Osborne-Parnes Model Essay

Osborne-Parnes Model Essay.

The Osborn-Parnes Model is a method that helps people come up with cutting edge ideas and then to take action on those ideas. “There are many economic and technical forces that are driving an organization to be innovative” (Hughes, 2003). Encouraging innovation that solves problems is what Alex Osborn and Sidney Parnes have identified and broken down into three stages.

The first stage is to Explore the Challenge. This can be a goal or an objective that opens the door to determine a need for innovation.

In the exploration process, there is a step of fact finding to gather data. By putting all of the cards on the table to determine who is involved, what resources are involved, when, where, and why it is important, the problem will be clarified. All of this data is reviewed and taken into consideration to review the objective and begin the innovation process.

The second stage of the Osborn-Parnes Modle is to generate ideas. This is not a brainstorming session without boundaries, this is where ideas considered are possible solutions.

By stretching and making connections, different combinations could present completely new innovative solutions.

The third and final stage of the Osborn-Parnes Model is to prepare for action and the steps in which to implement the innovations. The best ideas are considered to solving the initial problem before it becomes the solution. After selecting and strengthening potential solutions, there needs to be a plan for action. This starts with determining who is involved, what needs to be done by when, and what resources need to be considered. This is how leaders make an active effort to “”brainstorm to generate a quantity of ideas while deferring judgement (and) encourage playful and wild ideas (to) stretch beyond the obvious” (Giangreco, 1993).

Osborne-Parnes Model Essay

Why Entrepreneurial Organizations Seek Opportunities for Innovation Essay

Why Entrepreneurial Organizations Seek Opportunities for Innovation Essay.

An entrepreneurial organization is a business that provides time and space for employees to seek creative ideas, promotes those ideas, and supports those ideas by building the project. Innovation is the specific tool of entrepreneurs, the means by which to exploit change as an opportunity for a different or enhanced product or process. The definition of “entrepreneur” from Dictionary.com is “a person who organizes and manages any enterprise, especially a business, usually with considerable initiative and risk.” One such person who invested considerable initiative and risk is Ray Kroc, king of the famous franchise chain, McDonald’s.

Ray Kroc started as a salesman for the Lily-Tulip Cup Co. selling paper cups when he was 37 years old. He met Earl Prince, inventor of the first five-spindle milkshake mixing-machine called a Multimixer. Ray purchased the marketing rights for the Multimixer and sold it all across the country.

When he came upon the first hamburger stand owned and operated by the McDonald brothers, Kroc was so impressed by the simplicity and originality of this new restaurant (a storefront with no seats which offered only burgers, fries, drinks and milkshakes) that he purchased the McDonald’s method from the brothers – and the rest is history.

There are now more than 25,000 McDonald’s in operation worldwide. Ray’s reason for seeking this opportunity was to become profitable and at 61 years of age, he did become a millionaire. Organizations seeking innovative opportunities do so when there is an Organizational Need. United Parcel Service (UPS) designed their own route optimization system which computerized daily schedules to provide more efficient routes thereby saving delivery time, assisting with driving directions (reducing wrong turns and wrong deliveries), and reducing gas consumption.

This system also alerts the closest driver to the pickup location where to go. With this innovative system, UPS intends to be “the biggest and most flexible delivery company”. The savings of this new innovation has greatly outweighed the initial investment and risks. One of my favorite examples of an innovative organization is APPLE which all entrepreneurial organizations must admire. Since Steve Jobs introduced the first MacIntosh computer in 1984, APPLE remains the pioneer as being First to Market with its innovative design and features. Today, Apple continues to develop products that substantiate their leadership in the technology arena. From the MacIntosh to the iPad, Apple has enjoyed a reputation for delivering leading-edge products. Apple takes pride in its reputation and hardcore following of customers who pay premium prices for Apple products.

With the iPhone 5 coming out on the market soon, Apple can rest assured that their customer base – early adopters – will be waiting to buy it. Creative Edge: Entrepreneurial companies keep a strong objective toward creativity. Companies like 3M have rules for strengthening their innovative culture: 25 – 30% of annual sales must come from new products that are five years old or less; they are committed to research and development; they inspire intrapreneurship by allowing employees to pursue their own research interests although they are unrelated to the company’s current projects; their departments are kept small and run autonomously but have access to the company’s information and technical resources; awards are given for good ideas; their products are designed for the customer; and most of all, the company realizes that there will be failures but continues to encourage new ideas. 2

Reason #5: Remain competitive. Japanese company, Honda, began manufacturing its cars in the United States in 2008 at its new facility in Greensburg, Indiana. The $550 million facility was scheduled to produce 200,000 vehicles, and employ 2,000 associates at full capacity. The company standardized its assembly process (mass production) making it more flexible to change from producing pick-up trucks to fuel-efficient cars. By doing so, the company remains competitive and the 4-cylinder Honda Civic sedan remains a popular-selling car today.

Reason #6: Adaptable to the new age: Innovation is not limited to business. It is part of everyday life – including our music. Adaptable to changing times (and still highly successful) is the World’s Greatest Rock and Roll Band, The Rolling Stones. The Stones are the longest-living still-performing rock and roll band. Formed in London in 1962, The Stones have the “ability to adapt to the latest sounds and styles without drifting too far from their origins as a blues-loving, guitar-based rock and roll group.” 3 Their music changes with the times, staying contemporary yet maintaining their signature sound. Sir Mick Jagger has been an icon since The Stones’ first #1 hit “It’s All Over Now” in 1964 to Maroon 5’s video “Moves Like Jagger” hitting #1 in 2011. After four decades, The Stones are still rolling.

There are myriad reasons why entrepreneurial organizations seek opportunities for innovation but the reasons I believe are important are to prevent personal and professional stagnation and to allow people to be the creative geniuses that they are.

REFERENCES
Bateman, T. & Snell, S. (2011). Managing Technology and Innovation. In Management: Leading & Collaborating in a Competitive World (Ninth edition). New York, NY: McGraw Hill Irwin. Prominent people, A website dedicated to famous people, celebrities, VIP’s, actors, actresses, musicians, politicians. The Rolling Stones. 2012. Retrieved from http://prominentpeople.co.za/rolling-stones.aspx

Why Entrepreneurial Organizations Seek Opportunities for Innovation Essay

Case study: “The Apple of Your i” Essay

Case study: “The Apple of Your i” Essay.

As I am writing this essay now, Apple has become the world most valuable brand of all time; and it remains the company whose approach to technology and design is a standard for others. After reading the case study in the book, there are couple questions I would like to answer about this innovative company. 1) Which of the Porter’s four competitive strategies does Apple engage in? Explain. Apple founders and employees have always preferred to design and build good quality products that are simpler, better looking and more reliable than their competitors.

Apple use one of the four Porter’s competitive strategy which is “Industry-Wide Differentiation.” It means that the company basically differentiate itself from competitors by providing better products and services across the industry that have value to customers. Apple organization goals, objectives, culture, and activities are very consistent with the organization strategies.

Its founders, its people, and customers continue to think differently and to design cool and easy to use devices that are excellent in quality and value.

2) What do you think are the three most important factors in Apple’s incredible success? Justify your answer. Apple has shown its capability to create innovative product that meet and exceed its customer’s satisfaction and has also been able to keep that stream of innovations going until today. It has enable these innovations to play off of each other. It demonstrated his ability to break from away from the computer market and created successfully new markets with its iPod, iPhone, and iPad. Apple has developed an ability to sell and market its new products successfully by teaching its customers and the market that the price for an Apple product represents an outstanding value for the quality, design, and functionality. The great innovation, the product’s quality, design, differentiation, uniqueness, give a sustainable competitive advantage that has resulted in it becoming the number one valued brand in the world.

Apple has a very loyal and dedicated customer base and almost no other company can match the passionate tribe of loyal fans and customers that Apple has created. 3) Steve Jobs passed away in the Fall of 2011. Until his death, he had been the heart and soul of Apple’s innovation. Today, 35,000 Apple employees continue onward in his absence. A huge question to many investors is whether the company can be successful without him. What is your opinion? What role did he play? How can Apple respond to his loss? Would you be willing to invest in Apple without his leadership? Why or why not? There is no question that Apple will be a different place without Jobs’ influence and visionary skills but it is not necessarily doomed. Jobs was the chief innovator in the organization and he has brought everything that is essential to Apple to make it as successful as it is today. He will be forever the brain and the great leader behind Apple Inc., he has contributed in every way in the development and innovative and success factor of this organization.

Of course he didn’t do it all alone, but he seemed to set the direction for the business in a very effective way. For the time he spent in the company, he has been very involvement as a leader and as innovator with the help of all the people around him. And I think that he taught them well enough to maintain and keep the company as successful as he has always planned it to be. Some people might think that the progress of Apple will just diminish or even stop without jobs unique vision and leadership style and would therefore not invest in Apple. That’s is totally their opinion which I respect but as for me I think Apple is set to stay as long as it has dedicated leaders, employees and loyal customers. 4) Microsoft took an early lead in the development of slate devices (like the iPad), and it had the world’s leading operating system and applications for over 20 years. Provide five reasons why Microsoft was not able to achieve the same success that Apple has. Most industry analyst would agree that the skills and abilities of Microsoft’s 88,000 employees are as good, on average, as Apple’s.

Personally, I think the first reason would be the lack of strong and visionary leadership as Apple had in the person of Steve Jobs. Since Bill Gates, Microsoft haven’t had a real innovative and great leader that would help them accomplish exceptional thing that would revolutionary the industry. It has multiple goals that don’t help them focus on developing one particular but exceptional thing at the time. Its people are more focused on having technology than improving and innovating what they already have. Tim Cook in an article said, Apple’s strength result from its expertise in three main areas hardware, software, and services (having them all at the same time). While Microsoft is rich at building software, then hand the software to hardware makers, who would then built something customer want. Microsoft did not place so much emphasis on its marketing until recently while Apple has being performing an intensive marketing and advertising to promote its products and make people switch.

And finally, the loyalty of the customer is another reason why Microsoft haven’t be able to surpass Apple; Apple has a loyal and passionate customer base and Microsoft doesn’t have that kind of customer. 5) Considering your answers to the four questions above, if you had a spare $5,000 in your portfolio and wanted to buy an equity stock with it, would you buy AAPL (Apple)? Why or why not? If I had the above amount of money in my portfolio, I would definitely buy an equity stock with it; especially with Apple today’s market share value.

Apple just released some new products that have boosted its value and confirm its position of most valuable brand in the world. Therefore, whether I decide to choose stock or cash dividends, my investments will grow and increase in value with the possibility of realizing a capital gain over the investment. Notice Apple has sold over 10 million new iPhone 6 and iPhone 6plus models, a new record, just in three days after launch on September 19th and “the sales exceeded our expectations “ says Tim Cook. Steve Jobs is gone but he has left a remarkable team of people or family behind him. Work cited:

Romain Moisescot. March 7th, 2012. http://allaboutstevejobs.com/persona/steveatwork.php. Apple.com/hotnews

Case study: “The Apple of Your i” Essay