Greek Mythology and Eris Essay

Greek Mythology and Eris Essay.

Greek mythology is a vast subject with a seemingly infinite number of members. Consequently, only the chief individuals such as, Zeus, Hera, Athena and Ares, are well-known. Often forgotten are the so-called minor goddesses, the goddesses who lurk behind the curtains. Surprisingly, such a “negligible” goddess caused the greatest dispute in all of Greek mythology. The Greek Word ‘Eris’ means strife. Although Strife is an abstract idea, Eris is referred to as a goddess (Blackwell 72).

Although Eris is not well-known in Greek mythology, “[h]er influence can be felt in every quarrel, feud and disagreement on the face of the earth and on the heights of Mount Olympos (Olympus).

” (Stewart). Eris is a daughter of Erebus and the goddess of night, Nyx. She has more than a few siblings. Fatum (Fate), Senectus (Old Age), Mors (Death), Letum (Dissolution), Continentia (Moderation), Somnus (Sleep), Somnia (Dreams), Amor (Love), Miseria (Misery), Petulantia (Wantonness), Nemesis (Envy), Euphrosyne (Good Cheer), Amicitia (Friendship), Misericordia (Compassion), Styx (Hatred); the three Parcae (Fates): Clotho, Lachesis and Atropos.

(Atsma). “She is the friend and sister of Ares, and with him she delights in the tumult of war, increasing the moaning of men. ” Eris is also the mother of various allegorical beings, which represent man’s hardships (Smith). These include Ponos (Toil), Lethe (Forgetfulness), Limos (Starvation), the Algea (Pains), the Hysminai (Fightings), the Makhai (Battles), the Phonoi (Murders) the Androktasiai (Man-slaughters), the Neikea (Quarrels), the Pseudo-Logoi (Lies), the Amphilogiai (Disputes), Dysnomia (Lawlessness) Ate (Ruin), and Horkos (Oath).

Her children are collectively referred to as the Kakodaimones (Atsma). In Rome, Eris is referred to as Discordia (Monaghan). Eris appears in a few myths but plays a prominent role in a particular one (Nardon). Eris was not liked in Olympus and it was primarily because of this hostility that she was not welcome at a notable wedding (Hamilton 256). The marriage between Peleus, a mortal king, and the sea nymph Thetis, daughter of Zeus, was a distinguished event on Mount Olympus. All the famous mortals and gods and goddesses were present except herself.

Eris was insulted and predictably, decided to cause some trouble. She arrived at the wedding reception in a rage and tossed a golden apple into the air. On the golden apple were the words, “To the Fairest”. Who deserved the beautiful golden apple? The competition was stiff between Aphrodite, the goddess of love, Hera, Zeus’s wife and queen of gods and Athena. Zeus’s daughter and goddess of wisdom. Zeus was asked to select the winner. However, Zeus was no fool. He wasn’t getting involved in this predicament (Blackwell 95).

He told them to go to Mount Ida where they would find Prince Paris of Troy, also known as Alexander. When the three gorgeous goddesses appeared before Paris, he was shocked. However, Paris was not asked “to gaze at the radiant divinities and choose which of them seemed to him the fairest, but only to consider the bribes each offered and choose which seemed to him the best worth taking. ” Hera would make him Lord of Europe and Asia; Athena would lead the Trojans to victory against Greece; Aphrodite would present him with the loveliest woman in the world.

Paris chose the last and Aphrodite received the golden apple. The beautiful lady he was promised was named Helen, a daughter of Zeus. However Helen was already married. When her angry husband Menelaus discovered the absence of his wife, he waged war against Paris, who had abducted her (Hamilton 256). This tragedy became known as the Trojan War. Three generations of despair and blood shed all started because Eris was unwelcome at a wedding (Blackwell 95). Hercules once came upon Eris’s golden apple. He struck it with his club before the apple swelled to twice its original size.

After yet another blow, the apple doubled in size again. Hercules stares at Eris’s legendary apple in confusion. Athena then reveals that “[i]f you just leave it alone, it stays small; but if you decide to fight it, then it swells from its small size and grows large. ” (Atsma). Eris is also known for her involvement in marital discord. The story of Polytekhnos and Aedon conveys Eris’s contribution to matrimonial strife. One day, Polytekhnos and Aedon state that their love for each other is greater than that between Hera and Zeus. Infuriated, Hera requests Eris to initiate conflict between the couple.

An expertise in the area, Eris executes a plan that kills Polytekhno’s son before turning Polytekhno and Aedon into birds (Atsma). Eris is involved in several other myths, although the Trojan War may be considered her prevalent feat. Eris’s primary strength is her ability to initiate commotion and war whenever she pleases. Eris moves about cunningly, seemingly insignificant at first sight. Yet it is evident that her trivial actions result in detrimental consequences. This can be clearly understood from the disastrous Trojan War. As a proponent of war and discord, Eris basks in slaughter (Atsma).

Undeniably, Eris isn’t the epitome of a compassionate goddess. “She is insatiable in her desire for bloodshed, and after all the gods have withdrawn from the battle-field, she still remains rejoicing over the havoc that has been made. ” (Smith). While she is despised, Eris is feared and respected for her perpetual and vindictive wrath (Stewart). Although Eris is often described as ruthless and harmful, Eris is also credited as the goddess who prods a lazy man to work. This lazy man compares himself to his successful neighbor and envies his accomplishments. The lazy man is then encouraged to work diligently.

In such cases, Eris may be considered a friend to mortals (Atsma). Neither in Ancient Greece nor Ancient Rome was Eris worshipped . However a religion known as Discordianism was founded in the 1950s. The religion centers around Eris and her values which include: randomness, chaos, disagreement. Ironically enough, the first rule of Discordianism is that there are no rules. Furthermore, some of the followers themselves, known as Discordians or Erisians, embrace the religion as a joke. Nevertheless, there are those who consider the religion a philosophy and literally worship Eris (Beyer).

As the goddess of strife and discord, Eris tends to be victorious in her objectives. Her ability to instigate tension at any time could be an explanation for her success. Eris is notoriously known for the commencement of the Trojan War as well as for her association in marital dispute (Atsma). She is detested yet respected and her appeal for bloodshed and manslaughter contributes to her cold-blooded goddess persona (Stewart). Although she was not worshipped in ancient times, a novel religion, Discordianism, revolves around the values she represents (Beyer).

Her impact can be sensed in every battle, dispute or quarrel (Stewart). Yet, Eris need not win an argument to be exultant or triumphant; her paramount intention is only to begin the argument. Works Cited Atsma, Aaron J. “ERIS : Greek Goddess of Strife & Discord | Mythology “THEOI. N. p. , n. d. Web. 22 Apr. 2013. Beyer, Catherine. “Discordianism. ” About. com. About, n. d. Web. 23 Apr. 2013. Blackwell, Christopher W. , and Blackwell Amy. Hackney. Mythology for Dummies. New York: Hungry Minds, 2002. Print. “ERIS. ” Godchecker: Your Guide to the Gods. N. p. , n. d. Web. 21 Apr. 2013. . Hamilton, Edith. Mythology.

Boston: Little, Brown and, 1942. Print. Monaghan, Patricia. “Eris. ” Encyclopedia of Goddesses and Heroines. Vol. 2: Europe and the Americas. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Press, 2010. 403. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 12 Apr. 2013. Nardo, Don. “Eris. ” The Greenhaven Encyclopedia of Greek and Roman Mythology. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2002. 89-90. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 18 Apr. 2013. Smith, William. “Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. ” The Ancient Library. N. p. , n. d. Web. 21 Apr. 2013. . Stewart, Michael W. “Eris. ” Mythagora. N. p. , n. d. Web. 21 Apr. 2013.

Greek Mythology and Eris Essay

Norse Mythology vs. Greek Mythology Essay

Norse Mythology vs. Greek Mythology Essay.

Norse and greek gods comparison chart/Greek gods/Greek gods vs norse gods who would win/Greek gods vs egyptian gods/How are greek and norse mythology connected god of war/Similarities of greek mythology and norse mythology/Greek gods vs norse gods god of war/Greek vs roman vs norse vs egyptian gods

There are many mythologies in the world, and all of these have things in common as well as differences. A very popular mythology would be Greek mythology, Which many people know about it or at least know of it. Another not as popular mythology is Norse mythology; Norse mythology is the religion of the Norse people. The Norse people are the ancient people of northern Europe (Scandinavia, Iceland, Denmark, Northern Germany etc. ) (World Book 259). A major difference between Norse mythology and Greek mythology are both cultures views of the after life and what happens there.

In Greek mythology there is one allotted place for people to go after death and once they are there they stay there for all eternity. In Norse mythology there are four different places for the dead: Folkvang, Valhalla, Helheim, and Ran’s hall or the halls of Ran. Folkvang is the allotted area for your everyday warrior who fought and died and did nothing more. Valhalla is Odin’s hall where 800 of the bravest warriors go and train for the coming of Ragnarok (literally the ending of the gods or the end of the world) (Wikipedia online).

Helheim is literally the house or home of Hel; Hel is the goddess of the “underworlds” Niflheim (land of fire and heat) and Helheim. Helheim is the place where one who didn’t die “gloriously”(Wikipedia online) or in battle goes, those who died from diseases, accidents, old age, etc. Ran is the goddess of the sea and the drowned. She is said to sink ships and collect the drowned in a net and take them to her hall where they dwell there. In Greek mythology they go to the underworld (or Hades) and they are then separated and either got to Tartarus (hell) or the Elysian fields (heaven) (World Book 257).

Folkvang, Valhalla, Helheim, and The Halls of Ran are four separate areas in the world of Norse mythology where as Hades is one and Tartarus and the Elysian fields are two places within Hades. Also each place in Norse mythology is based on four different types of deaths, not by how you act (with the exception of Valhalla) but by how you died. Where as in Greek mythology there is a subconscious good and bad categorizing of your deeds and actions during your life rather than how you died. Another difference is the creatures.

In Greek mythology there are three basic non-human creatures: the gods, the titans, and the nymphs. In Norse mythology there are 5 main non-human creatures: the Aesir and Vanir (gods), the Jotnar (giants), the Alfar (Alfar), Svartalfar (dark Alfar), and the Valkyries. The Aesir and the Vanir are your basic extraordinary immortals, though in Norse mythology the gods were thought to be mortal, only kept immortal by eating the apples of Idun. However, they could be slain even if they ate the apples.

The Jotnar were giants or the Norse equivalent to the Greek titans, but the Jotnar did not fight with the gods in a war like the titans did with the Greek gods. The Alfar are lesser “gods” that control nature. Alfar are viewed as “gods” of fertility due to their connection to nature (agriculture specifically); they’re not actual gods in the sense it is used but more so magically inclined creatures. Finally are the Svartalfar or commonly referred to as dwarves, trolls, dark Alfar, or black Alfar.

The Svartalfar aren’t anything like the Alfar; they are regarded as being small, disfigured people who dwell in mountains and mounds and hate the light. The Svartalfar were master craftsman and made many things for the gods such as Thor’s hammer (Mjollnir) a wall around Asgard (land of the gods) and countless rings. In Norse mythology they seem to have to “clans” or groups of gods, the Vanir and the Aesir. They don’t appear to have any noticeable differences. The Vanir are referred to as “lesser” gods and are usually viewed as gods and goddesses of fertility.

The Aesir are more of your standard gods and goddesses with a supreme god or goddess and other gods and goddesses with standard roles (i. e. sea, music/poetry or art, war, wisdom, beauty, etc). Valkyries are spirits that choose the wariors that go to Valhalla and take them their. There isn’t much information on Valkyries other than them being the spirits that choose and guide the select few to Valhalla. There are only twenty-three of them. The Jotnar were created originally from the first Jotnar (Ymir). Ymir was killed by Odin and Odin created Midgard (land of humans) from his body.

Ymir was created from the collision of Niflheim and Muspellheim (land of fog, ice, and cold) in the beginning; from the sweat from his armpits were created the first two frost giants, male and female, and from them came the rest of the frost giants; from his leg came also another male giant. The Jotnar were known to mate with both the Aesir and Vanir. In Greek mythology the gods didn’t mate with the titans. Also the nymphs were sometimes referred to as daughters of the gods where as the Alfar, Svartalfar, and Valkyries were not. (Keenan 54)

Finally, Ragnarok, or the end of the world, is the biggest difference between Norse mythology and most all mythologies including Greek. Ragnarok is the essential “end of the world” although no actual destruction of the world comes to pass during it. Ragnarok is a very detailed battle where all the warriors from Valhalla fight with Odin and the rest of the Aesir against the Jotnar and Loki (the god of trickery). This cannot be compared to anything in Greek mythology Because Greek Mythology doesn’t have an equeivalent to Ragnarok or anything close.

In conclusion Norse mythology and often forgotten mythology is very different from many mythologies. Proof being in large difference between Norse and Greek Mythology. Death isn’t judged by your actions but by how you died. There are many more magically inclined creatures. Also the end of the world which no other mythology that I am aware of has. Works Cited Keenan, Sheila. Gods, Goddesses, and Monsters: An Encyclopedia of World Mythology. New York: Scholastic, 2000. Norse Mythology. (Online) Available http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Norse_mythology 3 May 2005. “Teutonic Mythology. ” World Book. 2001 ed.

Norse Mythology vs. Greek Mythology Essay

Greek mythology personal narrative Essay

Greek mythology personal narrative Essay.

I am a product of a jealous goddess. I once was a beautiful maiden with beautiful, long, golden hair and golden wings. I am the youngest of the gorgons and my two older sisters are Stheno and Euryale. My mother was Ceto. My father was Phorcys. When I met Poseidon, he took advantage of me and took me to Athena’s temple. She was enraged by what I was doing with Poseidon. So she turned me into the monstrous Medusa who can’t look into anyone’s eyes without turning them to stone.

Athena made me turn all men into stone but not women.

She never wants me to feel love again. When I was turned into this monster, my sisters took me to my new home where we plan to avenge for what she did to me. That is when I discovered the idea of starting my own statuette shop. For months, I was looking for the perfect place for my collection.

Till one day, there was a little garden place and I was so happy when I came in. I knew it was destiny so I killed all the women and children with my babies and started the collection of my statuettes of men.

After months of stoning men and killing women and children, I started to feel lonely after a while. So I was decided to explore for more exotic men who were heroes or maybe I can turn a god to stone. But, before I go exploring, I must know how many statuettes I have which if I could remember I think have more than 50,000 statuettes because the place was very popular back then. If I could I would have my revenge on Athena and Poseidon for what they did to me.

I almost forgot I need to tell him that he will be a daddy. Shhh!!! Someone is coming!! “Hello, is anyone here? ” “Yessss! What do you need? ” “Do you know where medusa secret lair is? ” “Yessss! ” “What is your name? ” “My name is Persus. ” “Interesting. ” Why do you need medusa? ” “Because I am in debt of the king and I have to pay him her head. ” “You want directions. ” “Well, there is no need for directions because you are in her lair and you are talking to her right now” “WHAT? ” “Where are you? ”

Greek mythology personal narrative Essay

Greek Mythology Pandora Essay

Greek Mythology Pandora Essay.

In Greek mythology Pandora was the first woman, bestowed upon humankind by Zeus as a punishment for Prometheus’ theft of fire. Entrusted with a box containing all the ills that could plague people, she opened it out of curiosity and thereby released all the evils of human life; wife of Epimetheus. Zeus ordered Hephaestus to make a mixture of earth and water and from it to create a woman as beautiful as a goddess.

When she was ready, Athena adorned her and taught her how to weave, while Aphrodite endowed her with grace and passion, the Graces and Peitho garlanded her with gold ribbons and the Hours decorated her with spring flowers.

Hermes, on the other hand, put malicious and lying words into her heart. Zeus called her Pandora, because she had received gifts (dora) from all the gods, and sent her off to Epimetheus.

Bewitched by her beauty, he fell in love with her and took her out for mankind to see.

Pandora’s fate was to be the cause of all human misfortune, because she opened the lid of a jar from which evils of all kinds immediately spilled out to fill the world. Only hope was left in the jar, because Pandora closed the lid again at the last moment. As a result, mankind – who until that time had known no pain, sickness or death – was doomed to everlasting unhappiness.

Pandora (mythological figure), in Greek mythology, first woman on earth, created by the god Hephaestus at the request of the god Zeus. Zeus wished to counteract the blessing of fire, which had been stolen from the gods by the Titan Prometheus and given to human beings. Endowed by the gods with every attribute of beauty and goodness, Pandora was sent to Epimetheus, who was happy to have her for his wife, although he had been warned by his brother Prometheus never to accept anything from Zeus.

In bestowing their gifts on Pandora, the gods had given her a box, warning her never to open it. Her curiosity finally overcame her, however, and she opened the mysterious box, from which flew innumerable plagues for the body and sorrows for the mind. In terror, she tried to shut the box, but only Hope, the one good thing among many evils the box had contained, remained to comfort humanity in its misfortunes.

In another legend, the box contained blessings that would have been preserved if Pandora had not allowed them to escape.

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Greek Mythology Pandora Essay

Greek Mythology and Mount Olympus Essay

Greek Mythology and Mount Olympus Essay.

1.The twelve Olympian gods lived on Olympus.
2.Mount Olympus is the mountain on which the 12 gods built their home and were summoned by Zeus. 3.Mount Olympus is on the Greeks tallest mountain named mount Olympus for the gods home. 4.Poseidon- Greek god of the sea who was one of the most powerful of all of the gods in Greek mythology. He was one of the 12 Olympian gods and goddesses who held court on Mount Olympus. 5.Hephaestus- huh-fes’-tuhs

Aphrodite- af-roh-dy’-tee
Psyche- sy’-kee
Prometheus- proh-mee’-thee-uhs
Phaeton- fay’-uh-thuhn

Greek Gods And Goddesses
1.Hera’s husband was Zeus.
2.Demeter’s roman name is Ceres.
3.Dionysus rescued his mother from the underworld.

4.Echo’s name in Greek is Echo from the Greek word Eche or sound Ηχω. 5.Athena’s name in Greek was Pallas Athena or ANTHEIA Greek form Ανθεια. 6.Helen was the queen of the Greek and she was kidnapped by Paris the prince of troy and started the Trojan war. 7.The idea of the wooden horse was brought by Odysseus for the destruction of Troy.

8.Ulyssēs was Odysseus’s Latin name. After the Trojan war the city of troy was destroyed and its people enslaved.

Beasts and Creatures

1.Medusa is said that she had a hideous face and snakes in the place of her hair When people would look at her they would be turned to stone. Medusa was said to be a daughter of Ceto and Phorcys. It is said that Medusa and Poseidon were caught in Athena’s temple by Athena herself. Athena, enraged, turned her in to a gorgon and when you look her in the eye she turns you to stone.

2.The Minotaur was half man half bull, the Minotaur ate people, the Minotaur lived in a maze underground on the island of Crete. 3.The hydra was a 9 headed serpent with poisonous breath and blood and with replicating heads when cut off, the only way to kill it was to cut one head and burn the stumps till the last remaining head.

Mythology in Modern Society
1.Mentor Ohio was the city in Ohio that was named after the Greek time in mythology. 2.There are at least 32 cities in the U.S. named troy.
3.False, Mars is not a constellation.

Greek Mythology and Mount Olympus Essay

Greek Mythology and Zeus Essay

Greek Mythology and Zeus Essay.

Multiple Choice: Choose the response that best answers the question. 2 points each.

1. This type of analysis was pioneered by French anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss a. Theoretical analysis
b. Liminal analysis
c. Structural analysis
d. None of the above
2. This term refers to the many Greek gods
a. Pantheon
b. Tetrarchy
c. Tritopatores
d. All of the above
3. Kronos and Rhea were the parents of:
a. Zeus
b. Poseidon
c. Hades
d. All of the above
4. Known for his lightning bolt, this god was often called the king of the gods in the ancient Greek tradition a.

b. Odin
c. Jesus
d. Zeus
5. __________ is our oldest written source of information about the Greek gods a. Hesiod
b. Homer
c. Apollodorus
d. None of the above
6. Poseidon was called the “earth-shaker” because:
a. He could gather clouds and call forth storms
b. He could grant a successful voyage to sailors
c. The sea, his domain, surrounded the earth, and thus he who held the earth could shake it.

d. His weapon was a massive pitchfork that split the earth
7. Hades was:
a. Both a place and a god
b. A lifeless realm of shadows and gloom
c. The place where psychai went after death
d. All of the above
8. This god raped his sister Demeter as she roamed Earth looking for Persephone. a. Hades
b. Zeus
c. Poseidon
d. Ares
9. The winged horse Pegasus is the son of:
a. Zeus
b. Aphrodite
c. Cyclops
d. Poseidon
10. By the classical period, Hades feature three main levels: a. Tartarus, Elysium, Erebus
b. Erebus, Fields of Asphodel, Elysium
c. Tartarus, Fields of Asphodel, Elysium
d. None of the above
11. Charon immediately ferried passengers into the underworld as long as they: a. Asked nicely
b. Carried a gold coin to pay their way
c. Prayed to Zeus for help
d. Obeyed Hades’ every command
12. Objects destined for Hades were buried with the bodies of the dead, however they were: a. Burned or broken as a symbol of their belonging to the realm of the dead b. Coated in gold to please Hades

c. Buried with the spouse of the deceased
d. None of the above
13. Rhea saved Zeus from his father Kronos by:
a. Feeding him another woman’s child
b. Engaging in a conspiracy with her brothers and sisters to imprison him c. Feeding him a rock disguised as a baby
d. All of the above
14. These ancestor gods were considered to be beneficent dead: a. Forefathers
b. Aorai
c. Restless dead
d. Tritopatores
15. This goddess is known as the goddess of wild animals and carried a silver bow. a. Athena
b. Hippodomeia
c. Hera
d. Artemis
16. As the goddess of virginal women and women in childbirth, Artemis could: a. Determine how much pain a woman experienced during labor
b. Decide who a woman could marry
c. Prevent infants from being exposed
d. None of the above
17. This goddess waged a contest with Poseidon over a major city in ancient Greece. a. Artemis
b. Aphrodite
c. Athena
d. Hera
18. Athena is called a “motherless child” because:
a. She was born when Kronos vomited up all of his children
b. She was born from Zeus’s forehead after he swallowed Metis c. She killed her mother moments after she was born
d. None of the above
19. The aegis was:
a. A symbol of Zeus’ favoritism
b. Athena’s protective garment
c. Crafted from the hide of Amalthea
d. All of the above
20. This was the god of war:
a. Nike
b. Zeus
c. Ares
d. Apollo
21. Ares was despised by his fellow Olympian deities because he was known as: a. Rude, crude and maniacal
b. The favorite of Zeus
c. The true king of the Olympians
d. None of the above
22. The Romans viewed Mars positively because:
a. He married a mortal woman and became the first king of Rome b. He raped a Vestal Virgin, fathering Romulus and Remus in the process c. He fought off an attack of the Titans on Rome
d. All of the above
23. This god was “either thrown out of Olympus because he was lame, or lame because he was thrown out of Olympus.” a. Hermes
b. Apollo
c. Hephaestus
d. Remus
24. Hephaestus was known for his many inventions. He used a golden net to: a. Capture the Phoenix
b. Prevent the Medusa from escaping Okeanos
c. Capture his wife Aphrodite and Ares in their adulterous affair d. Build the walls of Troy
25. This god was known for his licentious behavior and intoxicating drink: a. Hephaestus
b. Ares
c. Dionysus
d. Hermes

Short answer: Answer briefly in written prose. 4 points each.

1. Explain why Prometheus is a liminal figure.
2. Discuss the nature of Zeus’ relationship with Hera.
3. Describe the rites of Dionysus.
4. Describe what makes Prometheus a “culture giver.”
5. Describe Hestia’s central role in Greek culture.

Essay Question. Respond in formal prose. 30 points.

1. Considering all of the material we covered in class regarding the Greek gods, Greek culture and structural analysis, compare and contrast major elements of the stories of Greek myth and the modern film Clash of the Titans. What aspects of Greek mythology are retained in the film?

Which ones are not? In terms of cultural values, what does the story of Perseus and his adventures reveal about ancient Greek culture? What does the film reveal about modern viewers’ ideas about Greek mythology—i.e. how are the gods depicted differently from the way ancient Greeks conceived of them and what is the relationship between humans and gods? Be sure to cite specific examples. Use the textbook and our close study of the Greek tragedies read in class for “Greek” examples. Use the film as evidence of “modern” examples.

Greek Mythology and Zeus Essay

Greek Mythology and Hera Essay

Greek Mythology and Hera Essay.

Hera In Greek Mythology, there are many different gods and goddesses but only one Hera. Hera is known for being the queen of all the Greek gods and being the main wife of Zeus, who is king of all the gods. Hera was goddess of childbirth and marriage. Known for many different things, Hera is considered the most jealous and quarrelsome goddess in all mythology. There are many stories about Hera punishing women involved with Zeus and kids of Zeus that were not Hera’s but one specific story is that of Hercules who is Alcmene’s son.

Hera had persecuted him since before he could talk only because she was jealous and hated the fact that Zeus was his father. Even though Hera had tried so many different ways to kill him, like sending snakes to him while he was a newborn, she was his nurse while he was a young child. Hercules is one of many people that Hera hated or tried to punish.

Hera did not just punish the mistresses of Zeus. She also punished Zeus. Once, she got some other gods to help her plot against Zeus. Hera had put drugs in Zeus’s drink and her and the other gods had cornered him while he slept.

They bound him up in rawhide thongs and stole his thunderbolt. Zeus was saying he would destroy all of them but he could not get out of the rawhide thongs. His cousin, Briareus, was working in his garden and saw that Zeus needed help. Briareus reached through the window that he was looking at Zeus through, with his hundred arms and unbound the knots to free Zeus. Right when Zeus freed himself, he got his thunderbolt back and hung Hera in the sky for rebelling against him. Because Hera was always jealous and quarrelsome, none of the other gods went to help her.

Hera wept the whole night to try and get to Zeus to let her come down. Zeus said he would let her come down if she had promised she wouldn’t pull a stunt like that again. Hera promised but Zeus and his wife still kept their eyes on the other always aware if the other did something bad. Hera is daughter to Cronos and Rhea, who were Titans. Cronos and Rhea had another kid and that was Zeus, Hera’s husband. It was very common for siblings to marry to keep the royal blood in the family and to contain power.

A lot of the gods and goddesses were related in some way. Zeus and Hera’s sister was Demete, the earth-goddess. Their brother was Poseidon, god of the sea. Their other brother was Hades, who ruled the underworld which was known as the land beyond death. Hera and Zeus had three children together. Zeus had others, like Hercules, but with other goddesses that weren’t Hera. Hera and Zeus had Ares, Hephaestus, and Eris. Ares was the god of war. Hephaestus was the smith-god. Eris was the goddess of discord.

She would shriek beside Ares in his battle chariot. Hera and Zeus’s children were in the Pantheon. A pantheon means “a temple of all gods” (Rouse 6). Even though Hera is considered very quarrelsome and jealous, a poet wrote a poem for her and called her “Golden-throned Hera… Chief among them in beauty… ” (Hamilton 27). Hera was not all bad. She was also a protector of the gods in the Quest of the Golden Fleece. She is also the goddess that married women turned to for help. Hera is known as Juno in Roman Mythology.

Hera was said to have a favorite city and two favorite animals. Argos in the Peloponnesus was her favorite city and the cow and peacock were important to her. According to Shmoop, one of Hera’s favorite quotes would’ve been “All men make mistakes, but married men find out about them sooner” by Red Skeleton. This quote shows that Hera punished Zeus and made sure he knew he messed up when he cheated on her. Hera also had a temple dedicated to her called Heraeum that was five miles northeast of Argos, her favorite city.

Greek Mythology and Hera Essay

Athena: Greek Mythology Essay

Athena: Greek Mythology Essay.

Athena is the goddess of wisdom and war, patriotism and good citizenship. She is the protector of Athens, as she is the patron deity of the city. There are two sides of her character: she could be mighty and terrible, or gentle and pure. Her Roman name is Minerva, and the Romans rank her third among their gods, under Jupiter (Zeus) and Juno (Hera).

Athena was the favorite daughter of Zeus, and her share of wisdom was given to her by him.

She has been called the “mind of god.” As the goddess of wisdom, she chose the owl as her symbol. She was prayed to by sculptors, architects, and practitioners of weaving and spinning. According to Greek Mythology, Athena is able to give power, skill and courage, and also victory in war for those who respect justice.

She taught men the art of war, and led the way through battles to victory, peace, and prosperity. She herself also fought in many wars and, according to myth, was the creator of the famous Trojan horse.

Athena assisted the heroes Perseus, Jason, Cadmus, Oddysseus, and Heracles in their quests. Athena supported Perseus’s quest to kill Medusa, a once beautiful, and nearly perfect mortal, because she wanted the Gorgon’s head to decorate her shield. The birth of Athena is actually quite interesting. Zeus was once married to Metis, who was known for her wisdom.

When Metis became pregnant, the Earth told Zeus that a son born to Metis would overthrow him, so he swallowed Metis. At the time, Zeus had a terrible headache, and commanded help from Hephaestus. Hephaestus slashed Zeus’s head and Athena sprang forth, fully armed. Another one of the fascinating stories about Athena is her competition with Poseidon (Neptune) to become patron deity of a city now known as Athens.

To prove her worthiness, Athena caused an olive tree to spring forth on the stronghold of this city, the Acropolis. Poseidon tried to outdo Athena by striking the ground and making water spring up. As he is the god of the sea, the water was salty like the sea. The people of this city considered Athena’s gift more useful, so she became the city’s patron deity. Athena named the city “Athens” after herself. The most recognizable of the goddesses, Athena was highly honored. Her attributes of beauty, simplicity, and elegance were envied by women.

Her genuineness caused them to seek to attain her attributes and to carry out their roles as women. Her ageless wisdom, sense of liberty and justice were admired by men. Those that esteemed her sought to be strong and courageous, and to become effective members of their societies. Athena had a wonderful influence on the people of the Greek and Roman Empires who regarded her as the quintessential role model of citizenship, justice, purity, compassion, and, of course, wisdom.

Athena: Greek Mythology Essay

Greek Mythology and Prometheus Essay

Greek Mythology and Prometheus Essay.

Prometheus is a God who was a beneficiary to mankind. Son of the Titan Iapetus, he worked to benefit the lives of man, not the lives of the Gods. Prometheus was assigned by Zeus to create mankind from water and earth, but in the process gave man more power than Zeus had anticipated. Zeus wanted man to have a lack of power, especially over fire, but Prometheus defies what Zeus wants and gave the power of fire to mankind.

Concerned more with the well being of the man, Prometheus steals lightning and fire from Zeus and gives the power of fire to mankind.

Zeus is extremely angered by this act of disobedience and states to Prometheus, “I bet you are glad you stole fire and outfoxed me. But things will go hard for you and humans after this, I’m going to give them evil in exchange for fire, their very own Evil to love and embrace” (ACM 163). In response to this, Zeus presents man with the “gift” of Pandora, the first woman.

Pandora was made to deliver misfortune to men, and as a way to take away the good spirits of man.

Another thing that Prometheus does to defy Zeus is trick him in the form of sacrifice and food. Prometheus divides slaughtered animal parts into two parts, one for man and one for the Gods. In one, he wrapped the ox-meat in the stomach lining, while the other he wrapped the ox-bones in its own fat, though looking rich and plentiful. Prometheus presented Zeus with the two parts, making him choose, and Zeus of course took the ox-bones because he eyes deceived him thinking it was more plentiful and thus more succulent.

Zeus punishes Prometheus in a horrible way for his disrespect and defiance. Zeus initially thought to punish all of Prometheus’ family, but decided to only punish Prometheus himself. The punishment was that Prometheus was chained to Mount Caucasus where an eagle feasted on his liver daily. Each night the liver would regenerate itself. Eventually, Heracles comes to Mount Caucasus, shoots the eagle and frees Prometheus from his chains. Prometheus knows the secret of Zeus’ downfall. He knows how Zeus can loose his power.

Prometheus is given this knowledge by his mother, who tells him that a potential marriage would produce a son that would overthrow Zeus. The marriage would have been to Thetis, who was a sea nymph. Resisting his advances Thetis does not marry Zeus, but the mortal Peleus, and their son is Achilles. It is this revelation from Prometheus to Zeus that the two of them reconcile, and this action is done in Aescylus’ story, Prometheus, The Fire Bringer. Zeus must accept what Prometheus is trying to tell him and that he should forgive him and come to forgive Prometheus’ actions.

Greek Mythology and Prometheus Essay

Greek Mythology – Aphrodite Essay

Greek Mythology – Aphrodite Essay.

The word myth means story. People who believe myths are true, use them to understand life and death. Myths are religious – a way of exploring. Myths are believed by the Greeks. Origin is mythos. (Philip 8). Many mythologies tell how the creator came from a cosmic egg primordial ocean. Brahma who was the first Hindu god is said to have been born from a golden egg that floated on the first waters. (Philip 8). The goddess I am researching is Aphrodite. The Greek Goddess Aphrodite represents values important to the ancient Greeks and the qualities are still relevant today.

Aphrodite looks beautiful. She has curly and brown hair. (“Aphrodite” 1). Her symbols are the dove, the myrtle tree, the rose, the apple and sometimes the sparrow and the swan. (Petras 9). The weaknesses that Aphrodite and Helen of Troy argued about who is the most beautiful. (“Greek Mythology” 1). Aphrodite is goddess of love and beauty. Aphrodite was the daughter of Zeus and Dione. (Petras 1). Her enemy is Helen of Troy because they argued about who looks better.

(“Greek Mythology” 1).

The myth of Aphrodite is she is the one who turned the statue Galatea into a living woman for Pygmalion and helped Hippomenes win the fair Atlanta. (Petras 8.) Another myth told of Aphrodite was that she was with heroes and she has gotten stuck in wounded by one of the arrows and she fell in love with someone called Adonis was killed by a boar one day and Zeus allowed him to come back to earth for 6 months in the underworld because she was so upset. (Ingpen 8). Although and there it is not a lesson learned from these myths these myths are still interesting to read about. Works Cited

Aphrodite. UXL Encyclopedia of World Mythology. Rebecca Parks. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale Cengage Learning, 2009. Print.Ingpen, Robert and Molly Perham. Gods and Goddess. United States: Chelsea House Publishers, 1996. Print. Petras, Kathryn and Ross Petras. Mythology Tales and Legends of the Gods. New York: Workman Publishing, 1998. Print.

Greek Mythology – Aphrodite Essay