Army Leadership Competencies Essay

Army Leadership Competencies Essay.

Leadership competencies are groups of related actions that the Army expects leaders to do. The three categories are leads, develops, and achieves. The Army leader serves to lead others; to develop the environment, themselves, others and the profession as a whole; and to achieve organizational goals. Core competencies are those groups of actions universal to leaders, across cohorts and throughout organizations. They provide a clear and consistent way of conveying expectations for Army leaders. Leader competencies can be developed. Leaders acquire competencies at the direct leadership level.

As the leader moves to organizational and strategic level positions, the competencies provide the basis for leading through change. Leaders continuously refine and extend the ability to perform these competencies proficiently and learn to apply them to increasingly complex situations.

The category of leads encompasses five competencies. The first two focus on the affiliation of the followers and the common practices for interacting with them. Leads others involves influencing Soldiers and Army Civilians in the leader’s organization.

Extends influence beyond the chain of command involves influencing others when the leader does not have designated authority or while the leader’s authority is not recognized by others, such as with unified action partners. Builds trust is an important competency to establish conditions of effective influence and for creating a positive environment. Leader actions and words comprise the competencies of leads by example and communicate. Actions can speak louder than words and excellent leaders use this to serve as a role model to set the standard. Leaders communicate to convey clear understanding of what needs to be done and why.

Leaders are expected to extend influence beyond the chain of command, which usually has limited formal authority. This competency widens the responsibility and sphere of influence for a leader. Such influence requires insightful, and possibly nonstandard, methods to influence others. Its limited authority stems from the audience’s possible lack of the traditions, customs, and regulations of the Army and military forces. When extending influence, Army leaders have to assess who they need to influence and determine how best to establish their authority and execute leadership functions. Often they have little time to assess the situation beforehand and need to adapt as the interaction evolves. Extending influence is a competency that includes negotiation, consensus building and conflict resolution. Extending influence largely depends on the trust established with unified action partners and often applies to stability and defense support of civil authorities operations.

Leaders operate to improve or sustain high performance in their organization. They do so by focusing on the four develops competencies. Creates a positive environment inspires an organization’s climate and culture. Prepares self encourages improvement in leading and other areas of leader responsibility. Leaders develop others to assume greater responsibility or achieve higher expertise. A leader stewards the profession to maintain professional standards and effective capabilities for the future and also they are responsible for development. They must ensure that they themselves are developing as well as developing subordinates, and sustaining a positive climate while improving the organization. Leaders encourage development and set conditions while performing missions they do this by having subordinates reflect on what happened during the event, by assessing whether units performed at or well above standard and why, in addition to having a positive mindset of improvement and learning.

Every experience is developmental. There are choices to make about developing others. Leaders choose when and how to coach, counsel and mentor others. Leaders often have the freedom to place people in the best situation to maximize their talent. Then the leader provides resources the subordinate needs to succeed, makes expectations clear, and provides positive, meaningful feedback. While leaders need to develop others, they have to set a positive climate in which individuals and the unit can improve and operate. As part of their developmental responsibilities, leaders must prepare themselves and act to promote long-term stewardship of the Army.

Gets results is the single achieve competency. It relates to actions to accomplish tasks and missions on time and to standard. It is a process of providing value toward mission accomplishment. Getting results is the goal of leadership. However, leaders must remain mindful that leading people and creating positive conditions enable them to operate as successful leaders. Getting results requires the right level of delegation, empowerment and trust balanced against the mission. Adaptability to conditions and adjustments based on adversarial actions are ever important elements of success.

Leadership and increased proficiency in leadership can be developed. Fundamentally, leadership develops when the individual desires to improve and invests effort, when his or her superior supports development, and when the organizational climate values learning. Learning to be a leader requires knowledge of leadership, experience using this knowledge and feedback.

Formal systems such as performance evaluation reports, academic evaluation reports, and 360 degree assessments offer opportunities to learn but the individual must embrace the opportunity and internalize the information. The fastest learning occurs when there are challenging and interesting opportunities to practice leadership with meaningful and honest feedback and multiple practice opportunities. These elements contribute to self-learning, developing others and setting a climate conducive to learning.

Leader development involves recruiting, accessing, developing, assigning, promoting, broadening, and retaining the best leaders, while challenging them over time with greater responsibility, authority and accountability. Military leadership is unique because the armed forces grow their own leaders from the lowest to highest levels. Army leaders assume progressively broader responsibilities across direct, organizational and strategic levels of leadership. The Army entrusts leaders to develop professionally and be ready to accept greater responsibility when called upon.

Reference List

United States Army. (2006). Army Leadership (Field Manual 6-22)Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office

United States Army. (2012). Army leadership (Army Doctrine Reference Manual
6-22)Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office

United States Army. (2007). Army Leadership (Army Regulation 600-100)Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office

United States Army. (2012). Leadership Development and Assessment Course HandbookJoint Base Lewis-McChord: U.S. Government Printing Office

Department of Defense. (2010). Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms. (Joint Publication 1-02) Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office

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Army Leadership Competencies Essay

Informal Leadership Essay

Informal Leadership Essay.

The employees with the largest amount of status in the informal organization usually become its informal leader. Some of the advantages of informal leadership are that the informal leader is someone within an organization or work unit who, by virtue of how he or she is perceived by his peers (or others in the organization) is seen as worthy of paying attention to, or following. The major thing that distinguishes an informal leader from a formal one is that the informal leader does not hold a position of power or formal authority over those that choose to follow him or her.

The ability for an informal leader to influence or lead others rests on the ability of that person to evoke respect, confidence, and trust in others, and it is not uncommon for an informal leader to not intentionally try to lead. Informal leaders can be exceedingly valuable to organizations, and to the success of formal leaders, or, if informal leaders do not support the formal leaders and their agendas and vision, they can function as barriers in the organization.

The reasons for the drawbacks in informal leadership are because informal standards: personal goals and interests of workers differ from official organizational goals, also, informal communication: changes of communication routes within an enterprise due to personal relations between coworkers. In an informal group: certain groups of coworkers have the same interests, or (for example) the same origin. The informal leaders: due to charisma and general popularity, certain members of the organization win more influence than originally intended. There are different interests and preferences of coworkers as well as different status of coworkers.

Lastly, the work requirements are difficult and their conditions of work are unpleasant. On balance, I feel that informal leadership is good for the organization because it plays several useful roles for a work unit. For example, the informal leader is expected to model and explain the key norms (informal standards of behavior) of the informal group for new members. If someone fails to comply with the groups norms, the informal leader will most likely play a dominant role in applying various forms and degrees of pressure or punishment to the individual to induce the desired behavior in the future.

Informal Leadership Essay

Seven Ages of a Leader Essay

Seven Ages of a Leader Essay.

Each stages of leadership brings new crises and challenges. Every new leader faces the misperceptions and the personal needs and agendas of those who are to be led. The seven ages of leadership give a clear idea about the different stages of leadership. They are,

•The Infant Executive
•The Schoolboy with shining face
•The Lover ,with a woeful ballad
•The Bearded Soldier
•The General, Full of wise saws
•The statesman, with spectacles Nose
•The sage, second childishness

The initial stage of the leader says that the leader is like a child and he needs others dependency and support.

He do everything with the support of others. The next stage is like a school boy with shining face. In that time the leadership experience is an agonizing education like parenting. In the third stage the leader is the lover with a woeful ballad. One mark of the future leaders is the ability to identify. Today’s leaders would instantly recognize the young king’s predicament.

New comer or not , almost all leaders find themselves at some point in the position of having to ask others to leave the organization. In the fourth age of the leadership is like the bearded soldier. At the case of over time leaders grow comfortable with the role. This comfort brings more confidence to the leaders In this stage leaders may forget the true impact of their words and actions at that the leader think that there is no need for hearing what the followers said .

In this stage the leader acts very strictly and adopt a seriousness character The next age of leadership is like the general with full of wise saws. One of the greatest challenges faced by the leader is that the leader’s career is not simply allowing people to speak the truth but actually being able to hear it. In this stage the leader is with the feature of wise saws. In the fifth stage the leader is like a statesman , with spectacles. The leader in this stage is often hard at work he prepare something for the benefit of the organization. In the last age of leadership the leader is again go to the childishness this is called second stage childishness In this stage the leader acts as a mentor and he really know what he have achieved will not be lost.

Seven Ages of a Leader Essay

Leadership Character in a Famous Leader Essay

Leadership Character in a Famous Leader Essay.

Leadership is establishing direction and influencing a group of people towards the achievement of goal.World without leader would ceast to exist.A leader shows a ray of light in darkness and makes future brighter.He brings hope and happiness in life.

Mahatma known as great soul.Gandhi was the leader of the Indian nationalist movement against British rule.He is known as the ‘Father of Independence’ of his country.His non-violent protest to achieve political and social progress has been hugely influential.

Mahatma Gandhi had a vision for India, where there would no government, no army or police force.He wished that India would be as it was in the past with self-developing villages,only depending on agrarian economy(Mahatma Gandhi’s Vision for the future India,by Joseph S.Friedman)The essential qualities of leadership can be found in Gandhi are crebility,selfless and inspirational leader.

Gandhi had a credibility established through his work and movements in South Africa.

South Africa changed Gandhi dramatically,as he faced the discrimination. One day in court at Durban, the magistrate asked him to remove his turban. Other than that, Gandhi was thrown off a train, when he refused to move from the first class to a third class coach. These are the incidents have been known as a turning point in his life(Biography of Mahatma Gandhi, by Jennifer Rosenberg).People already had a great honor and hopes from him due to what he could achieve in South Africa, his non-violent were very well respected. In India, Gandhi established the credibility through example.He showed himself as a slave of the people of India.

Gandhi is a selfless leader in the history.His approach had nothing to do with his personal interest and in fact, he sacrificed his comfort and his family’s to bring about the change.On several occasions, he was humiliated, battered and kicked by the whites.He tolerated the insults and let go those who were unjust to him.He was never thought of revenge.All he wanted was discriminatory practices against the non-white to be stopped (Gandhi An Exemplary Leader, by Ashim Gupta,2008). Moreover, the lesser-known attributes of the great soul were humanity and service. He offered shelter to a leper and cared for him.He took two hours from his office work daily to monitor the leper in a hospital in Natal.Also,Gandhi is remembered by the poor more for his service than as an independence fighter.

Gandhi without a doubt could inspire many leaders, he could show the common man that even he can make difference and bring the English Empire down.It was possible since his leadership based on self-reliance and non-cooperation. Martin Luther King was greatly inspired by Mahatma.Gandhi’s non-violence was informal by not merely his Hindu background but by extensive study of other religious and moral traditions, including Christianity. Gandhi’s greatest contribution to history and the reason his was such a crucial influence on King was Gandhi’s contention was always that standing up for oneself, struggling against independence, living with dignity and integrity. Do not require any use of violence(Mahatma Gandhi Leadership-Inspirational Foundations, by Y.P Anand,2007).Besides,South African former president Nelson Mandela’s first inspiration was Mahatma Gandhi.Mandela is not the only student of Non-violence leader Mahatma Gandhi.There are some other famous leaders in world who follow him for that.

In conclusion, Mahatma Gandhi,who is known as the ‘Father of The Nation’ was the key leader in the independence struggle for India.Although,to this day, India is the largest democracy in the world with an globalized economy that has absolutely nothing to do with Gandhi’s vision for his beloved country.However,his gentle approach to life is a proof to the fact that strength does not equal to physical capacity(Inspiring quotes by Mahatma, by Zoe B).Gandhi’s outstanding qualities which has proven that it is possible to remain gentle in spirit, yet simultaneously achieve a huge amount of strength and respect.

Leadership Character in a Famous Leader Essay

Assignment “Introduction to Leadership” Essay

Assignment “Introduction to Leadership” Essay.

Leadership styles: – When looking at leadership style I have to look at what as a manager I am good at and that has got me to the position as Manager and what I need to do to progress my team. Firstly I need to gain the respect of my team by treating everyone fairly. Leadership is defined as ‘the process in which an individual influences the group of individuals to attain a common goal’. The goal is attained by mutual cooperation and cohesive behaviour.

A leader infuses a sense of positivity and directs others to reach the specified goal. A leader is someone who stands not only for his cause but takes responsibility and motivates other individuals also. There is a clear difference between being a manager and a leader. A leader is a motivation for others and inspires individuals to aim high and attain that aim.

However a manager only supervises over his subordinates. Power naturally comes to a leader but that power is not a tool of leader.

To be a good lead I have to look at the managers around me and what in my opinion makes them good or bad leaders and also if these are traits that I can adapt and use or ultimately will they be out of character for me and be counterproductive for me. Using the Paul and Kenneth Blanchard model of Situational Leadership:- Telling: – this is where a person has low ability and low willingness maybe a new starter. This is the style I would use for a new starter who does not yet have the skills to operate independently. Selling: – this is where a person would have low ability but high willingness.

This style I would use on someone like Dave in the office he wants to do a good job but is of an age that he does not quite have the skills he needs but he more than makes up for that with his knowledge of the job. So I need to draw on his experience to help him achieve his goals. Participating: – this is for a person will high ability and low willingness. This leadership style I would use on Becca as she has the ability but when things are going against her tends to try and hide from difficult circumstances so i would have a discussion with her and give her the support needed to get the job done. Delegating: – this is for High ability and high willingness.

This i am more than comfortable using on Ann and Mel as they have shown that they can comfortably do the tasks i set them. I have also set them individual tasks looking at how we can improve our day to day activities and ultimately make our lives easier in the long run. After doing the test I came down as someone who was fairly evenly spread of tell, selling and participating but who does not delegate this is something I have known about and my team has told me and something I can now begin to address

Review of own leadership behaviour:-

I am relatively new in the role of Sales office Manager. I have progressed from a role within the factory by doing an excellent job as a traffic planner. I took all the information gain by talking to people and being in the loop within the factory. I took in account what the factory could do and what our customer expectations were which allowed us to plan what was needed and by when to meet what the customer actually needed. Being new to the sales role I have had to take myself out the information loop and learn a new role. I have had to learn a new computer system and at the same time be the role model for my team. Whilst doing this I have made myself available for any problems the team has but have tried to show that I can do the job and also help team members who have been doing it for years. I currently have a team of five people all with varying abilities. I have two long serving members of staff one part time and two that started at the beginning of the year.

With no two members of staff the same I have had to employ different leadership style i.e. with Dave he is coming up to retirement and I would say he was low on ability he has a high willingness to complete tasks set so with him I would employ the telling leadership style which was very similar with my two new starters but as the months progressed they both showed high ability but one was more willing to achieve than the other so with Becca I had to show a participating style of leadership and with Mel I am able to delegate more as she showed both high ability and high willingness. The factory as a whole is very unionised and whilst the majority of the staff are in the union they do generally like to get the job done and if this means working long stressful hours they do.

When we are in these situations I will change my leadership style to match the situation where it be acting on their behalf to speak to people who they have issue with (maybe another member of staff or even customers) or by re-enforcing procedures that are there to make the lives easier or by finding courses that will ultimately give them the tools to make their jobs easier in the long run. I have spoken to members of the team and other managers around the office and all have said I try to do too much and that I need to “learn to delegate” and whilst this doesn’t come naturally to me (my preferred leadership style was telling and participating) I have taken their comments on board and have started to delegate a lot more around the team and focused on other areas within the team that would help them to improve and grow.

I can improve myself as a leader by listening to others and taking advice and giving and receiving feedback and also by doing courses and re assessing myself to look at things from a different angle and point of view. Within the factory I am constantly being assessed and feedback given my goals are constantly moving but I personally need to delegate more to enable me to grow as a manager.

I have also started to meet other Sales office managers within the group so I know that the job I have been doing whilst not exactly the same as other sites is very similar and I haven’t been doing that bad a job but perception is everything so I have to look at promoting myself with the site and also more importantly to other sites what I have to say has value and I can bring a lot to the table but I also have to look at the individuals within my team and look at their maturity levels and adapt my leadership to what is needed to each individual and also learn to delegate more.

Assignment “Introduction to Leadership” Essay

Autocratic Leadership Style Essay

Autocratic Leadership Style Essay.

Can an authoritarian/autocratic/directive leadership style be appropriate in American companies currently? If yes/no, why?

It is first important to clarify what the term leadership means. According to Kinicki & Fugate (2012), “leadership is defined as ‘a social influence process in which the leader seeks the voluntary participation of subordinates in an effort to reach organizational goals’” (p. 364). This means leadership involves exercising authority at individual, group, and organizational levels.

Bass (2008) identifies positive leadership traits to include task competence, interpersonal competence, intuition, traits of character, biophysical traits, and personal traits.

With this basic understanding of leadership, it can be said that the appropriateness of an autocratic leadership style depends on the type of company and situation at hand—the idea of situational leadership (Kinicki & Fugate, 2012, p. 370). Even though the United States is a democratic country, an autocratic leadership style fits some but not all companies, depending on what the company wants to accomplish and what the company’s circumstances are.

A manager with an autocratic style of leadership typically does all the decision-making without getting input from his/her subordinates (Rao, 2010, para. 3). Therefore, the manager is the authoritarian while all the subordinates are to simply follow instructions without giving their own thoughts or concerns about the task given to them. A benefit of this style is it can help provide structure and discipline to an otherwise inexperienced team, and also help a team stay on top of strict deadlines. Since the manager makes all the decisions, there is no time “wasted” on decision-making if there’s a time constraint. This type of leadership is also helpful when the manager has the highest amount of knowledge and could therefore specifically guide the subordinates on how to complete a task (Cherry), or when a type of industry simply does not require much communication or creativity relative to other industries.

However, an autocratic style of leadership would be ill-fitting for many other types of companies, especially if the autocratic style is taken to extremes. As the textbook Organizational Behavior mentions, a bad leader would possess traits like being incompetent, rigid, or callous (Kinicki & Fugate, 2012, p. 366). Since a manager taking up an autocratic style of leadership is enforcing rigid rules, it could be potentially easy to become rigid as a person as well, which could lead to loss of respect from subordinates and ruin morale of the team. Cherry states that abuse of the style can make a person seem “controlling, bossy, and dictatorial,” and that this autocratic style of leadership prevents subordinates from producing creative solutions to problems.

Giving employees such a lack of influence in the company could cause them to feel resentful since their opinions are never heard (“Leadership Styles,” 2008, para. 3-4), which means valuable relationships cannot be developed, thus straining human and social capital. An example of where an autocratic style of leadership would not be appropriate is if all the subordinates are just as knowledgeable or skilled as the manager. It would make more sense to use a democratic style of leadership so that everyone can participate and have a sense of importance in the decision-making, and because of their contribution, would feel more committed and enthusiastic about the company’s goals.

Situational leadership theories suggest that “the effectiveness of a particular style of leader behavior depends on the situation.” This applies to how the appropriateness of the autocratic style of leadership depends on the company at hand. It is important to fully analyze the employee characteristics (locus of control, experience, task ability, etc.) and environmental factors (task structure and work-group dynamics) to decide whether or not an autocratic style of leadership would produce the most desirable results for the company (Kinicki & Fugate, 2012, p. 370-372).

References

Bass, B.M., & Bass, R. (2008). The Bass handbook of leadership. New York: Free Press. Cherry, K. Lewin’s leadership styles. About.com: Psychology. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/leadership Cherry, K. What is autocratic leadership?. About.com: Psychology. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/leadership Kinicki, A., & Fugate M. (2012). Organizational behavior: Key concepts, skills, and best practices.
Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Leadership styles: Autocratic leadership. (2008). Leadership-toolbox.com, pp. 3-4. Retrieved from http://www.leadership-toolbox.com/autocratic-leadership.html Rao, M.S. (2010). Is autocratic leadership relevant today?. Chief Learning Officer: Solutions for Enterprise Activity. Retrieved from http://clomedia.com/articles

Autocratic Leadership Style Essay

Leadership styles in greek mythology Essay

Leadership styles in greek mythology Essay.

In ancient Greece, certain leadership qualities were seen as more desirable, and by reviewing Greek mythology it is possible to understand what these ancient people valued in their leaders. The tales of Uranus, Cronus, and Zeus show which characteristics were prized by the Greek people, and which were despised.

Uranus, son and husband of Gaea, was tyrannical, and fearful, casting his offspring into the underworld. He was obsessed with absolute power. It did not concern him that his children, the Hundred-handed giants and the Cyclopes, burned with rage at him from their Underworld prison.

It did not concern him that his mother-wife Gaea suffered dearly knowing the fate of her children. He was a wicked ruler, and his Titan sons and daughters were fearful of him.

Even when Gaea urged them to join her in a plot to overthrow Uranus, the Titans, terrified, could not reply. It was only when Cronus, the youngest Titan, finally agreed to help Gaea that Uranus was finally and violently defeated.

Cronus dismembered his father and scattered the body parts. The Titans then freed their siblings and made Cronus king.

Cronus, however, turned out to be as wicked a king as his father Uranus. Gaea warned Cronus that like his father, his child would overthrow him. Obsessed with avoiding Uranus’s fate, Cronus devoured each of the children born to him and Rhea, his wife. Eventually, Rhea deceived Cronus to keep him from eating the newborn children.

Cunningly, Rhea his one child, Zeus, and fed her husband a rock in the place of the shining child. When Zeus grew up, joined with his brother Poseidon and the other children of Cronus in a war resulted in Zeus’s overthrow of Cronus. At last, overpowered, the Titans retreated into Tartarus, where they were bound, imprisoned, for eternity. With the Titans in the depths of the earth, the rule of Zeus began.

Unlike his father and grandfather, Zeus ruled the world justly. He assigned each of the deities their respective functions. He created a system of laws, and punished those immortals that broke their sacred word. Zeus also allowed the immortals to benefit mankind. Out of chaotic destruction, Zeus’s rule began and he established such order that no Olympian god would question his authority. Even when the Titans would try to return and overthrow Zeus, they could not defeat him due to the loyalty he had earned from the other Olympians.

A reading of these tales shows that the Greeks looked for the qualities of strength and authority in their leaders, along with courage and wisdom. However, these alone were not enough. In order to be a great leader or king, one needed to establish a system of justice and fairness, where those who did wrong would face punishment, and where order would be maintained instead of chaos. Zeus was the model for earthly kings because of his ability to bring order, fairness, and justice along with his great strength.

Leadership styles in greek mythology Essay

George Walker Bush Leadership Style Essay

George Walker Bush Leadership Style Essay.

Barbara and George H. W. Bush are the parents of the 43rd president of the United Sates, George W. Bush. The two were married on January 6th, 1945 and it was said that they experienced love at first sight when meeting. George Bush Sr. was 17 when married, and Barbara was 16. The two have lived in 29 homes located in 17 cities, and is the first presidential couple to reach 60 years of marriage. Barbara’s background includes working a summer job sorting nuts and bolts during World War II as well as working at the Yale Coup while her husband was attending the college, and until her first child was born.

She is the second woman in history to have both a son and husband serve as president of the United States. George H. W. Bush served as the 41st president, as well as numerous other positions within our government. Some of these include vice-president to Ronald Reagan, director of the CIA, congressman, ambassador to the United Nations, and chairman of the Republican National Committee.

Besides these governmental positions he was also a pilot in the navy as well as an oil businessman in Texas. George Walker Bush was born on July 6, 1946 in New Haven, Connecticut.

He was the oldest of his five other siblings: Pauline (Robin), John Ellis (Jeb), Neil, Marvin, and Dorothy (Doro). George’s sister Robin died at the age of three from leukemia when George was only seven years old. His brother Jeb would also go on to become the 43rd governor of Florida. In 1948, George Sr. and Barbara moved the family to Midland, Texas, where H. W. would make his fortune in the oil business. George attended private school in Massachusetts where he was a great athlete in baseball, football, and basketball.

He was good in school, but was also known for being a bit of a troublemaker. He went on to be accepted to Yale University where he was the president of the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity, played rugby, and was a member of the secretive Skull and Bones society. Two weeks before graduation George enlisted in the Texas National Guard. Although there is a lot of speculation as to whether or not he completely fulfilled his duty, he was honorably discharged in 1974. In 1977, Bush met Laura Welch and married her after only three months. The couple has two children together, twins Jenna and Barbara.

Family is huge to George, and he attributes Laura for stabilizing his life and helping him to give up alcohol in 1986. As for George W. Bush’s leadership style, many things through his life have affected how he chooses to lead. In 1978 he lost in an election for a House of Representatives seat in Texas, which helped him to humble himself and realize that things would not be given to him just because of his father. He helped with his father’s presidential campaign in the year 1988, and this helped him to learn the ins and outs of campaigns as well as doing the dirty work required of such a position.

After this, George bought a share of the Texas Rangers baseball team and served as managing general partner for five years, where he learned how a business works and runs. He became governor of Texas in 1995 and served until 2000, when he won the presidential election on the republican ticket. He served two terms as president, and dealt with disasters such as Hurricane Katrina and September 11th. George has been quoted speaking about Katrina saying, “Throughout the area hit by the hurricane, we will do what it takes, we will stay as long as it takes, go help citizens rebuild their communities and their lives”.

George W. Bush’s leadership style can be described as problem solver, delegator, decisive, visionary, and composed. He was a problem solver because he believed that getting problems solved right when they needed to be was key, and did not push them off until the next person came around to fix it. As for delegator, Bush was good at knowing when it was his place to get something done, or when he should let someone else take over the job for him. George was a decisive leader in that he made tough decisions throughout his presidency, but always did what he believed was best for our country.

Visionary is one way to describe his leadership style seeing as he had a clear vision set out at the beginning of his presidency for how he wanted our country to run, and this is something that he is known quite well for. Lastly, during Bush’s presidency he had to lead our country through two terrible incidents. Through all of this, he was able to maintain his composure and remain an effective leader through tough times, which shows his composure as a leader.

One of the things that George W. Bush is most well known for would be his speech that he gave at the sight of ground zero a few days after 9/11. I can hear you; the rest of the world hears you. And the people who knocked down these buildings will hear all of us soon. ” I believe that this quote from him helps to show all of the different leadership styles that he exhibited throughout his stint as governor of Texas as well as president of the United States. Nowadays, you can find George spending time with his wife Barbara on his ranch in Texas. He recently wrote his book, “Decision Points” and had a library put up in his name on the Southern Methodist University in the great state of Texas.

George Walker Bush Leadership Style Essay

Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory Essay

Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory Essay.

Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard inscribe fine piece of scholarly research papers and world class books. They formulated a model by the name of situational leadership theory and presented solutions for tremendous leadership styles while attaining the goals of the organization.

Hersey and Blanchard, situational leadership theory:

According to Hersey and Blanchard situational leadership model, an individual having leadership traits tend to adjust in accordance with the environment. Adjustments are made on the basis of follower maturity level i.e. the readiness to perform in a particular situation.

Readiness specifically concerns with the ability and confidence level of the follower. Leaders identify whether they need to emphasize on task behaviors or responsibility behaviors in order to deal with the followers maturity level of employees, subordinates or team members.

Robin and Coulter (2007) presented four diverse and effective leadership styles:

· Delegating: Employees are allowed to make decisions related to specific task hence both relationship style and task behavior are low.

· Participating: Employees participate in important decisions and share ideas a well hence task behavior is low and relationship style is high.

· Selling: Leaders sell to employee in a way that they have to briefly explain the task direction and they must support and persuade the employees at every step. Here leaders delineate the roles and duties of followers and seek out ideas from them. It is little bit a two way communication process.

· Telling: Sometimes leaders must explain employee’s specific tasks to do and supervises each and every work very closely. Most of the emphasis is given to task behavior and relationship style is low. Leader clearly defines the duties and roles of followers and major decisions are made by leader itself and it is purely a one-way communication.

As the follower reaches the higher level of readiness, leadership control continuously decreases in terms of task behavior and relationship style. It further elaborates that the leaders must compensate for certain limitations like abilities and motivation of its followers. The leadership style focuses on the readiness level and development level. Four developmental levels are as follows:

– Employees are less competent but highly committed
– Several employees have low competency level and are not committed as well
– Many times subordinates are moderately competent and variably committed as well
– Numerous times employees seem highly competent and committed as well

Those leaders who adopt situational leadership style must have the ability to implement alternative styles as required in a particular environment. It requires understanding the maturity level of the employees in terms of readiness and implementing appropriate leadership style. An important research explained that when follower’s maturity level is high, leaders must use delegating style hence leader intervention is very low and employees having strong confidence, willingness and abilities are empowered to make chief decisions and perform specific tasks.

However if the maturity level of subordinates or employees is low then telling must be used as an effective technique and leaders must emphasize on task behavior. At this juncture the readiness level is low where instructions are given and the entire system is highly structured because followers lack capabilities or they might show unwillingness or insecure while performing a particular task. When the readiness level is low to moderate i.e. employees have the capabilities but reflect insecurity or unwillingness them key importance is given to participative style. Leaders give emphasis to relationship building and assists followers in understanding the task, gaining confidence hence sharing innovative and creative ideas with each other.

Leaders also opt for selling when the readiness level of the followers ranges from moderate to high. In such case employees reflect willingness and confidence in the task but lack capabilities. Therefore leaders persuasively explain the entire task and provide followers with clear task guidance.

Hersey and Blanchard further highlighted that leaders must be flexible so that change their leadership styles overtime. According to one research if appropriate styles are used during low readiness level then slowly and gradually employees gain maturity and they improve their abilities to perform specific tasks.  The devotion towards prosperity and development of followers and responding to them in an effective manner results into less directive or instructive style as followers get mature. It is widely used in diversified management development programs. The demeanor remains with continuous learning approach where importance is given to training and development to further enhance task behavior as well as skills and confidence level (Schermerhorn 2008).

Implication of Situational Leadership theory in leading teams:

Reshma (n.d.) instigated that no single leadership style is applicable in a workplace situation. One must look for the style that best fits a particular situation hence it is highly dependent on the situation. One of the recent studies reveals that four components of communication play important role in situational leadership theory:

– Expectations must be communicated clearly in an effective manner
– Top management must listen to employees
– Superior should be delegating
– Higher management must provide feedback continuously to improve employees performance

Three situations have been highlighted that influence the leadership style:

– Level of control of leader in a particular organization and how they respond to different situations.
– More importantly situations have three times greater impact on an individual performance and play important role in shaping leaders behavior.
– One successful leadership style might fail in a different situation. A situation plays an important role in making out positive and negative impact on the consequences.

Hence one must clearly analyze and evaluate the key requirements of a situation and implement correct leadership styles. Natural abilities also facilitate a lot therefore leaders must look into their intrinsic values.

Nicholls (1993) stated that leadership requires consistent approach with conformity to key facts. Leaders must transform from parent to developer and a balance must be maintained between task and relationship behavior along with the abilities and willingness to perform in a particular environment.

Lande and Conte (2009) instigated that the maturity level of subordinates depends on work related knowledge, skills and ability. Gaining experience in terms of promotion, success, skill or confidence plays an important role.

The critical perspective:

Kasch Associates (2009) explained that competencies and skills are not inherited from ancestors. It analyzed task behavior and reveals that there exist several task actions which must be performed and it requires understanding individual subordinate and team member closely so that proper responsibilities can be assigned to individuals. It requires controlling and supervising whether employees perform the task effectively and efficiently. It highlighted several socio economic variables and said that leaders must minimize the distance and try to cultivate collaboration and integrate and foster two way communications between leader and the follower.

 It clearly defined maturity as the willingness and ability of followers to perform a particular task. It comprises of both psychological maturity as well as job maturity. Job maturity pertains to ability, knowledge and skills whereas psychological maturity assumes that the follower owns a particular task and reflects motivation to further enhance the quality of the work and augment the norms and values related to self respect and self confidence.

According to Article Base (2009) it requires considering readiness level, development level and leadership styles for boosting the performance and effective leadership. Those leaders who perform in group must be flexible and must provide psychological space to individuals so that they can progress. Nevertheless the rate and degree of maturity continuum varies across subordinates therefore leaders must respond in a customize manner and it clearly highlights the importance of intuitive appeal.

Strict supervision stagnant the performance therefore superiors must opt for benefit/cost ration and continuously add value to the performance of the team hence superiors must formulate appropriate structural policies and behavior in accordance with the internal customers needs and requirements. Emphatic listening is the realm and in order to build long term relationship and commitment with subordinates.

Conclusion:

It can be concluded that there exists both pros and cons in the model. Nonetheless dynamic management firms and institutions draw on the approach and formulate strategic solutions. It requires holistic approach. The paradigm remains with principle centered loom and proactive approach. Both the lessons and experience are gained gradually and leaders can facilitate and assist subordinates and the champion followers lead to efficient and effective performance if leadership styles are adopted in a systematic and consistent manner.

Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory Essay

Personal Leadership Reflection Paper Essay

Personal Leadership Reflection Paper Essay.

Taking the Big Five Personality assessment was incredibly informative to me. I learned that my primary strengths are my openness to experience and conscientiousness. Openness-to-experience personality dimension includes traits of flexibility, intelligence, and internal locus of control. (Leadership: Theory, Application, & Skill Development, 2010, p41) I am an incredibly flexible individual and tend to go with the flow even in high stress situations. I need to be relaxed in my field of expertise otherwise I will go absolutely insane. I am a Graphic Designer and clients change their minds more than you would believe.

Another great attribute about this strength in my field is the ability to solve problems such as how to create a high end product on a low budget. I also am a firm believer that one’s level of success is primarily based on the work that they put in to themselves, not on luck or other people. The conscientiousness personality dimension includes traits of dependability and integrity.

(Leadership: Theory, Application, & Skill Development, 2010, p40) I am an incredibly dependable individual.

If I say that I will stay at work all night if I have to in order to complete a task to meet deadline, I will make it happen regardless. As far as my integrity goes, I am incredibly ethical and honest. If a coworker needs to speak with me about a personal matter they can do so without ever having to worry about me using it against them for personal gain. I want to create a trusting and supporting group to work with which is a product of integrity and dependability. The weaker traits for me were adjustment, surgency, and agreeableness. Although I scored decently high on adjustment, I’m still categorizing it as a weakness. The adjustment personality dimension includes traits of emotional stability and self-confidence. (Leadership: Theory, Application, & Skill Development, 2010, p39) I have issues with keeping my emotions in check. I need to work on my self-control and my confidence in my ideas and ability to make decisions. Unfortunately, I’m incredibly insecure about my work. I have untouchable work ethic and I’m really good at what I do, however, I will let the most unimportant comment about my work get under my skin.

That then and ruins all of the confidence that I recently managed to build up. On a positive note, I work incredibly well under pressure and I don’t criticize other people’s work. I rather praise them and lift them up. That goes back to the ideal environment that I seek. The last thing that I want to do is criticize my co-workers in turn creating a bad work environment for me and everyone else. Also, if the individual that I criticize has a hard time with the insecurities, saying something negative to them will not only create animosity it will also decrease productivity in the office. I scored fairly low on surgency. The surgency personality dimension includes dominance, extraversion, and high energy with determination. One of the main reason in which I scored so low in this area is that I don’t like to manipulate people in order to get my way.

I also am not really interested in climbing the corporate ladder. From what I’ve seen in my field, I’d rather be known as “just a designer.” Reason being, the higher up you are in my field, the less actual design you tend to do. I enjoy art directing and helping people out; however, I wouldn’t want to art-direct all day long. Lastly we have the trait in which I scored the lowest, agreeableness. The agreeableness personality dimension includes traits of sociability and emotional intelligence. (Leadership: Theory, Application, & Skill Development, 2010, p38) The reasons I scored so low in this area are I’m not too crazy about working with others and I’m not concerned about having a bunch of friends.

Theory, Concepts and Application

There are a few observations that I’ve made about myself over the course of this class. One of them is that I need to adjust my self-concept. Self-concept refers to the positive or negative attitudes people have about themselves. (Leadership: Theory, Application, & Skill Development, 2010, p51) I’ve learned throughout this course that my self-concept is incredibly negative. This is largely due to the fact that I’m afraid of my confidence appearing to be narcissism. In other words, the lack of confidence is more in other’s ability to perceive me in the correct manner. I have an innate and irrational fear that I’m going to come across the wrong way and people will dislike me if I show how proud of my work I am. . I have a rough time at balancing my confidence. I’m usually way below the level I should be. My new focus is to have more self-efficacy in order to not only benefit myself, but to also inspire my peers to do the same. My self-assessment showed that I had a moderately high number for adjustment personality dimension. If I’m able to work on my self-confidence, my overall adjustment personality will also improve.

Another thing that I’ve learned about myself is that I’m truly not what one would define as a powerful leader. I have little need for surgency. I scored the lowest on surgency on my personality profile. If someone is trying to get to the rung above my on the later, I’ll probably assist them. I’m just not competitive like that and I surely am not cutthroat. I scored the second worst on agreeableness. I get along with people okay; however, I am not equipped with the social mechanisms needed for a powerful leadership role. I am okay with that seeing as that a powerful leadership role isn’t what I seek. I simply want to teach and inspire people. I don’t care about the money or the power.

Lastly, I’ve learned that I would have more of a Theory Y attitude as a manager. Theory Y attitudes hold that employees like to work and do not need to be closely supervised in order to do their work. (Leadership: Theory, Application, & Skill Development, 2010, p.50) The reason the fits me is that I personally feel that a Theory Y manager would be the ideal leader for me. This also can relate to the incredibly high score I got for conscientiousness on my personality profile. I am a trusting and dependable individual and I will trust my employees to be the same. Everyone deserves an honest chance to prove themselves.

Reflective Observation

I’m also more insightful after speaking to my direct supervisor about the results of my leadership profile. She said that she views me as an incredibly dedicated worker indicating that I will do what is needed to get the job done and to get it done right. She also views me as a very honest individual. For example, she has seen me critique people’s work time and time again and she said that what she respects about me is that I won’t hold back anything and give my honest opinion. To me, honesty right up front saves a lot of time and money. I hate to see people trying to dance around the truth. Just say what needs to be said so everyone can keep moving in the right direction.

Her description of me fit the conscientiousness personality profile the most. She did agree that I could most definitely work on my confidence and that I’m way too insecure. People see me praising coworker s about their work. However, I will bash my work up and down and hardly give myself the credit that I deserve. I can see why outsiders would see my behavior as negative. In a nutshell, people would describe me as an inspirational leader to others and a hazard to myself. The reason people perceive me as having low confidence is the way that I speak about my own work. My goal is to begin to speak good about myself and my talents so people will follow suit.

I received another perspective on my personality profile from the Vice President of the company I work with. One thing that stood out to him about my profile was the openness-to-experience personality trait. He mentioned that our company has been through drastic changes over the past four years and that I’ve been flexible and resilient all along. He said that flexibility is unfortunately one of the traits he tends to struggle with in employees. However, he felt that flexibility is a very strong attribute of mine. I have been a pretty go with the flow kind of gal over the past four years regardless of the stressful environment. I’m elated that this behavior has been noticed. It makes me feel good about all of the sacrifices that I’ve made for the company.

Personal Leadership and Skill Development

In conclusion, I’ve learned a lot of valuable information throughout this course. First and foremost, I’m simply not made to be a powerful leader. I am more of an inspirational teacher who will probably be underpaid due to my lack of surgency. I couldn’t be more okay with this; As long as I stay true to myself. My conscientiousness is more important to me than power or money any day. Another thing that I’ve learned about myself is that I need to work on building up my self-confidence. In order to influence others, the first step is to show them that I have absolute faith and confidence in what I’m doing.

There’s no way that I will captivate a faithful audience if I’m questioning myself on the stage. One of the positive traits that I’ve learned about myself is that I’m flexible and dedicated. I will be open to working long hours and performing tasks that normally aren’t day to day for me in order to get the job done. I also am very honest and straight forward. The only goals that I truly plan to set are working on my confidence and possibly attempting to mingle a bit more in order to heighten my agreeableness. Overall, this has proven to be an incredibly informative class. I’m anxious to begin to apply the applications and theories on the job.

References
Lussier, R. N., & Achua, C. F. (2010). Leadership: Theory, Application, & Skill Development.(5th ed) Mason, Ohio: South-Western.

Personal Leadership Reflection Paper Essay