The Greatest Invention Essay

The Greatest Invention Essay.

What invention soars like a bird but is much bigger? An airplane! I bet most of you got that. But this here isn’t a regular invention. It’s the greatest invention. It’s just so amazing. I mean we get a chance to fly. And I bet there’s tons of other ways the airplane is awesome. I’ll share some things about the airplane. First, you must know who invented such a fabulous invention. The genius or should I say geniuses who made the airplane were the wright brothers.

Wilbur and Orville Wright would always study birds.

How they would take flight and soar into the air, swooping down if they needed to. They wondered if they could build something to make people fly. So they started to try to make this happen. They started off by making a biplane that was flown like a kite so they could test how they could control the plane by bending the tips of the wings so the airplane could stay balanced.

They called this wing warping, and it did help. They had made the first airplane. They began testing more airplanes, making them bigger and bigger every time.

They have given us a chance to fly to where we need or want to go. Next, I’ll explain why the airplane is the greatest invention. One, you get a chance to fly! You soar where you want to go. Some people dream they could fly, and somebody made that happen. It’s so fascinating, they made not just one, but about one-hundred and fifty people can fly at once. I know what you’re thinking, WOW. Two, its much safer to fly. Did you know that more than double the number of people dies in a car crash than in a plane crash? A plane crash is very rare.

And three, it’s much more easy to travel. The average number of miles a car can go is about one hundred miles per hour. The average number of miles a plane can go is six-hundred and twenty-five miles per hour. How about them apples?! Now, after all I said, don’t you think the airplane is awesome, tough crowd? Well, have you ever wanted to see someone so bad, but they were too far away, in a different country, and there was no way a car could take you there. You probably wouldn’t even know someone you love because the airplane wasn’t made.

Just think about it, all the amazing places you’ve been to, that you had to fly to get there would have never happened. Some of you wouldn’t even live here all because the air plane wasn’t made. I know I wouldn’t be here. Have you ever thought about t like that? I bet a lot of you haven’t. Finally, I have proof that the air plane is the best invention. I explained how the wright brothers invented the airplane. Also explained why the airplane is the best invention. And finally, explained why people who disagreed that the airplane was the best invention were wrong. Thank you.

The Greatest Invention Essay

Science and Technology Essay

Science and Technology Essay.

I am ever grateful to the MAGNIFICENT CREATOR who bestowed knowledge to all. I wish to acknowledge my debt and express my gratitude to;

The various Authors and publishers whom have drawn data and examples and whom I have duly acknowledged.

I would like to thank also the following, who in one way or another inspired me to make this research possible:

To my Family, who supports me to accomplish my work piece and carryover the responsibilities that is expected to me on the 4th grading period.

Which regarded as one of the major requirements of being a graduating student.

To my solid IV-B family, who keep on inspiring me to come up with this piece of work .This is my simple gift and remembrance to them.

To those who are close to my heart, my true and faithful friends who in one way or another supports me in doing this work piece.

To Mrs. Margie T. Dimaano thank you for the guide that u teach us, by that you inspired me to push and accomplish my work piece.

And also, To ALMIGHTY GOD who give me strength, wisdom, and courage to face all the challenges and criticisms.


Science and technology have greatly improved the quality of human life and have raised the standard of living to a record high. For centuries, Science has produced dazzling technical achievements: The unleashing od energy locked up in atoms, the conquest of space, the miraid micro-electronics, computers, industrial robots, and communication satelites. Scientist have discovered new ways of treating cancers and have saved lives through scientific intruments and equipments.

Scientific findings have given them awesome power to invent thongs and discover the secrets of the world of nature through science and technology. The latest gadgets and equipments they have invented: We have smart phones, laptops, android phones and so much more. And for a better communications all over the world they have invented broad bands and packet internet.

Through Science and Technology they allowed people to drive cars, communicate instantly across the globe and even reach out into space. Science and Technology affects modern life in nearly every aspect. While some developments are seen as far more positive than others, each has their own impact on our lives.

A. What is Science and Technology?

Science is a knowledged gained by systematic experimentations and analysis, and information of general principles. Technology is the application of mechanical and applied science to industrial use. Technology is the application of all sciences. Science and technology studies (STS) is a growing field of study in the United States and around the world that seeks to understand how science and technology shape human lives and livelihoods and how society and culture, in turn, shape the development of science and technology. From the automobile to the internet, and from cloning to the Earth’s climate, modern life is intimately entwined with advances in science and technology. Every social issue, from AIDS and economic growth to arms control and crime, entails important scientific and technological aspects.

By focusing scholarly attention on science and technology as human institutions, situated in wider historical, social, and political contexts, STS provides insights into the relationship between science and technology and such basic categories of social thought as race and gender, poverty and development, trust and credibility, participation and democracy, health and pathology, risk and uncertainty, globalization, and environmental protection. STS theories and methods offer new approaches to understanding scientific and technological change and their intersections with other social, political, and economic dynamics.

As an academic program, STS offers students an opportunity to learn skills and approaches for understanding the political and cultural implications of new technologies, as well as the role of science and expertise in the making of public policy. STS prepares students to be more active and effective participants in public debates about science and technology. The field also prepares students for the many expanding career opportunities in managing science and technology in a democratic society, including the management of scientific and technological research, science and technology policy, the design and maintenance of museum exhibits and archival collections, science journalism, science advice and expert assessment, and science, technology, and the law.

B. Significance Of The Study
They enhance to improved the quality and capability of human life through various research and inventions.

C. History of Science and Technology
History of science and technology
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For historical accounts of the development of science and technology, see history of science and history of technology. The history of Science and Technology (HST) is a field of history which examines how humanity’s understanding of the natural world (science) and ability to manipulate it (Technology) have changed over the centuries. This academic discipline also studies the cultural, economic, and political impacts of scientific innovation. Histories of science were originally written by practicing and retired scientists, starting primarily with William Whewell, as a way to communicate the virtues of science to the public. In the early 1930s, after a famous paper given by the Soviet historian Boris Hessen, was focused into looking at the ways in which scientific practices were allied with the needs and motivations of their context.

After World War II, extensive resources were put into teaching and researching the discipline, with the hopes that it would help the public better understand both Science and Technology as they came to play an exceedingly prominent role in the world. In the 1960s, especially in the wake of the work done by Thomas Kuhn, the discipline began to serve a very different function, and began to be used as a way to critically examine the scientific enterprise. At the present time it is often closely aligned with the field of Science studies.[citation needed] Modern engineering as it is understood today took form during the scientific revolution, though much of the mathematics and science was built on the work of the Greeks, Egyptians, Mesopotamians, Chinese, Indians and Muslims.[citation needed] See the main articles History of science and History of technology for these respective topics.

ІІ. Benefits of Science and Technology

Science and technology are probably the most debated topics in society. On the contrary Science and technology has improved our way of life for the better of mankind. Medical advancements, computers and simple inventions such as light bulb are all example of how science and technology benefical.In each of these cases, there is no undesirable changes to people’s life styles. If it were not for many ,If not all,of these changes in our history, we as an economy and nation would have fallen apart .Looking into the past, we can see all the benefical advancements we have made and how far we have come.Scientific and technological development such as medical research to find cure for AIDS, modern health care and computers are benefical in the role of improving people’s lives and do not come at the cost of undesirable changes to them.

Today with new technology,medical research is being done everyday to help find cures or vaccines for devastating diseases such as Cancer ,AIDS, Alzheimer’s and Leukemia. Being diagnosed with one of these diseases is hard, but growing up with them is even harder.”AIDS was first identified in USA in 1981. The epidemic has now spread to every part of the USA and to all sectores of society.”Due to the benefits of science and technology concerning AIDS they can save people’s lives.

After the inventions of computers in 1936, computers are now commonly used nearly everyday for numerous reasons.At first, when computer was firstly introduced,people was cautious as it was new.Slowly over the years , people started to accept it and it has remarkable outcomes for the users.computers were originally desinged for the used of financial things to keep files in order to a folder on the computer rather than a file cabinets. Gradually overtime society has accepted this remarkable invention and its many uses; writting reports, researching accounting, numerous web pages,emails, and last but not the least entertainment reasons.

Through the years, people have started to leave longer and their health is remarkable .Modern health cares takes credits for this type of technology .Mixing medical research with technology has created great results for the life expectancy of the people. People in society want to live longer and look good and they can benefit by this by following the instructions of the doctors, counselors, etc. to live a better life style.

A. How Does Science and Technology Affects Our Life?

In todays world, Science and Technology have take on ever greater importance in our daily life, a trend that will continue as we enter the 21st century. They have brought untold advances in medicine, communications, and transportations making our everyday world vastly different from that of earlier Generations. Science and Technology is an essential part of everyday life in the modern world.Science and technology have improved our life in many ways.

First of all, Sciene together w/ technology plays a strong role in the industrialization as well as modernization of the world. It’s clearly seen that robots are now replacing humans in many factories especially nuclear ones .Moreover there is no doubt that our daily life has been made a lot more convenient thanks to the help of science and technology. Medical science has also discovered new kinds of treatments for diseases which were thought to be incurable. An average person spends quite a lot of time using a computer or keeping in touch with his or her friends and families via such things as the internet or mobile phones. In addition, we would also entertain by watching TV, listening to music, playing video games thanks to many scientific and technological achievements. With the reason listed below, I totally believe science and technology helps improved our daily living standard.

Science and technology are probably the most debated topics in society. Science and technological developments have been debated as to whether they affect people’s life styles and cause hassle. On the contrary Science and technology has improved our way of life for the better of mankind. Medical advancements, the most general function describes science as the enterprise that organizes and builds knowledge that gives explanations and predictions about the world.

The constant developments made by scientist are giving humans a healthier lives and better chance of survival. Technology as a general term, Technology is the making, knowledge and usage of tools, crafts, and systems in order to serve a purpose or solve problems. The development of technology has allowed people to drive cars, communicate instantly across the globe and even reach out into space. Science and technology affects modern life in nearly every aspects. While some developments are seen as far more positive than otherss, each has their own impact on our lives.

B.The Most Important Contribution of Science and Technology To Society With Regards To Health Science and technology has a great contribution in our hospital facilities especially with the sophisticated technology that we are using now in our hospital in order to manage diseases and health of the people. I couldn’t mention all the details about the technology in the hospital. There are lots of those just like the one used in the operating room, but I would like to cite one which is something common like blood pressure apparatus to measure our blood pressure weather it is high or low. Another is we have glocumeter to measure our blood sugar for the management of diabetes mellitus.

Those are just some of the simple but very useful technologies we have. When you say science, it is the body of knowledge and the product of that knowledge is technology. Science also has many branches depending on its field of study. Some of the knowledge accumulated in science contributed a lot to the basis or concepts in managing our health or diseases considering our anatomy and physiology which is also studied in science. In some cases nursing principles and practices were also based on science, not only nurses but much more our physicians and other health team members such as med tech and radiologist utilize science and technology!

The most important contribution of science and technology to society is probably the advent of the biotechnology industry following the sequencing of the human genome. Not only did this event open up the key to understanding the nature of genes, non coding DNA and other biological processes that were previously unexplored, it also helped to develop the infrastructure and technology to help explore the data produced.

The biotechnology industry now is involved in many different aspects of society, but in terms of health, the most prevalent applications are the use of genetic screening for disease diagnosis, the applications of gene therapy, the comparison studies of polymorphism between individual humans and chimpanzee to discover differences that shape our uniqueness, the discovery of environmental factors that can modify our genetic makeup, and now the latest research on elements apart from genes that control the biological processes of organisms (non-coding DNA). Any one of these contributions can be regarded as being significant to health, depending on your angle. However, up to now, the sequencing of the human genome would be the event that started the genomic revolution, and that would be in my opinion the most important contribution, and the first significant co-operation between science and technology.

C. Influence of Science and Technology In Our Lives

Science and technology influence our lives in many different ways. Everything around us has been created or at least influenced by science and technology in some way. Below are a few of the things in which technology and science influence out day-to-day lives.

Medicines are 99.9% of the time formulated in a laboratory. Most medicines are a mixture of different chemicals and minerals which have to be measured and tested to create the correct dosage. The invention of most medicines has been done in a laboratory and all batches of medicine have to be tested in a laboratory to ensure that they have been made up correctly and that they are safe for consumption.

Machinery that is used in hospitals has also been developed using science and technology. These are machines to help someone breathe or even scan and diagnose an illness. Therefore using science and technology in medicine does save lives.

• Food and drink
Most food and drinks that have been manufactured have all been tested using science. Many will also have been tested. These tests will be to ensure that the food is safe for consumption but tests also have to be carried out to find out the nutritional values of a product. Packaged food and drink now have to show their nutritional information on their packaging so that people know how much fat, protein, carbohydrates and calories are in a product.

• Transport
Technology has been used to develop all vehicles that we now use. The science comes in when looking at the kinetic energy that is created or the fuel consumption and how an engine works.

• Nature
Pesticides are used in nature to make crops grow better. Even when chemical pesticides are not used, scientific knowledge about how the sun rises and sets, when is the best time of year for particular crops and the use of greenhouses if also a use of science in nature.

ІІІ. Advantages of Science and Technology

In today’s world, where just about everything is more convenient and accessible due to advances in technology across almost all sectors, it may seem as though it’s a misnomer to even mention any disadvantages of technological advances. However, despite how far technology has taken humans and no matter how convenient it may make things, there are some disadvantages accompanying this level of access.Technology advances show people a more efficient way to do things, and these processes get results.

For example, education has been greatly advanced by the technological advances of computers. Students are able to learn on a global scale without ever leaving their classrooms. Agricultural processes that once required dozens upon dozens of human workers can now be automated, thanks to advances in technology, which means cost-efficiency for farmers. Medical discoveries occur at a much more rapid rate, thanks to machines and computers that aid in the research process and allow for more intense educational research into medical matters.

A. How Does Science Contribute To Technology?

Science actually lays the basis for technology because of it’s pragmatic nature. Science completely relies on a rigorous process of deduction and detached sympathetic reasoning of the universe and it’s phenomena. This practical approach leads to predictable results which can be observed and confirmed through practical approaches. Given the fact that Science does not entertain superstition or any supernatural creed, it enjoys a position which allows it’s practitioners to come up with viable ideas which can be used to create ingenious technological inventions. For example the light bulb’s invention only followed the discovery of electricity. All inventions are based on scientific discoveries. There is no doubt that the internet is one of the greatest human kind’s inventions of the last century. It is fast and easy way to get a lot of valuable information. However some people believe that the internet creates many problems. From my point of view I guess that the internet brings us advantages as well as disadvantages.

B. Inventions and Innovations through Science and Technology Invention and innovation represent those aspects of human creativity that have raised the standard of living in much of the world to a level that would provoke wonder and envy among, for example, European nobles of the 16th century or even royalty of earlier times. Between 1000 and 1700 AD, real income per capita in Western Europe grew at a rate estimated to be about 0.16% per year. Between 1700 and 1750 the rate rose to 0.4%, and then during the next century and a half it rose to somewhere in the neighborhood of 1.4%, about where it has rested over the last decades. (In the last 25 years it has stood at about 1.7% in the United States.) So, the doubling time of real income was about 400 years for an individual in the Middle Ages and only about 50 years in the last century .1 What accounted for this change as the 18th century approached?

Prior to 1750, most technologies in use rested on a very narrow base of scientific or technological understanding. Inventions were sporadic and largely unconnected with one another, with chance playing a very large role in their development. The foundation of knowledge was insufficient to build a stable edifice of invention and innovation. After 1750, the scientific revolution, the broadening of technological understanding, the improving information exchange of the day, and no doubt other factors as well led to the first and second industrial revolutions with their sustained outpouring of inventions, and innovations.1Invention and innovation continue today to be the central driving forces for economic well being.

Today, the products of inventors and human invention pervade our lives, from the digital revolution to medical miracles, from the alarm clock that wakes us up to the sedative that helps us sleep. They make life longer, more comfortable, more informed, more engaging, for the most part safer from disease and violence, and more productive in innumerable ways. To be sure, the advance of technology also creates problems, such as nuclear proliferation and damage to the environment. Such challenges demand serious attention and underscore the need for greater social responsibility, sustainable growth, and more inventiveness. That acknowledged, only the most ardent romantics would care to swap their lives today for ones of 500 years ago, and much of the difference stems directly and indirectly from technological invention.2

IV. Disadvantages of Science and Technology

Science and technology has also got disadvantages along its great advantages. It also includes some disastrous disadvantages which can be a great harm for us. It has such disadvantages which can destroy us and our habitat easily. Its disadvantages have ruined our life and we have become addicted to use it and the more we use it the more its disadvantages effects. Our life is in danger in big extent due to the disadvantages of science and technology. It also harms our life expectancy. Sometime the more use of it cause harmful diseases like Brain Tumer, Cancer, Nerves problem, etc. As the more use of it is done in inventions and discoveries, more its disadvantages arise and harm us. It has such disadvantages which makes its advantages too small. Our life is totally in risk due to its disadvantages.

Many years comes our atmospheres slowly destroy because of the air pollution that came from the factory and it can cause Green House Effect (GHE) it is a process by which thermal radiation from a planetary surface is absorbed by atmospheric greenhouse gasses and is re-radiated in all directions. And is all harm for the people. Science and technology makes people lazy because people just depend on it and not do there work well.

It will increased the anxiety of our lives, when technology goes in the wrong hand it can have a negative impact in our society it can create cyber crime, hacking, stealing of personal informations and pornographic websites. It also gives opportunities to the terrorist to make crime like bombing. As technology develops we forget our tradition styles of living. It is simply destroying our life styles. It also destroys our nature because of illegal logging, minning and so much more, this is the cause of landslide and flood that kills many people because nature cant stop it anymore.

The major disadvantage is the assumption that every scientific statement is the final answer to anything and becomes almost a religious tenet of society.

A.Negative Effects of Internet Usage

Why is the Internet so addicting? Two reasons: information and freedom. People go online to get information (music, news, stock prices, etc). Logging onto the Internet is like a kid going to a toy store; there is so much to do and explore that once you get in, you never want to leave. People also go online because the Internet offers freedom to do whatever they want, to say whatever they want and to be whoever they want. This could have a negative effect since people will act in certain ways and say certain things that they otherwise wouldn’t do in real life. Furthermore, because the Internet offers so much freedom, you can find your ideal self much easier, but it’s not the same as your social self. The difference is due to you talking to a computer screen and you talking to a real person. Thus, the experiences we encounter on the Internet are not the same as the ones we encounter in real life. We know that the Internet has an unlimited amount of information and services; consequently, we excessively rely on it too much while ignoring social interactions in the process.

That is not to say that the Internet is bad, it’s just being misused. The Internet is the information superhighway; it contains more information than we ever need. When we open our web browser, you get to your home page; from there, you can go to an unlimited number of destinations. Online, you can do just about anything: chatting, gaming, shopping and much more. People can literally spend their whole life on the Internet. They can attend an online school and get an online job. They can pay their bills and invest their money. They can order whatever they need online and have it delivered to them; heck if they want to, they can even order a wife. The quirk is that you can do all that at the comfort of your own home in front of the computer screen. The Internet not only has an abundant amount of information but it also provides the blazing speed for acquiring them. Ever need in On the Internet, we create our ideal self in a virtual environment; unfortunately, the ideal self we created often does not translate well into real life situations.

A living, breathing human being is different from a computer screen. Just like the advent of television, the Internet has changed the way we lived. Many have spent most of their lives with the Internet and not with other people. Consequently, we don’t appreciate the companies of each other. The Internet also conceived new ways to commit crimes and expressing hate. Without a doubt, the internet has made life much easier. Communication and information has never been as accessible and faster as they are now with the advent of the Internet.

But did it make life so easy that we rely on it to do all the work while we overlook the value we have on social interactions? The more we rely on the Internet, the more we isolate ourselves from human contact. Because society’s reliance on the Internet is permanent, individuals must decide on their own what is best for them. They have two choices: either move to a society where the Internet doesn’t exist or, better yet, “cultivate our awareness of what stands behind our screen personas” (Turkle 687). Instead of completely focusing on the positive effects, individuals need to have a better understanding on the negative effects of the Internet.


In the end, i there for conclude that science and technology do not make undesirable changes to life styles but merely upgrading life and thing related to it. Science and technology will only continue to benefits society because there will always be new problems popping up over time that will need something bigger, better or a new cure for.

Definition of Terms

carbohydrates—simple sugars, complex carbohydrates such as starches, and the indigestible plant carbohydrates known as dietary Invention- and more specifically technological invention, is the process of devising and producing by independent investigation, experimentation, and mental activity something that is useful and that was not previously known or existing. Inventiveness is the form of creativity leading to invention. Although in principle invention encompasses more than technological invention—for instance, the invention of political systems or organizational structures—the focus of this study is on technological invention and inventiveness. Technological invention is to be understood as having a wide range of outputs, including machines, devices, materials, processes, algorithms, and databases.3 Invention -rests at one end of the spectrum of design, and at the other end rests routine problem solving. Increasing specificity and predictability are associated with routine problem solving, and increasing boundary transgression is associated with invention.

Boundary transgression refers to mental moves that cross the boundaries of past practice and convention, tying together academic disciplines in unexpected ways, redefining not only means but often the problem itself, and challenging entrenched beliefs about the limits of the possible. Macro-inventions are inventions of sufficient import that they change the way we live and spawn many improvement inventions, micro-inventions. Many of these micro-inventions are never patented and may not become widely used, but they nonetheless are examples of the creative, inventive spirit we all possess. Innovation- is the complex process of introducing novel ideas into use or practice and includes entrepreneurship as an integral part. Invention is usually considered noteworthy only if it leads to widespread use.

Thus, society benefits only after innovation, not from invention alone. Much has been written, and continues to be written, about the importance of innovation to society. We do not, in this study, deal in detail with innovation, but rather with its wellspring, invention. satellite communication -in telecommunications, the use of artificial satellites to provide communication links between various points on Earth. Satellite communications play a vital role in the global telecommunications.

Glucometer monitoring from the article diabetes mellitus (medical disorder)- All patients with diabetes mellitus, particularly those taking insulin, should measure blood glucose concentrations periodically at home, especially when they have symptoms of hypoglycemia. science- any system of knowledge that is concerned with the physical world and its phenomena and that entails unbiased observations and systematic experimentation. In general, a science involves a pursuit technology- the application of scientific knowledge to the practical aims of human life or, as it is sometimes phrased, to the change and manipulation of the human environment.


Work Cited

“Man dies after 50 hours of computer games.” Reuters Limited. 2006. 20 Jun 2006.
“The Internet.” The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05. 2 Jul 2006.
Becker, David. “When games stop being fun.” CNET Networks, Inc. 2002. 2 Jul 2006.
Boudreau, John. “Unlawful file sharing fight rages.”

Science and Technology Essay

Invention of Dynamite Essay

Invention of Dynamite Essay.

Alfred Nobel was the first person who realized and understood the explosive nature of nitroglycerin after is was discovered by Ascanio Sobrero in 1847. Based on this explosive potential of nitroglycerin, Nobel invented the Dynamite.

In 1856, however, the financial situation changed completely as, with the end of the Crimean War, the military cancelled their orders for equipment. So, Nobel and his father began to look for new products (Fant, 12-14).

It was probably through his chemistry teachers – Professors Yuli Trapp (1809-1882) and Nikolay N.

Zinin (1812-1880) – that Alfred Nobel first heard about nitroglycerine (pyroglycerine). This explosive substance had been discovered some years earlier by a young Italian chemist, Ascani Sobrero, while he worked in Pelouze’s laboratory in Paris (Fant, 15-21).

Encouraged by Zinin, Alfred Nobel began to experiment with nitroglycerine as an explosive in construction work, and his father took an active part in these studies. However, Immanuel Nobel and his company were once again facing bankruptcy, so Immanuel, his wife and the youngest son, Emil, returned to Sweden in 1859 (Sohlman, 93).

Alfred stayed on in St Petersburg, in an apartment that he shared with his brothers. He turned the kitchen into a laboratory and undertook very dangerous experiments to find out how to manufacture nitroglycerine in large quantities. In the winter of 1862-1863, Alfred Nobel and his brothers carried out test explosions on the ice of the river Neva, and developed naval mines. But his brothers, Ludvig and Robert, soon focused on reconstructing the family business and became very wealthy after successfully developing the oil industry in the southern part of the Russian Empire.

In 1863, Alfred Nobel obtained his first Swedish patent on the use of the mercury percussion detonator of nitroglycerine (blasting oil) as an explosive in construction work. One of the first main applications was in blasting a railroad tunnel that joined the main north/south railway line in Stockholm. However, several explosions – which included one in 1864 that killed Nobel’s brother Emil and several other people – convinced the authorities that the use of nitroglycerine was exceedingly dangerous. In Stockholm, experimentation with nitroglycerine was forbidden within the city limits, and Alfred Nobel had to move his studies to a barge, which was anchored on Lake Mälaren, close to Stockholm.

However, Alfred was not discouraged and in 1864 he was able to start mass production of nitroglycerine. During a brief visit to Paris, he also managed to obtain a large loan from a French bank. He founded nitroglycerine companies in Sweden (1864), Norway (1865), Germany (1865) and the United States (1866). But, after several accidents in Europe and the United States, the authorities introduced regulations that restricted the possibilities of manufacturing and transporting explosives (Sohlman, 156-63).

Invention of Dynamite

“To make the handling of nitroglycerine safer, Alfred Nobel experimented with different additives”. While working on a raft which was anchored on the river Elbe outside Hamburg, “he found that mixing nitroglycerine with silica (Kieselguhr, diatomous sand) would turn the liquid into a paste, which could be shaped into rods of a size and form that was suitable for insertion into drilling holes. In 1867, he patented this material under the name ‘dynamite’. To be able to detonate the dynamite rods, he had to modify his original blasting cap”. (Alfred Nobel – His Life and Work)

Dynamite is by far the most widely used blasting explosive, Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is the main high explosive ingredient of shells and bombs. Black powder (a mixture of charcoal, sulfur and potassium nitrate) was the only industrial explosive till Alfred Nobel introduced liquid nitro glycerine for rock blasting in 1863. Black powder is still used in pyrotechnic devices. The modem era of Industrial explosives began with Nobel’s invention of the detonator in 1865, and of the first dynamite and blasting gelatin during 1867-75. This invention is of great importance since dynamite has much greater safety and shattering power than black powder and at much lower cost (Waal, 223-228).

Dynamite was made by mixing nitroglycerin with diatomite. The diatomite absorbed the liquid nitro, stabilizing it. The resultant paste was formed into sticks that were safe to transport and handle. Blasting caps were used to set off the dynamite.

“Uses of industrial explosives in-dude blasting ore, coal and rock in mining and construction, seismic prospecting for oil and gas, stimulating and perforating gas and oil wells, bonding sheets of dissimilar metals, synthesizing of Industrial diamonds, metal forming etc.” (Waal, 223-228).

To avoid toxic fumes underground or fumes that can give secondary explosions when mixed with air, industrial explosives are usually oxygen-balanced to minimize CO, NOx, and H2 in the reaction products. In typical modem dynamite, nitroglycerine containing a nitrocellulose thickener is adsorbed on a mixture of ammonium nitrate and cellulosic fuel to form a cohesive, plastic mass which is packaged in paper cartridges (Waal, 223-228). The composition, including the cartridge, is approximately oxygen balanced, that is, the oxygen balance is about zero.

In an oxygen-balanced composition, the amount of oxygen present is just sufficient to oxidize all the carbon CO2 and all the hydrogen to H2O and any metals present to their oxides. If the oxygen is insufficient to do this, the oxygen balance is said to be negative, and if it is more than sufficient, it is said to be positive. Explosive containing only C, H, N and O exhibit their maximum energy at a slightly negative oxygen balance and a minimum production of toxic NOx and CO at about zero oxygen balance.

Most industrial blasting is done with ANFO, a free flowing mixture of ammonium nitrate (AN) in the form of small spheres (prills) and six-percent No.2 diesel fuel oil, sometimes with aluminium powder to increase the energy. AN prills are made by the solidification of droplets of molten AN during free fall in a short tower. ANFO is a very low-cost, oxygen balanced explosive with adequate sensitivity and energy for most industrial blasting in dry holes of relatively large diameter. Prilled AN alone is a relatively weak explosive having a positive oxygen balance. It is too difficult to initiate and has too large critical diameter to be a useful explosive in itself.

“Most military explosives are simple compositions formulated for high energy density, loading in a munitions plant, and long storage life. Most of them are based on explosive chemical compounds that incorporate both oxidizer and fuel components in the same molecule.”(Explosive)

The most important use of dynamite are in construction, mining and demolition industries. However, modified versions of explosives & techniques have substituted for the conventional dynamite in many applications. The use of dynamite, in underwater blasting has continued the in the same way as it was originated, several years ago. Dynamite has been excessively used in armed conflicts, mainly to demolish bridges and altenatives of travelling, to put a stop to the advancement of the supplies or the enemy troops. Enthusiasts interested in decomposing the compound have deliberately seperated nitroglycerin from dynamite.

Dynamite is very commonly used in ski resorts as well. The safety patrolers make use of the sticks of the explosive device, delibrately, to create avalanches so the runs can be safe once the skiiers arrive (Perrings, 129-135).

Invention of Dynamite Essay

Email vs “Snail Mail” Essay

Email vs “Snail Mail” Essay.

Before telephones the only way to communicate with each other was to write letters. It took days before the letter got to the recipient and it took days for the writer to get the reply. Then telephones were invented and conversations became instant. Most people loved the telephone and its usefulness but some enjoyed and missed writing letters. Luckily E-mail was invented which allows people to write letters and send and receive them instantly. E-mail is a very effective way of communication.

The critics say that E-mail is not as efficient as the telephone or a letter. They say the problem with e-mail is that it’s harder to show emotion then if you were to use a phone. When talking in person or on the phone you can hear which syllable has the emphasis so you know the more important words. It makes it harder to disconnect from being in contact with someone. Disconnection (in order to connect more deeply later) now requires the greater discipline and resourcefulness (Nixon 677).

Nay Sayers not only say is it harder to show emotions but it’s also harder to go back and forth. With a telephone it’s all instant and you just speak what you want to say. With e-mail you keep having to check to see if you got any and it can really take up a lot of time. The challenge is how to keep technology with a rodentlike reproductive rate supplementary, not something that overruns our days (676). With all that typing it can really do a number on your muscles. The most common is carpal

tunnel but other muscles are affected too. We just sit at the same computer all day long in the same position. No wonder our deltoid, trapezius, and infraspinatus muscles go into revolt (677).

Actually you can explain yourself more in depth and truthfully when using e-mail. Without the person on the other end of the phone its easy to just write down what you would normally say and either bold the important words or put them in caps. Letter writing, has tended to be more formal and less off the cuff exchanges (Negroponte 672). E-mail is a lot easier then playing telephone tag with someone all day just to ask them a simple question. Fact, a face-to-face or telephone conversation is real time and synchronous. Telephone tag is a game played to find the opportunity to be synchronous. Ironically, this is often done for exchanges, which themselves require no synchrony whatsoever, and should just as well be handled by non-real-time message passing (672). Although the critics say you can get carpal tunnel there are simple things you can do to avoid all those aches. Gel wrist rest is covered in soft micofiber cloth to provide ultimate comfort while the frame adds stability and durability (Kensington 5603).

E-mail is world wide just like telephones but if you wanted to talk to your relatives in china it would cost anywhere from 7 cents a min to 27 cents a min (AT&T Long Distance Plans). With e-mail on the other hand it is free. It doesn’t matter where you send it or how long the email is, it is still free. You don’t even need to buy a computer because if you go to your local library then they allow you to use their internet and computers for no cost. By using e-mail you are able to reread what the other person wrote and it also allows you more time to understand what is actually happening. It allows you to take in the bad news before confronting the other party and making a large mistake.

He could digest the bad news in private and get his emotions under control before her had to respond (Kleinfeld 674). When you call someone and they don’t pick up the phone you are either sent to a message machine or a voicemail service. Each of which only allow you to have a maximum of 2 minutes to leave whatever message it is that needs to be passed along. On the other hand if you send someone an email you are allowed near limitless text to pass on the same message. Plus with emails you are allowed to send pictures and other files that you aren’t able to send over a telephone conversation.

E-mail allows you so much more freedom and flexibility then the telephone. It allows you to send unlimited length and amount of messages at no extra cost and it allows you to call anyone anywhere for free. It also gives you the leisure to respond whenever you want and not be forced to respond right away. When you do respond it’s easier to say what you are really thinking and feeling.

Works Cited

Nicolas Negroponte. “Being Asynchronous.” Being Digital Random House, Inc.

Judith Kleinfeld. “Check Your E-Mail; You May Be Fired.” Minneapolis Star Tribune ’99

Rob Nixon. “Please Don’t E-mail Me about This Article.” Chronicle of Higher Education September 29, 2000

Adjustable Gel Wrist Rest. Product page. Kensington.

Long Distance Service. Customer Service Page. AT&T.

Email vs “Snail Mail” Essay