investigation.

The context whereby the genre is used is mainly in the courtroom; there is the use of pathos to show the emotion at the scene.  The style is structured formally, to present the information as it is required and also making it easy to be used in the court of law. The language used in this genre is straight to the point and official, the information presented is delicate and thus the need to avoid any form of jargons. The sentence structure and the grammar rules are strictly followed in this genre.

To understand the genre, the participants need to follow the proceedings of the crimes as they are presented in the court of law. The genre tends to include the cause of the crime, the incident as the crime occurs. However, the genre tends to leave the judgment even if the evidence is valid. In this case, it is the work of the judges to give the final verdict on the crime. The genre concentrates on the facts to be much important and ignores the judgment since it is the work of the court to present views. Through the genre patterns, peace and justice are presented as people check on the real cause of the crime.

 The genre also plays a significant role in making it possible for final judgment and in the presence of justice. On the other hand, it is difficult to only use the genre in getting justice since there are additional requirements and supporting documents needed. Through the genre, the attitude on justice and being vigilant on whatever one does is much implied. On the other hand, the genre plays a vital role in uniting the world through proper justice and also presenting the situation as it was at the crime scene.

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Eleanor’s Death in the Hunting of the Hill House Novel

Eleanor’s Death in the Hunting of the Hill House Novel

Eleanor encounters troubling times in her quest for closure following her mother’s death. A few people can be considered liable for the death of Eleanor, whether on a small frame or with a large influence. For instance, her sister is mad at her for deciding to take over the experiment by Dr. Montague, and thus Eleanor feels unwanted and has no place to go to if she decides to leave the hill house. Her mother can also be considered liable for her death as the latter’s death devastates Eleanor and makes her engage in a scary adventure while trying to recover. However, Dr Montague takes the wheel in the life of Eleanor and thus is the main reason behind her death.

Dr. Montague takes on a quest to prove the existence of paranormal activities, and thus he reaches out to people with paranormal experiences and requests them to stay at the hill house mansion. Therefore, Dr. Montague knows the dangers people may encounter if they accept his offer. He manages to convince Eleanor, who is understandably ready to take on the quest due to her distressed state (Nicolaou, 2018). One can argue that Dr. Montague takes advantage of a vulnerable person and leads her on a disturbing road to her death. The author states, “she shivered and thought, the words coming freely into her mind, Hill House is vile, it is diseased; get away from here at once” (Jackson, 2009, p. 14). The statement shows Eleanor is scared of the repercussions but is willing and ready to live in a troubled house.

Dr. Montague tries to convince people of the essence of the quest and thus tells Eleanor that fear is the barrier to success. “Fear,” the doctor said, “is the relinquishment of logic, the willing relinquishing of reasonable patterns. We yield to it, or we fight it, but we cannot meet it halfway” (Jackson, 2009, p. 76). Dr. Montague fails to outline the dangers that Eleanor might experience but rather takes up the chance to conduct his research on paranormal activities. Throughout the book, he is thrilled to develop more findings on his outlined topic and thus leads Eleanor to her grave.

“It was a house without kindness, never meant to be lived in, not a fit place for people or love or for hope. Exorcism cannot alter the countenance of a house; Hill House would stay as it was until it was destroyed” (Jackson, 2009, p. 14). The author outlines the house’s state and the spiraling events’ nature. Selfish motives drive Dr. Montague, and he fails to understand the essence of protecting other people’s lives. He is trapped in his quest to understand paranormal activities and ultimately chooses to endanger others in pursuit of his selfish quest.

Dr. Montague takes advantage of a hurting girl who has been through a troubling time. Therefore, she does not think clearly of what her actions might imply or the dangers of the road she chooses. “She could not remember ever being truly happy in her adult life; her years with her mother had been built up devotedly around small guilt and small reproaches, constant weariness, and unending despair” (Jackson, 2009, p. 2).  Therefore, Eleanor is hurt and distressed and thus chooses to act irrationally.


Jackson, S. (2009). The Haunting of Hill House. London: Penguin Books Limited. Retrieved fromhttp://themiltondoddreaders.weebly.com/uploads/1/0/8/1/10819822/jackson_-_the_haunting_of_hill_house.pdf

Nicolaou, E. (2018). R29 Binge Club: The Haunting Of Hill House, Episodes 1 – 10. Retrieved from https://www.refinery29.com/en-us/2018/10/213777/haunting-of-hill-house-recap-episodes

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Literature Analysis of Characters


The story Jury of Her Peers by Susan Glaspell features Martha and Mrs. Peter as the main characters in the short story. As the author narrates the story, there are key themes and traits which emerge that contribute to the development of the story and the protagonist, such as the marriage conflicts, friendship, secrecy, scandals, and male-chauvinism and aggression. In brief, the authors of Two Kinds and Jury of Her Peers aim to show how the main characters have unresolved issues they did not know about their live until they engage in confrontations.

Character Analysis in Jury of Her Peers and Two Kinds

As the author narrates the story, these key features will advance the plot and help the reader to learn more about the protagonists. When the story begins, we learn that Martha is happily staying in the comfort of her home. She appears to be loving and supportive to her husband until he requests her to assist him in gathering the personal belongings of Minnie Wright, who had been jailed because she was suspected that she had murdered her husband. Major developments occur when George Henderson, the county attorney, Sheriff Peters and the two women visit the isolated farmhouse to gather evidence that would incriminate Minnie. However, they do not find any evidence because Martha and Mrs. Peter cover for Minnie hiding the dead carnage. Initially, we understand that Martha and Mr. Peter kept stayed distant for years because Minnie was aggressive. Martha laments that, “she still thought of her as Minnie Foster, though for twenty years she had been Mrs. Wright”. The discussion of Minnie and her husband used to fight as couples becomes the turning point of the two women because of their marriage conflicts. They realize that they are treated just as housewives by their husbands and men had been male chauvinists. They remember that even though Minnie was aggressive, they had been good friends since childhood and this makes them to hide the evidence in favor of Minnie. Mrs. Peter “…threw back the quilt pieces, got the box, tried to put it in her handbag” (Glaspell, 2012).

The main characters in the second story of Two Kinds by Amy Tan are June and Suyuan. The centre of the plot of the story is the power struggle between a mother and her daughter. Throughout the story, June maintains a relentless and defiant character while her mother maintains a patronizing attitude. The conflict between what the mother wants June to be in future and what June wants for herself as her career develops the story till the end. For example, Suyuan tries to coach June to become a Chinese Shirley Temple but she decline and want to become a pianist. We learn that the two characters use the conflict to hide their pains at first; it makes them having emotional outbursts which makes them to achieve contentment. June comments, “Pleading Child” was shorter but slower;”Perfectly Contented” (Bloom, 2009).

Some flat characters in the two stories have helped to develop the plot. In Jury of Her Peers, minor characters such as Harry (Mrs. Hales eldest son) and John Wright (the murdered man) help to develop the characters of the main characters. For John Wright, although he is not physically, present his death and the investigations make the main characters to redefine their attitudes towards men. Harry acts as an intersection into the interrogation where his mention of the telephone paves way for Mrs. Hales to describe the event on the day john write was murdered. Although Harries does not tell the story, he introduces Mrs. Hales to give an account of the events that acknowledge Martha and Mrs. Peter that the county attorney would be looking for incriminating evidence since it was hard to pin down a woman without hard evidence. We can learn that Harry is a hard working man and was not around when John Wright was murdered. As a result, this paves way for Mrs. Hales to narrate the event. John Wright was a quarrelsome to her wife; as a result, they result fight that leads to him being murdered by his wife and the subsequent investigations that attracts the two main characters-Martha and Mrs. Peter (Glaspell, 2012).

In Two Kinds, Auntie Lindo and Uncle Tin are examples of flat characters. They were both skeptic that June would thrive in playing piano. They maintained a skeptic look while June poorly played the piano that after finishing her performance, they did no applaud her. The discouragement from the Auntie Lindo and Uncle Tin led to the final blow of the conflict between June and her mother; eventually resolving their conflicts (Bloom, 2009).


The two narratives are very illustrative of the characters who do not know that they have unresolved issues that have never been disclosed for long time. However, they engage in confrontations that make them to discover their true identities and to resolve their differences.


Bloom, H. (2009). Amy Tan, New Edition.  New York, NY: Infobase Publishing

Glaspell, Susan. (2012). Jury of Her Peers. Annenberg Learner. Retrieved from:


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