Influences on the U.S. Constitution

Influences on the U.S. Constitution

Imagine that you have been asked to teach a class on U.S. history at the local community college. Prepare a lecture in which you explain the historical, political, philosophical, and economic influences on the development of the U.S. Constitution.

Respond to the question prompts in Sections 1 through 3 of this assignment in the form of a lecture you would give to the class to explain the each of the topics.

Section 1: Important Documents

Select 2 of the documents below:

Prompt: Describe the documents and explain their importance. Which document do you believe is the most important influence on the Constitution? (350- to 525-words)

Section 2: Philosophers and Philosophies

Select 2 of the philosophers below:

  • Baron de Montesquieu
  • John Locke
  • Thomas Hobbes
  • William Blackstone

Describe who they were and why they were important. How did their writings influence the Constitution? (350- to 525-words)

Section 3: Events and Movements

Select 2 of the events below:

  • England’s Parliament
  • Protestant Reformation
  • European Enlightenment

Explain the events or movements and their importance. Describe their influence on the Constitution. (350- to 525-words)

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Anti-Vietnam War Movement

The decade of the 1960s is often referred to as “the turbulent decade,” and much of this turbulence stems from the anti-Vietnam War movement that swept the nation. I’m sure you conjure up the iconic images of protesters placing flowers in the barrels of guns or the countless images of college students holding signs on campuses across the US. So with that in mind, we will ask ourselves an overarching question: Why did many Americans oppose the Vietnam War?

You have been given a timeline of the War, along with 2 documents. After reading the timeline and the documents, answer the following questions:

1. Why did MLK and John Kerry oppose the war?

2. Why did anti-war sentiment grow after 1968?

3. Based on what you’ve read, who opposed the war in Vietnam? Was it mostly college kids?

4. Using all of the documents, why did many Americans oppose the Vietnam War?

5. Considering the context, can you speculate what those Americans who supported the war said?

 Martin Luther King Jr. on the Vietnam War – The Atlantic 

 John Kerry – Anti-War Speech (1971) [short clip] – YouTube 

 Vietnam War Hearing 1971 | 

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History of International Aviation

History of International Aviation

The Warsaw Convention hugely shaped the history of international aviation. This convention was effective due to the commercial nature of aviation during that time. This conference-paved way for what would develop from aviation, it recognized commercial aviation as a progressive entity. This convention was held in 1929 by 152 member states, which paved the way for commercial aviation (“Warsaw Convection”). This conference meant to regulate the global deportment of individuals and goods accomplished by aircraft for recompense. This conference was later amended during the Chicago convention in 1944 (“History: Foundation of the International Civil Aviation”). However, most of the crucial things remained.

Deregulation has also shaped international relations over the years. In the U.S., deregulation has caused a ripple effect all over the world. There has been a full regulation of international air transport put into place. This met some resistance because many nations could not compete with the U.S. airlines but it was ultimately embraced. By the time, it was accepted nations used bilateral trades as an alternative, whereby, each state owned and managed the airlines and nurtured the relationship with other states. The aviation industry thought that aircraft could not reach they’re profitmaking prospective deprived of improving and maintaining safety standards (“A Brief History,” 2017).

Contextual Elements

Over the years, some high-profile accidents occurred demanding for regulatory acts in the aviation industry. In 1938, President Roosevelt contracted the Civil Aeronautics Act to ensure a centralized focus on the aviation security (“A Brief History,” 2017). This legislation bore the independent Civil Aeronautics Authority, comprised of a three-member air safety board. This was meant to conduct investigations and offer suggestions on reducing or preventing accidents.

The Airline Deregulation Act was signed in 1978, and it created a competitive airline market (“A Brief History,” 2017). This act increased the workload of the FAA since it was granted more duties such as certifying every new airline, to review applications, and to approve or disapprove them. This act helped the FAA achieve a semi-automated air traffic control by the time this Act became law.

President Clinton signed the Aviation Investment and Reform Act into law in 200, prompting the appointment of a chief operating officer. This eventually led to the creation of FAA’s Air Traffic Organization.


A Brief History of the FAA. (2017, January 04). Retrieved from

History: Foundation of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). (n.d.). Retrieved from

Warsaw Convention as amended at the Hague, 1955: And by protocol no. 4 of Montreal, 1975. (n.d.). Retrieved from

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Forces Driving Population Change

Forces Driving Population Change

Population growth is an issue that tends to have both positive and negative effects. These population vicissitudes influence publics’ lives. There have been concerns that the population changes have impacted the rise of Americans with not stated religion among young adult millennial group (Cohn & Caumont, 2016). Demographic changes are contributed by the fact that the U.S. is more racially and ethnically diverse than it used to be. Therefore, in a few years’ time, Americans will not have a sole racial or ethnic majority. This is because the American population is comprised of about 14% immigrants, and this is only expected to rise (Cohn & Caumont, 2016). Therefore, the U.S. will not have a dominant ethnicity in the years to come.

The population growth in the U.S. is expected to rise over the years with the number of old people increasing (Shrestha & Heisler, 2011). This has led to convincing people about the United States’ declining eminence. However, the population of the young and working people is also expected to increase. Over the years, there is a risk of poverty among couples, which are cohabiting together than those who are already married (OECD, 2011). These issues of poverty can also be caused by divorce and separations because a family with one adult working is more vulnerable than one with two (OECD, 2011). Families are also expected to take up extended educational characteristics whereby families from low-income families will find it hard to participate in other out-of-school hours activities such as art, music, or study support.

These changes will impact have straining effects on demand and supply. The growth in population will result in an increase in the demand for products. However, some people will find it hard to afford these things, and thus, they will demand only a few that they can afford. In the case where poverty prevails in some families, these families will demand cheap goods that they can afford. The supply, on the other hand, will be low because they will be supplying to a large number of people and this means they may run out of raw materials.

I work in vacation rentals in Hawaii, and thus this company will benefit from the demographic changes. Population increase means more businesses to business people. This may come at a cost to those who will be drained in poverty. However, there will be more people willing to go on vacation, looking for places to go, and means of transportation. This will ensure that there are more businesses for the vacation center. There will be an issue of housing if the population rockets and therefore people will be looking to get away from their normal life to find some place quiet and serene to spend a few days.

The demographic changes also show that there will be an increase in the number of single parents within the years. This can have both positive and negative effects, a single parent can be dedicated to her or his kid or can use up a lot of his or her time working and trying to put food on the table. However, the vacation rental company will see this as a business opportunity when these single parents decide to get out and spend time with their kids.


Cohn, D., & Caumont. (2016, March 31). 10 demographic trends that are shaping the U.S. and the world. Retrieved from

OECD. (2011). The future of families to 2030: Projections, policy challenges, and policy options. Paris: International Futures Programme.

Shrestha, L., & Heisler, E. (2011, March 31). The changing demographic profile of the United States. Retrieved from

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The Causes of the World War I

The Causes of the World War I


For the past one century, the causes of the First World War remain controversy in mind of many people across the world. The war which took place from  August 1914 and concluded 1918, it left seventeen million people dead and twenty million injured. The war mainly focused European countries, which fought for power. The war was between two long-term rivals made up of two alliance of different states in Europe. Germany Italy and Austria-Hungary were on the one hand as a triple alliance; they fought against Triple Entente (Serbia, France Russia, and Great Britain).[1] The conflict raised after the death of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, which they believe to be organized by Serbian bandits. The conflict resulted in different countries in Europe to have differing views toward this matter. Many urges the war was caused by political conflict, economic conflict, and militarism.

The Causes of the World War I

The battle was mainly between imperialism and nationalism, which started after declining of Ottoman Empire in 1890. In 1900 Great Britain controlled over the half of the whole world, which made other countries such as Germany to be suspicious, Africa was the main target of European countries, which heighten their desire and conflicted to expand their territories in African countries. The causes of the First World War are not clearly established as the Second World War. Unlike the Second World War, there are many controversial statements on the causes of the First World War.[2] The tension of the war raised in the beginning of  20th century between Germany which was the main player of Triple Alliance and Great Britain the major player of Triple Entente.[3] Germany had a strong navy that instills fear to the Great Britain and France. Britain was forced into the battle after Germany backed Austria out of fear she may be attacked. Britain later joins hand with France and Russia with the aim of controlling Germany in all her borders.

It is not easy to erase the impact of the First World War all over the world. The grief and the repercussions of WW1 remain until today in the mind of many in the world. In the United Kingdom, the war is commemorated every year on 11 November where people are urged to be silent for the two minutes as the remembrance of the events that take place during the war. The group that was directly affected by the wrath of the war was the soldiers who sacrificed their lives to seek victory of their states. The lives of the soldiers who fought in the First World War were miserable and brutal. Many of them they there were forced to the battlefield by their masters without questioning. They left their homes for many months, they fought in harsh environments, and many of them succumbed as a result of the battle between their brutal enemies. They used poisonous weapons, which endangered their life more than their prospective enemies did. Soldiers were ordered to attack by their seniors and not supposed to retreat. The injured soldiers were given treatment, but if a soldier dies, there was no burial ceremony for them. Ten million soldiers died while still in battle, and their armies executed many of them because of cowardice. More than sixty million soldiers involved directly in the First World War, and it is the only war that soldiers had the most devastating experience of the war environment and technology.

Thesis Statement

The circumstances before and within the First World War is controversial which provides a significant interest to determine the fact surrounding the matter. Since 2014 up to date, the world is commemorating one hundred years after the First World War in the world. The current generation in the world mainly comprises the youths who are much interested in the issues that lead to an outbreak of the First World War. They are also a need for establishing the role played by different parties before and during the First World War. It is difficult to find the eye witness of the war in this 21st century, many of them died as a result of war and elderly, even if one is lucky to find one; many of them are on unstable mind due to mental degeneration. There are extensive ambiguity and confusion around various occasions that are happening all over the world related to the First World War.[4] Most of this occasion force people to follow the social norms that have been there for almost a century on expressing a moment of grief as a commemoration of the war. Many of those who follow such mainstream they never understand and cannot explain the reason behind their action. There is a need of enlightening the society as well as the scholars the cause and significance of the First World War as a measure of combating the situation that can lead to conflict and war in future.


Most of the information on the First World War is available in secondary sources such as books journals and articles among others. The research on the causes of the First World War will gather information mainly from the secondary sources as they contain discussions of various research of the First World War. Secondary sources are the sources written at a time before the research. They are vital when doing research on a topic in history since it deals with events that happened before the research. CSP library website will be used to search for books and journals needed as a source of information to support the thesis statement. CSP library website will be a reliable source of information at all time since it is easily accessible at any place so long as there is internet connectivity.

The research will be a qualitative research where views, opinion, and arguments of different writers of different books will be analyzed so as to come up with a tentative conclusion on to what led to the outbreak of the First World War in the world. It is better to go through all the relevant information on the First World War. It is better not to be subjective but to be objective and find out different meaning and significance of First World War as indicated by different authors. One need research tools such as notebook and a pen for noting down all relevant information as well as doing the close analysis. It is better to find out writer with contrasting views to come up with strong arguments that support the thesis statement. During the research, one needs to develop some of the research questions that acts as a guide to collecting the information needed to support the thesis statement.

Research Question

Research questions are set forward to fill the gap knowledge that exists. While doing the research on the causes of World War I, it is better to come up with the research questions that are relevant to the topic. The research questions for this research are;

  1. What were the reasons of World War One
  2. How was the life in the Battle Field during the first war?
  3. Why was the Battle Field a way to promote internationalism?
  4. What are some of the aspect of a successful Battle Field?
  5. How the soldiers survive during the First World One?
  6. How many people died in the Battlefield during the First world War?
  7. Who wins the first world One?


In the course of responding to the research questions of this study, one may come up with many conclusive answers that support the thesis statement. Such statements are like; the major reasons that lead to the world war one are imperialism and economic conflicts. The battle life during the First World War is quite contradicting because the war spread to various countries across the world each backing one side between the fighting rivals. Many people lost their properties during the First World War, and about 17million persons died as the result of this war.[5] Scholar fails to agree on who won the first world war, but many urges that Germany was the main loser of the war and victory group was the triple entente after receiving support from the United States after the Russian Revolution. Soldiers of World War I experienced the most devastating situation, and many were killed if they resisted following orders of their masters.   


Tarr, Russell. “WW1 battlefields as a way to promote internationalism: Some practical suggestions.” The International Schools Journal vol. 34, no. 1, 2014, 27-32.

Rein, Chris. “From ‘observation’ to ‘tactical reconnaissance:’ the development of American battlefield ISR in World War II.” Air Power History, vol. 63, no. 1, 2016, 32.

Isdale, William. “Are there moral reasons to remember the First World War?” Think vol. 14, no. 41, 2015, 89-97.

Chandler, Pat. “World War One Centenary 1914-1918.” School Librarian, 2013, 207.

Olds, Sharon. “The End of World War One.” The Massachusetts Review, vol. 20, no. 4, 1979, 666.

“Combat and the soldier’s experience in World War One.” The British Library. January 20, 2014. Accessed March 30, 2017.

[1] Russell Tarr, “WW1 battlefields as a way to promote internationalism: Some practical suggestions,” The International Schools Journal, vol. 34, no. 1, 2014, 27-32.

[2] Chris Rein, “From ‘observation’ to ‘tactical reconnaissance: The development of American battlefield ISR in World War II,” Air Power History, vol. 63, no. 1, 2016, 32.

[3] Pat Chandler, “World War One Centenary 1914-1918,” School Librarian, 2013, 207.

[4] William Isdale, “Are there moral reasons to remember the First World War?” Think vol. 14, no. 41, 2015, 89-97.

[5] Sharon Olds, “The End of World War One,” The Massachusetts Review, vol. 20, no. 4, 1979, 666.

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History and Society of South Korea

History and Society of South Korea

South Korea is country located in southeastern part of the Asia. Japanese formally colonized the country, but after their defeat in the Second World War, the country was predominantly controlled by the United States. The country was one of the battlefields for the United States to seize the Soviet Union in the cold war that existed many decades after the Second World War. After the WWII, the Korean peninsula war started which led to the split of the South and North Korea. The South Korea became an independent state in 1948. The separation of the Korean peninsula was due to the formation of two government, which claimed to be the legitimate government (Macdonald & Clark, 1996). The two government were under the USSR and US governments. The rivalry of the two government led to formations of the North and South Korea each having its separate government and becoming the Republic. The southern Korea for a long time it has been supported by the United States and NATO to end the difference that exists between them and communist North Korea. Southern Korea has a democratic government that is governed by the president as the commander in chief of the armed forces (Kim, 2000). North Korea has threatened South Korea for a very long time to launch the atomic bomb to southern Korea. South Korea has 45% of land of the main Korean peninsula  

The Korean tradition culture borrows much from Chinese. Among the things that are closely similar to the Chinese is the writing characters and Buddhism. For many century Korean was the major allies with the Chinese tribute system, but after the devastation of invasion of Japanese the in the 16th century, the alliance collapsed. For more than 250 years, Korean was known as the most peaceful nation between the westerner, and the unrest started at the end of the 19th century. The second half of Japanese colonization Korea became the imperialistic interest of the Western countries after the decline of the Chinese empire. In 1876, Korea signed the first diplomatic treaty with the United States. Japan, China, and Russia were major rivals of the Korea at the end of the 19th century. Japan defeated China and Russia in the war that lasted for ten years. After the victory, Japanese become predominant in the Korean peninsula. From 1910, Japanese treated the Korea as its colony where it ruled authoritatively until the end of the Second World War. Toward the end of the Japanese colonization, Japanese wiped out the Korean culture and made it resemble the Japanese culture. They even change their language making it structurally similar to the Japanese language. In 1939, Japanese force Korean to adopt the name similar to the Japanese names. Japan also lead to industrial development in Korea by setting up industries such as steel, cement, and chemical plants mainly in South Korea. At the end of Japanese colonization, Korea was the second most industrialized nation in Asia after the Japan (Kyung-Sup, 1999). The American Society influences the current South Korean society. This is because the majority of the southern Korea people are adopting Christianity that was not there before in the Korean history and capitalism mode of economy.



Kim, S. (2000). The politics of democratization in Korea: The role of civil society. The     University of Pittsburgh Pre.

Kyung-Sup, C. (1999). Compressed Modernity and its discontents: South Korean society in         transition. Economy and Society, 28(1), 30-55.

Macdonald, D. S., & Clark, D. N. (1996). The Koreans: Contemporary Politics and Society.        Westview Pr.

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Civil War Reconstruction

 After skimming Give Me Liberty Ch. 15 and watching “Reconstruction: the Second Civil War,” discuss the successes and failures of Reconstruction. 

Part I: Fully discuss at least 2 of the greatest achievements of Reconstruction (although these could eventually become failures by the end of Reconstruction).

Part II: Fully discuss at least 2 of the greatest failures of Reconstruction.

Part III: Do you think the Civil War and Reconstruction have lasting effects on the political and social climate today? (You may choose to address, but are not limited to, the 2016 presidential election, the alt-right, the apparent rise in nativist groups, Black Lives Matter Movement, etc)

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Aztalan is one of the renowned archeological sites and what can be referred to as a National Historic Landmark. It is located on the Crawfish River, which exhibits the ancient Mississippi culture where the locals settled on the farms and the valleys between the 10th and the late 13th centuries. The early inhabitants of the Azlatan normally constructed earthwork mounds, which were used for their religious and political occasions. They also indulged in various economic activities, such as trading with their neighbors from Great Lakes and the US.

Some archeological excavations have been done over the years to determine the history of the Azlatan in the 35 acres of land where archeologists believe the inhabitants lived. It is important to note that it is only two mounds survived. However, all the relevant stakeholders have played an important role in ensuring that they have been restored to preserve the history as the massive agricultural activities of the natives of Azlatan had earlier destroyed them. These portions were constructed in the same place where the archeologists believed and found some evidence of the long walls that surrounded these mounds.

Various materials were recovered from the site during the excavations. This mostly comprises of the artifacts such as the clay pots, the arrow points, the Mississippi deity, and the shell beads. There were also copper and stone decorations that were mostly used to make the warriors beautiful. Another important aspect that should be noted is the fact that the ‘large stone hoes’ were mostly imported from the neighboring communities, especially from Southern Illinois. The inhabitant’s communities of Azlatan also used the small stone wheels for chunky, which as a game that involved spear throwing. Archeologists and other historians are yet to establish what led to the migration of the Mississippian inhabitants to the Southern Wisconsin. Their culture also vanished, as it cannot be traced to a particular community across the globe today. The Azlatan archeologists are still trying to investigate some of these mysteries, which are, yet to be uncovered concerning the history of the inhabitant communities and their culture.

Further, the Jefferson citizens started the Azlatan Park in the year 1922. They were able to purchase a few things that they believed that belonged to the inhabitant’s communities of the Azlatan. This included the iconic mounds belonging to a group of inhabitants still living there. It is also important to note that this property was officially given to the Wisconsin Archeological Society in the year 1928. Later, in the year 1927, Winston Legislature gave a directive to the State Conservation Commission to get full ownership of the land and convert it to a historical memorial park. The commission purchased approximately 120 acres of land while the interest stakeholders donated the rest. Later, the memorial park was opened in the year 1952 and listed as one of the Historical Place in the year 1966.

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Jack Weatherford, Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World

Jack Weatherford historian-anthropologist expresses the theme of Mongol Military tactics in theory and practice, in an extraordinary way in the book Genghis Khan and the making of the Modern World. We analyzed the topic exclusively with my group mate and came up with the objective information on that topic. We found the topic to be much enlightening not just on the Genghis but the entire Mongol community. With the help of innovation and strive for the community, the Mongol were able to conquer the best part of Asian, Middle East and the Eastern Europe for a period almost a century. The unity and dedication of the military personnel and their commander are the ones that enabled Mongol who was nomadic to win most of the quest and contributed a lot to Europe civilization. All these details we were able to see them and analyze them collaboratively.

The information that we gathered from the book about the Mongol military practice and the theory was precise. We did a detailed research about Mongol military as required for students in level 300. We looked on precise details that made Mongol military to survive for almost a century in battle. We tried to find out what made the Mongol to be defeated by Vietnam and Japan. We found that Mongol military was able to win most of its battle in Asia because of its organization. All the military personnel were honest, trustworthy and united. The division of the military made them defeated by Vietnam and Japan in 1299.  

The tactics that the Mongol Military used were outstanding which made them emerge victorious in the war. The most common tactics that they used are; every Mongol soldier required having three horse, which enables them to travel with speed without their animals becoming tired. Possession of many horses among Mongolian soldiers enabled them to defeat Hungary army. Mongol soldiers trained on horsemanship, unit tactic, and archery. They trained repeatedly to enhance their competence. Mongol had an effective way of getting information and communication through written messages around the Roman Empire. The Mongol soldiers they depended upon on the packed dried food. This made them able to withstand the battle, unlike many agrarian empires. 

Mongol military shows different types of images, arts, artifacts and maps that later become important during European civilization. Most of the artifacts and arts they were developed by Genghis who was the leader of the Mongol army. The Mongol culture changed fine art and literature of the people they colonized. The artistic work of Mongolian appears in things like textile work and decoration, architecture, stone carving, jewelry, paper money and Mongolian music.

The Mongolian military is depicted as barbarism and cruel nomadic warriors that hinder civilization in the world. Surprisingly the military contributed a lot to European civilization, which made Europe and Asia flourish. The army led to the global awakening and advancement of technologies. Most of the weapons such as the gunpowder used by Mongolian, they in turn used by European during the time of exploration. European continent was able to identify war was the way to power, so it imitated most of the Mongolian tactics of war and weapons of the war that existed in the 20th century in the European continent. Jack Weatherford revives the exact history of Mongolian military, giving out all the tactics that they used to win various battles until their defeat. The victory and fall of Mongolian military tactics do not contribute only to history archives but tests us to reexamine how the contemporary world is established.

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The ‘American Century’ and the Cold War, 1945

The Cold War describes a period of geopolitical tension which came after the World War II between countries in the Western Bloc and those in the Eastern Bloc. The Cold War was the open and yet restricted rivalry that was attained between the USSR and the U.S. and their respective allies (Lewis 69-71). This war was waged on economic, political, and propaganda fronts and had zero or limited recourse to weapons. The countries involved during this period aimed at making their enemies suffer by withholding several essential things they needed or blocking their means of transportation.

This period of the Cold War shaped the history of the 20th century due to the changing relations of the greatest powers (Cox 355). The Cold War was dominated by rivalries between these powers. However, these struggles helped shaped the development of the many countries over the years. The Cold War entailed a period whereby the Soviet Union and the United States continually antagonized each other. These countries together with their allies did not battle directly; instead, they used political maneuvering, propaganda, military coalitions, arms buildups, espionage, and proxy wars between other nations.

The American Century describes a span in the middle of the 20th century, which was hugely influenced by the United States’ dominance due to its powers in political, cultural, and economic terms. This period related to the period of the Cold War because the Americans used their superiority to deny their rival countries some of their needs with an aim of drawing them to their side or making them submit. This ability to be in control politically, economically, and culturally gave the United States a perfect platform to show their superiority and develop the country to a superpower. It also shaped the course of the Cold War, the United States had enough resources, and thus it could sustain itself even if other countries refused to help it.

During the Cold War, the United States came up with a policy, containment, which used numerous strategies with a bid to limit the continuous growth of communism abroad. The policy was used to counter the moves by the USSR to enlarge its communism dominance in the Eastern part of Europe and Asia. This policy meant to ensure the countries that were still allied with the United States that they would continue getting support from the U.S. The United States wanted to ensure that the Soviet Union did not take control of most parts of the world.

In 1962, the USSR and the U.S. engaged in a direct, highly dangerous confrontation during the Crisis. The Cold War was a period, which did not use many physical confrontations, but this time, the two nations came closest to a nuclear confrontation. The U.S. tried to overthrow Castro regime in Cuba and failed by using the Bay of Pigs invasion and the United States’ president Kennedy planned operation Mongoose. This led Nikita Khrushchev and the Cuban president, Fidel Castro to draft an agreement secretly, that placed nuclear missiles in Cuba so as to stop any attempts of invasion in the future (Scott and Smith 659-671). The United States discovered the attempts to create weapons in Cuba and the president warned against it but that did not deter Cuba. The United States later ordered a naval quarantine of Cuba but Cuba saw this as a blockade and an act of aggression. However, the two nations came to an agreement when the Soviet Union asked the U.S. to retreat from Cuba, and Cuba to stop the process of making missiles.

The American Century concept from 1945-1990 was because the United States had more dominance in the world than other powers. The concept was rightfully used at this time because the country was a superpower and had the ability to help other nations financially or economically. The country was able to withhold food, other products from other countries while blocking their means of transportation, and they still sustained themselves. Therefore, this term was justified and it described the United States as it was during that period.

Works Cited

Cox, Michael. Twentieth Century International Relations: Collection. New York: SAGE Publications, 2007.

Lewis, Paul. “The Cold War Challenge.” Modern Day Journal, vol. 58, no. 3, 2008, pp. 69-72.

Scott, Lei and Steve Smith. “Lessons of October: Historians, Political Scientists, Policy Makers and the Cuban Missile Crisis.” International Affairs, vol. 70, no. 4, 1962, pp. 659-684.

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