Coopetition: “united we stand, divided we fall” Essay

Coopetition: “united we stand, divided we fall” Essay.

When in 2004 I spoke in illywords magazine about coopetition, many people thought I had used a neologism. We said, that coopetition is not short on dissociated thinking as it entails being co-operative and competitive at the same time. It seemed to be absurd!

Nowadays it would be hard to conceive a world divided with walls or any kind of barriers. What’s needed instead is bearing into mind and putting into practise the old but nevertheless true motto ”united we stand, divided we fall” when we handle with a good idea that requires a strong commitment together with a considerable outlay of financial and human resources.

Professor Yaneer Bar Yam, expert of complex models and President of the New England Complex System Institute said that in the near future ten billion of human beings will be linked one another in an ongoing exchange process able to create a sort of “hyper-individual” whose creative potential is at this point in time still inconceivable.

I am firmly convinced that human evolution should benefit from the mutual exchange even if competitive. Today we celebrate the 7th billion new born. We are not so far from what professor Bar Yem predicted, but I have the feeling that we still face great competition and less cooperation in our way of working and living. Is there any young person or group of young people that is using the concept of coopetition in their life, studies or work? I’d like to hear your voice.

Coopetition is a very interesting term. It brings to mind an aspect of business that you may not align with the seemingly cut-throat nature of the coffee wars. Yet, I found an article I enjoyed in The Economist (again!) recently titled “Head Barista” on that very subject. You would think a person in Andrea Illy‘s position, as captain of the family business that was started in 1933, would be shaking in his Italian leather boots about the rise of Starbucks over the past decade. He is not. He views this as healthy coopetition. He is quoted in Economist article as saying “Eight years ago people talked of coffee as a commodity; now, nobody does”.

In a fast-paced world of drive-through swill, Illy stands out even more today as a distinct brand. In fact, as you can see their “Beauty has a Taste” tagline is perfectly aligned with what their brand represents and the expectation they have set. Illy espresso machines are pieces of art. And, their specially crafted limited-edition Espresso cup sets can fetch as high as several hundred dollars each. Many editions are already highly valued collector items. Why do I care about Illy? Well, I start each and every day with a home-brewed shot of espresso – albeit in a Starbucks Barista machine (if anyone at Illy wants to send me one of theirs to do a comparison test, I’d happily comply). That being said, I like my Starbucks a whole lot too. So, if you love coffee they way I do and know the difference between brews and beans, Illy is simply one of the best.

They come by it honestly as the Economist article reveals, “Mr. Illy is a chemistry graduate – at university he wrote a thesis on the “Quality of Espresso from a Chemical Perspective”. Want to bet his Dad helped him a bit with that paper? The next phase for Illy is to open “Espressamente Illy” cafes worldwide as “advertisements for the brand” as well as remaining focused on sending a clear message that Illy produces coffee “according to the highest ethical standards” in terms of the fair-trade market. Andrea, if you are ever in Toronto, or plan to open an Espressamente Illy here, I’ll be there with cup in hand. Mr. Illy, you make good coffee.

Coopetition: “united we stand, divided we fall” Essay

Positive Effects of Globalization Essay

Positive Effects of Globalization Essay.

Globalization has been credited with bringing an increased transparency in the world and communication technology has played a major role in this. Governments can now exchange data, research, analysis, and reports with each other on a real-time basis and this has led to increased cooperation between nations. One of the symbolic manifestations of globalization is the presence of multi-national brands across the globe. Companies like Coca-Cola, McDonalds, Nike etc. are present in a number of countries and to conduct their business smoothly and effectively, they rely on communication technology to a large extent.

The latest innovations in web-conferencing have made it possible for businessmen to interact with each other in a better way. The developments that we have seen in the business sector would have never been possible without the presence of an effective communication system. One of the prime examples is the surge in outsourcing that we have seen over the last decade of so. Most US companies have saved around 30% to 50% of their costs by taking their back-office, billing

Globalization: Pros and Cons

The term ‘globalization’ is profoundly contentious.

Where there are some highly appreciated advantages of this ideology of integrating cultures, the world has witnessed some enormously threatening effects of the same too. Its pros and cons simultaneously support and contradict its impact on the world economy. While the ones advocating globalization believe that it is because of this trend that poor economies have regained their hopes and faiths of developing financially, thus, raising their standards of living, the ones contradicting it believe that globalization is the only reason behind elite and high-profile multinational companies trashing local cultures and beliefs, domestic small-scale businesses, and commoners, in the rush to attain an international status. This instigates us to put forth numerous questions like What is the future of globalization with such ambiguities associated? How are cultures going to revive now?

All in all, it is upon the masses to keep a check on our sanctities and traditions, and be all the more tolerant as today, interaction in-person is no more prevalent. Issues will crop up, things would be misunderstood, and the power to tolerate will be tested every now and then. In order to properly balance between the benefits and prices that globalization is associated with, it is highly essential to adjudicate as to how the process of globalization works, and the norms and standards that it consorts with itself. It is then that we can seek an all-inclusive answer to globalization’s actual role and purpose within the world economy.

The impact of communication technology can be seen in the education sector as well. There are a lot of students who are now able to get access to information through Internet. Students can now get certifications from foreign Universities by completing an online program. These innovations have brought a marked difference to the way education is imparted and has led to an improvement in the quality of education. The impact of globalization on banking industry has been prominent and today we can see various banks being streamlined through effective communication channels. The innovation has also led to the globalization of banking industry as leading banks from all over the world now have their offices in almost every country of the world. While the impact of communication technology has been overly positive, it has led to certain challenges. There is a wide disparity when it comes to access to technology between developing and developed nations.

The developing nations do not have a proper infrastructure in place, which has created challenges for a lot of people in these countries. This can be disadvantageous to the developing countries and can lead to economic disparity. Globalization cannot be exclusive as it encompasses the whole world and it is important that corrective actions are taken to ensure that weaker sections of the society are not neglected. There has been a lot of progress in the last few years and developing countries like Nigeria and Kenya have started to take steps to encourage their people to be acquainted with the latest developments in communication technology.

It is important to remember that there are various factors that have contributed to globalization and communication technology is just one of them. However, it has played one of the most important roles in spreading globalization. The concerns that are associated with the disparity can be countered by making further innovations in communication technology.

Globalization has several advantages on the economic, cultural, technological, social, and other fronts. Any myths existing in the mind regarding these must be dispelled. Globalization means increasing the interdependence, connectivity, and integration on a global level, with respect to the social, cultural, political, technological, economic, and ecological levels. It is the collaboration of countries to provide a boost to trade practices, and also to reduce cultural differences. Its various advantages can be felt all across the globe by one and all, and also to a very large extent in our daily lives.

Obviously, now we understand that globalization is here to stay. Here are the most common and important advantages that globalization, over time, has brought about for mankind. These have been listed in no particular order, and are all vital in their own way.

Peaceful Relations

Most of the countries have resorted to trade relations with each other in order to boost their economy, leaving behind any bitter past experiences if any. Nations now try to raise capital and fortify their stand in international trade, rather than hosting a war. Thus, globalization has induced international peace and security in a big way.

Free Trade

Free trade is a policy in which a country does not levy taxes, duties, subsidies or quota on the import/export of goods or services from other countries. There are countries which have resolved to free trade in specific regions. This allows consumers to buy goods and services, comparatively at a lower cost.

Global Connectivity

Globalization has promoted international connectivity. With the use of the Internet, the world has definitely become a smaller place. There has been exchange of thoughts and ideas which has morally boosted and interlinked the mindset of people all round the world.

New Markets

The opportunities for new markets has increased dramatically. Numerous companies have started investing in different countries and luring customers for their brands. These ever-expanding markets have helped countries to raise capital in terms of foreign domestic investments, thus improving the economy of the country.

Employment Opportunities

One of the most advantageous factors of globalization is that it fosters the generation of employment. This happens due to the emergence of new companies and new markets, where lots of skilled and unskilled labor is required. Immigration between countries also increases, providing better opportunities for people all round the world. By providing employment, globalization helps in increasing the standard of living of the people, and also reduces poverty.

Quality Products

The competition among different companies finds place at an international level. It becomes important for the companies to focus on quality goods and services, in order to have a strong foothold in the market. The consumer is benefited in the process, and gets quality products at cheaper rates. He/she also gets the opportunity to select his goods from a large variety available in the market.

Environmental Protection

Mutual trade carried out by countries has brought about an understanding for the protection of the environment from which they benefit so much. It has been accepted by most countries that action needs to be taken in saving natural resources and wildlife, without thinking about the boundaries that separate them. Global environmental problems like cross-boundary pollution, over-fishing in the oceans, climate change, etc., are solved by discussions and conventions.

Good for Developing Nations

It is claimed that globalization increases the economic prosperity of developing nations. Developed countries invest in such countries with an aim of capturing new markets, which helps them improve their infrastructure and technologies to international levels. A lot of capital is invested in such projects, which in turn proves fruitful to the economy of the developing nation as well.

Equality for All

Globalization has helped in creating international criminal courts, and international justice movements are also launched to provide justice to people at a global level. Disputes are solved through global standards such as patents, copyright laws, and world trade agreements. Thus, it has ensured that people do not get discriminated with regard to country, caste, creed or sex.

Ease of Transportation

With the advent of globalization, there has been an immense increase in the transportation of goods and services worldwide. Things which took weeks for conveyance, can now easily be availed within a couple of days. Due to the development of containerization for ocean shipping, transportation costs are reduced to a great extent, lowering the cost of products in world markets.

Travel and Tourism

Globalization has promoted tourism to great heights. There are many places that have tourism as their main source of capital generation. International trade among different countries also helps in increasing the number of tourists that visit different places around the world.

Unity in Diversity

Globalization has helped in bringing about integrity and social understanding everywhere. The dream for a global village becomes realistic after looking at the impact of globalization. It has helped in removing some barriers that had kept the world divided on various grounds. There has been propagation of democratic ideas among countries. Cross-cultural contacts grow and cultural diffusion takes place, which helps in minimizing differences, and promotes companionship.

External Borrowing

It has often been seen that a poor country is unable to provide adequate financing to its companies, which proves to an obstacle in the development of the country on the whole. With the help of globalization, there is opportunity for corporate, national, and sub-national borrowers to have better access to external finance, with facilities such as external commercial borrowing and syndicated loans.

It is a common belief that globalization plays a role just at international levels of trade and commerce, but the fact is that it has played an important role in making our lives much more comfortable too. The phones, apparels, gadgets or accessories that we use in our day-to-day life are be available to us through globalization. Knowingly or unknowingly, we are all under the impact of globalization, and more importantly it has helped in bringing international peace and justice to mankind. Read more at Buzzle:

You may also be interested in the following: positive effects of free education

Positive Effects of Globalization Essay

Apple’s Fdi and Globalization Essay

Apple’s Fdi and Globalization Essay.

Globalization- Today the world has become a global village where each and every thing is interlinked.The concept of global village or global merger is based on the grounds of globalization. Now thequestion arises in one¶s mind what is globalizationThe term globalization means the concentration of world economy in to a single international market rather than many national markets. For example, the APPLE INC, an American multinational corporation that concentrates in computer hardware and software components. It assembles its best known product i.

e. ‘mac’ computer, best selling phone ‘iphone’ in china. This is because the cost of production is low due to cheap labour force. Thus globalization involves:- Free trade of goods and services

Free movement of labour and capital
Free access in technology
Now, we will discuss the above points with more details.

Free trade of goods and services- Based on APPLES INC business operation the company is selling its product such as the ‘iPhone’, ‘MAC’ computer in many countries in the world.

Generally it is a US based company which is doing its business world-wide, there are no restriction for the company not to sell its product in any country. So its means free trade of goods and services. Free movement of labour and capital- In regard with APPLE INC it means, apple can move its labour force and inject capital in any country with no restriction. When talking about labour force it means the people who work for APPLE can travel from one country to the other. For instance, officers travel from one country to the other. We normally see in the news that APPLE has appointed new officers in the UK, Germany or the US. Technical team travel from one country to the other when there is a major problem where other technician can not figure out what the problem is. In terms of capital, it means APPLE has invested capital to make industries where its product are made and assembled.

They have factory in china and other countries in the world. Free access in technology- It means the the software of APPLE i.e. the ‘iOS’ are being used in many countries in the world. This is because the products that APPLE is selling use iOs software and these products are being sold in many countries in the world, so it means the technology is being freely moving from one country to the other. This encourages globalization. Another example is, a potential customer from Bangladesh looking to buy a shirt, he looks on the ‘New look’ website. It normally making the sense that, a customer can access the catalogue from any where of the world. This is commonly known as globalization. Apple Inc. is an American based multinational company whose stocks are listed in the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ (National Association of Securities DealersAutomated Quotations) under the symbol AAPL.

The company specializes in the design,development and manufacturing of electronic equipments like computers, software and smart phones. Business strategy: Apple is currently working on the differentiation strategy by putting unique elements in the design and development of its products. The differentiation strategy is defined as a strategy that aims to develop the products and or services that have unique characteristics that are well liked by the customers and are valued by them. This strategy enhances the market position of the companies with respect to their counterparts (Porter, 1998).The success of the company in the global markets is due to its extensive focus on the market research and development for the development of its products and services. With reference to its business strategy, the company is in a continues process to build and advance the robust platform that can enhance the listing of third party content like mobile phone apps, games etc on its online stores or its iTunes store (Apple Inc.,2010).

Markets and Distribution

The customer segments of the company are divided into various categories. The needs of the main customers markets it caters are of small and medium businesses, education sectors,large corporations, government departments and other related markets. In order to meet the needsand wants of these consumer markets, the company is utilizing direct and indirect distributionchannels including online sales services, retail stores and direct sales force as well as third partysellers, retailers etc. Using direct sales contacts with the customers is, believed by the company,leveraging its product sales and has demonstrated as an advantage to the company over itscompetitors. In order to maximize its sales and to make sure that the buyers are receiving highquality experience, the company is in a process to expand and improve its existing channeldistribution network (Form 10-k S EC Filing, 2010).


The company faces aggressive competition from the other market players. According toHoover (2011) the top three competitors of Apple Inc. in United States are Fujitsu TechnologySolutions (Holding) B.V., International Business Machines Corporation and MediaNet Digital,Inc. respectively. The needs of the markets it caters are highly competitive in nature due to the ever changing and advancing technological environment and the rapid introduction of new technology based products. The main competitors of the company are following cost leadership strategies by reducing the prices of their products or by maintaining low profit margins to maintain their market share.

There are various forces that can impact the business and profitability of Apple. These factors may include the marketing mix ± product, price, place, promotion strategies, product performance, the quality and reliability of the product, innovative designs as well as then availability of up to date software services.Moreover, some of the competitors of the company have number of resources which they can utilize against the company to provide the product and service offerings related to Apple,offer the business and consumer products and services similar to Apple¶s products at low price range(Form 10-k SEC Filings, 2010).

Products and Services

Apple is currently using in house manufacturing system for the production of all of its products. All the products like Mac, iphone, ipad and ipod etc. are designed, developed and marketed via its main manufacturing hub which is located in the USA. But, as mentioned earlier,the company is outsourcing the production of some of its product parts to the various international and national supply chain partners; subcontractors. Some of the components of its products, ipod, are outsourced to its subcontractor in Hong Kong from where it is sent to theoutsourced production plant of the company (Linden et al, 2007).Some of these components are of high cost. While the other products like hard drive andflash memory etc. are sent to the other companies or outsourcing companies like Toshiba inJapan or Samsung in Korea.

Large number of its components is of low cost. The metalcomponents of the products are made by the outsourcing unit in Taiwan called Foxconn and the plastic components are products by the outsourcing units in Singapore (Brown, 1998, p.198).Finally these parts are assembled in the China and then transported to its sales outlets across theworld (Kahney, 2008).Outsourcing plants:It has built its integrated manufacturing and design facilities in the various countries for example in California, Singapore etc. This global network allows the company to develop andlaunch the products in its markets of America, Asia and Europe.

It produces its products, for example ipads, in the Shanghai, China which has given it a cost saving advantage and lead to theincreased profitability for the company (Chaffin, 2002). But on the other hand, this outsourcing has increased the downsizing and unemployment rate in the home country (Rodriguez-Clare,2011).some of the outsourcing plants managed by the company are showing troubled situations for Apple. ConclusionThe economy of the world has now become free from any boundary. All the countries are now considered integrated with one another as one global market for carrying out variousactivities like trade, relations, etc.

Evaluate: Evaluate;

From one perspective, Apple’s world could not be rosier and its future shinier. Rising from the rubble of a disintegrating company in 1997, Apple has reached the pinnacle of success in 15 short years. With a market capitalization of over $500 billion, Apple is amongst the most valuable and highly profitable companies in the world. When it comes to customers, Apple is a bold innovator that leads the industry into new directions and forces others to follow. However, when it comes to the management of its supply chain and treatment of workers in the Chinese factories that make its products, it hides behind the constraints of prevailing industry practices. Foxconn and its China-based subsidiaries are owned and controlled by the Taiwan-based Hon Hai Precision Industry Co., Ltd. Most of Apple’s worker-related problems were focused on Apple’s manufacturing partner Foxconn and its subsidiaries.

Reports over the past few years have described instances of Foxconn employees committing suicide, presumably from working in an extremely high stress environment. In addition there are reports of deplorable living conditions, underage workers, below-standard wages, involuntary labor, and health hazards associated with the use of toxic chemicals and inadequate air filtration systems Finally, in the closing days of 2011, Apple announced with great fanfare that it had joined the Fair Labor Association (FLA.

Over the concept , Chinese factories have honed their tactics in concealing problems from the auditors by keeping workers away from plants during audit visits, maintaining multiple sets of accounting books and workers’ personnel files, coaching workers to give right answers to the auditors’ questions in terms of working hours, wage rates, and overtime, et cetera, with promises of bonuses if the auditors were satisfied and implied threats of punishment if serious problems were identified. Thus a highly choreographed audit allows for certain violations—albeit manageable—to be disclosed and promises for corrective action to be taken. Cutting out excessive hours would entail additional costs. For example, a reduction in the average working hours from the current 60-70 hours per week to 48 hours per week would entail approximately a 30 percent + increase in the labor force to maintain the current rate of output.

The Indicators of Globalization
There are three main economic and financial indicators of globalization, these are:
• international trade in goods and services
• the transfer of money capital from one country to another
• the movement of people across national borders.

Of the three, international trade and foreign investment are the most important. Each of the three indicators will be examined in turn. International Trade International trade means that countries become more interconnected through the exchange of goods and services, that is, through imports and exports. Multinational companies (MNCs) are major traders and account for a large proportion of international trade, with significant proportions accounted for by trade between subsidiaries within the same company. So for example, Ford makes gearboxes in its factory in Bordeaux and exports them to its assembly plants in other European countries. Around one half of US manufactured exports and more than 60% of its imports flow within MNCs. International trade has increased more rapidly than global output which has been increasing by around 3% per annum. 2004)

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)

FDI is the main source of investment in developing countries. Recent year FDI has increased in these countries due to three reasons: –

• The rise of multinational companies
• Liberalization of world capital market
• Liberalization of world economies

As in regard to APPLE INC, it has built factories in china to make its product so it has invested in china which is foreign direct investment. In the recent years FDI has increased in this country due to three reasons: –

• The rise of multinational companies
• Liberalization of world capital market
• Liberalization of world economies

The advantages of these FDI are as the following: –

• This FDI will allow a country to invest more than their saving. It is a crucial source of investment in a country such as in china where it is difficult to encourage savings. FDI also helps to increase the import than the export. Again a FDI can be assumed as an injection which, in terms has a large multiplier effect in the economy. It creates demand in the receipent country and hence helps to increase real GDP. • FDI helps to increase the employment in a country. For instance, the investment by apple in chine has created jobs for Chinese people to work and earn a living. They, sometimes offer higher wages than other national companies which helps to increases the living standard of that country. For e.g. in 1999 30 million people were employed in the developing countries directly or indirectly by the multi national companies. This has a positive externality in the economy in the long run. • Sometimes FDI goes in the tradeable goods sextor of a country. Thus the countries export performance may increase and the country may enjoy higher competitiveness.

The disadvantages if these FDI are as the following: –

• Multinational companies, such as APPLE tends to send back their profit to their country. This may create a balance of payment deficit in the receipient countries if they fail to increase their export earnings. • Apple tends to use expertise of staffs from their country so the benefit that should come from employment becomes insignificant. • Multinational companies such as these APPLE tends to locate their factories in the urban areas so there may be an increase in inequality in the economy. Again it may create pressure in the urban sector. • There is a risk of tends that multinational companies such as APPLE tends to exploit the natural resources of a country like gas, coal, electricity. Thus in the long- run there may be an environmental degradation and the country may suffer from natural degradation. • Deficit in the long- run-

However, FDI may have positive impact on a country but they tend to be fuelled only in some developed countries.

Apple’s Fdi and Globalization Essay

Canadian Globalization Essay

Canadian Globalization Essay.

Canadian scholar Marshall McLuhan once said that the world is becoming more and more like a “global village,” each nation part of an increasingly interconnected society that stretches across national boundaries (6). Although he was talking about the role of new media in this change, he also was probably talking about the growing economic links that come with globalization. Globalization is a process that offers both the opportunity for a better world and the risk of destroying local communities, regional cultures, and entire natural environments.

Over the last century, globalization has become a major issue in politics, environmental studies, and economics, touching every corner of earth as corporations spread. But Globalization is a broad term that does not necessarily mean one single thing. It usually describes the increasing interconnectedness of economies, political institutions, and individuals as the result of communication, transportation, and goods provided by multinational corporations. As Justin Ervin and Zachary Smith define it, “Globalization can now be seen as a process that ‘shrinks’ the world as human interaction ‘thickens’” (4).

The effects of globalization are neither good nor bad; there are costs and benefits as with most things in life. What is certain is that no nation on earth has not yet felt the effects of globalization. One nation that has been particularly involved in and affected by globalization is Canada. Canada is a nation often overshadowed by its economically dominant southern neighbor, the United States. As the world continues to globalize, Canada’s role in this expansion is becoming increasingly important, and whether it will accept globalization entirely or continue to resist is a major point of debate.

Canada has both embraced and rejected globalization: many of its corporations embrace it as a means of expanding, but many of Canada’s people fear the effects of globalization on local culture, the economy, and the environment. For Canada, globalization has brought both economic prosperity and a series of cultural and environmental problems. In an address to the Richard Ivey School of Business at the University of Western Ontario, Wayne G. Wouters, Clerk of the Privy council and Secretary to the Cabinet, there are five dimensions to globalization. First, “global capital markets now ruly operate 24/7” and “perturbations in one country or sector may now be felt both near and far. ” Globalization has made business both quick in time and geographically broad. Second, there are now “global supply chains” where products are made and shipped all across the globe. What started out as “outsourcing” in the 1980s became “off-shoring” in the 1990s, and now is called the “global supply chain. ” Third, there is the “globalization of information,” an interconnected network of media and communication. Fourth, globalization raises environmental concerns.

Last, there is what Wouters calls the “globalization of insecurity,” the idea that the future is even more uncertain in a world where everything is connected and nothing is stable for long. These dimensions highlight that globalization is seen in Canada as both a force for good and a problem. Throughout its history Canada has had strong ties to Europe and later to the United States. As part of the British Empire it was an important source of natural resources such as timber and ores. In recent decades, the Canadian oil industry has become increasingly important as well.

Canada has the third largest oil reserves in the world after Saudi Arabia and Venezuela (Lewis and Moor). Other industries such as technology, chemicals, and manufacturing continue to make Canada a major player in the world economy. But what does the continued growth of Canadian industry and its own involvement with globalization do to its regional cultures? How is Canadian identity affected by the spread of products and ideas from multinational corporations? How can Canada embrace globalization without sacrificing its natural and national resources?

All of these questions are important when we look at the role of Canada on the global stage. Most importantly, it must be rightly remembered that the effects of globalization on Canada are not entirely beneficial or entirely damaging, demonstrating that globalization is both an agent of positive change and potential dangers. As a European colony founded mainly for trade, you might say that Canada has always been global. It has attracted people from all over the world . It was only in the 1920s that the US finally replaced Britain as the “leading provider of foreign investment in Canada” (Azzi).

As David Lewis and Karl Moor note, tariffs and high taxes kept Canada relatively isolated as far as international trade goes until after World War II. In 1947 the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) opened up the Canadian economy by reducing tariffs and taxes on imports and exports. According to Azzi and also to Ervin and Smith (19), this led directly to the growth of Canada’s international presence as a major worldwide economy. Later actions such as the Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with the US in 1989 led to more economic success (Azzi).

This contributed to the fact that in 2012 Canada had $481. 7 billion in exports, the eleventh most of any country, although most of these exports are bought by the United States. More recently, Canada prospered through the 1990s and early 2000s. Then, after a 12 year surplus, Canada struggled in 2008 when the world economy started to decline. But Canadian banks came out of the crisis pretty well. In fact, according to the CIA Factbook, Canadian banks “emerged from the financial crises of 2008-09 among the strongest in the world. Canada also has one of the world’s largest economies, valued at $1. 5 trillion dollars annually.

A recent report by Mark Carney, the Governor of the Bank of Canada, notes that globalization has been a generally positive force for Canada. He says that “hundreds of millions of people have already been lifted out of poverty, with the real potential for hundreds of millions more to share their destiny. ” Carney points to Canada’s current participation in globalization as part of the nation’s second longest expansion, which he compares to the Roman Empire and the Industrial Revolution.

Carney sees the trends toward better growth, such as the doubling of the Canadian labor force by 2050, as signs that Canada will prosper at home and abroad. Canada remains a powerhouse on the international stage. Stephen Azzi calls Canada “one of the most globally integrated countries in the world. ” It belongs to 14 international organizations, “second only to the US, which is a member of 15” (Azzi). This has led to prosperity and increased influence on the world stage. Globalization provides many benefits for Canada as a whole.

For example, Canada enjoys the second highest standard of living in the G-8, and the eighth highest standard of living overall (CIA Factbook). Canadians enjoy access to products from around the world, travel frequently, and foreign trade has increased the overall prosperity of Canada. This is especially true for its businesses. Canadian corporations are becoming more and more international over the last three decades, as recent studies have shown. In one The Russell Reynolds Associates conducted a survey to see how Canadian companies were adapting to the new global economy.

The results showed in the report, “A World of Experience: The Globalization of Canadian Corporate Leadership,” suggests that Canadian companies are getting significantly more global at both the top and bottom of their levels. The Reynolds study took CEOs from Canada’s 100 largest corporations. It then measured how much international experience each of these executives had. According to the results the percentage of Canadian CEOs with international work experience rapidly increased between 1987 and 2007.

What is even more interesting is that more and more Canadian CEOs are getting their international experience in countries other than the United States and Europe. This is a sure sign that Canadian companies are moving forward with a global perspective in mind. They are led by executives who understand that the world is interconnected now by “webs of global supply” (Reynolds). From Russell Reynolds and Associates Study 1987-2007 The Reynolds Report suggested that the benefits of participating in global markets are many.

Their study also shows the importance of being able to trade internationally, since Canada is actively trying to become more global economically. It is especially important for Canada to look to the United States, one of the world’s most globalized economies. There has been a good deal of government action on both sides that have further globalized Canada. For example, the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA) was ratified in 1988, causing Canada’s business scene to change. New markets opened up and more trade connections were expanded than ever before.

Afterwards the passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the establishment of the World Trade Organization in 1995 (WTO) built Canada’s role even further. According to Stephen Azzi, Canada’s role in the WTO has made it an important part of other large international financial organizations such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. One of the main questions about globalization in Canada is how it strengthens the country’s connection with the United States. As the United States became one of the forefronters of globalization, Canada was also close behind.

The expansion of the Canadian and global economies and the growth of emerging markets in developing nations improved trade and lowered investment barriers so that Canadian money could flow across the globe. Business was booming. Canadian firms began selling their products to other countries and creating “global supply chains and contracts. ” Canadian companies also got access to lower-cost raw materials and cheaper labor.

Even when foreign firms entered Canada’s markets which increased the competition faced by domestic firms: “By 2007, Canada’s foreign imports and exports equaled 62 percent of its GDP, compared with only 43 percent in 1987. When Canadian firms started selling their companies and products to globally recongnized and international countries, the competetion increased making others more dependent on Canada. The entire Canadian economy grew as a result. A recent CBS News report at the Summit of the Americas, “What is Globalization? ” (March 30, 2006) discussed the debate over what globalization means in different places. Canada was an early supporter of trade and investment liberalization and remains so today. More than 40 per cent of the country’s economy depends directly on trade.

The Canadian government thinks expanding trade and international investment is vital to the economy, but not everyone agrees. The definition of globalization from an anti-globalization group known as Anti-Marketing says globalization is “the process of exploiting economically weak countries by connecting the economies of the world, forcing dependence on (and ultimately subservience to) the western capitalist machine. ” However, the report did not say that globalization did not have its fair share of problems. It pointed to problems of higher unemployment, lowered health care and decreased safety standards.

It also pointed to the lower environmental protection standards, less effective government as corporations have more power, and less protection for developing industries and countries. Globalization can also provide easier communications due to improved technologies. This allows Canadian corporations to set up manufacturing plants in newly industrializing economies like China, India or Latin America where costs of production are lower. Although this often lowers the prices of goods, this also causes local Canadians to lose their jobs, resulting in discontentment, resentment, and loss in confidence in the Canadian government.

Labor groups also dislike this effect of globalization. Often strikes and riots will be organized as the economy further suffers as companies continue to export jobs overseas. This problem is one that is both social and economic as local workers blame their economic problems on the outsourcing of labor. Worldwide communication also affects daily life in Canada. Canada is extremely well-connected to the rest of the world. According to Azzi, “the average Canadian spends more than 500 minutes per year on international telephone calls. ” This communication goes beyond technology such as phones and internet.

Canadians are also avid travelers. Canada has the forth most airports in the world (CIA Factbook). This increases the exchange of goods and ideas, making Canada a real hub. Of course, globalization has not met with universal acceptance. In his article “Globalization is Killing Canada: Fight for Your Freedom,” Paul Hellyer, Canada’s former Deputy Prime Minister, makes an argument against globalization. Hellyer sees globalization as part of the reason why Canadian values are disappearing and Canadian independence is being threatened.

Hellyer even sees globalization as a threat to Canada’s sovereignty, saying that “Canadian values are disappearing rapidly as we lose our independence and our sovereignty. ” He believes Canada is losing control of its most important industries and losing its most exciting and challenging jobs as companies move their headquarters to other parts of the world. Hellyer claims Canada has become a victim of globalization, a process that is good for two to five percent of the world’s richest and most powerful people. It is bad for the vast majority.

Global cooperation is essential for protecting oceans, ozone global warming but the relentless drive on the part of multinational corporations and international banks to take over governance of the world for their own benefit has to stop before it’s too late. Mr. Hellyer details the history of Canadian globalization and sees that foreign companies are increasingly more powerful within Canada. He specifically points to Nafta as a treaty that “granted US and Mexican investors greater rights in Canada than Canadian citizens enjoy.

Hellyer sees this as very problematic, and his title gives out his position on the matter. Even if he does think that it is “killing Canada,” Hellyer does not write off globalization entirely. In fact, he sees many positive things can come out of international cooperation. For example, he sees a need for countries to cooperate in order to restore the environment to its former glory. But Hellyer sees international corporations as more of a threat. He certainly fears the environmental effects of globalization, but he also seems to see that corporations might be the most appropriate way to repair the environment.

Stephen Azzi sees similar problems, noting that the two major problems with globalization for Canada are an increased reliance on foreign economies and a greater dependence on the US. Azzi states that early attempts to broaden global trade ended up strengthening American commerical interests but not other nations. It is seen as a problem by many Canadians, and many “viewed multilateral trade agreements as a way of offsetting the influence of the US. ” This problem is hard to ignore. Three quarters of all Canadian exports go to the United States (CIA Factbook).

The resistance to globalization became most vocal in the 1960s and 70s. Nationalist movements in Canada saw globalization as a threat to national identity. There were protests by Canadians who were afraid that globalization might erase their local cultures and destroy the environment. The government took some actions to promote Canadian identity. One was the Canadian government establishing “content quotas for radio and television” and benefits for Canadian publications (Azzi). This was to promote Canadian media instead of being overwhelmed by American and British television, film, and publications.

But this had little overall effect. Even when Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau tried to promote the Foreign Investment Review Agency in 1974 and the “Third Option” program to reduce economic and social dependence on the United States, there was little change. Canada stayed watching American programs and buying American products. More recently, Canadians have been involved in widespread opposition to globalization. At the 1999 World Trade Organization Summit in Seattle, many Canadians were involved in the protests.

These protests turned violent, but led to international recognition that globalization had opponents even in a globalized country like Canada. At the 2001 Summit of the Americas in Quebec City there were similar protests. Canadian protesters felt that the country was falling into the hands of international corporations, particularly American ones. Instead of promoting regional cultures, these protesters felt that there was a “global monoculture . . . increasingly destroying local traditions” (Hellyer). That is the main threat to Canadian locals. Globalization in the past century has led to the increased exposure of Canada to the world.

This has sometimes brought globalization into the news as a cause of social problems, especially immigration. Chain migration takes place in Canada, bringing large numbers of foreign migrants into the country. Although migrants can make a positive contribution to Canada’s economy, they can, on the other hand, work against the Canadian society by increasing the social tension between Canadian locals and foreigner migrants. For example, in the city of Richmond in the Vancouver metropolitan area, there are large numbers of Asian migrants and social tension between groups.

Migrants also complete with Canadians for the same jobs. But population movement is made even more intense by improved transportation. It is significantly easier in recent years for families to relocate and for goods to be shipped from various countries around the world. The major effect of this increased interconnectedness is that populations have become highly mobile. People are not constrained to remain in a single place for their entire life but rather are now able to move about, often following multinational corporations for whom they work.

Canadian Globalization Essay

Geopolitics and globalization Essay

Geopolitics and globalization Essay.

Geopolitics is a field of study that is responsible for analyzing history, geography and social science with a special reference to spatial politics through patterns of various scales, ranging from state to international levels. It gives a critical examination of economic and political issues in relation geographical frontiers. In this context, geography is defined in terms of function, size, location and relationship of resources and places. Traditionally, geopolitics indicates causal relationships and links between geographic space and political power.

It is seen as a concrete line of thought used to essay specific and strategic prescriptions that lay their basis on the relative significance of sea power and land power in the history of the world (Gearnoid, 1998, pp.

33). The consistent concerns of the geopolitical tradition included the relationships between terrestrial and naval capabilities, the identification of international core areas and the geopolitical correlates of power in the world of politics.

Geopolitics were conducted through a geopolitical system, that was seen as an ensemble of relations between the interests focused to an area, international political factors, ways, geographical elements and space.

Geopolitics is a branch of political geography concerning the assessment of reciprocal relations between politics, geography and power as well as the interactions that arise from their combination. It is therefore a scientific discipline with a basic science nature (Klauds, 2000, pp.

12). Radically, contemporally use of geopolitics deviates from the original use in the 19th century. Originally, geopolitics served as a reflection of international affairs under a strong influence by social Darwinism. Under this, there was a limited significance of international law, global norms and multilateralism all of which signaled realist view of international affairs cynically. The concept currently denotes interplay of geographic space, strategic dominance and natural resources.

In connection to earlier usage of the term, its growing use brings on board the need to reflect on the rise of multipolarity in the early 21st century and the renaissance of great power rivalry (Neil, 2005, pp. 23). As the world is changing, there has been great pressure upon traditional or old systems of societal governance and operation. This has been a movement towards globalization, a state where different social setups, economies, technocrats and political affiliates interact, share ideas, problems, challenges and experiences. A globalized society understands, anticipates and advocates for freedom and rights.

Globalization encompasses the preaching of rights, justice, freedom, and peace continued support of masses and majority rule to citizens in promoting their own morality related believes. Through interaction, global community has become one society with commonalities in political, social, economic, cultural and technological beacons. Through the process, ideologies of many communities have been alignment towards the same point in both material and non material concerns of life. This change has influenced the original interpretation and applicability of geopolitics limiting the role it initially played (Agnew, 2003, pp.

45). Globalization is therefore premier buzzwords in 21st century, referring to a world which is stretched, interdependent, integrated, shrunk, interwoven, connected and less territorially segmented into various cultural and economic zones. Due to the above description, it is seen as shorthand towards economic liberalism spontaneously adopted by governments of the world, as a social modernization scaled up from national to whole world status with time and also as an economic technological process through the compression of time and space, highly challenging geopolitics (Gearnoid, 1998, pp. 34).

Since globalization and geopolitics aspects show some degree of compatibility regardless of the time factor, globalization is of late seen to replace geopolitics. Geopolitics was seen as an issue concerning great powers and empires imposing territorial control to various boundaries whereas globalization is a world that knows no boundaries. This means that globalization has geopolitical roots. Globalization represents a stark break of the geopolitics of the cold war (Brunn, 2004, pp. 20). The free world economy was started during the cold war, through the mantra of the new globalizing economy.

Globalization has initiated a new regime of market access through a revolutionary process by international organizations including WTO, GATT, World Bank and IMF. These institutions have aided in departing from geopolitics through enforcement of radical economic liberalism. As a result a new economic geography has emerged, characterized by tension towards continued regulation of economic activities and a world economy with organized flow of goods and capital in locations that are widely scattered. Therefore as geopolitics decay in the current society, there is significant aspiration towards a higher level of global economic development.

(http://www. informationclearinghouse. info/article11747. htm) Through globalization, the geographical logic of the world has changed by addressing the disparities between the territorial and interactional modes of capitalism organization. Globalization does not only reshuffle geopolitics in its nature of globality, but through the combination of global networks and localized territorial fragmentation. Geopolitics era structured the world economy into territorial entities such as colonial empires, states and geopolitical spheres of influence (Greer, 2000, pp. 30).

In another perspective, globalization is not seen to mark the end of geopolitics but reform it. The main novelty today is the role of economic prosperity, underdevelopment of cross-border flows, networks linking nation to hinderlands and the increased differentiations between regions and localities because of the existing biases along the spatial channel. This clearly shows that globalization has no marked the end of geopolitics, but entails its reformulation from an economic mapping based on territories to a more complex mosaic of states, localities, global city regions and regions differentially integrated into the global economy.

This means there exists geopolitics of contemporally globalization concerning the operational and originality structure. To indicate that globalization has not marked the end of geopolitics, social and political boundaries have not disappeared but are in a process of reconstitution along and across long established ones (Larrabee, 2003, pp. 12). Geopolitics was hegemonic in nature. For many years, geopolitics has been known to limit political and economic influence of many countries through dividing the world into territorial empires and trading blocs.

The limitation was facilitated through enactment and enforcement of powerful strains to minimize the involvement in political affairs and foreign economic affairs. Geopolitics was highly supported by the autarkic dogmas of soviet communism and competitive trading blocs which were partly blamed for the great depressions of the 1930s. After the Second World War, a strong internationalist American agenda was brought in to counterpoint the effects of the communistic societies by sponsoring international investments, currency convertibility and free trade.

This effort towards a free world order provided the groundwork to internationalization of global activities. According to this explanation, we can say that geopolitics laid down the groundwork to globalization. On the other hand, Globalization can thus be said to be a kind of geopolitics that has undergone transition within time and spatial dimensions (Heymann, 2005, pp. 67). Twentieth century economic globalization has been linked to two issues that indicate the linkage between geopolitics and globalization.

These issues were both political and economic because they aimed at promoting as realization of continental expansion and later to global expansion in political, economic and social spheres. First, expansion of market was viewed as a necessity towards social well being and national political well being. Second, economic liberty or independence was viewed as the foundation for freedom per se. these views opened a new page as far as geopolitics is concerned (Buqajski, 2002, pp. 43). Early in the 21st century America underwrote continental expansion but stimulated foreign market for their commodities.

However, the power of the government to control private economic activities was limited by federal subunits and the divisions of power between the branches of federal government. Such branches included the congress, the presidency and the Supreme Court. This system depicts how firm and conservative geopolitics was. On the other hand it shows how globalization was challenged by the system of governance before starting to grow. Globalization was experiencing a pull apart scenario from tiers of government and federal branches.

Down the years, the country and other several nations have extended their powers beyond continental to global frontiers. This means the role of geopolitics in modeling the system of governance is decreasing with time, but it shall not bet forgotten that it serves as the bottom line for change, the change being renamed as the globalization (Herd, 2002, pp. 65). For globalization to be completely explored, it is necessary to assess the role played by geopolitics in its structuring. This is because of the commonalities the two concepts have. Such process will involve comparison between hegemonic power against democracy or devolution.

The regime makers in this changing world determine the speed, scope and nature of globalization, regarding how far they are free from geopolitics. The roots of geopolitics indicate the reforms in markets, concentration of political and economic power and hegemony (http://www. informationclearinghouse. info/article11747. htm). To show the current scenarios in issues of globalization and geopolitics, many media commenter, IPE scholars and policy makers criticize de territorial threats from Middle East on the failure to adjust and embrace globalization.

This has forced United States of America to use force and bring Middle East to globalization through a slogan that disconnectedness defines a danger. The Middle East is claimed to lie centrally to a vast region that is disconnected to global flow of security, capital and people to sustain mutually assured dependence. Americans have claimed to be fighting geopolitics in the Middle East region. It is said that geopolitical imaginary in the Middle East is blind towards networks of transnational mobility across the region. The study and consideration of geopolitics in the region gives the micro foundations of globalization in the area.

It is also widely believed that the rate of globalization is inversely related to extend of geopolitics (Gearnoid, 1998, pp. 35). Areas with high rate of geopolitics are thought to have low rates of globalization and vice versa, but none completely outdoes the other. This means both concepts are important for the involved elements around the globe to intermingle efficiently. This is built on pluralistic theory of globalization, stating that transnational processes and diverse global processes are heterogeneously shaped by agents and networks of alternative geopolitical imaginaries (Agnew, 2006, pp.

16). Specifically the way to globalization can be evaluated by considering the geopolitics of tourism since 2001 in the Middle East region. As opposed to many, tourism has significantly developed since then. Public and private sectors in tourism that initially focused on tourism from industrialized nations have redirected their efforts towards both domestic and regional tourist flow paving way to new, more regional and stylish tourist development.

Today, new and emerging forms of regional Islamic tourism and Arabic tourism, propelled by oil income expansion and consumer behavior shifts have remapped globalization meaning in the region. Firms, states and various actors across Middle East are seeking negotiation on own interaction with global economy, promising to assert manipulation of their local spaces and territory and therefore define their itineraries of globalization (Klauds, 2000, pp. 19).

Geopolitics and globalization Essay

Globalization – Has Globalization Made The World More Or Less Secure Essay

Globalization – Has Globalization Made The World More Or Less Secure Essay.

The world is evolving and in the last few decades, some of the major changes have taken place in the world. Out of the many changes, one of the major transformations that have taken place is what is referred to as globalization. Globalization has taken over the world by storm and reduced large distances; it has resulted in many changes in the last decade and has been supported and promoted by the advent of technology.

The world has turned into a global village which is so small that distances no longer carry much importance.

Globalization is not a single concept but one which has various aspects like technological, economical, cultural and social and each one of its dimension has a broad scope. Since, the world is now interconnected because of globalization, this has facilitated and created opportunities in different aspects, but has also resulted in increased competition and many insecurities.

In this essay, we first discuss globalization and explain what it is, discuss briefly some of its drivers, then discuss some of the non state actors and the impact of globalization on the world in terms of security.

Globalization Globalization can be defined in various ways. It is the process where extension of connections takes place on a global basis, creating a social connection of life at a global level and resulting in the fusion of global societies. The term is comprised of different large processes; the definitions thus also vary according to what is emphasized in the description.

With respect to the true meaning of the word, there is difference in opinion as to what it actually refers to as it may indicate actual processes as they take place in life, thoughts which validate the course of action or simply the manner in which people form perception of these processes. Globalization is thus understood through the different definitions that exist and each of these definitions articulate diverse considerations of global change brought about by the phenomenon of globalization (Lechner, 1, 2001).

Globalization generally is considered to be a procedure that increases the interconnectedness and inter reliance amongst the business and markets of the world (INVESTOR 2008). Thus, globalization results in bringing the markets and businesses of the world closely linked to each other, but the term is not limited to just an economical dimension, therefore, it would be more appropriate to inculcate in it the aspects of politics, social, culture and ethics.

Globalization may also be considered as a practice of a social nature where the diminution of the limitations of geography on provisions of cultural and social nature occurs and people are more conscious over time of the fact that limitations are diminishing (Waters, 9, 1995). Drivers of globalization Globalization has been driven by a number of factors which have broadened its scope even more. The increased pressure on costs causes companies to move their resources to such places where they are more cheaply available.

Many products have reached a certain level of market saturation in their respective markets, therefore, giving rise to the need to search for new markets. Customers have become more savvy and quality conscious which has resulted in globally increased demands that have to be met. Governments at different places have introduced policies to promote globalization such as levied taxed and allowing open markets. There is development in technology every other day and many of these technological changes facilitate globalization (Briscoe & Schuler, 14-15, 2004).

There are a number of trading blocs existing in different regions that place different rules for trading among countries and pave way for open trade amongst them. The advent of internet has resulted in world wide communication and flow of information which makes information available at fingertips to be accessed at any time. The different cultures are more closely integrated and boundaries have become blurred because of global communication and availability of different products and services like music, food, clothing etc. the workforce is now more educated across the world and thus is able to meet the demands of globalization.

Trade barriers have decreased and markets have become more open resulting in increased competition and thus searching for opportunities in overseas market to keep up with the competition. Finally, E-commerce makes a business global, the very moment it hosts its website online, making it available to customers across the globe (Briscoe & Schuler, 14-15, 2004). The major contribution to globalization has been made by technological advances which have paced up the process considerably in the last two decades, thus, facilitating traveling, communicating and conducting business on an international level.

Amongst the many drivers of globalization, two major ones are advancement in telecommunication infrastructure and internet, which are a result of technological development (INVESTOR, 1, 2008). Non state actors Governments have a vital role to play in the process of globalization, they should be able to plan and implement vital policies and negotiate important international bodies for expressing the views of their nations and obtain benefits by stressing their national interests.

Though the states are important but there are different non state actors, among them are organizations which support globalization. Among these, World Economic Forum and World Trade Organization are the two most prominent ones. The World Economic Forum lacks the authority to make decisions yet it has great influence and high importance. This foundation has played its part in providing a forum for the networking needs of governments, business and non-profit leaders on a global level.

On the other hand, The World Trade Organization is an entity which was created with the objective of defining rules that will oversee global trade and capital flows by taking consent of its members and make sure that the established rules are adhered to by supervising the concerned acts of the member countries (INVESTOR, 1, 2008). The formation of WTO was meant to revolutionalize the scope of issues related to global trade and to assure the conformity of to its principles of international trade and settle conflicting disputes of the concerned domain by its dispute-settlement mechanisms (UN, 1, 2000).

Another important non state actor is the UN which has a vital role to perform in globalization on the basis of its multilateral system, which is necessary for working globally as there is a need for cop operation with each other across the globe. The multilateral system is important for the making of international policies that reflect shared values within the boundaries of law (WC, 1, 2004). But the UN has delegated its power of dealing with social and economic subjects to WTO, WB and IMF. The WTO has such approach that often leaves out developing countries in the decision-making.

The decision making policy of the UN need to have more participation from the developing matters at least in the issues pertaining to them so that they may efficiently serve the needs of such nations. The economic and social powers that were shifted to other bodies are over burdening these bodies and resulting in inefficient mechanisms, therefore, these powers should be brought back with the UN but with proper policies and rules that may benefit all nations (Khor, 1, 2000). Implications of globalization Globalization is now a common feature of the world economy but it is not accepted by everyone with open arms.

Though globalization results in opportunities and competition for everyone across the globe and provision of opportunities is good and if viewed positively, even competition is good as it results in more efficient production. But on the other hand, globalization cause deprivation for specific groups of people who do not have sufficient resources to cope with it. Consequently, in the increasing pressure of competition brought about by the inter-connection of their economies with the rest of the globe, these people are incapable of functioning efficiently and thus stand at a disadvantage (INVESTOR, 1, 2008).

Globalization requires economic, social and political adjustments for people of different societies, areas or regions to accept and characterize their culture with an aim to integrate it with that of the rest of the world. It endorses global integration significantly and asks for elimination of existing barriers between different cultures. Those who support the process justify this kind of integration by resembling it with that of the significant technological information devices like satellites and computers.

The critics argue that the proposed integration of cultural is in fact aimed at cultural invasion and will result in the degeneration of cultural identity and its spirit whereas those who support it deem the declining of cultural boundaries as an ample indicator of improved communication processes, combination of societies and a signal of capacity aimed at amalgamation of civilizations. There is evidence of how the global socioeconomic forces belonging to the industrialized West have invaded these poorer countries and may eventually cause them to lose the characteristics of their religion and society.

It is observable that the means which assisted in bringing cultures nearer to each other may also have caused the exhaustion of many of these global cultures (Moussalli, 1, 2003). An overlook of the governance of globalization shows that it is dictated by strong players and countries, proper rules and institutions to regulate the different aspects like trade or finance are lacking and poor people and countries stand at a clear disadvantage as they are unable to reap the benefits of the phenomenon (WC, 1, 2004).

Globalization has not helped in equitable development as there is an increase in disparities and poverty. Politically, even though the national boundaries are growing blurred but upon closer observation, we get to know that it is not a result of the free choice of people but a model imposed by stronger powers (Sabourin et al. , 56, 2000). The focus of globalization has stayed on the aspect of economy and business for a long time but it is about time to realize its effects on the personal and professional life of people.

Although problems like poverty, human rights violation, unemployment were present even before globalization took over but these have been fuelled by globalization along with added disadvantage of social exclusion for many poor nations of the world. Deduction from many of the studies related to globalization shows that it is someway responsible for the growing inequality as the poor usually do not get to derive their share of the benefits offered by the phenomenon; among such nations, the developing countries are most affected.

But there are also studies that suggest the benefits availed by the poor from globalization when facilities are provided to the poor like credit access, technical know-how, social safety nets as income support and well targeted food aid (Nesvisky, 1, n. d. ). With respect to employment, we see that there has been a decline in labor intensive jobs which has consequently led to lower demand of unskilled labor and resulted in lower earnings for this group as compared to the skilled group of workers.

Another phenomenon is that low-skilled jobs are moved over to countries which offer labor at lower wages; this results in low demand for low-skilled workers. Liberalization of economy is of great concern to the developing countries, which have a motive to derive benefits from increasing trade and investment flows, yet they yield increased unemployment and inequality (Lee, 1, 1996).

The phenomenon of child labor is deeply interwoven within the context of the societies or households where it exists, it was present even before globalization in the developing countries and it is in these countries that the practice has increased even more because of globalization. In the developing countries, mainly those of the poor and consequently the pressure and need for working for women and children has increased and in certain cases become vital for survival.

Due to inflation and decreasing social sector budgets, children have to work either to substitute for the working mothers domestically or to add to the family income by working outside (Raman, 1, 1997). Global insecurities The economic, technical and social changes brought about by globalization have greatly affected the lives of people. Global insecurities have been brought about by the fast spreading of information and growth of the media industry globally which has affected existing identities and resulted in decline of social cohesion and cultural diversity.

Globalization is guided only by a few powers and works in their favor, the strategies established by them doesn’t seem to work and benefit the great majority of the people around the world. This has resulted in insecurity and ambiguity for the poor and the middle-classes (Raghavan, 1, 2000). There has been unsustainable development, excessive use of resources, negative impacts on existence of original communities, and a growing gap between the rich and the poor. Consequently, there are insecurities and social tensions coming from international and intra-national inequalities (Dass, 1, 2002).

The insecurities are also attributable to the international bodies, which are explicitly in absence of state influence as these are non state actors. Their rules are designed and implemented on a basis which considers regulation of the global activities in various aspects of life by and under the control of such influences which are not considerate towards the smaller powers and play by their own rules without having a respect for the weaker associates who are exploited (UN, 1, 2000). The insecurities have also been created due to a lack of widely available social services for every country and social class.

Global insecurities are also related to hindrances towards the development of low income groups and therefore it is vital to erase distortions like inequalities and take measures to encourage the productive potential of low-income groups. Globalization definitely has its benefits but they are accompanies with new vulnerabilities, for this reason, there is confusion in the voice of public opinion about globalization. Taking steps to reduce global insecurity and equally distributing the benefits may help in creating a sustainable support for the phenomenon (Brookings, 1, 2001).

Conclusion: Though globalization may be considered to be a positive phenomenon which has resulted in various opportunities for people in the form of increased trade, choices of goods, improved lifestyle, enhanced communication and other benefits. But, globalization has also created many adverse impacts upon the life of people like increased poverty in poor nations, unemployment and low wages for low skilled workers, turning education into a commercial activity and cultures losing their individual identities.

There are non state actors like international organizations which integrate the different nations together and formulate rules to guide their path in the light of globalization, making the process a little smoother but on the same lines, the same bodies result in insecurities for people magnified by globalization. Thus, globalization is a phenomenon which apparently may look beneficial to all but actually benefits only the dominant powers and that too at the expense of weaker ones and unless something is done to stop the exploitation and mutually benefit everyone, insecurities will continue to grow.

You may also be interested in the following: the world has been made smaller due to

Globalization – Has Globalization Made The World More Or Less Secure Essay

Globalization Argumentative Paper Essay

Globalization Argumentative Paper Essay.

Globalization is term that is being deemed as something new on this planet in the world of business. Truth be told, globalization has been going on for centuries and centuries. Business trade done with other countries and regions of the world occurred and has spawned exploration and commerce from the time Europeans traveled to Asia for spices, South America for various ores of metal, and Africa for diamonds. Globalization is not new, however what is new is the technology and rapidness of communications with the information age, e-commerce, low cost manufacturing, and availability of trade.

Globalization in essence has opened a broad spectrum of an interconnected and interdependent world with trade of goods, services and even capital on an international level. One would think that with all the war and strife in the world globally, having commerce to bring countries together would be a positive thing. In a general sense, it does.

At the heels of a global economic recovery, most attention is focused on the immediate for the layman or common citizen anywhere in the world.

“How can I feed my family and pay my bills?,” is the question most efforts are focused on realizing, never mind the long term fallout or result. Here in the United States, we have experienced factory closures and relocations outside of the United States, layoffs, economic crises due to the stock market plummeting, higher taxes for the middle class, cost of living rising, etc. It seems the country is trying to recover great financial loss without replacing jobs that have been lost domestically with higher taxes on the people who have lost the most, the middle class. While corporations are busy opening up offices and factories in other countries in a bid to cut overhead costs and have better footing on Wall Street and with their global competitors.

There are many advantages to a global economy for large organizations and nations as a whole. For instance, in the United States, corporations are able to do business with businesses with countries that have a low cost of labor. Some of the companies in countries where there are no child labor laws, minimum wage standards, or even sweat shops, are able to secure contracts with U.S. corporations for lower prices than factories and businesses within the U.S. can provide. In addition there are tax breaks for doing business with certain nations. This is profitable for the corporations but devastating to the United States employees.

The middle and lower class workforce on the blue collar level suffer because of lack of employment. Without employment, unemployment benefit payments rise, homes are lost, healthcare is unaffordable, higher education is unattainable, and poverty and crime increases. Unless citizens are able to tap into the information age and develop businesses that tie into e-commerce and self-employment, they are doomed. They cannot maintain the lifestyle they had before, they cannot afford to pay their taxes, and unless U.S. citizens can keep up the amount of taxes for both themselves and to make up the difference for the tax breaks given to the major corporations, the United States stands to run into larger deficit.

Globalization Argumentative Paper Essay

Positive Negative Impacts Of Globalai Essay

Positive Negative Impacts Of Globalai Essay.

What is meant by western culture:

Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization or European civilization, is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, religious beliefs, political systems, and specific artifacts and technologies. The term has come to apply to countries whose history is strongly marked by European immigration or settlement, such as the Americas, and Australasia, and is not restricted to Western Europe. Western culture stems from two sources: the Classical Period of the Greco-Roman era and the influence of Christianity.

The artistic, philosophic, literary, and legal themes and traditions; the heritages of especially Latin, Celtic, Germanic, and Hellenic ethnic or linguistic groups; as well as a tradition of rationalism in various spheres of life, developed by Hellenistic philosophy, Scholasticism, Humanisms, the Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment; and including, in political thought, widespread rational arguments in favour of free thought, human rights, equality and democracy. The facts of bengali people which are affected by westernalization-

1.Cultural forms
2. Festivals and celebrations
3.Acculturation theory
4.Impact on language
5.Impact on education
6.Impact on food habit
7.Impact on dress pattern
8.Impact on family
9. Impact on social customs and values
10. Impact on rcommunication and technology
12.Impact on film and literatureeligion
11.Impact on
13. Impact on profession related issues

Positive impacts of westernization

Due to globalization, westernization is spreading out all over the world. Westernization has been placed in different countries because of globalization and needless to say, it has had an impact on the lifestyle of Bangladeshi peopl. It has out-rooted the traditional Bengali culture and the rate at which westernization is happening to Bangladesh is surprising. Regional languages are on the process of redefined. In many ways instating of regional language people have been used to English especially in urban areas youngsters.

It had started get fixing with western clothing, western languages, western mannerisms and everything else westernized.Bangladeshi culture is influenced by three great religions- Hinduism, Buddhism band Islam in successive order, with Islam having the most pervading and lasting impact. Like a colorful montage, the cultural tradition of the country is a happy blending of many variants, unique in diversity but in essence greatly symmetrical. Beside, the festival of PohelaBaishakh, people is now celebrating like other western cultural festivals especially in young group such as-

· Valentine’s Day,
· Friendship Day,
· Mother’s day,
· Father’s day.
· And other international celebrations.

Now a day people are concern about how we think about globally, what the other country are doing in their cultural issue, just we observe and absorbing them. There is lot of issues that we automatically know about it; even he/she has a little knowledge about westernization. But, people are moving with it in all the way.

Now a day’s every country in this world is treated as village, you can imagine whatever you can. That’s the way people are communicate easily to each other make things differences. Globalization has only one overarching feature–integration. It is all about collectiveness and ever increasing interconnectedness. It in effect influences everything, whether it is a company or a country. But here is a fact, is globalization all the way keeps help to connect to each other or build a strong communication in “borderless world”? If it is a question, then how it impacts in our society as well as in our culture? The Cable television has made different attraction in around the world as well as in Bangladeshi household. Foreign movies have come and have reflected their culture in it. This has made a huge impact on the minds of the Bangladeshi people.

Not to mention the easy availability of Internet whose reach even extends till rural areas? The internet has opened up opportunities for people to learn more about foreign cultures and places. It has made Bangladeshi more acceptable and open-minded towards change. Globalization has broken all borders. As a result, the new generation of Bangladeshi is more knowledgeable, more aware and more interested in the world around them. In our society, women who were once the exploited and ignored part of the population, now assert their rights of being a woman. Women now have more access to education and know more about their rights and their identity as a woman. Nowadays, you find women in the society who work alongside men. Men-dominated fields see the coming up of the woman. Men and women are slowly being treated equally. Negative impacts of westernization

At the side of the positive, Bangladeshi people are involving day by day with negative activities which is destroying our own culture because of following western culture. However no matter have occurred by this way, what people are doing in our society.western dress is another factor that creates an imbalance in our society especially for woman group (whenever girls wear a shirt, t-shirt, and pant in our society, due to feel or sensation of comfortable) which does not permit within our culture as majority of Muslim nationality. For wearing that kind of dresses men are mostly thinking in negative sense. Children are involving some bad works which derived from western culture particularly from cable connection at their home. In some cases, young generation forget to respect their elder one., boys and girls are very much interested on going to DJ party at different night club. And, sometimes they want to live together before marriage which is extremely prohibited by our culture.

Boys are using Tattoos on their body also. Bangladeshi people are now a day’s changing their behavior and habit in food. Easily converted to western ideas some cases it makes a question mark in our ethical perspective also. We referred those western materials by like fast food which is harmful for our health. Mostly, the young generation is very much interested on English movies, western music, dresses, foods and other things rather than Bengali culture. Now, young generation and even also middle age people are not that much conscious about Bengali culture because of the globalization. In this way, Bengali culture is now no more originated by own culture, even it is losing her own value. Culture is the set of patterns of human activity within a society or social group and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance.

Customs, traditions, laws, social standards and popular styles mainly constitute the cultural elements. There are many cultures currently existent in today’s modern world. Some cultures originated about a hundred of years back and are still surviving, whereas a few have evolved by absorbing the exciting and major elements of these already existent cultures. In this article, i am mainly going to focus on the two most talked about cultures of the world, the western culture and the Indian culture. The strength that this topic has been holding and the endless number of debates held over it has attracted me to express my opinion on it too.

Undoubtedly, western culture and Indian culture are poles apart. There is a significant difference between the two in all aspect. Amongst all others the most noticeable difference between the two is that India has been a family oriented society, whereas America has been an individual oriented society. Openness and self dependency are a few words that define western culture, but Indian culture is the complete opposite of this. Globalisation and mass media has laid the basis of the merger of western culture with Indian culture and this collision can better be termed as westernisation.

The damage that Indian culture has experienced can be broken down into three parts which are, pursuit of wealth, complex of the west and the most essential of all the power of western media. Cinema is the most powerful media, hence it is not only an entertainment industry, but is also seen as a role model. According to me, majority of the western ideas such as cohabitation, etc, have travelled through this medium. In other words, Hollywood has definitely influenced Bollywood and is responsible to a large extent for this clashing of culture.

Respect for human rights, democracy, free speech and women’s rights are concepts which have had a wide ranging influence on Bangladesh. Even if they have not as yet completely permeated to the level of the masses.

The media is an effective way of influencing people. But unfortunately, in Bangladesh, always the negative side of all good things seems to influence people the most

Bangladesh Television, which actually aired really good US TV serials, the Bangladeshi people soon began to become addicted to the Indian culture. They ate, drank, walked, talked, shopped, and slept like Indian people. They still do. As days passed, the number of Indian channels began to increase. Now there are more channels than there were channels on a TV set back in the 90s.

The strongest influence of this culture is on children and women. There was a time when teenage boys never watched a single Hindi movie. Nowadays, from child to men all watch Hindi programmes including movies.This success is not for the Bangladeshi culture, but for Indian culture.

Indian culture is eating up the creativity and productivity of many talented Bangladeshi individuals.

Positive Negative Impacts Of Globalai Essay

Globalization in Brazil Essay

Globalization in Brazil Essay.

Globalization undoubtedly is the current prevailing world economic trend. A large majority of the countries adhere to the tenets of globalization. Globalization literally entails international economic cooperation achieved through the integration of different countries. It envokes the process of intermingling the different aspects of a country’s economy, politics, society, culture and technological forces together with the other participants of globalization.

Globalization also creates a link towards the infusion of the local and national economies to create an international market economy, which is done by setting up means for capital inflows, reducing tariffs to give way to trade and foreign investment, migration and even technology sharing.

The term globalization was first used during 1980s, though its concepts were not as pronounced as it is until the later parts of 1980s and 1990s. However, traces of the concepts globalization can be dated back in the early centuries, as seen in the ancient discoveries of new colonies and lands.

There are three waves of globalization, the first wave which took place between 1870 – 1914; second wave during 1945 – 1980 and the third wave from 1980 until the present.

The first wave of globalization was triggered by the decrease in transport costs, which enabled countries to quickly and cheaply transport their products. This had significantly increased export share in the world income. In addition, migration resulted to the influx and increase of labor force, which reached 10% of the total world population.

However, though there was a significant increase in the trade and labor force during the first wave of globalization, there were still problems with regards to trade and services that surfaced in the global economy. These problems were due to the implementation of several policies like economic protectionism, which hindered the spread of internationalism amongst countries (Silva, pp. 4-5). Despite the impetus caused by economic nationalism, on the eve of the second wave of globalization, countries were persuaded back towards international cooperation.

Hence, trade barriers that were previously imposed were reduced. At this point, trade was doubled relative to the world income. In addition, specialization within countries greatly helped in the achieving interdependence among countries, thus increasing world income. At the end of this period, in contrast to the first wave of globalization, the second wave brought in equity amongst countries (Silva, pp. 6-7. ) And lastly, the third wave of globalization took event during 1980s. This wave had been specially distinctive among all the turns of globalization.

It was triggered by the recent advances in communication and transport, coupled with the choice of more advanced countries to seek for new investment opportunities and completely open their economy towards the international market and trade (Dollar, n. p). Moreover, during this period, a large number of developing countries had advanced to power, breaking into global markets; while on the other hand, there was a significant increase of marginalized countries suffering even greatly from declining national income thus increasing poverty in the area (Silva, p.

7). As such, there had been a variety of reasons on how globalization affected the processes in each country. However, the most encouraging effect it wavered upon the developing countries is that it significantly hastened labor abundance which gave national economies a highly competitive advantage in the manufacture and service industries (Silva, p. 8). This in turn benefited some of the countries and was able to keep pace with the advancing world.

The newly industrialized and developing countries started breaking into industrial markets capitalizing on infrastructures, technology and other means of production needs. This resulted to a relatively high rate of increase in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), which is the current determinant of a country’s economy success rate. Further, most of these developing countries increased their incomes by 104% since the start of 1980; though the rest of other countries who weren’t able to keep the pace were left staggering behind (Silva, p.

10). The world economy has indeed seen the effects of globalization on two sides: positive effects for the developing countries who were kept on tide by the benefits of policies imposed upon by the proponents of globalization; and the other, the immediate victims of these policies suffered within the less developed countries who weren’t able to keep abreast with the changes. Brazil was one of those who benefited the era of globalization, but as such they have been victims at first.

Consequently, recent developments have proven that while globalization presented certain benefits for Brazil, Brazil has quite not been able to enjoy the expected benefits from it. Brazil: On a Staggering Start There had been crisis that had risen out of the emerging influence of globalization which created a great impact among the countries that played afar according to its calls. Brazil in 1999, was one of the countries to experience the adverse effect it had on world economy, but were able to pick up from the slump that it caused (Silva, p. 8).

One of the difficulties that Brazil faced amidst the emergence of globalization was the crisis in capital. Brazil had used a pegged currency, which had put them in a crisis of fiscal and external debt. And though Brazil had tried to adopt a more responsible fiscal policy, their enormous debt teamed with low export and GDP and overvalued currency, all resulted to a capital crisis in 1999 (Silva, p. 20). Though Brazil was expected of becoming one of the successful countries developing during this era, they didn’t perform at the same rate expected of them.

Though Brazil possessed clear indicators of progress, Brazil, economically did not perform the development anticipated from it. The period between 1980 – 1990 was known to be a “lost decade” for the Southern Americans, Brazil in particular. Wherein, during this era, per capita output was negative 0. 6% in a year, which has comparably decreased from the 3. 6% performance during the previous decade (Fraga, n. p). Hence the main difficulties suffered by Brazil at the start of 1980 were due to the series of unsuccessful plans at trying to curb inflation.

The main reason behind this failure can be attributed to the fact that the development model used by the military government on Brazil was based upon cheap oil resources and capital, coupled with the inability of such policies to address the other basic necessities like having a sound fiscal and monetary policies. Let alone was that their development started from the capital crisis they suffered in 1999. As result they had to endure high debt and insufficient supply of oil due to high prices. Hence their effort of generating trade surplus to cover up for it then resulted to a high inflation rate (Fraga, n.

p. and Silva, pp. 20-22). Brazil: On the New Start In the 20th century, Brazil made a significant progress and was among the best performing countries in the century. Brazil was among the top 12 emerging markets that experienced massive increase in the capital inflows, whose GDP increased to as much as 22%, contributing greatly in the world economy. Accordingly, alongside the increase in capital inflows, technology greatly improved thus making an entrance towards the international market a lot easier (Silva, p. 12).

Brazil in case had developed EMBRAER. The existence of such company marked their willingness to compete in an open trade and investment. This equipped Brazil with an oligopolistic or monopolistic nature of a company, possessing highly advanced technology that soared above the standards of their products, thus bringing in heaps of profits for their economy (Silva, p. 18). Consequently, this had widely created a positive impact on overall growth of their investments. More so, at the start of 1990, Brazil started to liberalize their economy.

Brazilian leaders opted to negotiate and redefine their economic policies to keep pace with the globalization trends (Langevin, n. p). They lifted trade barriers, import tariffs and quotas, and adopted reforms both economic and administrative ones. These policies included fixing the Brazilian currency to dollars, which helped put inflation at a halt. Economic reforms were done such that these were geared towards being more market-driven, highly flexible, with a more decentralized economic environment.

In this regard, they transformed old provisional measures into creating a single trade law which was meant to make a more transparent set of policies that can speed up the process of making reforms and laws. Accordingly, this kind of reforms also allowed an economic policy geared towards favoring exports rather than producing own their own products for their country (“Brazil: November 2000,” n. p). Another step they took was implementing an austere fiscal policy and privatizing several companies, all of which were consistent with liberalizing their economy.

Thus, although Brazil experienced several high inflation rate in the past years, and that most of their GDP was wasted with the inflation of goods and services; nonetheless, their per capita income had increased by a third from the last decade. Hence, after experiencing years of economic recession, Brazil recovered and started a fast growing cycle in the 1990s (Silva, pp. 40-41). Consequently though, expectators attributed the improvements in the Brazilian economy towards their inclination for liberalizing their trade and market activity.

Through these changes that Brazil implemented in their economic policies, their economic activity fairly improved and they achieved their prospect growth for year 2000. Several factors that contributed to this growth which they attributed to liberalizing trade relations are as follows: (1) inflation has been pegged within the government target of 8%; (2) foreign direct investment (FDI) significantly increased from its usual value in 1996; (3) trade and GDP has been kept at stable 20%; and (4) Brazil remained to be the largest exporter of some widely used agricultural products.

However, there were several economic slumps again experienced by Brazil. The outbreak of Asian crisis in 1997 forced the Brazilian currency to devalue to keep the inflation low. But nonetheless, Brazil was fast to recover and started growing again by the year 2000. Consequently new policies and austerity programs that the Brazilian government adopted kept them at pace of development. These programs had better kept them away from experiencing the economic slumps they had in the previous years.

More importantly, these kept them away from acquiring debts and helped stabilize the ratio of debts to GDP. Moreover, to speak of progress is to speak of the quality at how the citizens lived comfortably within their mother country. Hence, the United Nations’ measure of Human Development Index (HDI) in Brazil widely soared up within the past 26 years. That even though the increase in national income cannot suffice alone to the improvement of the country as a whole, the poverty level in Brazil decreased significantly, and education and proper healthcare had well been provided among the Brazilians.

The young Brazilian population had become highly educated, with more children being enrolled in schools, and ensuring that the Brazilian safety net always kept abreast with their population through the government’s initiative on providing their citizens with an apt nutrition program. In addition, social integration and cooperation amongst different ethnicities is an indicator of social progress. More so, Brazil also made great improvements in the field of political stability.

The establishment and strengthening of a democratic system in the country is a well indicator of the country’s leaders to provide the general public a sense of working and legitimate judiciary and legislative system. However, given these factors and internal growth that Brazil has experienced over the past decades, in comparison to other neighboring countries Brazil’s economic performance is still insufficient and is still lacking to what is expected of them.

Although the poverty rate of Brazil has signifcantly decreased over the past two decades, from 40% in 1970s to 36% in 2000, poverty rate in Brazil is still high in comparison to other develping countries (Mario and Woolcock, p. 2). The Brazilian Action In a nutshell, though the Brazilian economy presently comprises one third of the total Latin American production through the large conglomerates of various sectors such as mining, oil, iron and steel, and manufacturing, their economic growth is still less of what was expected of them.

Given what seems to be like a hegemonic existence within their region, their growth rate remained below the average expectation. And contrastingly though, Brazil lagged behind Chile, Venezuela, Argentina and Peru. Though the Brazilian economy has seemed to be able to progress within the past years, their performance still has not reached the full blast. They have not yet enjoyed the full outcome of a rich economy.

And consequently, the benefits that they get from a globalized economy is yet to be sufficient to call it successful (Luchino, n. p). Fixed capital product has greatly hindered the potential growth for Brazil. Fixed rates have been used to control inflation, however, as a result it limited Brazil’s opportunity to grow simultaneously at the same rate as that with other developing countries. Nowadays, the economy of Brazil is expected to complete a very competitive cycle.

Their external and public debts had been declining, their GDP continues to be strong and growing, there have been significant increase in the export and as well as a positive trend capital inflows. Thus in analyzing the growth of Brazilian economy, the adversaries they suffered during the third wave of globalization were due to the fact that they were highly indebted with their economy limping from high inflation rates. More so, they had policies that weren’t appropriate to equip them within a fast paced economy that globalization is holding.

Hence, at the event that Brazil started to liberalize their economy and open up their market towards the international market, and changed most of its economic policies to suit the needs for an international market competition, they at least were able to give birth to a new start as an international player. Indeed, though the Brazilian economy made a significant advancement towards microeconomic stability since being able to adopt helpful reforms in the 1990s, still, the pace at which their economy is growing is a matter of great concern.

As such, compared to other countries and competitors which developed simultaneously as Brazil had in the past decades, Brazil is still trailing behind. To be able to reap the full benefits that a globalized world promises, Brazil must be aware of certain measures to ensure their success. First, debt management should be given extra attention. Analyzing the economic status of Brazil would suggest that Brazil is still highly indebted.

Thus a more appropriate debt management policy should be adopted which will in turn be reflected with the country’s projected GDP growth as well as the other economic indicators. Second, Brazil’s trade policies should be kept more open towards the international economy. Presently, Brazil’s trade is still relatively closed. Their exports account to 13% of their GDP and 9% for their imports, which is comparably low for international standards.

Thus, Brazil must work more on keeping these lines open to create a bigger space for their trade rate to grow. Finally, among the aspects that Brazil should work on is their infrastructures. As the means of transportation is highly significant for the growth of a country, Brazil shouldn’t leave this aspect of country’s growth in poor condition. More investments should be made to improve transportation, as well as increase their country’s interest on developing energy generating infrastructures (Silva, pp. 43-46).

Furthermore, wherein economic growth is an interplay of physical resources and human capital, aside from the financial and monetary aspects, there are still six other important areas that Brazil should prioritize for them to be able to reach the full blast of their economy. These are: (1) enbaling an environment conducive for learning and growth; (2) creating wider array for knowledge creation and commercialization; (3) acquisition of knowledge from more advanced countries; (4) advancement and proper dissemination of technology; (5) improvement in the basic education; and (6) giving priority to tertiary education (Rodriguez, p.

4). Thus, for Brazil to reach the full potential of their country, they must utilize not only the raw and fixed natural resources within the country. They must learn how to develop the potential of their human resources, because the people will be the one to stir their national development. If they bank on the human capital and innovation, it could greatly increase the level of competitiveness given that they could develop more talented individuals to maneuver the country’s growth.

Therefore, if given the consideration for the work force to grow, improvement of education, enhancement of technology and innovation – altogether these can provide a proper link for productivity (Luchino, n. p). With these tools, the Brazilian economy can reach another step for growth to increase investment and keep GDP at a stable rate. Works Cited “Brazil: November 2000. ” 1 November 2002. World Trade Organization. 24 February 2008 <http://www. wto. org/english/tratop_e/tpr_e/tp140_e. htm> Dollar, David. “Questions and Answers with David Dollar.

” Globalization. 5 April 2008 <http://www1. worldbank. org/economicpolicy/globalization/dollarqa. htm> Fraga, Arminio. “A Fork in the Road. ” 2005 December. Finance and Development. 8 April 2008 <http://www. imf. org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/2005/12/fraga. htm> Langevin, Mark. “Brazil’s Key Role in Globalization. ” 12 October 2004. Brazzil Magazine. 24 February 2008 <http://www. brazzil. com/content/view/7524/51/> Luchino, Marcelo. “The Globalization of Brazil. ” 27 December 2007. Safe Democray. 8 April 2008 <http://english.

safe-democracy. org/2007/12/27/the-globalization-of-brazil/> Mario, Estanislao Gacitua and Michael Woolcock. “Assessing Social Exlusion and Mobility in Brazil. ” The World Bank. 8 April 2008 <http://siteresources. worldbank. org/INTRANETSOCIALDEVELOPMENT/Resources/A> Rodriguez, Alberto. “Brazil: Seizing the Opportunity to Compete? ” The World Bank. 8 April 2008. Silva, Antonio Elias. Openness and Development: A General Analysis and a Close Look at China, Argentina and Brazil. Institute of Brazilian Issues, April 2004.

Globalization in Brazil Essay

The Impact of Globalization within the Fashion industry Essay

The Impact of Globalization within the Fashion industry Essay.

Throughout history, the fashion industry has played a significant role in popular culture for people all over the world, who are different ages, races, shapes, and sizes. Fashion is being creative and expressing your inner beauty whether you’re the designer, the stylist, the model, or even the buyer. The style of dress establishes a person’s unique individuality that represents not only who they are on the outside but how they are feeling on the inside. The Fashion Industry has also made a major impact on people when it comes to boosting their confidence.

It has demonstrated how to gather emotions and represent them through clothing and accessories. A simple hair color change, a new outfit, the latest pair of shoes, and maybe even a little make-up can transform one from average to extraordinary in a matter of minutes. But fashion is more than just how you decide to dress or mismatch styles. It is the influence of society’s definition of beauty that humanity grasps in order to define themselves and connect with other cultures.

I believe having fashion sense gives people the opportunity to have a positive and open-minded outlook on life.

However, there is more to the industry and the culture within it than most can imagine. Fashion can be examined sociologically, environmentally, historically, and economically. Considering that “the encounter between the world’s cultures and the combinations of traditions and events is rooted in its creative process” (Ling, 2011, p.107). With the help of international media, the ability of designers to inspire and motivate others about fashion across the world has been made available.

Acknowledging the possibility that “a combination of one designer and another, or one style and another, is not only common in the creative process; rather, this leads to the formation of a new creation” (Ling, 2011, p.107). The constant growth of globalization allows consumers to receive access to newly reinterpreted styles and trends globally. It has also been stated that “in design studies, fashion tends to be perceived as the frivolous little sister to product design” (Skov, 2002, p. 555). The global fashion industry is also known to be the retail sale of apparel around the world. This particular industry has great potential to help change the average way of living.

Looking at the industry from a business perspective, it includes much more than just clothes, accessories, and shoes. The manufacturing, distribution, marketing, advertising, branding, importing and exporting of fashion also plays an important part in this industry. Billions of people are employed within the fashion industry. For example, “Southern California is thus now the largest clothing manufacturing centre in the US in terms of employment” (Scott, 2002, p. 1288). Globalization develops an open market and free trade allowing opportunities for the less fortunate countries to be competitive. In addition, “Hong Kong’s wholesale markets offer all kinds of specialized materials and fashion information from all parts of the world” (Skov, 2002, p. 554) with strong dependence on the many designers, stylists, critics, models, sellers, buyers, and stores involved.

The fashion world is a very competitive industry. Therefore, when it comes to exporting the buyer is in control. The designer has to be able to create unique designs in large bulk at the right price. In fact, “small-scale entrepreneurs have access to highly specialized manufacturing facilities, ensuring that short runs of sophisticated garments can be produced speedily and in high quality” (Skov, 2002, p. 554). Since the designer exports to consumers from parts all over the world, their designs will probably be adjusted to satisfy each buyer. Actually it’s been stated that “Hong Kong overtook Italy to become the world’s largest clothing exporter in 1973 [Hong Kong Review 1982].” (Ling, 2011, p. 110).Which demonstrates that there has been competitiveness in the industry for quite some time.

In addition to the developing world that is currently producing most of our clothing, price has seemed to outweigh quality. It may look to be the latest trends shown in the hottest fashion magazines but they are actually just imitations. Yet, they are still available to purchase thanks to fast fashion. This happens to be “centered around relatively inexpensive, cheaply made designer knockoffs that go in and out of style faster than the traditional cycle of four fashion seasons” (Cohen, 2011, p. 12). With globalization in mind, companies are now able to provide high demanded clothing at low prices. And since it is cheap, they sell more of it. It is often said that “consumers in the United States are gravitating toward lower priced attire over high quality, longer-lasting clothing. But the opposite holds true in the Japanese market” (Cohen, 2011, p. 12). On the contrary, “the recent trend in Hong Kong has been a sharp shift away from cheap quantity to finer quality” (Karnow, 1964, p. 24).

There’s no surprise when it comes to the expansion of global designers and the influence impacted on today’s youth. Commendable designers and brands such as, Christian Dior, Versace, Ralph Lauren, Chanel, and, Dolce & Gabbana have set excellent examples and left behind big shoes to fill. Illustrating that “the individualism of fashion design is strengthened in the design schools where they are forced to rely on their own ideas and experiences through project work” (Skov, 2002, p. 559). The range of cultures and artistic abilities of such popular labels have allowed potential designers to enter the fashion world and appeal to crowds of great variety.

Even though the World Wide Web and fashion runways are beneficial sources for designers to present their work, they are not the only options. Leaving us with the “fashion exhibitions in a gallery or museum setting [that] have impact on the world of design” (Mears, 2008, p. 118). Art museums and/or galleries dispense knowledge of history. Despite the issue that “this practice would seem odd in most Western countries today, it is actually a reflection of how art was commonly shown in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century in the United States and Europe” (Mears, 2008, p. 102). Today’s fashion is basically a recreation of what used to be in style 20 years ago.

Unfortunately there are some negative impacts of the fashion industry. Because of human nature, first impressions are judged by how a person looks and what clothing they are wearing. It has been established that “clothing is an important means by which young adults gain social appreciation and develop positive self-esteem” (Ersun & Yildirim, 2010, p. 314). Therefore, people tend to focus on the latest trends advertised in the media in order to establish a popular social identity. Unsuccessfully, the images that are being perceived by the industry aren’t quiet achievable which results in many people beginning to starve themselves or rely on plastic surgery to obtain a more desirable appearance.

Assuming that “fashion, which stresses constant change, urbanity, and secularism…” (Mears, 2008, p. 103) can also can break down one’s self-esteem and change the perception of a whole country. The fashion industry has so much attention focused on making an expensive impression that it sends the message of materialistic items being more important than having a great personality. Though it is understandable that “in order to succeed in the increasingly competitive fashion market they strike to establish a distinctive and recognizable style” (Ling, 2011, p. 107). By trying so hard to stand out, they are really just blending in.

The fashion industry has also been accused of violating labor laws in reference to sweatshops. Companies look for workers and young children in third world countries that are willing to work long hours for low wages. In fact, “a major proportion-probably the majority-of the labour force in the southern Californian clothing industry consists of low wage immigrants, mainly of Asian and Hispanic origin” (Scott, 2002, p. 1290). Because less developed countries are not protected by labor laws, hard workers are being taken advantage of. For instance, “the tailoring groups negotiate the price of each style on the basis of the labor involved, and wages within the teams vary with the workers’ skills” (Karnow, 1964, p. 29). Yet consumers still search for cheaply priced clothing and forget all about the people who are dedicating their hard work and time to make them.

With all aspects taking into consideration, the fashion industry still stands to be more helpful than harmful. Fashion inspires people to come out of their shell and lets them know that it is okay to be different and still be beautiful. It eliminates discrimination and unites countries internationally. Diversity is such a major factor that “the demand for new, innovative and changing styles from the fashion industry pushes it to look to other cultures for the novel and exotic” (Ling, 2011, p. 107). defines beautiful as “having qualities that give great pleasure or satisfaction to see, hear, think about, etc.”, which is what the fashion industry endorses. Clothes were made to cover the naked body not hide natural beauty. Instead, clothing enhances our physical features.

Furthermore, “fashion design is an increasingly individualistic profession” (Skov, 2002, p. 559). Even though trends are often duplicated, the fashion industry allows potential designers to use their creativeness and exclusive ideas in order to bring something new to the table. Fashion schools actually educate about the specifics of the industry and offer opportunities to build a career from it. Fashion education would be a great learning experience because it “involves ‘the whole person’ to the extent that it is impossible to draw a line between professional creative skills and self-expression” (Skov, 2002, p. 559).The fashion industry supports freedom while opening many doors of endless possibilities. The future of fashion is very unpredictable, yet it is still commonly underestimated. Even though the fashion industry is mainly known for its control over society’s view on others, the affect individuals have on the industry is much greater.

Many feel as if the fashion industry only takes interest in people who are physically fit and have perfect features, which is not necessarily true. Numerous brands focus on a variety of shapes, sizes, and age ranges. As a matter of fact “clothing stores in Japan target older consumers, who are likely to be more interested in long-lasting quality than keeping up with the latest styles, while American advertising targets younger consumers interested in just the opposite” (Cohen, 2011, p. 12). Maternity and plus size sections have also been incorporated in department stores. This has provided opportunities for models strictly in those categories, to advertise and become a part of the fashion industry. Additionally, magazines often publish helpful articles on how to spice up old wardrobes or share tips on choosing new styles.

In conclusion, it is apparent that fashion exists dynamically across the globe. Distance is irrelevant when it comes to the interaction with other countries. Since clothes are designed in one country, manufactured in the next, and then sold worldwide there is no doubt that the fashion industry is anything less than globalized. Due to the constant development of various clothing styles and the significant amount of employees in this industry, fashion is considered a billion dollar business. As the industry grows and adapts with many diverse cultures, it continues to encourage the creative mind in achieving higher self-esteems because all individuals want to look and feel attractive. An appealing appearance represents an investment made within and communicates a person’s popular status in society. It also reveals the change of fashion history over time. Despite its confliction with reality and unrealistic expectations of the ‘norm’ persuaded by fashion, the media is still an essential piece of this industry. Becoming accessible to the public, the media allows brands to connect with and receive feedback from their customers. Without the involvement of the social media, designers wouldn’t be able to display their ideas of future fashion trends globally.

Ultimately, the fashion industry gives people the opportunity to express their definition of beautiful by allowing them to illustrate personal interpretations of originality through clothes and combine styles from different countries. Fashion strengthens confidence, motivating the humankind to look good and feel even better. It’s not about what you see on TV, the expensive designer clothes, or trying to reflect models. Fashion symbolizes a unique personalized style. Analyzing people in this industry, some may feel as if fashion is just a career or maybe even just a hobby but it is easily forgotten that for many, fashion is their life. And at the end of the day, beauty comes from within.


Cohen, A. M. (2011). Fast Fashion: Tale of Two Markets. Futurist, 45(5),
12-13. Retrieved November 12, 2012, from EBSCOhost database. (2012). Retrieved November 12, 2012, from

Ersun, N. A., & Yildirim, F. (2010). Consumer Involvement and Brand Sensitivity of University Students in Their Choice of Fashion Products. Marmara University Journal of the Faculty of Economic & Administrative Sciences, 28(1), 313-333. Retrieved November 28, 2012, from EBSCOhost database.

Karnow, S. (1964). Fashions: The Asian Rag Race. Saturday Evening Post, 237(3), 24-31. Retrieved November 12, 2012, from EBSCOhost database.

Mears, P. (2008). Exhibiting Asia: The Global Impact of Japanese Fashion in Museums and Galleries. Fashion Theory: The Journal of Dress, Body & Culture, 12(1), 95-119. Retrieved November 12, 2012, from EBSCOhost database.

Scott, A. J. (2002). Competitive Dynamics of Southern California’s Clothing Industry: The Widening Global Connection and its Local Ramifications. Urban Studies (Routledge), 39(8), 1287-1306. Retrieved November 12, 2012, from EBSCOhost database.

Skov, L. (2002). Hong Kong Fashion Designers as Cultural Intermediaries: Out of Global Garment Production. Cultural Studies, 16(4), 553. Retrieved November 12, 2012, from EBSCOhost database.

Wessie, L. (2011). From ‘Made in Hong Kong’ to ‘Designed in Hong Kong’: Searching for an Identity in Fashion. Visual Anthropology, 24(1/2), 106-123. Retrieved November 12, 2012, from EBSCOhost database.

The Impact of Globalization within the Fashion industry Essay