Lifestyles Theory Essay

Lifestyles Theory Essay.

The “lifestyle/exposure theory” was developed by Hindelang, Gottfredson, and Garofalo (1978:243; e.g., see Goldstein, 1994; Maxfield, 1987:275; Miethe, Stafford, and Long, 1987:184). This model of criminal events links victimization risks to the daily activities of specific individuals (Goldstein, 1994:54; Kennedy and Forde, 1990:208).Lifestyles are patterned, regular, recurrent, prevalent, or “routine activities” (Robinson, 1997b; also see Cohen and Felson, 1979; Felson, 1994; Hindelang, Gottfredson, and Garofalo, 1978:241; Garofalo, 1987:24, 39). Lifestyles consist of the activities that people engage in on a daily basis, including both obligatory and discretionary activities. LeBeau and Coulson (1996:3; also see LeBeau and Corcoran, 1990) assert that:The former are activities that must be undertaken while the latter because they are pursued by choice are called discretionary.

‘An activity is discretionary if there is a greater chance of choice than constraint, and obligatory if there is a greater degree of constraint than choice” (Chapin, 1974:38). Both activities have a duration, position in time, a place in a sequence of events, and a fixed location or path in space (Chapin, 1974:37).

Kennedy and Forde (1990:208) summarized the lifestyle/exposure model as “lifestyle, encompassing differences in age, sex, marital status, family income, and race, influences daily routines and vulnerability to criminal victimization, resulting in the fact that “Victimization is not evenly distributed randomly across space and time — there are high-risk locations and high-risk time periods” (Garofalo, 1987:26). “Lifestyle patterns influence (a) the amount of exposure to places and times with varying risks of victimization, and (b) the prevalence of associations with others who are more or less likely to commit crimes.”

A similar theoretical model developed by Kennedy and Forde (1990: 209, 211) suggested that background characteristics and daily activities affect time spent in risky lifestyles which lead to dangerous results (i.e., criminal victimization). In their words, “demographic and lifestyle variables . . . can be interpreted as contributing to more or less ‘time spent in risky activities’ and indirectly contributing to ‘dangerous results’” (Kennedy and Forde, 1990:209).Numerous studies have shown relationships between daily activities of individuals and their likelihood of criminal victimization (Riley, 1987:340). In other words, what people do and how they behave places them at either more or less risk of criminal victimization (Maxfield, 1987; Miethe, Stafford, and Long, 1987; Sampson and Wooldredge, 1987).According to Sampson and Wooldredge (1987:372): “An active lifestyle . . . appears to influence victimization risk by increasing exposure of persons and homes to potential offenders while guardianship is low.”

Yet, an active lifestyle may not necessarily increase one’s risk of criminal victimization. For example, if there is a great deal of activity by residents, neighbors, or passers by around a residence, then this activity may serve to decrease the likelihood that a property offender will victimize a residence. In fact, many property offenders are non-confrontational and want to avoid being seen by residents, neighbors, or passers by (Cromwell, Olson, and Avary, 1991; Tunnell, 1994; Wright and Decker, 1994). Whether an active lifestyle leads to higher or lower risks for criminal victimization may depend on several factors. It might depend on the nature of one’s activities — i.e., whether they are patterned and predictable to offenders, or sporadic and less predictable.

This issue has not been settled by academic research, although the majority of lifestyle research suggests that active lifestyles increase risks for criminal victimization (Robinson, 1997b). Part of why there is some uncertainty about this issue is because when relationships between lifestyles and crime are studied, dependent variables typically consist of some composite measure of crime (see Robinson, 1997b; Thompson and Fisher, 1996). Whether active lifestyles lead to higher or lower risks for crime might depend on the specific type of crime that is being studied. Since composite measures of crime have been utilized by researchers rather than distinct measures of individual crime types (Bennett, 1991; Maxfield, 1987; Thompson and Fisher, 1996), it is nearly impossible to differentiate the effects of peoples’ lifestyles on different types of criminal victimization.

This is problematic, because lifestyle/exposure theory is “crime specific” (Bennett, 1991:158; Thompson and Fisher, 1996). For example, crimes such as burglary and theft may create different opportunities for offenders: For a burglary to occur, an offender has to break and enter a home to get the desired goods. An offender who commits a larceny, on the other hand, may ride off with a bicycle left out on the lawn or steal something from the porch of a home.

These examples demonstrate that the opportunity structure for burglary and larceny are different and therefore the two crimes must be examined separately in research (Thompson and Fisher, 1996:52; also see Gottfredson, 1984; Maxfield, 1987; Sampson and Wooldredge, 1987).Research examining the relationship between lifestyles and crime should avoid pooling or aggregating crime types, because examining the effects of lifestyles on composite measures of crime leads to inconsistent findings (Thompson and Fisher, 1996:53).

Lifestyles Theory Essay

The character sketch of Lilian Matfield Essay

The character sketch of Lilian Matfield Essay.

Lilian Matfield is one of the main characters in the novel Angel Pavement that as the rest suffered from Mr. Golspie , who destroyed their life and happiness. But as far as Lilian is concerned, Golspie affected her stronger than the others as there were her feelings, her dignity that turned out to be absolutely neglected by the man who at fist lit the fire bw the two himself. Miss Matfield, a typist, was one of those strictly modern young ladies. She was not pretty, but she might have been handsome if somebody had kept telling her she was pretty.

Miss Matfield was always dissatisfied with everything around, with people, things and life on the whole. And this dissatisfaction even reflected in her appearance. …her face, her voice, her manner, all pointed to the conclusion that Lilian Matfield nursed some huge, some overwhelming grievance against life, but though she gave tongue to a thousand little grievances every day, she never mentioned the monster.

But there it was, raging away, when she was complaining or being bitter about everything; and there it was, raging away more furiously than ever, when she was being bright and jolly, which was not often, and hardly at all during business hours. Miss Matfield had a good education behind her, she was a promising worker. In her own opinion she was quite different from these others, much superior, a more vital, splendid being. At the office she was posh and bossy, a rather formidable sort of girl, as Mr. Dersingham considered her to be. She put Mr. Dersingham, Mr. Smeeth and the others in their places and knew exactly what she thought about the others. Mr. Dersingham she neither liked or disliked, she merely tolerated him. Mr. Smeeth seemed to her a pathetic creature who lived a grey life, his drudgery sometimes irritated her. Turgis she despised and even resented. Stanltey and little Cockney girl were for her just a couple of amusing little animals, a pair of spaniels, inferior and somewhat neglected.

It seemed that for her arrogance Lilian paid with solitude. The monster she lived with and was afraid of. The feeling that was an essential part of her life and a part of the Burpenfield Club, where she lived in. The Burpenfield Club was one of the residential clubs provided for girls who came from good middle-class homes. You were congratulated on getting into the Burpenfield when you first went there, and you were congratulated even more heartily when you finally left it. The atmosphere was rather depressing. What Miss Matfield disliked most about the Burpenfield was the presence of all the other members, whose life she had to share. There were too many of them and their mode of life was like an awful parody of her own. Miss Matfield saw in one of these women an awful glimpse of her future.

She was scared of turning into one of those spinsters in their early forties, whose lives narrowed down to a point at which washing stockings became the supreme interest. But time was slipping away and nothing was happening. Soon she would be thirty. Thirty! People could say what they liked — but life was foul. Although Miss Matfield disliked the club she still had some friends there. Her best friend Evelyn went roaming round the Empire and Lilian could not help envying her. another decent and amusing one gone! Something exciting happening to somebody else, as usual, but she stayed on in Angel Pavement. Lilian was so busy feeling sorry for herself. The other friend Caddie was really a silly creature, but nevertheless she contrived to have quite an amusing, even exciting time. Her boy-friend was even sillier than she was and Miss Matfield admitted to herself at once that she could possibly endure a single hour of his company.

It was possible to envy Caddies state of mind while despising her taste. It was pity that silly young men did not amuse her, for there were plenty of them about. The same was with Norman Birtley, whom she considered a feeble fool. She was Lilian Matfield, Lilian Matfield. She felt darkly that somehow she was being conjured into somebody miserably different, somebody stiff and faded and dull. What Lilian was beginning to like were middle-aged men, men who could make her feel she was still a mere girl. Mr. Golspie was definitely different from all the people that surrounded Miss Matfield. He claimed her attention, was amusing, easily the most amusing person on the horizon. She could not make up her mind about him and this annoyed her. Golspie irritated one half of her, the sensible half, by making the other half feel fluttered and foolish. She could not say whether she really liked him, but at least he made Angel Pavement more amusing.

Miss Matfield was bored with everything, she wanted to lead a real life of her own, full, adventurous, gay. That was exactly what Mr. Golspie suggested. It was all amusing and exciting. It was not an experience that could fall into easy categories. It could not be tasted, examined, reported on, like most of Miss Matfields experiences. If it belonged anywhere, it belonged to the fire, flood and earthquake department. Mr. Golspie promised to make her life interesting and she gave up yield. Now she felt tall, healthy, strong, a fine woman of the world. She was ready to go for the weekend with him and even to marry him if he had asked. But her amusing life ended very soon.

Mr. Golspie simply tossed the weekend away and Miss Matfield with it. She was burning with shame and resentment. Never before had she felt such bitter contempt for herself. His sudden indifference left her feeling pitiably small and silly. The whole affair was just a cheap imitation, as well as a cheap imitation of a wedding ring. With her feelings destroyed Miss Matfield remains firm and strong, although theres none to support her, she relies on herself, ready to work hard and do anything that any man can do to become a capable business woman. 23.The character sketch of Lilian Matfield

At the very beginning of the book M. makes an impression of a snooty and condescending secretary, indifferent to whats going on in T &D, possessing neither outstanding appearance nor character, just a usual out-of-the-crowd woman. She is supported by her fathers monthly payments and lives in a residential club for girls from middle-class homes in the country compelled by economic conditions to live in London as cheaply as possible. The place is so unbearable and the institution atmosphere so oppressive that the only thing M.M. wants is to get away. She never ceases to curse the place where she has to share life with all kinds of shadow and inferior people: young naive girls and old spinsters. The whole sight seems too depressive and cheerless and resembles a cage for Miss M.dreams and fantasies.

She wasnt pretty, but her voice, manners, all pointed to that she nursed some huge overwhelming grievance against her life, but though she gave tongue to a thousand little grievances every day, she never mentioned a monster. The idea of a man warms strongly her secret heart. If she married him she might want to domesticate in a beautiful old country house in which she has spent so many imaginary Christmases. She longs for love and attention, looking forward to start a new life, tired of dullness and shabbiness of everyday life and office routine. She hates it and wants to run away from it all to a deserted island and spend the rest of her life in isolation with a handsome man from her fantasies.

She wants to evade reality and escape from her secretly imaginary world. Her feelings have already been hurt by a monster and its immensely difficult for her to revive faith in love and romance. Miss M. is a young, energetic, good-looking woman, deeply dissatisfied with her present life and oppressed by the surrounding atmosphere and people, waiting for her savior, her prince. As soon as the first candidate turns up, Lillian readily jumps at the chance and throws herself upon new experience, no matter how improper and indecent it seems to look like.

She creates an idealistic image of Mr. G. and falls in love. For sure she has doubts about her relationships but now its too late. She patiently waits at the station for her man, full of hopes and expectations and inevitably gets disillusioned. Finally when Lillian realizes thats its all in vain and that her savoir isnt going to come, she feels uncomfortable, foolish and develops disdain towards herself, her dreams and her imaginary world.

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The character sketch of Lilian Matfield Essay

Existentialism and Waking Life Essay

Existentialism and Waking Life Essay.

Existentialism is a type of philosophy that was very trendy in France after World War II as made popular by the quintessential philosopher, John Paul Sartre. A suitable introduction to existential ideology, The Stranger is a novel written by Albert Camus, a novelist and existentialist alike. Films that exhibit existential philosophy are the rotoscoped Waking Life by Richard Linklater and I Heart Huckabees by David O. Russell. The work that best conveys the ideas of existentialism is The Stranger due to its brevity and how it is so well written.

I will start with the inadequate works of existential ideas. The 2001 rotoscoped film Waking Life was fun to watch, but incredibly boring once you get past the effects. I can’t imagine trying to watch that film without rotoscoping, I do not think I would have made it through. That being said, I do not think this film worked as an existential learning tool because of it’s lack of an overarching message.

It may have been just me, but the thought that he was continually waking into another dream never crossed my mind until it was brought up at the end.

Frankly I was otherwise occupied trying to follow the “plot” if you could even call it that. The movie felt like a documentary masked by a teenager plodding around questioning everything. The existential ideas were present but incredibly underdeveloped, it seemed as though they did not delve into any of the ideas they presented. They presented one thought provoking idea, and then he moves on. It felt like they had too many ideas crammed into one movie and failed to execute it well. This film just should not have been made. I feel as though out of the three works we studied Waking Life comes in last place due to it’s utter lack of a plot and underdeveloped existential ideas.

The film I

Existentialism and Waking Life Essay

Pompeii: Life and Death Essay

Pompeii: Life and Death Essay.

It took only 19 hours, not even a full day. That was all the time it needed on August 24, 70 A. D. to bury Pompeii (Rosella Lorenzi). Mount Vesuvius, south of Pompeii and the cities of Herculaneum and Stabiae (Encarta) erupted, releasing tons of volcanic debris, pumice, ash, and sulfuric gas reaching several miles into the air (Eyewitness to History). The ensuing “firestorm” of lethal gases and red hot volcanic debris overwhelmed the neighboring communities that suffocated the residents of the cities beside Pompeii, namely Herculaneum and Stabiae (Eyewitness).

Tons of debris falling from the skies began to fill the streets (Eyewitness). The eruption of Vesuvius effectively annihilated the town (Mummy Tombs). The volcanic ash and debris rained on the town for 18 or so hours, reaching heights of 8 to 10 feet (Mummy Tombs). After the explosion and the rain of debris, the event was followed by nuee ardente, extremely hot gas that engulfed Pompeii in six deadly waves (Mummy Tombs). What happened to Pompeii and the neighboring towns? History of Pompeii Pompeii was situated in the mouth of the present-day Sarno River (Encarta).

Oscans in 600 BC , who were later conqured by the Samnites (Encarta). Lucius Cornelius Sulla, the Roman dictator, made Pompeii into a Roman colony in the year 80 BC (Encarta). Pompeii later developed into a resort town for the enjoyment of wealthy Romans (Encarta). Romans belonging to the upper echelons of the Roman government enjoyed the pleasures of the resort town nestled in their villas surrounding the Bay of Naples (Smatch). At the beginning of the Christian period in history, Pompeii reached a population of about 20,000 people (Encarta).

Aside from the wealthy and middle class Romans who enjoyed the worldly pleasures of the city, there was a larger than usual number of slaves and freemen (Smatch). They were the ones who took care of the needs of the vacationing Romans and other travellers, tourists and others who would indulge in the pleasures that the city had to offer (Smatch). Aside from the pleasures that the city rolled out for the travellers and tourists, the city was also an important trade destination and route (Encarta).

The region’s natural resources had allowed Campania to develop its trade and raise their living standards (Minnesota State University Mankato). The shoreline surrounding the Gulf of Naples soon became the address of the country residences of members of the aristocracy of the Roman Empire (Minnesota). As the city became more wealthy, they developed their luxury service sector, enhanced their trade with other states, and enhanced their agriculture (Minnesota). It would look as if Pompeii was firmly established in the life of the Roman Empire (Minnesota).

Or was it just the window to disaster? Signs of the impending disaster The citizens of Pompeii had no idea that Vesuvius carried with it the death of the town (Professor Andrew Wadrice-Hadrill). The Romans had an extreme interest in the prediction of the future (Wadrice-Hadrill). They prided themselves in being able to tell the times that the gods were going to unleash their wrath on them, and used the signs, such as strange occurences and births, to determine these things (Wadrice- Hadrill). But even with these as references, Vesuvius still gave out no warning signs (Wadrice- Hadrill).

Even though Mount Vesuvius had once been active, the volcano remained dormant for the most part of human memory for the residents of Pompeii and the outlying communities (Minnesota). Since there was no recorded incident that the volcano was destructive, the residents didn’t realize the danger that was about to befall the town (Minnesota). The city was rocked by an earthquake on the 5th of February , AD 62 (Minnesota). The quake began as the residents heard what they describes as a prolonged, subdued roar that shook the area; nobody could tell the origin or even identify what it was (Minnesota).

Soon after, the buildings began to shake and collapse, and the people ran into the streets (Minnesota). The people ran from the towns thinking that they will be safe from the falling debris (Minnesota). But they fell into the deep cracks that the eruption opened up in the earth (Minnesota). Adding to the chaos was the flooding caused by the bursting of the town’s reservior (Minnesota). Though the quake proved fatal, it did not last long; it was followed by another quake after an hour (Minnesota). The tremors occurred throughout the rest of the day, until the evening hours (Minnesota).

Earthquakes by themselves were taken to be omens of things to come (Wadrice- Hadrill). Roman historian Cassius Dio wrote that he observed the presence of giants running on the land on numerous occasions (Wadrice-Hadrill). This observation of Dio carried an ominous sign for the town, because according to the Romans, the volacanoes in the southern part of the Italian peninsula was the burial place of some rebellious giants that were defeated by the gods (Wadrice Hadrill). It was the giant’s movements that bought about these eruptions (Wadrice Hadrill). The destruction of Pompeii

After the destruction of Pompeii caused by the earthquake in AD 62, the people spent seventeen years repairing the damage wrought upon their town (Minnesota). It was their intent to make their town even more beautiful than it was before the tremor (Minnesota). As the citizens of the region rebuilt their towns, trade began once again to flourish and they became wealthy again (Minnesota). As the life of those living in Pompeii and the outlying communities unfolded, they did not have any sense of the impending catastrophe waiting to explode on their city.

The wrath of the gods The beginning of the end for Pompeii began on the 24th of August of 79AD (Minnesota). There were small upheavals of the ground, but since the tremors were so small and insignificant, hardly anyone gave them a second notice (Minnesota). Springs and other sources of drinking water for the people dried up, an ominous sign that indicated the anger of the gods (Minnesota). Other signs of the impending destruction soon followed the omens. On the 20th of August, cracks had began to appear on the surface of the land, accompanied by rumblings (Minnesota).

The calm sea of the Gulf gave way to high waves. Livestock-horses, cattle and even birds- all of them became uneasy and restless, as if they could sense the disaster about to befall the town (Minnesota). In the morning hours of August 24, 79 AD, Vesuvius detonated with such violent force (Minnesota). Mud, smoke and poisonous fumes rumbled down the mountain, sending a deluge of ash and red hot rocks on the countryside (Minnesota). Farms situated on the slopes of the erupting giant were obliterated, as well as some plantations and homes of wealthy Romans (Minnesota).

Acrid fumes that came with the volcanic debris further contributed to the chaos that reigned during the eruption (Minnesota). These fumes made the residents of Pompeii to suffer from delusions, then asphyxiated them causing to be suffocated and die (Minnesota). Others chose just to lock themselves in their rooms, while others tried to flee the anarchy with their beasts of burden (Minnesota). Some that chose to stay, thinking that the structures in the towns such as buildings and the like would support the rain of ash and debris, but would eventually be killed by the same structures they had sought refuge (Minnesota).

Others would be overcome by the stench from the gases, while others would die getting buried in the falling ash (Minnesota). And the volume of the ash that fell on the town of Pompeii was truly enormous (Smatch). Pompeii, situated about eight kilometers south from the volcano, was entombed in about 3 meters deep of ashfall (Smatch). But thicker pyroclastic deposits would destroy the towns of Herculaneum and Stabiae, buried under 20 meters of volcanic ash and debris (Smatch). Pieces of volcanic debris called tephra flew to around 70 miles of the site, and other debris were found hundreds of miles farther out (Smatch).

Even some in Rome claimed to have seen the column of smoke from the eruption, and even heard the rumblings from the volcano (Smatch). Modern day scientists have estimated the volume of the pyroclastic debris that was ejected from Vesuvius to be four cubic kilomters (Smatch). Among the dead in the destruction of Pompeii was Pliny the Elder, author of the book Natural History (Smatch). Pliny the Elder had been given the command of the resort town as a gift (Smatch). He died trying to rescue the people caught in the eruption of the volcano, as the account of his nephew, Pliny the Younger, would bear out (Smatch).

Lines of communication to the stricken town had been cut, but there was evidence of some rescue attempts made (Smatch). Imprints of Roman sandals were engraved on the top ashfall layers testifies that there were rescue attempts, theoritically attributed to the Roman garrisons that had survived the eruption (Smatch). The fleet of the Roman Empire stationed at Misenum had been dispatched to Pompeii by Pliny the Elder to assist in the evacuation efforts at Pompeii and the surrounding areas (Awesome Stories).

The elder Pliny, who commanded the fleet, sent the ships for the rescue effort while he personally directed efforts at Stabiae (Awesome Stories). This is where he met his death on August 24, falling to a heart attack (Awesome Stories). All in all, the death toll of the eruption of Vesuvius, was a staggering 16,000 people, including 2,000 in Pompeii (Awesome Stories). Uncovering the past Pompeii had lain silent under the debris for at least 1500 years (Encarta). In 1748, efforts were undertaken to discover the anicient community, entombed under 3 meters of ash, frozen in limbo in the acount of Pliny the Younger (Lorenzi).

German archaelogist Johann Joachim Winkelmann imparted the importance of the discoveries to the world (Encarta). What was remarkable about the discoveries of the remains of Pompeii was the degree of preservation of artifacts in the ruins (Encarta). The ash fall that engulfed the town basically produced an envelope around the town, sealing the town from the decay of the elements, shielding the artifacts, structures, buildings, temples, shops, baths and houses (Encarta).

Some of the discoveries in the town included the remains of the 2000 people believed to be left in the rescue efforts, including Roman gladiators that were left tied to stop them form escaping or killing themselves (Encarta). The ashes, that were mixed with rainfall, had remained on the bodies of the people, forming molds around the remains after the bodies had turned to dust (Encarta). These hollow spaces were filled out and were molded around the bodies of those killed in the eruption (Encarta). These molds were preserved and put on display at the Porta Marina Museum (Encarta).

These were formed by the air space left over when the human remains of the victims turned to ash, and the excavators poured in liquid plaster into the air spaces, since the air spaces left an imprint of the body that was encapsulated in the ash (Mummy Tombs). These “plaster mummies” gave an image of the debacle that befell Pompeii and the surrounding areas (Mummy Tombs). Aside from the remains that framed the tragedy of the people in Pompeii, the ruins gave a striking and vivid insight into the daily life of the Romans in the day (Eyewitness).

As many of the residents of Pompeii had escaped the tragedy, they carried with them anything that was readily movable (Encarta). After the eruption, these residents came back and dug tunnels through the ash around the houses and the structures in the town, removing even slabs of marble on the pillars and walls (Encarta). Save for these things, what was left of the town, some of the wall paintings and the frescos left in the city have been taken from the site and housed in the National Museum located in Naples (Encarta).

If pieced together, the structures, buildings and what was left of the movable items gave students of history a thorough and complete picture of the daily life in an Italian city in the provinces of the Roman Empire during the 1st century AD (Encarta). The structures that remained standing gave historians valuable information on the study of the architectural designs of the Romans (Encarta). These buildings and other standing structures gave a framework of the transition of a Greek style of building to the methods that the Romans used in building their edifices (Encarta).

Many people assumed, as discused earlier in the paper, that the people in Pompeii had been killed by suffocation (Lorenzi). But research focusing on the fractures and the position of the bodies of the victims suggest another horrific way of death for them (Lorenzi). Research on the bodies in Pompeii suggest that they may have been killed almost instantly from the “thermal surges” that roared down the beach area with such velocity that it covered the distance of seven miles all the way to the coast in just about four minutes (Lorenzi). This occurred in the second and possibly third phases of the eruption (Smatch).

The first part of the eruption included the primary ejection of the volcano of several meters of what is called “inflated pumice” on the town (Smatch). Inflated pumice are glass-like fragments expanded by the gases and volcanic steam (Smatch). The second and third waves of the eruption happened either when the vent of the volcano widened or the volatility level of the material had diminshed (Smatch). At this time, the plume of the cloud, 33 kilometers high, imploded and the material it carried rushed down the slopes with newly acquired hot gases and pyroclastic materials (Smatch).

Searing surges, some as hot as 500 degrees centigrade, swooped over the towns (Smatch). These surges literally flattened everything surrounding the volcano and its neighboring areas, killing off evertything that ran against its path- humans, livestock and plant life (Smatch). The town of Herculaneum, though to be buried under the layers by lehars or mudflows coming from the volcano after an eruption, was in reality entombed by these pyroclastic flows (Smatch). The primary head of the flow covered the distance from the summit to the town in just under four minutes, a distance of 6 kilometers (Smatch).

The third phase of the eruption began the encapsulation of the entire area with a light and finer area of a thick layer of volcanic ash, known as tuff (Smatch). Excavation of the site The fate of Pompeii had lingered around for many centuries, but no serious undertaking had been done to excavate the ruins (Dr. Salvatore Ciro Nappo). But the exploration and discovery of Pompeii began in earnest in an area called “Civita” in the year 1748 (Ciro Nappo). In the first stage of the of the work, the main goal was the discovery of items of art for the private art trove of Charles III, who reigned from 1759 to 1788 (Ciro Nappo).

These artifacts were removed from the site and hauled off to Naples, where they are presently housed in the National Museum (Ciro Nappo). Other paintings and art works from the site were either lost or stripped from their placings on the walls and then framed (Ciro Nappo). Still other items were lost due to irreparability or to damage (Ciro Nappo). After the ransacking of the site, structures such as the Villa de Cicerone and the Villa di Giulia Felice were the next targets, but some scholars, such as the German Winckelmann, strongly countered the move, as they had done against the previous decimation (Ciro Nappo).

Because of the pressure they bought to bear against the initiative, the policy was put to a halt in some ways, although the wall paintings were still being stripped (Ciro Nappo). By the turn of the century, twin areas had been unearthed: the Quartiere dei Teatri and the Via delle Tombbe and the Villa di Diomede (Ciro Nappo). Karl Weber and Francisco La Vega were the archaelogists with the most involvement in this part of the excavatioon (Ciro Nappo). They wrote extensive diary notes on the progress of their work and the designs of the structures that they uncovered (Ciro Nappo).

Then the territory came under the control of the French (Ciro Nappo). It was during this period in the chronology of the excavation that the methodogy used in the excavation took a new turn (Ciro Nappo). During this time, the excavation became more standardized, and itineraries were made for visits of scholars and other important people to the work site (Ciro Nappo). The French had wanted to make a systematic way for unearthing the site, progressing from the east to the wset of the dig site (Ciro Nappo).

At one point of their work on the site, they had in their employ as many as 1500 laborers, resulting in a large scale excavation of the buried town, as the Foro, the Casa di Pansa, Casa di Sallustio and the Casa del Chrirurgo were all unearthed (Ciro Nappo). In 1863, Giuseppe Fiorelli took charge of the Pompeii excavations from 1863 to 1875 (Ciro Nappo). Fiorelli imposed a new method for the direction of the excavation work. Instead of the current method of unearthing the streets as the first step in the work, Fiorelli directed that the work begin from the top going down to the streets of the town (Ciro Nappo).

What he wanted to do was enforce a new system of preserving the artifacts that were discovered as the group worked its way down to the streets of the town (Ciro Nappo). With the information accumulated in the excavation, the data could be utilized in the restoration and rebuilding of the structures as well as their interiors (Ciro Nappo). Fiorelli also devised the plans to make use of the plaster molds to restore the forms of the plant life and the human remains that had been enveloped in the downfall of the volcanic ash (Ciro Nappo).

These plaster mummies, as earlier discussed, were formed as the bodies of the victims underwent declension, or turned into dust after centuries of being trapped in the ash (Mummy Tombs). The “ holes”, as they were termed, were filled by plaster, allowing the molds to render the forms of the bodies entombed in the ash (Mummy Tombs). The plaster casts of the bodies were discovered in several areas of the excavation site, among them the Garden of the Fugitives, the Stabian Thermal Baths, the Horrea and the Forum, and the Macellum (Mummy Tombs).

At present, at least 44 of the town’s 66 hectares have been uncovered, and the remaining 22 hectares of the town has been determined off limits to excavation (Ciro Nappo). This was decided upon as to preserve this area for the future generations to discover (Ciro Nappo). To date, the eruption of Mount Vesuvius is still ranked as among the most lethal volcanic incidents in history (Awesome Stories). Vesuvius is a graphic reminder of how virulent and dangerous volcanoes can be (Christopher Joyce).

Pompeii: Life and Death Essay

Are We Better Than Our Forefathers Essay

Are We Better Than Our Forefathers Essay.

Have you ever pondered the fact that we are better than our forefathers? If you think otherwise, I’ll explain why I think this way. Most people say that our forefathers’ lives were very peaceful. We have technology at our hands and we have made atom bombs and weapons. For destruction you might say, but that’s not true because we are making these for our protection.

Our forefathers lived without many modern amenities and inventions such as electricity, aero planes, microwave ovens and more, whereas we cannot even imagine life without laptops and cellular phones.

Even children play with such things.

The greatest drawback of the lives that our forefathers led was that of education; the people were mostly uneducated and were unaware the major issues of life. Their thinking was limited to their surroundings and they were not aware or bothered about what was happening in other parts of the world. We are living an active life, whereas our forefather led simple, idle lives.

We have clear concepts in our minds whereas the people who lived in the past had many complex issues in their minds. Young never knew the philosophy of life and children were busy with playing games only.

Today, we can communicate with people in different countries within no time — thanks to telephone and email.. However, in the past it would take months to send message from one country to another or one place to another.

Today, people possess knowledge about every layer within the earth whereas our forefathers living in the past were only familiar with well water. We can even touch the skies, thanks to the major strides that have been made in the field of commutation.

The sky is the limit when it comes to development and progress in our age.

We have overcome time and space and are covering large distances in a short span of time. While in the past people travelled on foot or in horse driven carriages now we have bullet trains and super sonic aero planes.

Of course, all these facts prove that we are leading better lives than our forefathers but it is a fact that the next generation will be better than us.

Are We Better Than Our Forefathers Essay

Life of a Sensuous Woman Essay

Life of a Sensuous Woman Essay.

Throughout the story the narrator describes several intimate moments she has shared with men in her past, which is seemingly braggadocios, but as it continues, it’s actually about a woman who desires to love herself. She begins by explaining how she is not from a low class family because her dad descended from middle ranking, stated on page 594, but by the age of 13 years old she had experienced many lovers.

How ironic, because aristocrats are held in such high regards, and would never be caught being so promiscuous, but she somehow seems to blame the reason for her tenacious desire for lovemaking on the aristocratic woman and men she witnessed.

Another proud moment for the narrator was when she spoke about being the only woman, in a village of 170 attractive women, that was thought to be pretty enough to be taken back to the domain lords attention. As stated on page 598,”When I got there, the old retainer thought I was even better than the woman in the painting, so the search was called off.

She continues to emphasize her abilities regarding lovemaking with the monk on page 601, the man she wrote letters for on page 605, and finally the 500 disciples on page 610. Ultimately, the narrators decides to abandon her commitment to be of pure mind and heart to meditate and enter the way of the Buddha, as stated on page 611, because she is overpowered by her eminent desire to relive all of the adventures she experienced though her lovemaking, the proudest moments of her existence.

Life of a Sensuous Woman Essay

Do Manners Matter Essay

Do Manners Matter Essay.

Experts say us Americans are turning into a bunch of savages. Should we care? Would you like it if you you were trying to watch a movie, but are constantly irritated by the sound of ringing cell phones and chatter in the background? Impolite behavior is threatening our way of life and is detrimental to our future and happiness. Showing your consideration for others might result in good manners being reflected from others to you. It would not hurt to show others proper edict, would it?

Apparently, having bad manners are threatening our way of civilized life, so experts say.

I believe them, being rude and barbaric is going to take our advanced state and regress it back to when we were once cavemen. We are slowly losing respect for everyone, and treating everything as if it were causal. Right now we could just forget to say thank you, and move on with our lives, but later, maybe at a funeral, we could forget who died, and just act as if it were a normal day.

It could be that we are just accepting everything as a normal part of our lives, and that there is no need to make a big deal about one thing and be over-kind about it. Though, we must not act this way, because then things will get too casual. People in your family dying could become something you could care less about. We need to keep certain things proper, and not casual.

​Though many people, especially teens, might not notice, scientists believe that people with manner tend to be more successful in life. They get better grades, better social life, and seem more impressive when applying for a job. Some might say that having manners might will make you a dork, and keep girls from liking you, but really in the end, manners benefit you. People might think that having manners might make you a loser, but in most cases; the girl will go for the gentleman, and the interviewer will go for the polite person.

Of course, simple rudeness could not result in death or destruction, but it can come close. Not showing consideration for others can lead to sadness which might result in depression. When you fail to have proper manners, those around you can feel let down and unappreciated. Just by saying please and thank you, it is guaranteed you will put a smile on people’s faces and brighten up their spirits. According to the Golden Rule, if you are kind to others, others will be kind to you. The good manners will be reflected back to you and you will be living a happier life. Also, the success achieved by the good manners can have a positive affect on your future and lead to a life full of a smaller amount of hardships and struggles. The key to happiness is simple: manners!

Do Manners Matter Essay

A Moment in Your Life in Which You Experienced an Epiphany Essay

A Moment in Your Life in Which You Experienced an Epiphany Essay.

Some instances happen in life suddenly change the perception towards life and reality. I also experienced such an incident in my life that entirely changed my view and thinking towards US Natives. Then, I realized the difference between native and foreign and the importance of the native land. Fear, mentality, pressure and psychological impact can be seen easily on the face of foreigners like me. This incident happened when I was studying in graduation just after I finished my schooling in China.

This speech describe that moment of my life that changed my vision, thinking and behaviour towards foreigners.

Life is based on morals, behaviours, society’s interaction, human values, and cultural environment. The essence of life sometime is understood when some incident happens that change the way of living, attitude or behaviour. Sometime Moving from one place to another is not seemed to be as good as it is at home or native land. The main factors that made impact on me while studying in USA can be discussed as below: Cultural and Religious Difference that changed my perception The difference between cultures in China and USA created huge impact on my life and changed my perception for religious activities and reality.

In China the social structure is quite formal and hierarchical and you need to abide the rules but in USAI found that the social structure is quite loose and informal and so it is uncommon to mix with societies and to know each other easily. The religious views are also open in USA but in China the views are consistent and follow the old tradition. These cultural and religious differences impacted my life and my views too much.

For example, in China (At my native land) I used to go in societies and there were many people in contact with whom I spent my time but in USA I found bit complex as it was ard to socialize unless you have connection to the societies. It was feeling me like I have reached on another planet and feels bad. It created conflict in the mind to follow the USA culture and religious. The morals in the societies were higher in Chinese societies but it was too less in USA societies. In America the success of any individual in society is lauded but in China it is downplayed. These all things made me nervous and felt me like I am here in the desert of cultural and religious land.

The most important thing was that in China, I found that everyone respect and is sensitive to other person but when I moved to USA, I did not get that much respect and not found people sensitive to each other, that really hurt my mind and my self-respect as in USA, the human value is none for others. Political Environment in USA The political environment in the country made impact on my life and my viewpoint towards political environment and relation between native and foreign countries changed a lot. Political and Legal rules and regulations also changed my mind for USA.

The Chinese and USA relation is quite complex and multi-faceted. The people in China and USA are not enemies or nor allies which are competition in one area and partner in other areas. The political situations in the USA are quite straight forward than in China because in China the politics is in favour of foreign people but reverse in USA. It led me to face the difficulty while reaching to USA as I was undergone various securities and investigation that made me nervous a lot. I felt like I am treating badly than native people.

This was like racism in USA and so I felt bad a lot and it came to my mind that I should not be here anymore. The security people in USA under the investigative laws treat foreigners badly and humiliate them too. Based on these observations it can be said that political environment is not appropriate for foreigners. Freedom of Living and expression It is a right to express the feelings and living freely but that perception changed literally once I reached to USA as none of them was listening and it was like only person on the planet. Being foreign place, it was quite difficult to express inside feelings and to live freely.

The people there made a fun of my name and this was not first time there. As reported in PeopleDaily. com, FBI in USA investigated the first Mayor, John Liu in New York City, for 2013. The FBI highly humiliated and said as ‘Loser’ to Mayor, this infers that how badly the people are being treated in USA even who has participation in the USA politics. The same kind of incident happened with Jeremy Lin, the famous NBA basketball star in USA. I was already aware of these incidents but not aware as it really happens and how does it feel to me.

When I faced the same thing, I felt that badly and thought it is too bad to go on any foreign land and to expect to receive great respect and welcome from foreigners. Conclusion Small things can impact the human life forever and also change the mind, thinking, behaviour and living environment. This case of racism highly changed my life entirely and my viewpoint towards USA and China. I was just thinking how other race people feel when going to foreign land and receive such kind of behaviour from the local people or from the government.

This was really bad experience of my life in USA and hope that it will not be repeated again in future. Other ethnic communities must also not treat like animals but should treat politely as they are humans too. I will say that, the experience was so horrible that I thought to leave USA but slowly –slowly I made myself to bear such problems around me and to complete my graduation. I feel like now I belong to USA not China but not for each and everyone this works and number of people do suicide. Overall, my life changed a lot and I really understand now that how reality is far than the saying.

A Moment in Your Life in Which You Experienced an Epiphany Essay

Solving the Lifeboat Dilemma Essay

Solving the Lifeboat Dilemma Essay.

In the case presented, I believe there is no right thing to do but I am morally compelled to act upon the situation that confronts me. I choose to use my strength to throw someone overboard to save four lives, including my own. In asserting that there is no right thing to do, it is because in choosing either of the options presented, human life is sacrificed. It is a classic case of “damned if I do, damned if I don’t”.

Whatever choice I make, I will end up doing the wrong thing. By choosing to use my strength to throw someone overboard and kill him, I am violating his right to life.

If I do nothing, I would be responsible for the deaths of five people. Although done without intention, throwing that one person overboard would be the only solution, all things considered, for upholding the greater good. In so doing, I am condemning myself to guilt and remorse as decisions that terminate lives are the most unbearable ones.

From a strictly utilitarian point of view, I would be choosing the option that would account for “greater happiness for the greatest number of people,” happiness qualified in this case as survival (Greenspan 119).

Clearly, my choice is the lesser of two evils. In this case, although there is a moral dilemma presented, such a dilemma could be resolved because one obligation overrides the other in terms of the number of lives that could be saved. This is not similar to the phenomenon in Sophie’s Choice wherein Sophie is presented with two symmetrical obligations. In her case, she had to choose between her two daughters or condemn both to death.

In my case, I am not compelled with emotional attachments to any of those present in the lifeboat that would make my conflict incapable of deliberation. These people are strangers to me and so, the weight of the obligation can be measured in terms of how many lives I could save which in the greater scheme of things, purport to the more moral decision. Clearly, this decision would be criticized by many. Proponents of the doctrine of the double effect would view my decision as morally wrong and unjustifiable.

While the double effect reasoning may exculpate those who take action that has negative side-effects, when that action involves something deliberately intended in order to carry out a solution (in my case, using my power to throw someone overboard), it becomes wrong. Even if the cause (in order to save five people) is good, the fact that I did something harmful to bring about the cause would render the entire decision immoral (McConnell 412). Utilitarian opponents would also reject my notion of choosing the lesser of two evils.

Radical moralists would say that human lives are incommensurate, and sacrificing one in lieu of a greater number does not make it moral (Hill 215). Others would accuse me of being an ethical egoist for choosing personal survival above all else. Works Cited Greenspan, Patricia S. “Moral Dilemmas and Guilt. ” Philosophical Studies 43 (1983): 117-125. Hill, Thomas E. , Jr. “Moral Purity and the Lesser Evil. ” The Monist 66 (1983): 213-232. McConnell, Terrance. “Moral Dilemmas and Requiring the Impossible. ” Philosophical Studies 29 (1976): 409-413.

Solving the Lifeboat Dilemma Essay

Whose Life Is It Anyway Essay

Whose Life Is It Anyway Essay.

Freedom of personal choice is an issue that in many instances is taken for granted in contemporary society. However when considered fully it would appear that in many cases freedom of personal choice is relegated to those who conform to the expected conventions of mainstream society. That is to say a person has freedom of choice to marry who they wish providing their preferred choice of partner is not of the same sex. Another example is the issue of adoption.

Providing the intended parents are a heterosexual couple the personal choice to adopt or foster a child is viewed as a valued contribution to society.

Whereas if the intended parents are in another type of relationship or are even single the choice to be part of this type of family would be denied. The issue of euthanasia or assisted suicide is a further example of where a person’s personal choice is denied them. It would appear that while many people support the right to die at their will the matter continues to polarise society, and remains illegal in Australia.

Whose Life is it anyway? ” is a play by Brian Clark, written in the late 1970’s, and tells the story of paralysed Ken Harrison and his fight against the establishment, particularly Doctor Emerson the consultant physician, to be allowed the choice to end his life. These opposing values are argued throughout the play and help to broaden the audiences’ understanding of the very controversial issue of euthanasia. The hospitals’ view as well as our societal view is that euthanasia is illegal and life must be preserved at all cost.

Another text which deals with this confronting issue is the online news article, “Poll: Fight for Euthanasia Rights”, Newcastle Herald, 11/03/13. Both texts through a range of techniques successfully position the audience to consider this topic and the significance of having freedom of choice in this area of one’s life. Brian Clark uses the setting of a hospital to arouse pity in the audience for the protagonist Ken.

It is obvious from the very beginning of the play that the audience are being positioned to view the events from Ken’s perspective. While the opening scene uses humour to introduce Ken the visual impact of the nurses having to roll Ken over in order to rub his heels becomes more confronting when Ken actually thinks he is having his back rubbed. The nurse replies to Ken’s suggestion that he is “having his backside caressed…” By responding, “I’m rubbing your heels”.

To which Ken replies, “I can’t feel anything wherever you are. ” As the play progresses the pity that is initially aroused in the audience becomes empathy as the audience gradually become familiar with the character of Ken. It is clear that Ken has a sharp wit and is extremely intellectual. The audience learn that he was once a teacher and sculptor and if he is unable to use his hands for his art the audience are increasingly convinced that he will have very little quality of life.

Whose Life Is It Anyway Essay