Explain how the sources that you found describe and define a secondary market.

Search the library, program guide, and the internet and find at least two sources that discuss secondary markets with the class.  Explain how the sources that you found describe and define a secondary market. Explain how the sources you found relate to how Rogers, Rogers, & Lembke (2010) define secondary markets and the reverse flows of the secondary market.

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Law and Social Equity in Public Administration

Public Administration

Law and Social Equity in Public Administration

Social equity is the pillar of public administration and determines public administrators’ role in addressing inclusion.  It elevates public administration by giving it scrutiny. However, regardless of the struggles and integral aspects that the concept has in public administration, the law acts as its measure throughout its application.  For instance, the law develops velar assessment measurements and evaluations that are important in validating the stewardship of resources as well as ensuring that the interest of the people is met with the outlined bureaucracy.  According to Frederickson (2018), social equity involves a commitment to promote justice and fairness in public policy development, which required dispensation of law to reduce instances of confrontations that might be realized.

Similarly, equality, fairness, and justice relevant to the public administration tents require value consideration, which is based on applying the law through social justice consideration. As a result, a considerable portion of the law is needed in the discretionary implementation and interpretation of public administration through adherence to social equity.  Similarly, legal insight plays a vital role in the general admiration.  For instance, it ensures that the judicial authorities have followed the best approach in administering their powers, and the flow of operations originates from democratic institutions.

According to Johansen (2019), legal insight ensures legitimacy, accountability, and transparency in the public administration. These concepts play a vital role in ensuring that the public administration is coherent and operates based on the outlined principles. Interestingly, legal insight provides that the actions being done within the public administration set up are based on useful guidelines, and all actions explain the relationship between democratic societies and the legal authority.

References

Frederickson, H. G. (2018). Public administration and social equity. Diversity And Affirmative Action In Public Service50, 5.

Johansen, M. (2019). Understanding Social Equity in Public Administration. In Social Equity in the Asia-Pacific Region (pp. 13-23). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

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Evidence Used To Oppose This Bill

Evidence Used To Oppose This Bill

The bill seeking to grant full practice authority to nurse practitioners, which was first introduced in 2015 is a bill that requires reconsideration before plunging into medical practice crisis. The bill-making process seeks to make a bill to be an operational law.  The process that begins with sponsoring the bill and the entire lawmaking process is done in the Senate will ensure that any proposition that successfully undergoes the due process becomes a law (Zero to Three, 2014). However, the bill passed the Assembly Committee on Business and Professions on December 3, 2018, and thus there is a need to mobilize various evidence-based actions against this bill.

A nurse practitioner is an advanced-level practice nurse whose qualifications are far less than a physician’s. The nurse practitioner is trained and is qualified to play roles such as interpretation of diagnostic and laboratory tests, diagnose illness and diseases, prescribe medication, and give a treatment plan among others (Lowe et al., 2012). However, the qualification of a nurse practitioner is considered flimsy owing to minimal patient contact time. Various authorities have hinted the patient contact of a nurse practitioner is less or equal to 3% of that of physician and thus clearly indicating that the nurse practitioner is less qualified to be granted the full practice. 

There is this view that the NPs are undertrained and those offering full practice service may lead to complications. To avoid difficulties, the NPs need to have the minimum requirements which include having adequate contact times, at least a masters degree and other credentials which will serve as the equivalents (Iglehart, 2013). This will, therefore, give them enough qualifications since adequate academic qualifications as well as the patient contact thus guarantees.

In the United, States physicians go through four-year graduate school training, undergo a four-year training to earn a medical school degree and complete a four-year minimum residency. This imparts adequate skills and experience to be able to undertake the full practice. As compared to the nurse practitioners, they have minimal patient contact and a minimum period of experience, as well as training since the nursing course, is mainly focused on the patient care and not diagnosis and prescription (Lowe, 2012).  Allowing the nurses the full practices will, therefore, cause many complications in the medical practice in the country and thus dangerous for the entire country.

 In the article which was penned in the New York Times by Sandeep Jauhar and entitled   Nurses are not Doctor argues that what primary care practitioners can offer is not what nurses can offer since the primary care practice is a challenging cognitive practice which demands a cognitive ability. The primary care which is guaranteed by full practice requires high-quality training which is offered to people with qualifications that reflect the cognitive ability (Sandeep, 2014). This, therefore, shows that the ability of NPs will not meet and they need to undertake the routine diagnosis, treatment, and prescription of medication.

 Conclusively the nursing practitioners are missing a lot in as far as their training is concerned. They work under the watch of a physician and thus it shows that both their raining and their cognitive abilities indicate that they should not be granted full practice authority.

References

Iglehart, J. K. (2013). Expanding the role of advanced nurse practitioners—risks and rewards. The New England Journal of Medicine, 368(20):1935-41.

Lowe, G., Plummer, V., O’Brien, A. P., & Boyd, L. (2012). Time to clarify–the value of advanced practice nursing roles in health care. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 68(3), 677-685.

Sandeep Jauhar. Nurses are not doctors. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/30/opinion/nurses-are-not-doctors.html Zero to Three. How a bill becomes a law. Retrieved from https://www.zerotothree.org/resources/728-how-a-bill-becomes-a-la

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Is Justice Attainable in a World of Diverse Expectations?

Is Justice Attainable in a World of Diverse Expectations?

The concept of justice is averse to high expectations of people. Justice is explained differently depending on the regional context and community practices. Therefore, it is hard to comprehensively attain justice in a world with profound diversities and diverse expectations. For instance, a Caucasian may expect it is just to kill accused black men involved in crime, while the same act may be perceived as cruel among the African community. Therefore, attaining global justice depends on numerous expectations that may not be comprehensively incorporated in the international justice system. Given the diversity among societies, it is difficult to easily attain global justice without doing away with tribal prejudice.

The world is working on a measure to attain global justice. The state of justice in the contemporary world outlines a place where all people live in a fair environment.[1] Therefore, the attainment of justice mainly aligns with the expectations of ensuring that all people receive their due. The study of justice looks at what people owe each other and the obligations they may have to each other. Therefore, the idea of justice may differ among diverse people. The rule of law help in the attainment of justice, but it is still far from reaching the expectations of certain groups of people. Notably, the comprehensive attainment of justice depends on people and thus what is just to certain people may feel unjust to others. For example, on some community crime is punishable by death. This is not the case in most of the Western countries. Nonetheless, there is a global cry for observation of universal human right even for suspects and the accused.

The demand for justice is universal and is aimed to bring peace among individuals.  Hobbes while talking about the natural condition of mankind insisted that nature has made men so equal although there are some distinctions that can be seen in size or sharpness.[2] Notably, the author further insists that people can be enemies simply because they desire the same thing which they cannot both enjoy. Therefore, in relation to the concept of justice, one may feel it is just that he gets it while the other will view it unjustly. Simply put, the concept of justice primarily depends on the subjects and their thoughts on the issue. People are mainly driven by their thoughts that they fail to pay special attention to what the rules aim to achieve and how they are drafted.

The issues of inequity and inequality exist in the contemporary world because there are numerous distinctions that at times define the way of life. The prisoner’s dilemma detailed by Sean Crawford outlines a scenario where two prisoners have to either corporate and sell out their partner or both defect and face a long jail term.[3] Notably, if both decide to remain silent, they will serve a short sentence in jail. However, the actions of the prisoners will depend on what they aim to achieve and their primary aim for their intake in the revolutionary movement. Notably, the situation does not outline justice but shows a situation where the prisoners have to determine their own justice. Conclusively, justice may be attainable, but diverse people may not view it in the same light. Therefore, the concept of justice can mean the same in the paper but appear differently in its implementation or how it is perceived in the contemporary world.

It is difficult to attain global justice because of cultural differences as well as due to individual differences. Global justice if viewed as a situation where all human being contends with the decisions made by the justice system. However, this has not always been the case. Hobbes argues that the sheer existence of resources that cannot be shared makes it difficult to attain a global justice. This is because the utilization of resources by one group denies other the chance to enjoy the benefit as well. Nonetheless, by minimizing the cultural differences and educating people on the need for change then global justice can be attained.

Bibliography

Brock, Gillian. “Global Justice.” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. March 06, 2015. Accessed February 01, 2019. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/justice-global/.

Crawford, Sean. “Prisoner’s Dilemma.” Springer Reference, September 30, 2006. doi:10.1007/springerreference_224296.

Hobbes, Thomas, Nancy A. Stanlick, and Daniel P. Collette. The Essential Leviathan: A Modernized Edition. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 2016.


[1] Gillian Brock, “Global Justice.” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. March 06, 2015. Accessed February 01, 2019. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/justice-global/.

[2] Thomas Hobbes, Nancy A. Stanlick, and Daniel P. Collette, the Essential Leviathan: A Modernized Edition. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 2016.

[3] Sean Crawford, “Prisoner’s Dilemma,” Springer Reference, September 30, 2006. doi:10.1007/springerreference_224296.

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Labor Laws

Labor Laws

So integral is the relationship between employing entities, the government, workers, and trade unions to the criminal justice system that it forms a unique branch of the law – labour laws. Statutory interpretation refers to the sum of investments by courts to interpret legislation and apply it effectively. Regulatory analysis is essential in labour laws as it not only highlights the loopholes that exist in light of the varied interpretations but also devices sound legal principles through which they can be interpreted (JUSTIA United States Law).

Thesis: Labor laws should not only govern the relationship between employers and employees while they are still in contract but also when their actions are not covered by their contractual relationship.

Body:

The argument for proposed inclusion of legal analysis in labour laws:

This move will ensure that all the parties covered under labour laws are provided with grounds to pursue their legal rights and the right to stand trial and account for an answer to their various responsibilities. This is important as it ensures employees and employers work towards establishing an environment where maximum productivity is assured in both the short and the long terms (JUSTIA United States Law).

Evidence 1: Whenever people under labour laws are provided with detailed information about their responsibilities, they improve their productivity and engage other parties in ways that will enhance the overall excellent functionality of a workplace environment (JUSTIA United States Law).

Evidence 2: Employing legal analysis in the interpretation of labour laws defines and details what is considered to be within the scope of employment and what is not. In light of this, employers and employees are able to effectively relate to each other while understanding their rights and privileges (JUSTIA United States Law).

Counterargument

 Instituting legal analyses in labour laws will require significant revisions of law as well as employing additional legal experts in organizations and institutions to interpret legal statutes and attend to arising matters (JUSTIA United States Law).

Evidence 1: Labor laws are very extensive and statutory analysis requires extensive and detailed breaking down of statutes. In order for the legislative analysis to function excellently, there is a need for additional manpower and investments in legal resources (JUSTIA United States Law).

Conclusion

A working environment where entities are informed about labour laws is profitable in more ways than one. In such a scenario, people are not only able to ensure continued productivity but also relate to each other effectively. Statutory analysis of labour laws will improve workplace relations and enhance responsible behaviour. It is therefore essential to institute legislative analysis of labour laws.

Works Cited

Atleson, James B. Values and Assumptions in American Labor Law. University of Massachusetts, 2014.

JUSTIA United States Law. “103 F.3d – Volume 103 of the Federal Reporter, 3rd Series.” 28 Nov. 2016.

<https://law.justia.com/cases/federal/appellate-courts/F3/103/?page=3>. Accessed 4th December 2018.

Strecker, David E. Labor Law: A Basic Guide to the National Labor Relations Act. CRCP, 2016.

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Principles of Border Management

Principles of Border Management

Introduction

The borders of any nation not only represent an important element of its sovereignty and the light of the nature and level of security within and around that nation. So important are the borders of any nation that they determine the extent to which a nation enjoys the peace that comes with high levels of security (United States, 2014, p. 103). It is practically impossible to leave a nation’s borders and expect security even when there are extensive investments in the internal security of a nation. In contemporary society, one of the greatest challenges in border control is creating and constantly improving the balance between ensuring the movement of commodities, commerce, and people is conducted constitutionally and maintaining cross-border security. In its broadest sense, border control refers to the sum of investments by a country or a group of countries geared toward ensuring border movement is effectively monitored and regulated (Bartlett & Beamish, 2018, p. 41). Borders represent an important element of analysis in national security. In contemporary society, one of the greatest investments towards achieving excellence in border management is promoting cooperation between the various agencies in borders and strengthening the capacity of such agencies.

Title 22 Chapter 78

Domestically, the laws and regulations designed to address trafficking are birthed from the 78th chapter of the US Code Title 22. This chapter is designed to provide grounds for protecting victims of trafficking and violence but also deal with intelligence reform, terrorism prevention, and customs trade enforcement. This section of the United States law determines the functionality of customs and related law enforcement agencies in border security work.

Intelligence, Risk Management, and Cooperative Agreement

Investing in various agencies should be matched by similar efforts to improve practices and policies undergirding border management. Simply abbreviated as USBP, the United States Border Patrol is presented as one of the law enforcement agencies whose mission is to detect weapons, terrorists and undocumented immigrants and also prevent them from entering – or crossing any of the borders of – the United States (Sandia National Laboratories & United States, 2015, p. 60). They work to ensure that contract and illegal trafficking of people in the United States are effectively dealt with. The United States Border Patrol has been presented as being one of the agencies that shape up the United Customs and Border Protection (Sandia National Laboratories & United States, 2015, p. 60). Simply abbreviated as CBP, the United States Customs and Border Protection is an integral component with regards to the United States Department of Homeland Security. The USBP was in place as early as 1904 and has undergone extensive development. Three unique sectors shape up the USBP; the Northern Border sector, the Southern Border sector, and the Caribbean. The Northern Border sector is responsible for protecting the borders of the United States that run from the West to the East (Sandia National Laboratories & United States, 2015, p. 60). They include sectors such as the Blaine Sector, the Havre Sector, the Houlton Sector, the Spokane Sector, the Grand Forks Sector, the Detroit Sector, the Swanton Sector, and the Buffalo Sector (Sandia National Laboratories & United States, 2015, p. 60). How each of these sectors is designed and how they function with one goal in mind is fascinating. Although these different sectors are in charge of different regions and function through unique goals and objectives, it is important to underscore the fact that a common goal brings them together (Gong & In Cullinane, 2018, p. 98).

The various policies and practices that shape up how the various sections of the USBP function are very interesting to research. This might be attributed the excellence in border security to the various rules, regulations, and policies that undergird how the various agencies function. Each section is informed about and attached to the role it plays in light of ensuring border security is improved effectively and thus the entire unit function in harmony and achieves great results in both the short and the long terms.            

Risk management represents one of the most important topics with regards to border control and related management efforts (World Customs Organization, 2006, p. 14). Abbreviated simply as RM, risk management in border management has traditionally existed as an issue for customs. However, excellence in border management requires a shift from this traditional view. Bestowing all the responsibility of risk management on customs leads to a narrow perception in addressing the risk management related issues in border management. In dealing with this, it is important to integrate the functionality of customs into the solutions for challenges facing border management. Risk management provides customs with tools and techniques to improve border management. Through risk management, customs is not only provided with the ability to handle its inspection responsibilities effectively, but also facilitate efficiency in trade activities. Selective inspection of commodities through information, risk management criteria, trader process auditing, and intelligence process auditing, and trader logistics auditing represents unique provisions through which custom administrations are able to employ risk management in border management effectively. Unlike domestic, international supply chains present unique challenges for custom and related administrative entities.

 Risk management benefits custom and related border management entities in more ways than one. Traditional procedures in customs employ documentation and related physical items in capturing illegal trade activities and movement across borders. On the other hand, risk management expands the benefits attached to traditional customs procedures while taking care of the various challenges birthed from technological advancements. Employing risk management in border management introduces structured and disciplined methodologies through which commodities and people crossing borders are effectively identified and managed. Apart from lowering interventions, risk management introduces operation efficiency which is integral in dealing with the challenges attached to border management (Hobbing, 2015, p. 32).

In establishing a balance between control and trade facilitation, there are two important risks to consider: managing risks birthed from non-compliance, and managing risks attached to trade through eliminating elements of help in trade activities. These risks create the unique need for custom and related administrators in border management to adopt and foster balanced risk management approaches in their line of work. Intelligence in risk management requires collection and storage of customs information in ways that identify and address low risk from high risk. Such systematic investments are important as they ensure analytical activities involving customs information can be undertaken effectively without requiring extensive resources. Structured risk management in border control stands out in light of how it makes a time-based assessment of the commodities and information across the various borders (McLinden & World Bank, 2010, p. 75). Here, the movement is effectively detailed to showcase not only how commodities move from one point to another but also the unique profiles they form or take up at different points during the course of the movement.

Information and technology stand out as one of the most important benefits of integrating risk management into border management. Risk management which is founded on the innovative capabilities of modern technology increases the efficiency of risk management techniques in border management (Weinzierl & Lisson, 2007, p. 87). For instance, IT-based assessment methods in border management ensure that profiling is integrated into the commodities analysis. This leads to an environment where border administrators and related officials are able to profile and address risk effectively. It is important to underscore that IT risk management requires constant communication and feedback from custom administrations, traders, travellers, and organizations in order to grow the effectiveness presented in the entire risk management system (Miller, 2014, p. 51). The effective functioning of risk management in border control requires risk profiling criteria for freight forwarders, exporters, international supply chain intermediaries, insurance companies, and transporters. Risk management stands out in its ability to profile the complex trade transactions that are characteristic of international and global supply chains.

Conclusion

Conclusively, it is evident to note that customs officers, related law enforcement agencies, and the logistics community are extensively important in light of the effective functionality of risk management and cooperation arrangements in border control. Combined with the trading community, the logistics communities and relevant law enforcement ensure that border management activities which rely on risk management are effectively fed with background information through which they can address the expansive needs birthed out of border management. Establishing respectful and effective risk management methodologies demands flexibility in the functionality of customs administrations. Interactions involving service providers, logistics, and traders represent grounds for custom administration to identify areas where flexibility can be introduced and expanded. Such grounds are also important as they provide custom administrations with the arena to expand their knowledge about commercial trade transactions and how the international supply chain functions. Custom administrators should not only understand the various trade processes by entities in border management but also employ this information in analyzing how traders exercise reasonable care during different instances. One of the main ways through which this is achieved is through conducting analysis on the nature and level of compliance in traders and trading activities. These investments are important as they ensure that traders and customs are equally involved in ensuring the integrity and security of the international supply chain.

References

Bartlett, C. A., & Beamish, P. W. (2018). Transnational Management: Text and cases in cross-border management. Berkeley, CA: SAGE Publishers. https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=DMPpPwAACAAJ&dq=Transnational+Management:+Text+and+cases+in+cross-border+management&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi8iMnR74bfAhVjLMAKHfOZAeoQ6AEILzAB

Gong, S., & In Cullinane, K. (2018). Finance and Risk Management for International Logistics and the Supply Chain. Mason, OH: John Wiley. https://books.google.co.ke/books/about/Finance_and_Risk_Management_for_Internat.html?id=YmhZuAEACAAJ&source=kp_book_description&redir_esc=y

Hobbing, P. (2005). Integrated border management at the EU level. Retrieved from http://aei.pitt.edu/6672/1/1254_227.pdf

McLinden, G., & World Bank. (2010). Border management modernization. Washington, DC: World Bank. https://books.google.co.ke/books/about/Border_Management_Modernization.html?id=PNqQqVanNH4C&source=kp_book_description&redir_esc=y

Miller, T. (2014). Border patrol nation: Dispatches from the front lines of homeland security. San Francisco, CA: City Lights Books. https://books.google.co.ke/books/about/Border_Patrol_Nation.html?id=-ZrfAgAAQBAJ&source=kp_book_description&redir_esc=y

Sandia National Laboratories, & United States. (2015). Systems View of Border Risk Management. Washington, DC: United States. National Nuclear Security Administration. Retrieved from https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1325518

United States. (2014). National northern border counternarcotics strategy. Washington, DC: Office of National Drug Control Policy, Executive Office of the President of the U.S. https://books.google.co.ke/books/about/National_Northern_Border_Counternarcotic.html?id=kyiVoAEACAAJ&source=kp_book_description&redir_esc=y

Weinzierl, R., & Lisson, U. (2007). Border management and human rights: A study of EU law and the law of the sea. Berlin, Germany: German Institute for Human Rights. Retrieved from https://www.refworld.org/docid/47b1b0212.html

World Customs Organization. (2006). Integrated border management. Belgium: Author. https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=1FdgHtAlJuoC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Integrated+border+management&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjYqIWi84bfAhWIKMAKHfSeDi8Q6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=Integrated%20border%20management&f=false

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Plea Bargaining

Plea Bargaining

To effectively define, analyze, and discuss the concept of plea bargaining as it applies to the criminal justice system in the US, it is imperative to define and differentiate between plea bargains and jury trials. A plea bargain may be defined as any form of the agreement made during a criminal case involving the defendant and the prosecutor that requires the defendant to plead guilty to a given charge. In turn, the prosecutor provides some concessions. Commonly referred to as a trial by a jury, a jury trial refers to a lawful proceeding characterized by decisions made by a jury based on facts and findings. It is important to underscore that a jury trial differs from a bench trial in that judges make decisions, while a jury makes those in a jury trial. The entire concept of plea bargaining is founded on and developed through the 6th amendment to the United States Constitution (Cohen, 2017, p. 13). A fair trial is a trial where a person is presented with proceedings observed and or overseen by an impartial jury conducted in a court of law. Apart from being an integral pillar in the United States Constitution, the Sixth Amendment is foundational in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the European Convention on Human Rights (Cohen, 2017). In the United States, plea bargains are responsible for settling most of cases. It is important to underscore that plea bargains are subject to court review and approval. Different state laws are designed to govern the functionality of plea bargains across the United States.

Within the arena of criminology, and especially in the courtroom environment, the term defendant refers to an individual, company, group, or related entity charged or accused of committing an act classified as an offence and punishable within the confinements of criminal law. The term indigent defendant is birthed from the greater concept of indigent defense (Tinder, Kammen, Gifford, Darst, & Indianapolis Bar Association, 2014, p. 46). The term indigent defence refers to the sum of investments and activities geared towards ensuring the section of the public who lack the ability to pay for their own legal counsel are provided with legal services by the state or related authority. An indigent defendant may be defined as a defendant who cannot pay for legal counsel of their choosing and thus prompts the state or related authority to provide them with legal counsel. Within the contemporary legal arena, one of the most researched topics is the effectiveness of advocates shaping up the indigent defence. According to the public perception (Ingram, 2009, p. 04), defence attorneys not only lack the skills and resources required to be an excellent lawyer but also fail to dedicate time which is necessary for building an effective legal career.

States should be obligated to provide indigent defendants with the legal counsel and related support they require in consequent appeal because it acts as grounds through which the image of the indigent defence system is made better. In order to ensure indigent defence systems are made better, initiatives such as the CLRP should invest in ensuring advocates shaping up the indigent defence systems are provided with the required resources, oversight, and guidance necessary for building an effective legal career (Branham, Hamden, & Branham, 2017, p. 98). Providing counsel for indigent defendants during the different stages of a case also ranks highly in light of modern issues affecting the contemporary legal society. Numerous proponents have sought to abolish the provision of counsel in the advanced stages of an appeal case. However, in order to ensure that the image and effectiveness of indigent defence systems are effectively improved, it is imperative to have counsel provided to indigent defendants provided with counsel at every stage within the curse of an appeal.

States should be obligated to provide indigent defendants with the legal counsel and related support they require in consequent appeal because this is the spirit of the law as brought out in the sixth amendment (Golde & Bonjour, 2015, p. 57). The right to an attorney is housed and effectively explained in the Sixth Amendment. Four important legal provisions shape up the Sixth Amendment; the right to be tried by a jury that is not biased or impartial, the right to be tried publicly and without any delay deemed unnecessary, the right to access services from a lawyer, and the right to be informed or presented to one’s accusers as well as the nature of offense a person is charged with and the evidence in support of the case. The Sixth Amendment is not only designed to ensure the different rights of a defendant are effectively taken into consideration throughout the course of any due process, but also ensure a defendant is provided with all the help he can get in the course of the case. If a defendant is not satisfied with the quality of defence they have been presented in the early stages of a case, they have the right to demand better counsel. In the same spirit, it is important to ensure that defendants within the indigent defence system are provided with continued counsel services and support throughout the curse of a case. The global legal arena shares a common principle; every defendant is innocent until the legal process is able to effectively – beyond any reasonable doubt – prove that they are guilty. Systems which are designed to have counsel services and support cut off at some point of the appeal process go against the spirit of the law (Ingram, 2009, p. 89).

Within the arena of jurisprudence, the term selective prosecution refers to a condition where a defendant presents the notion that criminal liability should be withheld from them due to the fact that discrimination featured in the process of prosecuting them. In such cases, the criminal argues that the weight of the criminal justice process rests not on whether they are guilty or not, but on whether the legal process or processes surrounding their prosecution is without discrimination in its functionality. He, the defendant’s main argument is founded on an established on the bias (Branham, Hamden, & Branham, 2017, p. 98). Selective prosecution is not only designed to present elements of bias in the process of prosecution, but also the impact it has had in the effective administration of justice and the efficient functionality of the criminal justice system. Some of the discrimination grounds that may be explored through selective prosecution include gender, religion, race, ethnicity, and age. Within the framework of the United Constitution, the 14th amendment is the legal grounds and backing required to establish and develop selective prosecution.

Summary

The concept of plea bargaining is one of the important topics of discussion in criminal proceedings. Other important elements shaping up criminal proceedings include charging instruments, petit juries, verdict, sentencing, deliberation, and burden of proof. Different state laws are designed to govern the functionality of plea bargains across the United States. In order to effectively define, analyze, and discuss the concept of plea bargaining as it applied to the criminal justice system in the US, it is imperative to define and differentiate between plea bargains and jury trials. It is important to underscore that plea bargains are subject to court review and approval. A fair trial is defined as a trial where a person is presented with proceedings observed and or overseen by a jury which is impartial and is conducted in a court of law. A plea bargain may be defined as any form of an agreement made in the course of a criminal case involving the defendant and the prosecutor that requires the defendant to plead guilty to a given charge and in turn, the prosecutor provides some concessions. Commonly referred to as trial by a jury, a jury trial refers to a lawful proceeding characterized by decisions made by a jury based on facts and findings. It is important to underscore that a jury trial differs from a bench trial in the sense that decisions in bench trials are made by judges while a jury makes those in a jury trial. The entire concept of plea bargaining is founded on and developed through the 6th amendment to the United States Constitution (Cohen, 2017, p. 13).

References

Branham, L. S., Hamden, M. S., & Branham, L. S. (2017). Cases and materials on the law and policy of sentencing and corrections. Princeton, NJ: West Academy Publishing.

Cohen, E. R. (2017). Plea bargaining. Sacramento, CA: Joint Committee for Revision of the Penal Code, California Legislature.

Golde, S. P., & Bonjour, J. F. (2015). Plea bargaining. Berkeley: California Continuing Education of the Bar.

Ingram, J. (2009). Criminal procedure: Theory and practice (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Tinder, J. D., Kammen, R., Gifford, P. J., Darst, R. L., & Indianapolis Bar Association. (2014). Plea bargaining. Indianapolis, IN Indianapolis Bar Association.

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Why are you interested in a career in law enforcement?

Police organizations are instruments through which policing services are organized and delivered to the public. The primary function of the police force is crime prevention. As an aspiring police officer, it is crucial to understand how the organizational structure of the police department and its various practices influence its day-to-day functions.

Imagine you have completed your probationary period and are being interviewed for the post of police officer. Your hiring officer wants to evaluate your understanding of the practical implications of police theory and practices on its functions of crime prevention and keeping order.

Respond to the questions provided below. Do your research and choose 1 of the following formats to document your responses to your hiring officer:

A written speech of 700 words

A recorded video of 5-7 minutes (if you choose to record a video of yourself, please see the note at the end of this assignment)

Write or record your answers to each of the following questions as if you were responding to your hiring officer in an interview:

Why are you interested in a career in law enforcement?

Does legitimacy in the police force enable effective crime fighting? Explain how.

Is problem-oriented policing an answer to building partnerships with the public? Explain why.

Is civilianization a beneficial practice in police work? Provide reasons to support your answer.

What are bureaucracy’s positive and negative impacts on communication within a police department?

Which type of mentality makes the best police officer: warrior or guardian? Explain why.

Is the code of silence the desired police subculture? Explain why.

What impact has been seen with including women and minorities in the police force?

How does the contingency theory influence crime control?

How does the environment in which police organizations function influence their operational activities? Explain your reasoning in context with the appropriate policing theory.

Identify any sources you used to support your responses.

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Explain the controversy over the recall of the judiciary in Arizona’s quest for statehood

Explain the controversy over the recall of the judiciary in Arizona’s quest for statehood.

Explain the controversy over the recall of the judiciary in Arizona’s quest for statehood. Please answer each of the questions below in short-answer format. Write your responses in complete sentences. Your answers to each question should include 2 – 3 paragraphs minimum and a minimum of 150 – 250 words. 

Be sure to carefully read each question to ensure that each component is answered with the appropriate depth and detail. Your answers should be free of spelling and grammar errors. You must cite your sources using in-text citations when using reference material. You must also include a reference list. All documentation must be rendered in APA citation style (see announcements for details on APA). This includes citing your textbook or course lesson modules. 

Explain the controversy over the recall of the judiciary in Arizona’s quest for statehood

Review the Short-Answer Grading Rubric and the Short-Answer Assignment Sample as you prepare to complete this assignment. 

Please include the question along with your response in the textbox. This is to ensure that you have addressed each question. 

Question

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  1. Explain the controversy over the recall of the judiciary in Arizona’s quest for statehood. Be sure to provide examples. 
  2. Define and explain the two forms of direct legislation. In your response, provide examples of each and reflect on the impact these direct legislation have on Arizona residents. 
  3. Describe the qualifications and terms of the legislative branch. Explain the “soft limit” and then discuss the benefits and disadvantages of term limits. 
  4. Explain how redistricting works in Arizona. Discuss how reapportionment works and explain gerrymandering? Explain what was done in Arizona to ensure fairness in redistricting. 
  5. Describe the types of elections, the requirements for voting, and how a resident of Arizona would register to vote? 

Explain the controversy over the recall of the judiciary in Arizona’s quest for statehood

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What does Pariotti mean by the myth of sovereignty? Is her argument reasonable and well-supported? How so? How does it relate to this week’s video?

What does Pariotti mean by the myth of sovereignty? Is her argument reasonable and well-supported? How so? How does it relate to this week’s video?.

 What does Pariotti mean by the myth of sovereignty?  Is her argument reasonable and well-supported?  How so? How does it relate to this week’s video? 

 Instructions: Your initial post should be at least 350 words.  

This week’s readings will lay the foundation for the entire course.  While the textbook reading is crucial, don’t ignore the Krasner article.  It is one of the classic articles in the area of international regimes.

Readings:

Silverburg, Sanford(ed).  International law: contemporary issues and future developments. Part 1  and chapter six.

This reading will lay the foundation for the study of international law.

CFR Interactive: Leaders Facing Justice

This interactive exercise will lay the foundation for the study of international justice. 

Timeline of International Law

Video:  In Pursuit of Torturers – Legally Speaking

This video along with the interactive exercise will lay the foundation for the study of international justice.

What does Pariotti mean by the myth of sovereignty? Is her argument reasonable and well-supported? How so? How does it relate to this week’s video?

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