Interlanguage Theory Essay

Interlanguage Theory Essay.

It is a well-attested fact that learners commit errors when learning a second language. Errors are in fact considered inevitable in any learning process. For a very long time different authors (Corder, 1967; Richards, 1971; Dulay and Burt, 1972, as cited in Taylor, 1975;) see those errors not only as deviations of the rules but also as important sources for studying the process of learning a target language. The learner’s mental process and rules adopted by them at different stages are evidenced by those errors.

(Fauziati, 2011). It is, therefore, the language of the learner that Larry Selinker (1972) would study and name interlanguage. He would consider interlanguage as follows:

L2 learners construct a linguistic system that draws, in part, on the learner’s L1 but is also different from it and also from the target language. A learner’s interlanguage is, therefore, a unique linguistic system (as cited in Ellis, 1997, pag. 33).

This system of the language is evolutional and dynamic, and its grammar is under construction and in constant development.

It may have inconsistency errors but it will be changing and developing all the time. Selinker (1972, as cited in Taylor, 1975) claims that interlanguage is not merely the learner target language grammar that is filled with errors due to the learner’s L1 interference but, instead, it is a linguistic system that reflects the learner’s dealing with the deviations of the target language itself. Selinker also states that the perspective of Interlanguage considers the learning strategies which the learner employs in a task despite of their mother tongue or kind of training they receive.

According to Selinker (1972), there are a number of processes or strategies that the learner adopts in order to help them acquire the target language. The first one is L1 Transfer, which is a learning strategy where the learner uses their own L1 as a resource. “[T]he learner transfers their knowledge of their native language into their target language attempts” (Taylor, 1975, p. 393). The second process is L2 Transfer, in which the learner works out the rules of L2 and challenges them. The third process is Overgeneralization; the learner uses an L2 rule in situations in which a native speaker would not use them.

This can occur at different levels, namely, at the phonetic level, at the grammatical level, at the lexical level and at the level of discourse. Taylor (1975) defines overgeneralization as “a process in which a language learner uses a syntactic rule of the target language inappropriately when he attempts to generate a novel target language utterance”. The fourth process or strategy is General Learning Principles; the learner acquires strategies for learning the language, such as association or grouping.

However, these strategies are not exclusive to language learning; they can be applied to any other kind of knowledge. Finally, the fifth process is Communication Strategies, which are actions that the learner carries out in order to compensate their lack of knowledge and also to reinforce or optimize communication. Among these strategies are body language, circumlocution, using a general term, resorting to L1, asking for help (the teacher or the dictionary), coining (making up a word) and avoidance. All of these five processes contribute to the development of the L2.

Another important characteristic of Interlanguage is Fossilization, which is a term introduced also by Selinker in 1972. It refers to “the persistence of plateaus of non-target-like competence in the IL” (as cited in Fauziati, 2011, p. 25). Selinker (1972) provides a precise definition for fossilization:

[A] mechanism that underlies surface linguistic material which speakers will tend to keep in their IL productive performance, no matter what the age of the learner or the amount of instruction he receives in the TL. (Selinker, 1972: 229, cited in Han, 2002) In other words, fossilization can be described as the interruption of the process of development of interlanguage. Learners are usually expected to achieve progress as their competence advances towards the target language system, and thus it contains fewer errors. However, some errors continue to occur and never disappear completely, and are, therefore, considered as fossilized. That is to say, such errors are permanent and defining characteristics of the learner’s language system (Fauziati, 2011).

Among the factors that influence fossilization in the learner’s learning process, there are both external and internal reasons that are worth mentioning. Environment is an external reason that can influence the student’s performance and it can be due to the lack of exposure to the language or probably the level of the course the student is taking is either higher or lower than their level of the language. As regards internal reasons, the learner himself is considered to be a significant influence on their performance. His personality (insecurity, family background, uncertainty), motivation, demotivation and backsliding (the student unlearns things he already knows and goes back to previous stages) contribute to the mechanism of fossilization.

Another important point to consider is that of interlanguage pragmatics, which has been defined by some authors, namely, Kasper and Dahl (1991), Kasper (1998) and Kasper and Rose (1999). However, in this paper, the concept of interlanguage pragmatics will be considered as follows:

[T]he investigation of non-native speakers’ comprehension and production of speech acts, and the acquisition of L2-related speech act knowledge. (Kasper and Dahl, 1991:215, cited in Barron, 2001) Interlanguage pragmatics deals with use of the language as action and its research focuses on the learner’s use and acquisition of pragmatic knowledge.

Although many studies on interlanguage have been based on spontaneous speech data, there is considerable difficulty in processing such data in order to tackle with problems persisting in the L2 learner’s initial state. One possible reason for this is that the speech utterances are gathered so early and may not exactly mirror the L2 initial state. Another perplexing problem is that the collection may be scarce and useless. (Lakshmanan and Selinker, 2001)

A further problem is that language learners, especially young L2 learners, have been thought to undergo a ‘silent period’, during which they do not produce any utterance (Lakshmanan and Selinker, 2001). Although students may differ significantly with respect to the duration of their silent period since some of them undergo longer periods than others, it is not proven what is exactly happening in this stage. Moreover, it cannot be proved whether there is passive acquisition of some of the elements of the target language while undergoing the silent period. Consequently, an accurate account of the development of the language of the learner is difficult to provide.

Another main argument concerning interlanguage is that of comparative fallacy. As Lakshmanan and Selinker (2001) state, criticizing the language learner’s speech utterances as ungrammatical without drawing first a comparison between the interlanguage speech utterances with the related speech utterances of the native speaker is not advisable since it leads to either underestimation and/or overestimation of the student’s linguistic performance. The interlanguage competence’s information should be obtained by examining the data of the interlanguage performance. Lakshmanan and Selinker (2001) suggest that in order to achieve this and not belittle or overvalue the student’s performance, it is necessary to compare consistently the interlanguage performance data with the native speaker’s performance.

Taking everything into account, interlanguage is a theory that has been supported by a number of scholars because it helps educators know what their learner’s language is like. However, it is worth mentioning that it has some weaknesses that need to be addressed. As for teachers, it is not only important that they support this theory but they also should identify its flaws as well so as not to misjudge our language learner’s performance on the language.

References
* Barron, A. (2003). Acquisition in Interlanguage Pragmatics: Learning How To Do Things With Words In A Study Abroad Context. Amsterdam/Philadelphia:
John Benjamins. * Ellis, R. (1997) Second Language Acquisition. New York: Oxford University Press. * Fauziati, E. (2011) Interlanguage and Error Fossilization: A Study Of Indonesian Students Learning English As A Foreign Language. (Vol. I No. 1, pp. 23-38). Indonesia: Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics. * Han, Z. (2002). Fossilization: Five Central Issues. Toronto, Canada: The Second Language Research Forum (SLRF), Teachers College, Columbia University. * Lakshmanan, U. and Selinker, L. (2001). Analysing Interlanguage: How Do We Know What Learners Know? (Volume: 17, Issue: 4, Pages: 393-420). Southern Illinois University at Carbondale and Birkbeck College, University of London: Second Language Research. * Taylor, B. (1975) Adult Language Learning Strategies and Their Pedagogical Implications. (Vol. 9. No. 4, pp. 391-399). USA: TESOL Quarterly.

Interlanguage Theory Essay

Importance of the English Language in Present Day World Essay

Importance of the English Language in Present Day World Essay.

Language is the source of communication. Its the way through which we share our ideas and thoughts with others. There are uncountable languages in this world. Because every country has their own national language, then they have different local languages spoken and understood by their people in different regions. Let’s talk about English. It is the language of England and has International Standard. Many people think English as American Language but it is not true.

In fact, when Columbus discovered America, he saw the country in the Stone Age with high illiteracy rate.

Those were the European and English people who brought education and knowledge even technology towards America. There are several factors that make us to learn English Language to go through in the current time. First of all, as I already mention, it has International Standard, that’s why everyone needs to learn English in order to get in touch on International Level.

If we see Educational field, we will find much of the syllabus is written in English.

Children are taught and encouraged to learn English on starting levels. And accordingly, as they promote to the next levels they study almost all the subjects in English. We see the Internet and find more than 90% of websites written and created in English. And even when you see some sites in other languages, they also give you the option to translate in English. All the research and studies you find will be written and typed in English.

All the information regarding each and everything contains English Language. There is another factor that make English very important in this world is it is the easiest language of the world to learn. Many people think that it is very difficult and confusing. But I suggest them to start and learn only for a week and they will feel easy with English. With good understanding and communication in English, we can travel around the globe. We get assistance and help in English in every part of world. You can test it by on line travel.

Better you visit some offices, companies, governmental organizations, and other departments, and you will see the importance of English as they hire the professional staff after getting know that whether the people they are hiring are good at English or not. This is the company’s will that their staff is not even well educated but also good English speaker, writer and Reader. Those who are still unaware about the importance of English. They should start learning English as a time will come when everything would be understood, spoken and written in English. Better watch some media and get the scope of English.

Importance of the English Language in Present Day World Essay

A Global Language: English Language Essay

A Global Language: English Language Essay.

English is an international language spoken all over the world that was originally borrowed from the world. If English is used as a global language, there might be some advantages related to communication and business. However, there are also several disadvantages in terms of losing mother tongue and taking time and money. The advantages outweigh the disadvantages, so English should be made the global language.

The first essential affirmative point is communication. There are more than 200 countries in the world. If everyone could speak English, they may have the ability to communicate with others whenever they are in strange countries.

Furthermore, using English, people can have more friends, widen peer relationships with foreigners and can not get lost. Overall, English becomes a global language; people may have more chances in communication.Another crucial advantage is improving business. If English was spoken widespread and everyone could use it, they would likely have more opportunities in business. Foreign investments from rich countries might be supported to the poorer countries.

For instance, a company and its proponents would be able to discuss, understand each other and develop the projects together.

The first disadvantage of issue is losing mother language. If English used as a global language, people may use it both at work and daily life. Children and teenagers might prefer to watch English cartoons or movies. Gradually, they make mistake when they use their mother languages. It can not be imagine if English is only one language in the world. Another serious negative point is taking much time and money. Old generation might need to study English to communicate with the youth ages. In addition, educational curriculum system could be changed to be suitable for the reform. These processes need quite long time and a large amount of money.

In conclusion, using English as a global language has both advantages and disadvantages. It is useful for communicating and business while could lead to be lost mother tongue and take much time and money.

A Global Language: English Language Essay

Histroy of English Language Essay

Histroy of English Language Essay.

History of English language will explain, why learning English as a second language is difficult without proper instruction, even though basic components are same. Throughout its history English has been influenced by the varieties of language. Living languages never remain static. Every language is the product of change and continues to change as long as it is spoken. Only dead languages like Latin or Sanskrit change no longer, since no one speaks them now. The changes, while they do occur are gradual and slow and hence almost imperceptible.

Over a span of centuries, however, their cumulative effect is appreciable.

Shakespeare English is difficult for modern readers; Chaucer’s is almost is incomprehensible without formal instruction. The History of the English language: The origin During the Roman invasion, the inhabitants of Britain spoke a Celtic language. English belongs, in all its stages, to the Indo European family of languages, formerly called Indo-Germanic, and still earlier Aryan. Indo European is the name given to the set of linguistic forms from which nearly all European languages as well as those of Persia and very large part of India can be shewn to descend.

The historians have used the word Indo-European because it merely suggests that the languages it comprises cover most of the Europe and India mark the length of its confines. The predominance and pioneering s of the position of the German Philologist English is one of the most important languages in the world today. More the an 350 million people in Great Britain are native speakers. In addition 150 million non-native speakers of English are there. English however is not spoken by large number of people in the world . Chinese, for instance spoken by more than 880 million people in China alone.

Among the western languages English has the advantage in numbers. Spanish in spoken by about 210 million people. Russian is spoken about 200 million people Portuguese is spoken about 105 million people etc . Importance of a language is associated with political role played by the nations using it and their influence in the international affairs. Several reasons may be adduced for current importance and popularity of English. Historically the colonial expansion of the British Empire over which the sun never sets, was responsible for the imposition of the English on aspiring natives.

Even after achieving independence many countries like Nigeria, India, Ghana continue to use English as official language for several reasons. The nature of the English language and its tolerance to change has made it very popular. One of the major assets of the English language is the mixed character or its vocabulary. English being the Germanic descent has many words from the Germanic languages viz, German Dutch, Flemish, Danish, Scandinavian, Swedish, Norwegian. It also shares a large number of words with the European languages derived from Latin viz,French Italian, Spanish and Portuguese.

Hence English seems very familiar to anyone who speaks a Germanic and Roman language. Instead of making new words chiefly by the combination of existing elements, English has shown the marked tendency to go outside its own linguistic resources and borrow from other languages. These words have been so well assimilated into English the no one ever remembers or recognizes that they have been borrowed. Any etymological dictionary will show that English has borrowed from almost every language of the world; Hebrew Arabic Hindi Tamil,Malay,WestAfrica,Chinese,Brazil etc.

This is the reason why we call English a cosmopolitan vocabulary which is an asset to any language which seeks to attain international use. Modern linguists therefore accept the dynamic nature of language. One of their axioms is that there are no pure forms of language, for language, for languages keep changing all the time. If English had remained pure over the centuries, we should still be speaking the language of Chaucer. Throughout the history, the English language has accepted with comparative equanimity words from other languages with which it has been in contact.

There have been periods in which speakers and writers have indulged in large-scale use of foreign words. In general, most people will agree that the foreign contribution to English has been useful. Some languages avoid as far as possible the use of alien terms; instead they substitute new words made up of native elements. English however, has always accepted foreign words. Many hundreds of words of non-English origin are now part and parcel of the English vocabulary, indistinguishable from the native stock except to those with some knowledge of etymology.

Of all the world languages, English has probably the vocabulary which is the most copious, heterogeneous and varied, at the same time this also one of the reason that learning English as second language becomes difficult. All the people, with whom its speakers have come in contact during more than thirteen centuries of its growth, have left permanent marks on the language. Some of the contacts have been deep and lasting like Greek, French and Latin. A study of the history of the English language, therefore, unfolds the panorama of English history-both social and political.

With an empire over which sun never sets, the English language has been particularly open to foreign influences. The Romans with whom the ancient Germanic tribes had dealings, the Romanized Britons, the Latin fathers of the church who were once eagerly studied the Danish and Norwegian invaders, the Norman French conquerors, the revival of ancient Latin and Greek classics at Renaissance, the Italian artists and men of letters of the 16th century the colonizing nations of the same century—all these have made their contributions to the English language.

Arab mathematicians from Spain have enriched the language: so have American Redskins and Indian sepoys. The Italianate Englishman of Queen Elizabeth’s time of whom Shakespeare made fun and famous writers like Dryden, Alexander Pope, Jonathan Swift have left something of value in the English word—hoard. It is no doubt, that such statement might fairly be made about other language and their history; but what stands out so remarkably about English is the abundance, the unparalleled variety and the length of the time during which foreign influences have been effective.

Further, no other language has so much copious and heterogeneous material. In historical linguistics the contribution of particular foreign language to another is referred to as borrowing . In common parlance, ‘borrowing’ means getting something form somebody on the understanding that it is to be returned. Luckily, this definition does not apply to words which are borrowed, never to be returned. Linguists wonder whether ‘stealing’ might be a more appropriate term for this phenomenon. As Haugen says” The borrowing takes place without the lender’s consent or even awareness and the borrower is under no obligation to repay the loan.

One might as well call it stealing, were it is not the owner is deprived of nothing and feels no urge to recover his goods. The process might be called adoption, for the speaker does adopt element from a second language into its own. Even though English language has adopted variety of languages into it, the basic structure of the English language has not changed. English language’s basic structure is, it has fixed word order. Due to more than two hundred years of English rule, Tamil has borrowed copiously from English. Now these words are not recognized as foreign at all.

One hears an uneducated Tamil speaker use words like office school, ticket, gate, bus etc. In fact, practically no one remembers the Tamil equivalent of these words. The problem arises for the second language learners only when they were asked to use the language or reproducing it. Tamil is Dravidian language spoken by more than 65 million people. It is the official language of Tamil nadu state in India and one of the official languages of Srilanka also. Large Tamil-speaking communities also reside in South Africa,Singapore, Malaysia and the other Indian ocean islands.

The earliest Tamil inscriptions dates from 200B. C. The literature in the language have a 2,000-year history. There are 247 letters in the Tamil alphabet. The 247 letters in the Tamil alphabet can be divided into 12 vowels 18 consonants, 216 vowel consonants and 1 special letter. The vowel consonants are formed by combining the vowel letters and consonants letters. The vowel-consonants letters also have long and short sounds. The History of English is divided into three ages. Old English, Middle English and Modern English.

There are 26 letters and 44 sounds, in that there 6 pure vowels and 18 diphthongs and 20 consonants in English language. Compared to Tamil language English has less number of letters ,but ironically language that has 247 letters(Tamil) has limited in terms of vocabulary, but English language that has 26 letters has million words. According THE HINDU newspaper which published an article duirng 2006, The department of Tamil language in the University of Madras has benn revising, enlarging and updating the Tamil lexicon.

During 1924-39, the University of Madras had Published the Tamil Lexicon in seven volumes comprising 124,405 entries. Such a dictionary was pioneering venture in the pre-independence period. Prof. Vaiyapuri Pillai had played a huge role in the complication and publication. There have been persistent demands for updating and expanding the lexicon. The many social, political and technological changes in the six-decade period have direct bearing on the Tamil language. It is in this background that the Department of Tamil language of the Madras University had out forth its plan to revise enlarge and update the lexicon.

The present Tamil lexicon, under preparation ,will come out in 10 volumes, comprising atleast 500,000 entries ,will be bilingual in nature and at the same time render the meaning chronologically. On top of the vast difference in the number of letters in their alphabet, the Tamil language also differs in many grammatical items compared to the English language. The earliest period of English was formerly called as ANGLO SAXON. The history of English language is divided into three main periods .

They are old English (from earliest writings till 1100) Middle English extends from about 1100A. D- 1450A. D, from 1450A. D till date its Modern English. The English language is spoken or read by the largest number of people in the world, for historical, political and economic reasons. First and foremost feature of English language is its extraordinary receptive and adaptable heterogeneousness-the varied ease and readiness with which it has taken to itself material from almost everywhere in the world and has made the new elements of language its own.

Throughout its history English has accepted with equinamity words from other languages with which it has been in contact. Foreign elements with ease and assimilated them all to its character. Though it is copiousness of vocabulary is outstanding. A second outstanding characteristic of English is simplicity of inflexion-the ease with which it indicates the relationship of words in a sentence with only the minimum of change in their shapes or variation of endings. A third quality of English is its relatively fixed-word order.

An inflected language like Latin or Russian can afford to be fairly free in the arrangement of its words, since the inflexions show clearly the proper relationship in the sentence and ambiguity is unlikely. Of all world languages, English has probably the vocabulary which is most copious, heterogeneous and varied. All the peoples with whom its speakers have come into contact during more than thirteen centuries of the growth, have left permanent marks on the language. Some of the contacts have been deep and lasting like those of ancient Rome and France.

Others have been casual like those of Spain or Czechoslovakia. During the Roman invasion, the inhabitants of Britain spoke a Celtic language. While the Roman soldiers in town used Latin, the Britons in the countryside spoke Celtic. Later this was replaced by English. The history of the English language in Britain begins with the settlement of the Angels, Saxons and Jutes in Brtian. These three tribes came from the plains near Schelswing Holstein in North Germany. They had to encounter varying degrees of hostility from the Celts. For mutual protection the tribes combined into small kingdoms.

The most important among these were: Northumbria, Mercia. East Anglia, Wessex, Sussex, Essex and Kent. Under King Alfred Wessex enjoyed the leadership in learning. The English language of today reflects many centuries of developments. The political and social history of England has exerted a considerable impact on the language. The Christianizing of Britain in 597 brought English into contact with Latin civilization and many Latin words were added to the English vocabulary. Then the Scandinavian invasion resulted in considerable two people and their languages.

For two centuries after the Norman Conquest English remained the language of the lower classes. When English once more gained importance, it had been considerably changed from what it was in 1066. In a similar way the Hundred Years’ War, the rise of an important middle class, the Renaissance the development of the British empire, the growth of commerce and industry, science and literature have all contributed to make the English language what it is today. In short the English language reflects in its entire development the political, social and cultural history of the English people.

Histroy of English Language Essay

Why and When We Speak Spanish in Public by Myriam Marquez Essay

Why and When We Speak Spanish in Public by Myriam Marquez Essay.

In today’s society, there are over thousands of different languages or dialects speak around the world. And because America is such a diverse country with many individuals capable of speaking two or more languages, they tend to forget the importance of speaking English in America. As an American living in America, it’s not important whether they speak English or not, but what’s important is which language they choose to represent themselves freely. Language is speaked in many forms.

Some people may grow up learning one language but choose to speak another and others might simply grow up speaking only one language.

As Chinese myself, I have been speaking Chinese for my whole life. My first language was Chinese and although I’ve learned to speak Japanese and English throughout my childhood, however, Chinese have become one of the most common languages I speak daily. Similar to me, my parents also prefer to speak Chinese although they’ve been living in America for the past ten years.

They are not exactly so called American, but they have gotten use to the life style in America that they understand nearly perfect English.

But my parents still speak to me in Chinese when I call them to ask about their days. They tell me about their work, their days, their lives in Chinese and they speak to their friends to their native language. One time I got curious and I tried to have a conversation with them in English. They started alright, speaking English with their deep Chinese accent, but before I realized it, it turned into Chinese conversation. I asked them the reason behind this logic and they told me that it’s because they couldn’t seem to find the right English words.

I wondered for a second what this meant and I finally realized that it’s because they are not familiar with English language like they are with Chinese. Although they have been living in America for a long time and have mastered English language, they choose to speak Chinese freely because they feel comfortable speaking in their first language. Language we speak in our free time is a choice we choose. During my class time, I speak with my teachers and classmates in English because I am in America receiving English education.

However, when I go home or hang out with my friends, I choose to communicate with them in Chinese because they all speak the same language as I do. It’s not because I don’t like to or couldn’t speak English, I just feel like it’s more convenient to speak Chinese because some words are easy to speak in Chinese. Have learned three languages throughout my life, I sometimes feel that I get languages mixed up. When I hang out with my Chinese friends and I want to tell them something funny have happened in my life that day, I could tell them smoothly and make them laugh as I pleased.

By in opposite if I tell this little story in English to my friends who didn’t speak Chinese, it was a little different. I wouldn’t know the translation to some of the Chinese words and the meanings will be completely different. This is why I choose to express myself in Chinese during my free time because it connects to my friends and family better. Because I live in America speaking English is a must, but during my off time or free time I would feel comfortable express myself in my native language. Language is used every single day. We use language to communicate, contact and connect.

For the immigrants who speak bilingually, English is what they use outside of the house. Inside the house, they tend to feel safer speaking the language of their own. My family and I like to go out sometimes for dinner and we tend to always choose a Chinese restaurant. This doesn’t mean that we don’t prefer or dislike American food; it’s simply because of the environment. In a Chinese restaurant it’s better to speak Chinese because almost half of the waiter doesn’t quietly speak perfect English. And it’s a way to start a communication with them if you know their native language.

It’s part of process of being friendly. If you speak the language of the waiter, they will be friendly to you because you have something in common with them. This is part of the nature. When my family and I walked into a Chinese restaurant and ask for their specials, it’s always nice to hear back a friendly response. Living in America and being an American sometimes is important to speak English, but depending on situations, choose to speak native language to communicate freely with one another can get each other closer.

Being Americans means we have the right of speech. People with different backgrounds have the right to choose which languages to speak during their own time. Being in America doesn’t reflect to the fact that all the people living here needs to use English to communicate with each other. Communication is a tool we use to tell each other things and this can be done in English or any other languages we prefer, as long as we feel comfortable with it.

Why and When We Speak Spanish in Public by Myriam Marquez Essay

Corpus Linguistics Essay

Corpus Linguistics Essay.

Introduction This paper includes information about corpus linguistics, its connection with lexicology and translation. The latter is the most important one and I am keen on finding and introducing something which is mainly connected with my future profession. Frankly speaking that was not an easy journey but I am hopeful it is destined to be successful. A corpus is an electronically stored collection of samples of naturally occurring language. Most modern corpora are at least 1 million words in size and consist either of complete texts or of large extracts from long texts.

Usually the texts are selected to represent a type of communication or a variety of language; for example, a corpus may be compiled to represent the English used in history textbooks, or Canadian French, or Internet discussions of genetic modification. Corpora are investigated through the use of dedicated software. Corpus linguistics can be regarded as a sophisticated method of finding answers to the kinds of questions linguists have always asked.

A large corpus can be a test bed for hypotheses and can be used to add a quantitative dimension to many linguistic studies.

It is also true, however, that corpus software presents the researcher with language in a form that is not normally encountered and that this can highlight patterning that often goes unnoticed. Corpus linguistics has also, therefore, led to a reassessment of what language is like. During this journey we will try to find out; What is Corpus Linguistics Corpus Linguistics Terms and Their Meanings History of Corpus Linguistics Resources and Methodologies for Corpus Linguistics, Corpora Translation Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory, Corpus-Based Descriptions So fasten the seat belts we are flying!

What is Corpus Linguistics? Corpus linguistics is a study of language and a method of linguistic analysis which uses a collection of natural or “real word” texts known as corpus. Corpus linguistics is used to analyse and research a number of linguistic questions and offers a unique insight into the dynamic of language which has made it one of the most widely used linguistic methodologies. Since corpus linguistics involves the use of large corpora that consist of millions or sometimes even billion words, it relies heavily on the use of computers to determine what rules govern the language and what patters (grammatical or lexical for instance) occur.

Thus it is not surprising that corpus linguistics emerged in its modern form only after the computer revolution in the 1980s. The Brown Corpus, the first modern and electronically readable corpus, however, was created by Henry Kucera and W. Nelson Francis as early as the 1960s. Corpus Linguistics Terms and Their Meanings Corpus (plural corpora). It refers to a collection of systematically or randomly collected texts of natural language which is electronically stored and processed. Corpus can consist of texts in a single or multiple languages.

It contains a large number of texts which allow the researchers to 1 / 6 analyse linguistic rules but the corpus does not represent the entire language, no matter how large it is. Multilingual corpus. Like its name suggests, multilingual corpus consists of texts in multiple languages. Parsed corpus (treebank). It is a collection of texts in naturally occurring language in which each sentence is parsed – syntactically analysed and annotated. Syntactic analysis is typically given in a tree-like structure which is why parsed corpus is also known as treebank. Parallel corpora.

The term refers to a collection of texts which are translations of each other. Annotation. It refers to an extension of the text by addition of various linguistic information. Examples include parsing, tagging, etc. Annotation is often used in reference to corpora as opposed to annotated corpora which consist of plain text in the raw state. Collocation. It refers to a sequence or pattern in which the words appear together or co-occur. Concordance. The term encompasses a word or phrase and its immediate context.

In corpus linguistics, concordance is used to analyse different use of a single word, word frequency and phrases or idioms. Orthography. It is a standardised writing system of a particular language and includes various grammatical rules such as spelling, capitalisation and punctuation marks. Orthography can pose a problem in analysis of writing systems which use accents because the native speakers of these languages sometimes use alternative characters to the accented letters or omit them completely.

Token. It is an occurrence of an individual word which is plays an important role in the so-called tokenisation that involves division of the text or collection of words into token. This method is often used in the study of languages which do not delimit words with space. Lemmasation. The term derives from the word lemma which refers to a set of different forms of a single word such as laugh and laughed for example. Lemmasation is the process of grouping of the words that have the same meaning. Wildcard.

It refers to special characters such as question mark (? ) or asterisk (*) which can represent a character or word. 3A perspective. It is a research method that is used in corpus linguistics which was introduced by S. Wallis and G. Nelson. 3A stands for annotation, abstraction and analysis. History of Corpus Linguistics History of corpus linguistics is typically divided into two periods: – early corpus linguistics, also known as pre-Chomsky corpus linguistics and – modern corpus linguistics The early examples of corpus linguistics date to the late 19th century Germany.

In 1897, German linguist J. Kading used a large corpus consisting of about 11 million words to analyse distribution of the letters and their sequences in German language. The impressively sized corpus that corresponds with the size of a modern corpus was revolutionary at the time.

Other early linguists to use corpus to study language include Franz Boas (Handbook of Native American Indian Languages, 1911), Zellig Harris (Methods in Structural Linguistics, 1951), Charles C. Fries (The structure of English, 1952), Leonard Bloomfield (Language, 1933), Archibald A. Hill and others, mostly American structural and field linguists. Some of them such as Fries and A. Aileen Traver also started to use corpus in pedagogical study of foreign language.

In 1961, Henry Kucera and W. Nelson Francis from the Brown University started to work on the Brown University Standard Corpus of Present-Day American English, commonly known simply as the Brown Corpus which is the first modern, electronically readable corpus.

It consists of 1 million word American English texts that are organised into 15 categories. For the modern standards of corpus linguistics, the Brown Corpus is kind of small, however, it is widely considered one of the most important works in history of corpus linguistics. But this was also the time of Chomsky’s criticism of corpus linguistics which would result in a period of decline. Chomsky rejected the use of corpus as a tool for linguistic studies, arguing that linguist must model language on competence instead of performance. And according to Chomsky, corpus does allow 2 / 6 language modelling on competence.

Corpus linguistics was not abandoned completely, however, it was not until the 1980s when linguists began to show an increased interest in the use of corpus for research. The revival of corpus linguistics and its emergence in the modern form was greatly influenced by the advent of computers and network technology in the 1980s which allowed the linguists to use electronic language samples as well as electronic tools.

The use of computers, however, dates back to the early 1970s when the Montreal French Project developed the first computerised form of spoken language, while Jan Svartvik began to work on the London-Lund corpus with the aid of the Brown Corpus and the Survey of English Usage (SEU) at University College London.

All mentioned works before the 1980s as well as the early examples of corpus linguistics paved the way to modern study of language on the basis of corpora as we know it today. The term corpus linguistics has been finally adopted after J. Aarts and W. Meijs published Corpus linguistics: Recent developments in the use of computer corpora in English language research in 1984. Resources and Methodologies for Corpus Linguistics, Corpora The basic resource for corpus linguistics is a collection of texts, called a corpus.

Corpora can be of varying sizes, are compiled for different purposes, and are composed of texts of different types. All corpora are homogeneous to a certain extent; they are composed of texts from one language or one variety of a language or one register, etc. They also are all heterogeneous to a certain extent, in that at the very least they are composed of a number of different texts. Most corpora contain information in addition to the texts that make them up, such as information about the texts themselves, part-of- speech tags for each word, and parsing information. ?

What Corpus Linguistics Does Gives an access to naturalistic linguistic information. As mentioned before, corpora consist of “real word” texts which are mostly a product of real life situations. This makes corpora a valuable research source for dialectology, sociolinguistics and stylistics. Facilitates linguistic research. Electronically readable corpora have dramatically reduced the time needed to find particular words or phrases. A research that would take days or even years to complete manually can be done in a matter of seconds with the highest degree of accuracy. Enables the study of wider patterns and collocation of words.

Before the advent of computers, corpus linguistics was studying only single words and their frequency. Modern technology allowed the study of wider patters and collocation of words. Allows analysis of multiple parameters at the same time. Various corpus linguistics software programmes, online marketing and analytical tools allow the researchers to analyse a larger number of parameters simultaneously. In addition, many corpora are enriched with various linguistic information such as annotation.

Facilitates the study of the second language. Study of the second language with the use of natural language allows the students to get a better “feeling” for the language and learn the language like it is used in real rather than “invented” situations. What Corpus Linguistics Does Not Does not explain why. The study of corpora tells us what and how happened but it does not tell us why the frequency of a particular word has increased over time for instance. Does not represent the entire language.

Corpus linguistics studies the language by using randomly or systematically selected corpora. They typically consist of a large number of naturally occurring texts, however, they do not represent the entire language.

Linguistic analyses that use the methods and tools of corpus linguistics thus do not represent the entire language. Searches, Software, and Methodologies Corpora are interrogated through the use of dedicated software, the nature of which inevitably reflects assumptions about methodology in corpus investigation. At the most basic level, corpus software: . searches the corpus for a given target item, 3 / 6 . counts the number of instances of the target item in the corpus and calculates relative frequencies, . displays instances of the target item so that the corpus user can carry out further investigation.

It is apparent that corpus methodologies are essentially quantitative. Indeed, corpus linguistics has been criticized for allowing only the observation of relative quantity and for failing to expand the explanatory power of linguistic theory (for discussion, see Meyer, 2002: 2–5). It is shown in this article that corpus linguistics can indeed enrich language theory, though only if preconceptions about what that theory consists of are allowed to change. Here, however, we leave that argument aside as we review corpus investigation software in more detail. Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory, Corpus-Based Descriptions.

As has been noted, corpus linguistics is essentially a methodology or set of methodologies, rather than a theory of language description. Essentially, corpus linguistics means this: . looking at naturally occurring language; . looking at relatively large amounts of such language; . observing relative frequencies, either in raw form or mediated through statistical operations; . observing patterns of association, either between a feature and a text type or between groups of words.

Reduced to its essence in this way, corpus linguistics appears to be ‘theory neutral,’ although the practice of doing corpus linguistics is never neutral, as each practitioner defines what is meant by a ‘feature’ and what frequencies should be observed, in line with a theoretical approach to what matters in language. Approaches to the use of a corpus that essentially rely on the existence of categories derived from noncorpus investigations of language are sometimes referred to as ‘corpus based’ (Tognini-Bonelli, 2001).

Studies of this kind can test hypotheses arising from grammatical descriptions based on intuition or on limited data. Experiments have been designed specifically to do this (Nelson et al., 2002: 257–283).

For example, Meyer (2002: 7–8) describes work on ellipsis from a typological and psycholinguistic point of view that predicts that of the three possible clause locations of ellipsis in American spoken English, one will be much more frequent than the others. A corpus study reveals this to be an accurate prediction. On the other hand, the study of pseudo-titles mentioned in the section ‘Languages and Varieties’ shows how assumptions about language – in this instance about the influence of one variety of English on another –can be shown to be false. Biber et al.

(1999: 7) comment that ‘‘corpus-based analysis of grammatical structure can uncover characteristics that were previously unsuspected. ’’ They mention as examples of this the surprisingly high frequency of complex relative clause constructions in conversation, and the frequency of simplified grammatical constructions in academic prose. A clearer integration between linguistic theory and corpus linguistics is demonstrated by Matthiessen’s work on probability (see the section ‘Probability’).

This work takes its categories from an existing description of English (Halliday’s (1985) systemic functional grammar), but the corpus study was more integral to the theory, as it was the only way that statements about probability of occurrence of each item in the system could be made with accuracy. Corpus-Driven Descriptions However, more radical challenges to language description can be found. Sinclair (1991, 2004) argues that the kind of patterning observable in a corpus (and nowhere else) necessitate descriptions of a markedly different kind from those commonly available.

Both the descriptions and the theories that they in turn inspire are, in Tognini-Bonelli’s (2001) terms, ‘‘corpus driven. ’’ Some of the challenges to tradition that corpus-driven theories involve are these: . Lexis and grammar are not distinct, and grammar is not an abstract system underlying language . Choice of any kind is heavily restricted by choice of lexis . Meaning is not atomistic, residing in words, but prosodic, belonging to variable units of meaning and always located in texts.

4 / 6 Evidence for these claims is presented in the section ‘Observing patterned behavior’ above. The notion of pattern grammar focuses on the way that different lexical items behave differently in terms of how they are complemented.

Grammatical generalizations about complementation cannot be made without describing that individual lexical behavior. Similarly, choice between features such as ‘positive’ and ‘negative’ depends to some extent on lexical item, as some verbs (such as afford) occur in the negative much more frequently than most. In other words, the probability of any grammatical category’s occurring is strongly affected not only by the register but also by the lexis used. Finally, the evidence of phraseology is that it makes more sense to see meaning as belonging to phrases than to individual words.

Findings such as these have led many writers to see a need for descriptions of language that are radically different from those currently available. Sinclair (1991, 2004) proposes, for example, that meaning be seen as belonging to ‘units of meaning,’ each unit being describable in the way set out in He criticized conventional grammar for distinguishing between structures (a series of ‘slots’) and lexis (the ‘fillers’), such that it appears that any slot can be filled by any filler: there are no restrictions other than what the speaker wishes to say.

This is clearly sometimes the case, and when it is, Sinclair Translation Corpora can be used to train translators, used as a resource for practicing translators, and used as a means of studying the process of translation and the kinds of choices that translators make. Parallel corpora are often used in these applications, and software exists that will ‘align’ two corpora such that the translation of each sentence in the original text is immediately identifiable. This allows one to observe how a given word has been translated in different contexts.

One interesting finding is that apparently equivalent words – such as English go and Swedish ga° , or English with and German mit (Viberg, 1996; Schmied and Fink, 2000) – occur as translations of each other in only a minority of instances. This suggests differences in the ways those languages use the items concerned. More generally, examination of parallel corpora emphasizes that what translators translate is not the word but a larger unit (Teubert andC ? erma? kova? , 2004).

Although a single word may have many equivalents when translated, a word in context may well have only one such equivalent. For example, although travail as an individual word is sometimes translated as work and sometimes as labor, the phrase travaux pre? paratoires is translated only as preparatory work. Thus, Teubert and C ? erma? kova? argue, travaux pre? paratoires and preparatory work may be considered to be equivalent translation units, whereas no such claim can be made for travaux and work. As well as giving information about languages, corpus studies have also indicated that translated language is not the same as nontranslated language.

Studies of corpora of translated texts have shown that they tend to have higher incidences of very frequent words and that they tend to be more explicit in terms of grammar (Baker, 1993). They may also be influenced by the structure of the source language, as was indicated in the discussion of wh- clefts in English and Swedish in the section ‘Languages and Varieties. ’

In communities where people read a large number of translated texts, the foreign language, via its translations, may even influence the home language. Gellerstam (1996) notes that some words in Swedish have taken on the meanings of English that look similar and argues that this is because translators tend to translate the English word with the similar looking Swedish word, thereby using the Swedish word with a new meaning, which then enters the language.

One example is the Swedish word dramatisk, which used to indicate something relating to drama but which now, like the English word dramatic, also means ‘substantial and surprising. ’ Conclusion So every journey has its end. Ours isn’t an exception. It was a long journey but it was worth it. Corpus linguistics is a relatively new discipline, and a fast-changing one. As computer resources, particularly web-based ones, develop, sophisticated corpus investigations come within the reach of 5 / 6 the ordinary translator, language learner, or linguist.

Our understanding of the ways that types of language might vary from one another, and our appreciation of the ways that words pattern in language, have been immeasurably improved by corpus studies. Even more significant, perhaps, is the development of new theories of language that take corpus research as their starting point. The list of used literature 1. M. A. K. Halliday – Lexicology and Corpus Linguistics 2. Teubert and C ? erma? kova? 2004 3. Wallis, S. and Nelson G. ‘Knowledge discovery in grammatically analysed corpora’. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery, 5: 307–340. 2001 POWERED BY TCPDF (WWW. TCPDF. ORG)

Corpus Linguistics Essay

Historical linguistics Essay

Historical linguistics Essay.

Linguistics is the scientific study of human language.[1][2][3][4][5] Linguistics can be broadly broken into three categories or subfields of study: language form, language meaning, and language in context. The earliest known activities in descriptive linguistics have been attributed toPāṇini around 500 BCE, with his analysis of Sanskrit in Ashtadhyayi.[6]

One subfield of linguistics is the study of language structure, or grammar. This focuses on the system of rules followed by the users of a language. It includes the study of morphology (the formation and composition of words), syntax (the formation and composition of phrases and sentences from these words), and phonology (sound systems).

Phonetics is a related branch of linguistics concerned with the actual properties of speech sounds and nonspeech sounds, and how they are produced and perceived. The study of language meaning is concerned with how languages employ logical structures and real-world references to convey, process, and assign meaning, as well as to manage and resolve ambiguity.

This category includes the study of semantics (how meaning is inferred from words and concepts) and pragmatics (how meaning is inferred from context).

Linguistics also looks at the broader context in which language is influenced by social, cultural, historical and political factors.

This includes the study of evolutionary linguistics, which investigates into questions related to the origins and growth of languages; historical linguistics, which explores language change; sociolinguistics, which looks at the relation between linguistic variation and social structures;psycholinguistics, which explores the representation and function of language in the mind; neurolinguistics, which looks at language processing in the brain; language acquisition, on how children or adults acquire language; and discourse analysis, which involves the structure of texts and conversations.

Although linguistics is the scientific study of language, a number of other intellectual disciplines are relevant to language and intersect with it.Semiotics, for example, is the general study of signs and symbols both within language and without. Literary theorists study the use of language in literature. Linguistics additionally draws on and informs work from such diverse fields as acoustics, anthropology, biology,computer science, human anatomy, informatics, neuroscience, philosophy, psychology, sociology, and speech-language pathology.

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Historical linguistics Essay

Ferdinand de Saussure and Onject of Study: a Brief Illustration Essay

Ferdinand de Saussure and Onject of Study: a Brief Illustration Essay.

Ferdinand de Saussure was a Swiss linguist who laid the foundation on the ideas of structure in the study of language. His Book Course in General Linguistics that was published in 1916 has detailed all that he claimed to be his views. In his book Saussure shows us a clear reaction against many of the ideas raised and he emphasizes the importance of seeing language as a living phenomenon as against the historical view, of studying speech, of analysing the underlying system of a language in order to demonstrate an integral structure, and of placing language firmly in the social milieu.

Saussure’s theoretical ideas are a must read and his influence has been unparalleled in European Linguistics since and, it had a major formative role to play in the shaping of linguistic thoughts in Europe. Saussure’s Object of Study theorised his structuralist view of language and shows how his essay forms the basis of structuralist theory. Saussure equipped his essay with a theory and a method of linguistic analysis from the structuralist point of view.

Saussure envisaged langage to be composed of two aspects- the language system and the act of speaking.

Langage is that faculty of human speech that is present in all human being due to heredity, and it requires the correct environmental stimuli for proper development. It is our facility to talk to each other which Saussure has infused in his work. Saussure also argues strongly that the characteristics of the system of language are really present in the brain, and are not simply abstractions. It is something which the individual speaker can make use of but cannot affect by itself. It is a corporate and social phenomenon.

Saussure in the very beginning of the essay claims that the linguistic study cannot be judged from the study of other sciences. Linguistic study is completely a different process. In linguistic a particular object of study may have several series of different things- the sound, the idea, the derivation- to light up after study. Hence Saussure says that the object of study cannot be at the first to the view point. It is the viewpoint that creates the object of study. The linguistic phenomena can be always found in bi-complimentary facets which are dependent on one another.

That is, the perception of the ear of the articulated syllables as the auditory impressions cannot be the sounds in questions that come to be existed with the vocal organs. Speech sound is no equal to language and they do not exist independently and are mere instruments of thoughts whereas, language is completely an individual aspect. Saussure emphasis on these two distinctions comes at this point of his analysis. The language system as Saussure admits should be studied independently.

He cites the example of Dead language that even though it is no longer to be spoken, however, we can acquaint to its linguistic structures. The language is incongruous and its systems are of similar nature. The language is a structured system and it differs from speech. Saussure has cited a example of a man who has lost his power of speech can also grasp the language system through vocal signs by which he can understand. Saussure in his essay discusses the linguistic structures as only to be a part of language even though it is an integral part of it.

The structure of a language is both the social product and the body of necessary conventions adopted by society to enable members of society to use their language faculty. It comprises in various domains and it is purely physical, psychological and physiological. It is for the individual and for the society. The language faculty of the both rest upon the structure of the language and there cannot be a proper classification for that as such language has no proper distinctions.

The linguistic structures are that faculty in the study of language by which the articulating words, natural or not, are put in use only by means of linguistic instruments that are created and provided by society. The language itself is a structured system and a self contained whole and principle of classification. Saussure in his essay mentions the role of speech circuits of how speeches are exchanged from one individual to another. He gave a proper illustration of it with a proper diagram. This he calls purely a physical process.

In order to understand this tract one must leave the individual act, which is merely language in its young stage, and he proceeds to consider it a social phenomenon. If done so all individuals will linguistically link among themselves and all individuals will reproduce whether it may or may not be that exact but will be almost the same signs related to the same concept. Saussure says that the language cannot be the function of the speaker but it is a passively registered product of the individual whereas, speech is the act of the will and of intelligence of the individual.

In his essay, Saussure also speaks about the evolution of language from times. There are some words which are rarely spoken in our daily contemporary word and usage of such words in our day to day life is kind of absurdity. So Saussure argues that language and linguistics goes on evolution from time to time. It is an institution of the present and of the past at any given time. Saussure also notes on the sciences that claims to language as falling under their domain. But Saussure says that their methods are different and are not as it were needed.

He says that the linguists should only take up his primary concern in studying language and to manifest all other concerns with it. Saussure also speaks about the question of the vocal apparatus and he says it a secondary one in comparison to language. Linguists disagree to the notion about the vocal apparatus and it is not clear that the vocal apparatus is solely made for our speaking as that our legs are made for walking. Saussure cites the example of Whitney who regards this vocal apparatus is that we uses for our linguistic purposes.

The contribution of Saussure in the concept of language system is the main theoretical contribution and many linguists feel that it was this facet of his thought which had the most profound influence on subsequent scholarship. His view of a language as a system of mutually defining entities is a conception which underlay his works to philology. It is fundamental to his account to his structure in language. Any sentence, for Saussure, is a sequence of signs, and each signs contributes something to the meaning of the whole, and each contrasting with all other signs in the language.

The sign, for Saussure is the basic element of a language. A sequence of a syntagmatic relationship- which is a linear relationship between the signs are present in the sentence. The sign is the basic unit of communication and it is a mental construct. Saussure accepted that there must be two sides of meaning that posits a natural relationship between words and things. His labels for the two sides were signifier and signified, one which the thing which signifies and the other the thing that is signified. It can also be taken as the concept and the acoustic image. The signified is thus always omething of an interpretation that is added to the signifier. He calls this relationship a linguistic sign.

This linguistic signs are not abstractions, although they are essentially psychological. Linguistic signs are, so to speak, tangible and writing can fix them in conventional images, whereas it would be impossible to capture the acts of speech in all their details. When we say signified, this do not exist in sensible form, it is a thought and creation of mental image that the signifier has signified. Saussure’s main concern is linguistic sign does not link a name and a thing; instead it links a concept and an acoustic image.

That is, language is more than just a list of terms that correspond to things. An acoustic image is the mental image of a name that allows a language-user to say the name. However, a linguistic sign links signifier and signified. A signifier is the sound we say when we say an object, and the signified is the concept of that said object. The said object is the sign. In Saussure’s theory of linguistics, the signifier is the sound and the signified is the thought. The linguistic sign is neither conceptual nor phonic, neither thought nor sound.

Rather, it is the whole of the link that unites sound and idea, signifier and signified. The properties of the sign are by nature abstract, and are not concrete. He says that the linguistic principles operate on two principles. The first principle is that the linguistic sign is arbitrary as there is no interior link between the concept and the acoustic image. The second is that the signifier being auditory in nature unfolds in time only. When the signifier and the signified are joined together they produce a sign which is of positive order, and concrete rather than abstract.

The idea of structuralist theory has achieved the status largely on the account of Saussure Object of Study which made it the major linguistic theme of the later years after his death. The linguists were also much influenced by the notions of Saussure, although less directly. The essay forms the basis of a concept of language as a vast network of structures and systems was emphasised on the syntagmatic relationships of the Saussurean emphasis in structures which was taken as the keynote of a number of theories of language and which underlies many other linguistic approaches to language.

The central tenet of structuralism is that the phenomena of human life, whether language or media, are not intelligible except through their network of relationships, making the sign and the system (or structure) in which the sign is embedded primary concepts. As such, a sign — for instance, a word — gets its meaning only in relation to or in contrast with other signs in a system of signs. Thus we can analyse that Saussure’s Object of Study has its basis of the structuralism theory.

Ferdinand de Saussure and Onject of Study: a Brief Illustration Essay

Rhetorical Analysis of “How to Tame a Wild Tongue” Essay

Rhetorical Analysis of “How to Tame a Wild Tongue” Essay.

Being proud of one’s culture and language is often times lost when immigrating to a new country. Although criticized and attacked for her culture, Gloria Anzaldua describes in “How to Tame a Wild Tongue” that she refuses to let others force her to reject her culture for the sake of belonging and informs Americans and Latinos attempting to suppress Chicano culture specifically that she will persevere through the hardship to keep her identity alive and thriving. Anzaldua calls her readers to understand that the Chicano language and heritage should be recognized and that they be identified as a distinct people; that they are more than nothing.

Anzaldua begins with engaging the reader by providing a personal experience of when she was sent to the corner of the classroom for “talking back” to her teacher when her intention was just to tell the teacher how to pronounce her name (374). In her second section “Overcoming the Tradition of Silence” (374), Anzaldua adds internal incite on the culture of the Chicano and the barriers of her language, supporting her credibility and supporting ethos with another personal account.

She displays these different scenarios from her point of view, showing her audience what it feels like to live through these situations as a Chicano. Switching back and forth from English to Spanish, Anzaldua cleverly uses this form of diction to establish ethos with the reader. She puts the reader somewhat in her shoes when growing up in America, not knowing every English word she was read or heard. It makes the reader feel rather awkward or embarrassed for not knowing what the Spanish words mean. Another form of ethos is present when she states, “If you really want to hurt me, talk badly about my language” (378).

Anzaldua uses ethos again to demonstrate that what people value highly, their language, is what she values sincerely, claiming “I am my language” (378). Anzaldua establishes logos by enlightening us as to why Chicano Spanish is different from Standard Spanish, explaining that the significant differences in the Spanish Chicanos speak developed after 250 years of Spanish/Anglo colonization (376). She again uses logic in determining that even though by the end of this century Spanish speakers will embody the largest minority group in the U.S, English will be the mother tongue of Chicanos and Latinos due to the fierce influence of the degradation of the use of Spanish (378).

Works Cited
Anzaldua, Gloria. “How to Tame a Wild Tongue” From Inquiry to Academic Writing: A Text and Reader. 2nd ed. Ed. Stuart Green and April Lidinsky. Boston: Bedford/ St. Martins, 2012. 322-36. Print. Documentation Statement: I received no help on this assignment.

Rhetorical Analysis of “How to Tame a Wild Tongue” Essay

Book fair Essay

Book fair Essay.

A book fair is a fair for selling and displaying books on various subjects. A book fair is usually arranged on the important days of a year. As 21st February is our Mother Language Day, the book fair named “Ekushey Boi Mela” is held in Bangla Academy on February is the most important and popular book fair of our country. The book fair of 21st February takes place in Bangla Academy under open sky. There are many stalls and pavilions in the fair of different publishers.

In a book fair huge numbers of books are found. Almost all the writers of our country wait for this fair to release their books. Thousands of books release in this book fair of 21st February and millions of books get published. Many new writers write books and publish them in this fair. Thousand of book lovers come to visit the fair and buy books. The security of the fair is always very tight for the safety of the visitor including close circuit cameras and many police officers.

People stand in long lines to enter the fair. All sorts of books such as books on literature, fictions, novels, dramas, science, medicine, religion, philosophy and so on are brought for display and sell in the fair. Besides bookstalls there are a number of canteens found in the book fair. There are also arrangements for songs and dance to entertain the visitors of the fair. Writers, poets and publishers visit the fair regularly. They speak with the visitors, listen to the problems they are having in the fair and sign books for them. Book is the source of knowledge.

A book fair is a place where we can get thousand of types of books. There are a few problems in a book fair like too much dust, pollution, lack of rules and regulations and sometimes some unpleasant incidents take for the evil motive of the miscreants. So, the complete interest for the fair is often marred. Despite these little untoward events a book fair is really important for the enlightened section of people.

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Book fair Essay