Causes and Prevention of Poor Health Essay

Causes and Prevention of Poor Health Essay.

In many countries, especially the United States, behaviors leading to poor health start early in life. The three “leading causes of preventable death in the United States are smoking, obesity, and alcohol abuse” (Science Daily, 2006). Along with these problems, “a lack of exercise, drug abuse, and sexually transmitted diseases were prominent in young adults” (Science Daily, 2006). Some reasons for these problems are children and young adults spending more time inside playing video games and watching television instead of going outside to play or to participate in a sport.

Often young adults are left to take care of themselves after school and during the summer vacation, and their diets tend to suffer. Smoking, alcohol use, and drug use are all glorified in movies and on television, and some young people feel that they need to copy those actions to make themselves “cool” in the eyes of others. Insufficient sexual education at home and at school contributes to disease and unwanted pregnancy. To change these behaviors, more must be done to teach children to take care of their bodies.

Even a small child can be taught to enjoy good foods, at the very least in school lunches, and can be taught that playing is more fun than watching television. Because some children live in areas where outside play is limited, schools and non profit organizations should step in and offer plenty of physical education and after school activities. After school activities and school vacation programs can also help with the drug, alcohol, and smoking problems. Having good role models demonstrate clean lifestyles and teach the dangers of harmful activities may cause some children to never start them.

Finally, sex education must be provided in some form before children feel the urges to become sexually active. Programs that teach young people how difficult it is to care for a child and how devastating a sexually transmitted disease can be, and in some cases how deadly they can be, need to start early and be carried through all the years of schooling. Children must be made aware of how special their bodies are, and how they can carefully tend to them to make them strong, healthy, and last for a long time. The earlier they can be taught this, the less poor health there will be in the United States.

Causes and Prevention of Poor Health Essay

Health Cruises Homework Essay

Health Cruises Homework Essay.

1. What is the minimum number of passengers Health Cruises must sign up by November 20th to break even? *Fixed costs = $220,000 (Ship rental and crew) + $65,000(initial advertisement expense) +$10,000(administrative expense) = $295000 *Contribution per unit = $1500 -$200 = $1300 *Breakeven point (in units)= 295000/1300 = 226.92

: At least 227 passengers should sign up for Health Cruises by November 20th.

2. Should Health Cruises go ahead with the cruise since 200 people have signed up by November 14th? Why or why not? : Though I concede that Health Cruises do not reach the break-even point and is very likely to make loss at this situation, I suggest them to keep running this trip from a long term perspective.

The company should not consider only financial issue in operating business and miss an opportunity to make huge profits and create new spectrum of service. If Health Cruise efficiently proceed this trip and offer fine quality of service to these 200 passengers, this package cruises would go famous through word of mouth and gain effective advertising effect. Also, the company can better understand the operating system of its product and reconstruct its business and financial system to make profit.

Therefore, instead of losing enormous amount of fixed costs by cancelling this whole cruise, I believe Health Cruises should present its product regardless of its current financial status.

3. The advertising agency has proposed two alternative campaigns to help fill the boat. One will cost $6000 and the other would cost $15,000. Which would you suggest? *Breakeven point including = 295000+6000/1300 = 232

another ads cost $6,000(in units)
* Breakeven point including = 295000+15000/1300 = 239
another ads cost $15,000(in units)

: I suggest the corporation to choose the campaign that costs $15,000 since, as calculation shown above proves, it has higher possibility of bringing enough number of passengers to exceed breakeven point in units and earn profit. 4. Should Health Cruises consider cutting its prices for this trip? Why or why not? What other factors could impact the go/no-go decision in addition to the break even?

: The corporation should not cut its price for this trip because considering the fixed and variable costs its current price which ranges from $1500 to $2200 seems reasonable and at this point where this trip is the first product presenting and only 200 passengers signed up for it, we cannot guarantee that enough number of passengers would come to make profit even if we drop the price. Moreover, Health cruises should consider other internal and external factors to make this trip successful such as other ways to reduce its fixed and variable cost, its competitors’ prices and products and nation’s economic status.

Health Cruises Homework Essay

Environmental Effects on Human Health Essay

Environmental Effects on Human Health Essay.

With the vast changes in the environment, human health is at an all time risk. Man has created factors over the years that can be controlled with enormous effort on each individual. Environmental risk factors from natural occurrences are not easily controlled, yet have an astounding effect on human health. Dry conditions have created perfect environment for natural wild fires throughout much of the world causing concern for increased air pollution. Radon gas is a radiation that occurs in nature and has been around since the beginning of time; it is the second leading cause of lung cancer, but can be controlled with little effort.

Mold spores in the millions grow in most areas of the world affecting people’s respiratory health, skin, and eyes yet can be prevented. Environmental health risks from natural causes are mostly preventable with diligence from everyone.

Wildfires are a combination of grasses, trees and possible building materials. This leaves fine particles in the air that can travel for several miles causing health concerns in areas surrounding the fires.

Air pollution caused by wildfires not only hurts your eyes but also can irritate the respiratory system causing people suffering from asthma and chronic lung disease to feel the effects. Chronic heart disease is also affected by the harmful air quality. (Center for Disease Control, 2011) Always check the local air quality index to determine if you are safe outdoors; otherwise, remain indoors with the windows and doors closed and the air conditioning running to keep contaminated outdoor air form coming indoors. Take caution to remove yourself from situations that may be unsafe or harmful to your health.

Radon gas is a naturally occurring background radiation that has been around since time began. It is found predominantly in soil, but occurs everywhere. Radon gas is an odorless, tasteless, invisible gas that can seep into our homes through the ground causing serious health problems. Radon gas is the second leading cause of lung cancer. The amount of radon in your house and the amount of time you spend there, determine the risks of getting lung cancer from the gas. Smokers face a much larger risk of getting lung cancer from radon gas than non-smokers.

There is a big push by governments across the globe to reduce the risks of lung cancer from radon. There are many myths surrounding radon that the government is working to dispel. Of those myths scientists agree that radon causes thousands of preventable deaths each year from lung cancer, radon testing is easy and can be done by yourself or by a qualified testing company, all homes are affected and homes with dangerously high levels can be easily fixed by professional radon gas mitigators, and every house tests differently. (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2009)

Molds are fungi that grow most everywhere and effect people in all health categories. People with respiratory conditions such as asthma, allergies, and sinusitis have the greatest risks of affected. Individuals with a weakened immune system, children and elderly are at risk of being effective as well. Symptoms that may occur are nasal stuffiness, wheezing, eye irritation, and skin irritations. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010) Mold can be found anywhere but prefer places that are warm and moist. A cleaning solution of one cup bleach to one gallon of water may be used to kill existing mold. Keep areas that are prone to moisture clean and ventilated to reduce potential mold hazards. (Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 2006)

In summary, human health concerns are at an all time with the vast environmental changes that have occurred. Air quality affected by naturally occurring wildfires has a large impact on people for miles surrounding the fires. Lung cancer caused by naturally occurring radon gases is being addressed by governments across the globe in an attempt to reduce outbreaks. People everywhere are fighting the harmful effects of mold and learning ways to control the infestations. Maintaining good health in a world riddled with natural and manmade environmental concerns requires knowledge, understanding, and effort on every individual.

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Environmental Effects on Human Health Essay

Nonprofit versus For-Profit Healthcare and Organizations Essay

Nonprofit versus For-Profit Healthcare and Organizations Essay.

Abstract

This paper explores articles and research conducted on nonprofit versus For-Profit Healthcare and Organizations. There are three types of entities that own hospitals, which are: nonprofit, for-profit, and government. However, it can’t be determined if they specialize in different medical services or how their service profits affect certain specializations. More than likely, the for-profits offer profitable medical services that benefit the organization, which would lead to believe that the nonprofits are in the middle, leaving the government with offering the unprofitable services.

The for-profits are also quite responsive to the changes associated with service profitability than the nonprofit or government entities.

Therefore, it would be necessary to evaluate the value of nonprofit hospital ownership and differentiate between the service offerings amongst the hospital types. Looking into the ways that for-profit hospitals make profits, it would be necessary to take into consideration the geographical location versus the well insured citizens that are located within the area. This paper also looks into the assumption that all general hospitals are relatively alike in the services provided, regardless of ownership….

but also that these entities would vary in their patient mixture. In my research, this paper is for the recognition of profit making and to introduce the idea that for-profit healthcare and organizations are more opt to decide on which medical services to offer based on the service profitability.

In our country nonprofit hospitals account for a major portion of the urban areas, while the remainder being for-profit or governmental ownership operating under different legal rules. When we evaluate the interests associated within the healthcare industry, we must take into consideration the value it has on today’s society and economy. This issue has been heavily debated in that there have been raising questions as to the fact of the similarities between non-profit organizations and for-profit organizations. In analyzing these issues, it must also show relevance as to the accountability of the evidence and material that supports the policies regarding ownership.

From our standpoint here in the United States, hospitals take the foremost credit as being the largest healthcare organization in the country. When we look into classification however, it can be noted that private hospitals have the ability to be classed as for-profit or non-profit organizations due to independent regulatory rules that separate the two. From a non-profit standpoint, these type organizations are not required to pay sales, income, or property tax.

And to further introduce the non-profit organizations, it is within reason to understand that they were established with the intention of providing specific social services to meet the needs of poor citizens. For this reason, is why not-for-profit healthcare and those hospitals and organizations that are associated within its boundaries… are exempt from paying taxes. This is a major factor as to how and why these type organizations operate. When realizing the importance of non-profit healthcare and organizations, it is fair to say… that although they are deemed to be prestigious organizations, they are often not regarded as such.

For-profit, nonprofit, and governmental organizations operate under different legal rules. These rules would explain how profits are shared and distributed to shareholders in for-profit organizations, and how government and nonprofit hospitals are tax exempt. Although these rules impact operations, they provide the basis as to the similarity in healthcare services rendered… contracting with the same insurers and government payers… operating under the same healthcare regulations… and employ with similar if not the same training and ethical obligations.

Just because an organization may be for-profit, does not mean that they traditionally provide lower quality services and higher costs. However, in some cases where this is a factor, it causes a change in operations in that it creates a negative effect on the availability of healthcare. Nonprofit organizations such as hospitals, often switch to for-profit due to the issues related with their financial instability to operate in that status and remain open. This change allows them to improve their financial standings, reduce Medicare costs, and generate higher revenues. It also allows the investors and shareholders to have a bigger impact on operations and funding.

Due to the rising high costs associated with healthcare, the United States has had an increase in the amount of nonprofit healthcare organizations converting over to for-profit. Since those changes have been made, it has allowed more facilities to remain open, continue offering healthcare to citizens, and functioning to service communities. This also shows face as to why and how nonprofit healthcare organizations offset costs by charging more to their patients that have the ability to pay for services. On the other hand, for-profit healthcare organizations exploit these means as a profitable turnkey business necessity.

However in this case, it makes the profits visible which in turn keep costs down for all patients, and not differentiate between social status. In conclusion, when evaluating avenues for improvement of the financial and operational performance of nonprofit healthcare organizations, it is impertinent that these organizations monitor the contributions required to be made in order to operate under the tax exempt status. When this does not occur, is when fines, closures, and investigations take place ultimately contributing to additional costs and substandard performance.

Just as well when evaluating avenues for improvement of the financial and operational performance of for-profit healthcare organizations, it is impertinent that the options provided to citizens covered by healthcare plans, are up to standards. In doing so, they are provided the best care at reasonable costs due to donations, stockholders, and board members that have a particular interest in the care of the citizens which reflects on the success of the organization and the level of care given.

References

Anika Clark (2012). Nonprofit vs. for-profit health care: Debate hits home. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.southcoasttoday.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20120503/NEWS/205030347. [Last Accessed Nov. 20, 2012]. Steven Hill (2011). Non-Profit vs. For-Profit health care: How to Win the Looming Battle Over Cost Control.

Nonprofit versus For-Profit Healthcare and Organizations Essay

Government Roles in Healthcare Essay

Government Roles in Healthcare Essay.

The government which consists of federal, state and local combined has many important roles in the U.S healthcare system. One of the roles in which the government provides is finance. It is estimated that 48% of healthcare was paid for by public dollars in 2008, which included Medicare, Medicaid, state and local health programs, CHIP, and Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs (Yesalis,Holt,& Politzer,2012). Federal and State governments jointly fund Medicaid, long term mental health services, community health centers and public health programs.

The next important role that the government plays in the healthcare system is delivering healthcare to patients. Some examples of healthcare delivery would be the Department of Veterans Affairs which is a federal government operated facility which provides healthcare for veterans. There are hospitals and healthcare facilities which are located on military bases which are run by the federal government that are available for our military service members. There are also federal or state run government healthcare facilities which provide healthcare for uninsured or low income families for little or no cost.

The Indian Health Service is another program which is run by the federal government that offers healthcare to American Indians as well.

The government also has the role of regulating healthcare. One of the things that the federal government regulates is Medicare and Medicaid providers. State governments are usually more involved when it comes to regulation of healthcare. They regulate things such as: establishing health codes, regulating the insurance industry, and license health care personnel and facilities. The state government works alongside with local health departments to perform other functions as well. Some examples of these are vital statistics, mental health services, and environmental health.

References:

Yesalis, C., Holt, H., & Politzer, R. (2012). Fundamentals of U.S.
Healthcare. Retrieved from http://wow.coursesmart.com/9781428317352/firstsection#

Government Roles in Healthcare Essay

Money Cant Buy Health Essay

Money Cant Buy Health Essay.

Ah, money. The grease that moves America. The love of which has perhaps caused more human anguish than perhaps any other object with the possible exception of abuse of the Bible, Torah or Koran by religious extremists. Money can’t buy health. All the money in the world can’t undo the damage caused by smoking, drug abuse, cancer, sex act, and a thousand other health problems which destroy one’s quality of life. Of course, if you are rich enough you can buy a new kidney or heart.

But what is kind of life does one have fighting AIDS, cancer, a dead liver, destroyed lungs or a brain tumor caused by saturating yourself with pesticides, herbicides and other life-destroying chemicals? Money is an essential energy booster needed to see you through your life smoothly. It gives you a status symbol and you are placed in an elevation in the society. You are able to buy the best things available and your materialistic possessions give you a sense of elation.

But is money the -be- all -in -life and is it enough if you have a big bank balance and many enviable things which only money can get you.

No, nothing can be farther from truth. Money can get you many things in life which will give you a superficial happiness that gets sated very fast. There are many things in life money cannot buy. Can money buy you happiness? Of course it cannot. Happiness is a state of mind which has nothing to do with money. If money is needed to feel happy, then only rich people will be the happiest lot. In fact, it is the rich who feel a vacuum within them as money alienates them from the others. You might ask if money is not important.

It is very much important to make you lead a life where your self esteem will not be affected by being dependent on others for your day to day survival. You should strike a correct balance between seeking money for your betterment and a mad rush towards it to keep in pace with other people’s wealth. If you start comparing you always feel lacking. Earn for yourself, not for competing with others. Give priority to your inner wealth, so that you can truly enjoy your materialistic wealth. Money can buy healthcare and medicine, but it cannot replace health once it’s lost.

It’s far better to take preventative action such as watching what you eat, exercising, not smoking, and getting regular physicals than to rely on money to save you once your body has started to fail you. Money also can’t buy back your youth. No amount of money you make in the future will replace those days when your body could do anything easily and look good doing it. You can spend thousands on “treatments” to preserve your youth, but it’s an illusion. Once your youth is gone, no amount of money will get it back. If money could buy peace, I think we’d be there by now.

Money Cant Buy Health Essay

New Healthy Fruit Smoothie at Burger King Essay

New Healthy Fruit Smoothie at Burger King Essay.

If fast food is unhealthy and is believed to cause obesity, why is there still a fast food restaurant every few blocks? Perhaps because there are a lot of people who are still consuming fast food and backing its business, the fast food industry survives and appears to even increase. The fact that modern life is fast paced as well as the economy hasn’t fully recovered makes people prefer to work more consistent and eat faster.

Needless to say, the competition among well-known brand names is getting more challenging, and advertising plays an important role in marketing and drawing consumers’ attentions.

Knowing the only disadvantage of fast food is its unhealthiness, Burger King has recently introduced their healthy real fruit smoothie using David Beckham. By equating his charm, his famous credibility, and his physique, David Beckham endorses the new Burger King’s smoothie to not only women but also soccer fans and whoever seeks healthy choices at a fast food restaurant.

Throughout the commercial, Burger King shows their true intentions: to visually attract the audience with their appealing and healthy smoothie, to interest them by using a celebrity along with the slogan “exciting things are happening at Burger King”, and to show part of the American culture through the story and the conversation. In the commercial, Burger King is attempting to refresh their reputation of being unhealthy and creates a visual appeal for their smoothie.

By showing how the ripest strawberries are being cut and blend nicely, the commercial effectively forms a visual image of the drink and stimulates the audience’s curiosity to try it out. In addition, strawberry is definitely one of the most favorite flavors for kids while banana is a very healthy fruit. As a result, a mixing of those two fruits surely captures the attention of children and mothers who want to purchase a possibly healthier choice. As given on the Burger King’s website, the smoothie’s nutritional facts are acceptable, 200 calories and forty grams of sugar per twelve ounce serving (small size).

Even though forty grams of sugar is a little bit too much for a 200 calorie drink, most of it comes from real fruits and plus, there isn’t any saturated fat or anything else. These definitely won’t kill you or make you fat compared to other sugary, creamy drinks. However, people often think that healthy food is boring and tasteless. By filming the ad expertly and convincingly with high definition, Burger King is able make the smoothie look realistically tasty and delicious. Its most visual appeal is when it was poured into the glass.

The fluid looks amazingly delicious and well-blended. The color also appears to be reddish orange as it is well-balanced between strawberries and bananas. As Hirschberg mentioned in his “The Rhetoric of Advertising”, Burger King does create “the distinctive image for the product” in their commercial. The smoothie glass is shown closely on the half left of the image while other half is showing a bunch of fresh strawberries. They also blur the strawberries in the background to emphasize the prominence of the smoothie glass.

This allows the audience to see its smooth viscosity closely and triggers their appetites as well as interests. Instead of illogically exploiting well-shaped models and athletes to promote unhealthy products like other franchises, Burger King utilizes David’s healthy and lean physique to indicate their product as a naturally healthy smoothie. Starting off with a spokesperson claiming “exciting things are happening at Burger King”, the setting of the commercial is refreshing, exciting, and appealing just like the smoothie itself.

Surprisingly, the spokesperson’s tone isn’t too excited as expected. It is rather a normal, not-a-big-deal tone. It seems to imply that it is usual to have exciting things at Burger King, and in this case, it is David Beckham with the strawberry banana smoothie. Apparently, Burger King tries to persuade the audience that many celebrities do actually visit Burger King, and that they should come and eat at Burger King as well if they want to meet their idols. Using David Beckham to promote the smoothie is brilliant.

Not only David Beckham is appealed to women, but also his classy fashion style is attracted the young adults, let alone his recognition as a professional soccer player. Additionally, like David, those kinds of frosty, sweet, and fruity smoothies have always been attracted to women rather than men. Furthermore, his healthy body makes the drink even healthier. Also, David has been recently promoting for the Sainsbury’s Active Kids as an ambassador. He has been on many posters and advertisements that encourage children to eat healthy and exercise.

Burger King apparently knows what’s going on and has their commercial set. Through the conversation between David Beckham, the cashier, and the manager, the commercial creates an entertaining situation and shows part of the American culture. Humor is definitely one of the American cultures. Mostly everything we see on TV has entertaining and humorous elements. In the commercial, audience will be able entertained as soon as David orders his smoothie and mesmerizes the cashier.

As the cashier is being fascinated by his charming radiance, David shifts into a luminous gentleman wearing a classy, black suit and reorders his smoothie in a very heavy English accent. The way David pronounces “strawberry banana smoothie” and the cashier’s daydreaming look are what make it worth a giggle. The music is also very antiquated. It sounds like one of those Western classic, love songs that appeared in “Gone with the Wind”. The commercial also exploits homosexual agenda by showing the male manager, after snapping his cashier out of David’s charm, is also stunned by David’s dazzle.

Same sex attraction is just a daring joke as it either makes the audience impressed or offended. Nonetheless, whether it is offensive or not, the scene creates an emotional appeal and makes an impact on the audience as one of the advertising techniques Hirschberg has discussed, “They supply the unstated major premise that supplies a rationale to persuade an audience that a particular product will meet one or another of several different kinds of needs”.

After all, the homosexual joke serves its purposes: to make impressions and to indirectly persuade that the strawberry banana smoothie is just irresistible for both sexes. It is not a surprise to see celebrities or well-known professional athletes appearing in a commercial nowadays. Using David Beckham to promote the new smoothie is a great move of Burger King. Burger King shows that fast food does not necessarily mean unhealthy. To get the word out about their changes, they have to pull out their biggest marketing campaign ever using a lot of well-known celebrities.

So far, David Beckham as well as the new healthy smoothie menu is definitely the aces and the most success compared to other commercials. Its views jump over 20,000 in a matter of hours proving that it works. “With their latest initiatives, Burger King is showing commitment to areas that I’m passionate about, such as supporting charities, helping children and improving the healthier eating options. I am happy to help the brand launch its first smoothie platform, which is a great addition to any diet”, said David Beckham.

New Healthy Fruit Smoothie at Burger King Essay

The Rising Cost of Healthcare Essay

The Rising Cost of Healthcare Essay.

Without a doubt healthcare costs are rising out of control. Not one of us are happy with the increases, but we have to understand what the reasons are for the increases in healthcare. American people look at their insurance bills, co-pays and drug costs, and do not understand why they continue to increase. The insured should consider all reasons behind the increase before getting upset. In 2004, employer health care premiums increased over 11 percent, four times more than the rate of inflation.

In 2003, premiums rose 10.1 percent and in 1002 they rose 15 percent. Employee spending for coverage increased 126 percent between 2000 and 2004. These increases were lower than expected. The site to look up information on the cost of health care coverage and the breakdown on the cost is (National Coalition on Health Care, Facts on health care costs). Premiums have risen five times faster than workers’ wages, if medical spending continues to rise by just two percent more than a person’s personal income, by 2040 Medicare and Medicaid will rise 8.

4 percent of gross domestic product this year’s 15.6 percent by 2040, according to Congressional Budget Office projections.

If all government programs stay at the same size relative to the economy, the budget will grow from 19.9 percent of GDP in 2003 to 27.1 percent by 2040, (http://www.cato.org/sites/cato.org/files/pubs/pdf/tbb-0306-15.pdf). There are huge impacts of the rising costs of healthcare. Many people cannot afford health insurance today and struggle to pay for their medical needs. Of the families that do have health coverage, 50 percent are concerned about having to pay more for the coverage in the future, while 42 percent fear they will not be able to afford coverage at all if the rate increase keep s going the way it is. This leads to believe one of the reasons for health care cost increases: cost sharing or cost shifting. When an individual or a family does not have insurance, and cannot or does not pay their medical bills, the cost of health care rises. Over years the American healthcare system has been plagued by the continuous rise of healthcare cost.

These costs include but are not limited to insurance premiums, co-pays as well as prescription drugs. One of the significant reasons for the increase is that nowadays people are living longer lives than they once did and this gives higher rates to contracting chronic diseases or developing life threatening injuries, this cause the United States healthcare system to suffer a finical crisis. The three major parts to industries health care sector are as follows: the healthcare service industry consisting of providers such as medical practices, hospitals, clinics, nursing homes, and home health care agencies, next is the healthcare insurance industry consisting of both government programs such as Medicare and commercial insurers, and last is the managed healthcare industry consisting of organizations such as health maintenance organization (HMO’s) that incorporate both insurance and provider functions. Citizens of the United States are currently spending up to 15 percent of the income expenditures on healthcare. It has been estimated that the expenditures are likely to rise to about 29 percent of gross domestic product by the year 2040.

The Medicare insurance program that was created in the mid-1960’s to cover the elderly that is funded by the payroll system is costing more than $5,000 per enrollee, a national cost of more than $200 billion annually. Projected cost for the Medicare will rise rapidly from 2.5 percent to 5.5 in 2030. For HMO’s they often emphasize their ability to contain costs through oversight of physician’s decisions or by implementation of capped payment scheme that aligns physician’s incentives with those of the healthcare plan. HMO’s do have lower hospitalization than traditional healthcare providers. Some people also argue that the increasing use of managed care generates positive externalities that benefit consumers enrolled in non HMO health plans.

This argument typically invokes some notion of market discipline, arguing that traditional insures or healthcare providers will have to lower premiums to remain viable in a health insurance market. It may be difficult to measure the effect of HMO participation on spending and outcomes because enrollment in managed care plans often voluntary, and those who choose to enroll are likely to differ in unobservable ways from those who do not. Using data on 300,000 welfare recipients the average effect of the mandate is to increase spending by 12%.

This increase may be due to higher payments to providers, higher administrative costs, the inclusion of normal level of profit for the HMO’s, or a mark-up of bids above cost. Check out this site that goes deeper into the HMO and the reason of increase to healthcare cost at; (http://www.nber.org/bah/winter03/w9091.html). Looking at healthcare outcomes it is looking like switching to a HMO does not improve the efficiency of the Medicaid program because they lead to substantial spending increases with no demonstrable quality improvements.

The Rising Cost of Healthcare Essay

Recruitment and selection within health Essay

Recruitment and selection within health Essay.

1.1 Explain the impact on selection and recruitment processes, in own setting, of:
A) Legislative requirements
B) Regulatory requirements
C) Professional Codes
D) Agreed ways of working

As the manager it important to consider equal opportunities when offering employment, pay, or promotion without discrimination as to sex, race, colour, disability, etc. This can have an impact on the recruitment process because I must take into consideration that the needs of my service users. For example some of my service users have communication needs which requires my staff to be fluent in spoken English.

Should the service user feel they are not being understood this could lead to them becoming very confused or frustrated and may even result in them exhibiting challenging behaviours. During the recruitment process I have to ensure that all staff pass a verity of checks such as DBS and ISA. This process is in place to ensure the person is suitable to work with our vulnerable service user group and more importantly to ensure everyone is safety and protection.

As the manager I also have to ensure I comply with the CQC requirement which are:

Enhance DBS

ISA check
2 references one of which should be the last employer
Full work history from leaving full time education
Eligible to work in the UK
At Auckland house we have a set shift pattern which all staff are expected to work and is subject to change with 24 prior hour notice. This may have an impact on the requirement process as the candidate may not be prepared to work the proposed patterned in which case this would have an influence on the decision I make at the recruitment stage.

1.2 Explain circumstances when it is necessary to seek specialist expertise in relation to recruitment and selection At Auckland house we do have a couple of older service users who at the moment are reasonability independent. Should one of them become less independent and require more specialist treatment and it’s deemed in the best interest for the service user to remain in our care we may have to look into employing a specialist nurse to help support the individual. During this recruitment process we would possibly invite someone with nursing experience to sit on the interviewing panel to help with the interview.

1.3 Analyse how serious case reviews and inquires have contributed to the establishment of polices and procedures within recruitment which safeguard vulnerable adults, children and young people. The ISA has been set up in light of the Soham murders of 2002 and the subsequent Bichard Inquiry which declared the need for the registration of all individuals working with children or vulnerable adults. This was introduced because an individual who was banned from working with children in Scotland was then cleared to work with them in England. That same individual went onto to murder two school children, had this been in place at the time he would have been unable to get the job at the school which the children were from.

4.1 Evaluate the recruitment process and selection methods and criteria used in your own setting. As the manager of Auckland House I feel our recruitment process works well for our service ensuring we have the most suitable candidate for the job. Initially we advertise online as we have tried advertising in the local shops but this has been unsuccessful. We then work through the possible candidates C.V’s taking into consideration their experiences and qualifications. This enables us to interview potential candidates who we feel could bring their skills and expertise to the team. When possible I encourage services users and senior staff members to become involved as their opinions are important and also gives them empowerment. We have standard questions we ask the candidates and evaluate their responses, when necessary we arrange for a second interview. We also take in consideration the needs of our service users.

4.2 Recommend changes for improvement to recruitment and selection processes in own setting. As the manager of Auckland house I feel a higher basic rate of pay would help encourage more experienced and skilled candidate to apply for a position within our company. The current rate of pay is only just above the minimum wage with can deter potential staff from applying for the job. Generally I am reluctant to advertise the pay in the initial advert as I have found in the past this reduces the amount of interest. If we were more competitively paid I believe we would have more experienced and qualified staff within our team.

Recruitment and selection within health Essay

Personal development in health Essay

Personal development in health Essay.

1. How can you evaluate your own knowledge, performance and understanding against relevant standards? So, how do you ensure you are working within up to date standards for health and social care? How do you check this?

This is where you improve your performance with training and supervisions and I can check with the CQC to make sure I am doing things right if I was unsure or with my employer.

2. Can you identify your sources of support for planning and reviewing your own development? For examples, sources of support can include formal support, informal support, and supervision, appraisal, within the organisation or beyond the organisation.

The code of practice would be my main support and guide lines for planning and reviewing my development or my employer would also help me plan my own development with keeping my training up to date. Also working by the company policy and procedures would keep me within the guide lines.

3. Can you evaluate how any learning activities you have accessed have affected your practice?

I completed a fire awareness course and returned to work that evening when one of the clients set a pan on fire on the cooker, by doing the training I learnt to soak a t towel and pay it down from front to back of fire to suffocate it to put it out so was very useful and it worked as before I would have just wet a tea towel and just tried laying it on it no particularly way.

So this is just one example of where the training helped with my job in caring for people. I also learnt the best way to deal with a burn is to keep it under cold water to take away the burning sensation, or to keep a cold wet dressing on it till we get to the hospital for treatment. These are just two examples from a first aid course and a fire awareness course.

Unit 4222-306- promote and impement health and safety in health and social care

4. Describe the different types of accidents and sudden illness that may occur in your work own work setting.

In my work place the most likely accidents is ware clients burn their self when cooking or when then fall over. Another is the self harming which we can in counter quiet regular when our clients are upset about things out of our control. The most often illness is coldsflu or sickness. Quiet often we have clients with breathing problems as well i.e. asthma

5. Explain the procedures to be followed if an accident or sudden illness should occur.

If a client had a fall I would check how they was but not move them, just try make comfortable then call a ambulance, I would then notify my employer and they would then notify anyone that needed to no. I would then document everything that happened in the accident book as well as the clients file and on my contact sheets as well. If a client had a problem with their breathing I would get them their inhaler to try and help it but if that didn’t work I would then call an ambulance to assist with a nebuliser or to take them to hospital. I would again notify my employer who would then contact the people who need to no. I would again make sure everything was documented.

6. Explain the main points of legalisation that relates to moving and handling

The manual handling operations regulations 1992, which implement the manual handling of loads directive, came into effect on 1 January 1993 and apply to all manual handling activity with a risk of injury. The regulations impose duties on the employers self employed people and employees. Employers must avoid all hazardous manual handling activity where it is reasonably practicable to do so. if it is not they must assess the risk in relation to the nature of the task, the load, the working environment and the capabilities of the handler and take appropriate action to reduce the risk to the lowest level reasonably The employer’s duties;

Avoid the need for hazardous manual handling as far as is reasonably practible. Assess the risk of injury from any hazardous manual handling that can’t be avoided Reduce the risk of injury from hazardous manual handling, as far as reasonably practicable The employee’s duties

Follow appropriate systems of work laid down for their safety Make proper use of equipment provided to minimise the risk of injury Co-operate with the employer on health and safety matters. If a care assistant fails to use a hoist that has been provided, they are putting themselves at risk of injury. The employer is unlikely to be liable. Apply the duties of employers, as appropriate, to their own manual handling activities. Taking care to ensure that their activities do not put others at risk

7. Explain principles for safe moving and handling

There are some basic principles that everyone should observe prior to carrying out a manual handling operation: Ensure that the object is light enough to lift, is stable and unlikely to shift or move Heavy or awkward loads should be moved using a handling aid

Make sure the route is clear from obstructions

Make sure there is somewhere to put the load down wherever it is to be moved to Stand as close to the load as possible and spread your feet to shoulder width Bend your knees and try to keep your backs natural, upright posture Grasp the load firmly as close to the body as you can

Use the legs to lift in a smooth motion as this offers more leverage reducing the strain on your back Carry the load close to the body with the elbows tucked in to the body Avoid twisting the body as much as possible by turning your feet to position yourself with the load.

8. Describe types of hazardous substances that may be found in the work setting

Bleach can be a hazardous substance if not used right and or enough ventilation is possible or many cleaning products.

9. Describe practices that prevent fires from-
a) Starting
Keeping things away from flames like tea towels and cloths when cooking. Being very aware and watch you’re cooking so it doesn’t burn dry and catch light.
b) Spreading
Keep all fire doors shut to try preventing from it spreading and contain the fire. Try to turn off the cause of the fire to try and kill the fire.
c) Explain emergency procedures to be followed in the event of a fire in the work setting. To sound the alarm, to call 999, to evacuate the building with a register of who was in and who is out so you can inform the fire service when they arrive. Inform my employer and then when every is safe and fire is out, document it. Unit 4222-374-promote active support

11. Compare the characteristics associated with active support and hotel model in relation to an individual’s support. For guidance here, the ‘hotel model’ refers to institutional style settings organised mainly around staffing needs. They are not person centred and offer a poor quality of life for individuals. An example could be staff undertaking all the domestic tasks and not providing individuals with the opportunity to participate in construction activities.

Active support is when you let a client do the things they need to do i.e. cooking, cleaning and self care but are there to assist them when needed. Hotel model is when you going in and do everything as it quicker and easier than waiting for them to do their self and by making them wait to curtain times or days to do some tasks i.e. every has times when they get help to use bathrooms or everyone has the same dinner time to eat or everyone has to go to bed at same time early as easier for staff to cope with if they all in bed.

12. Identify practical changes that could be made within a service setting- A) Promote an individual’s independence

To help an individual to have independency could be a simple thing like making a flannel wet and handing it to them to wash their own face instead of you just washing their face, or cutting their food up so they can feed their self as they cannot cut their food up as cant use a knife and fork but could feed their self with a spoon.

B) Support informed choices

This could be when we go shopping and I suggest different foods for them to choose from or it could be not taking a library book back on time I would just make them aware they would receive a late payment fee that would mean they would then have less money to live on so they would then think about whether it was worth taking it back late or going back and getting it stamped so they can have it again instead of being charged for it.

C) Improve quality of life.

I could do a risk assessment on them and find they would benefit from some aids to give them a better life for example if they can’t read or see things properly I could arrange for them to see a optician and get glasses so they could see to read and would help with their balance and could lessen the amount of falls that they have had, or it could be someone is not hearing properly and is being a danger to their selves for example when crossing the road they are not hearing the traffic and what’s going on around them. A doctor could arrange a hearing test and a hearing aid which would be better for the client and he would be less dangerous. Unit 4222-325-support individuals during a period of change 13. Describe the types of changes that may occur in the course of an individual’s life. Types of change can include changes that are positive, negative, chosen ,unchosen, temporary or permanent

A person could receive news of a death of a family member which they would then grieve. A person could have some good news like winning the lottery or could be their parent wants contact with them after she had put them in care or they got a job or they are clear of any health issues etc They could decide to make a change in their courses they are attending or choose to not have contact with curtain people or could simply be they have chosen to be a vegetarian ect You might have to move house when you don’t want to or move area when you don’t want to but a family brake down is making you, it could be temporary until your house becomes available or it could be permanent because it wasn’t your house in the first place and you was living with someone. 14. Analyse factors that may make change a positive or negative experience.

If someone was being abused but was then moved out it would be a positive move as client would not be being abused any more but the negative side would be the client would have been moved out of the family setting and might not like the idea of being away from family and rebel against it as much as they know it was the right decision they might be confused as to why the person did what they did and why have they been moved and look at it as a punishment as they had not done anything wrong. 15. Can you describe approaches that are likely to enhance an individual’s capacity to manage change and experience change positively?

When our clients become 18 they are registered on to the council list for housing so leading up to their 18th birthday we will teach them to cook and clean and look after their selves and to budget and pay bills and how to ask for help when needed and where to go to access what help they need. This all prepares them for change when they have to do things on their own. Unit 4222-342- support positive risk taking for individuals

16. Explain ways in which risk is an integral part of life.

Every day life is a risk, crossing the road, cooking, falling over Become ill; making decisions is a risk to weather you makes the right one.

17. Explain why individuals may have been discouraged or prevented from taking risks We may discourage some people of taking risks when they have no fear, like when they might just walk out across the road without looking to see if there any traffic coming, or they turn the cooker on and put a pan on and get distracted and walk away and forget about it until they smell burning, or it could be someone going to the cash point and draws a lot of money out and waves it around for everyone to see and then looses it.

18. Can you describe the links between risk-taking and responsibility, empowerment and social inclusion?

The link is offering individuals the opportunity to achieve their goals and dreams of their own choice which empowers the individuals. The person in the support role is responsible for identifying the risks and hazards that come with the chosen activity and decide how the risks could be reduced or the activity adapted to make it less hazardous.

Personal development in health Essay