As Nature Made Him: Nature vs. Nurture Essay

As Nature Made Him: Nature vs. Nurture Essay.

The argument over nature vs. nurture has continued to torture society by presenting cases in which we simply don’t know which rules to apply. One of these cases is sex change. Sex change is a very big step to take in a person’s life and it involves the careful consideration of many factors; but it is not a simple answer to a complex problem such as hermaphroditism or even blotched circumcisions. These choices can be difficult because we don’t quite understand which factors to consider given that we haven’t determined whether it is nature or nurture that determines a child’s sexual identity.

Until we solve this riddle, people shouldn’t try to change a child’s sex before the child can decipher his or her own sexual identity. Nature will solve the problem without human interference. Over the years, sex change in infants with ambiguous or deformed genitals has become more and more popular. Often times, however, the child is unhappy with his/her sexual assignment.

Colapinto writes, “…Dr. Harry Benjamin himself, who had recently reported that in forty-seven out of eighty-seen of his patients, he ‘could find no evidence that childhood conditioning’ was involved in their conviction that they were living in the wrong sex” (Colapinto 45).

This suggests that nature rather than nurture is the underlying factor of sexual identity. Dr. John Money, a doctor at John Hopkins Hospital, was the head doctor of the world famous John/Joan “twin case. ” His theories at the time seemed to be very intelligently thought out at the time, but have now been proven otherwise, explaining why his conduction of the “twin case” was unsuccessful. John Colapinto explains that Dr.

Money realized in his research on hermaphroditical children, “the ones that were raised as girls were happy girls, and the ones raised as boys were happy boys… It seemed to suggest to him that hermaphrodites were born malleable in their sex” (Youtube). However, Money was too quick to generalize this observation to everyone, rather than only. Although the gravely unsuccessful twin case was and is brought up a lot in the debate concerning nature vs. nurture, there are still scientists who believe that it is nurture rather than nature that determines sexual identity.

These scientists still have hope that there may be an answer to the mystery of sexual identity. Jonis Portfolio says on gender, “It is an intricate balance between hormones, brain function, attitudes, behaviors, and social expectations” (Jonis Portfolio). Colapinto as well as the authors of Jonis Portfolio mention how “vehemently was “she” determined to live in the sex of her genes and chromosomes” (Colapinto 72). Children who are born normally, but have been sexually reassigned, usually present behaviors that resemble the sex written in their genetic code.

The few exceptions remain outliers. Once scientists started to poke holes in Dr. Money’s theories, they realized how unreasonable it was to try to sexually reassign a children who were already destined by nature to be a certain gender. Jonis says, “Gender identification is a complex issue” (Jonis Portfolio). Scientists try too hard to try to find a solution to this problem that they are too quick to draw conclusions and make decisions. Colapinto writes that the “New York Times book review on Man vs. Woman Boy vs.

Girl said the book’s argument was ‘If you tell a boy he is a girl, and raise him as one, he will want to do feminine things’” (Colapinto 70). Man vs. Woman Boy vs. Girl is a book written by Dr. Money. Money drew so many false conclusions in his work that his theories were unreliable. However, he was such a respected figure in the science world that even his most outlandish views were supported by many. This is how his theories came to be so widely accepted. We know now, however, that he was pretty far off the mark in his line of research.

We know now that gender assignment should be left to nature, rather than nurture, especially was no problem with the natural gender to begin with. Too often, children have been burdened with the task of finding themselves, i. e. discovering their sexual identity. If doctors and scientists continue to complicate children’s lives by attempting to change who these children were destined to be, they will definitely start to lose themselves. This is ultimately what happened in the John/Joan case where David Reimer, which was John/Joan’s real name, when he took his own life.

Nurture may be a factor in sexual identity, but research suggests that nature is an even stronger factor. Scientists and doctors shouldn’t interfere with nature because all in all, this single factor will shine through the cracks. Bibliography Colapinto, John. As Nature Made Him: The Boy Who Was Raised as a Girl. New York: HarperCollins, 2000. Print. As Nature Made Him by John Colapinto was published in 2000 to give readers a full understanding of the John/Joan twin case in which a biologically born male was sexually reassigned a girl due to a blotched circumcision.

Colapinto describes in great detail all aspects of the case and how horribly wrong it went. He does elaborate research and uses interviews from direct sources in order to explain the case coherently for readers. This book is the main source for this essay as it describes so vehemently the case from all angles. It argues mainly how nature over nurture is the main factor in determining sexual identity. “Jonisportfolio – Sexual Reassignment and Gender Roles Nature VS Nurture. ” Jonisportfolio – Sexual Reassignment and Gender Roles Nature VS Nurture. N. p. , n.d.

Web. 01 Oct. 2013. . This portfolio was published online by Jonis Portfolio to recognize and argue the issue of nature vs. nurture and its concern with sexual identity. It describes many cases where biologically born males who were raised as females so vehemently were determined to be males. It describes nature as a leading factor over nurture for determining sexual identity. It’s helpful to this essay because it presents some major arguments concerning the matter of nature vs. nurture. It even describes the John/Joan case and what happened there. YouTube.

Prod. Allan Gregg. Perf. Allan Gregg and John Colapinto. YouTube. YouTube, 04 June 2012. Web. 01 Oct. 2013. . This video is an interview with John Colapinto done by Allan Gregg. Colapinto is the writer of As Nature Made Him and in this interview he is describing to viewers the twin case, or the John/Joan case. David Reimer, John/Joan himself, couldn’t do the interview because unfortunately he took his own life in 2002. This source is helpful because it is a short recap of the book and viewers may understand it better than they would while reading about it.

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As Nature Made Him: Nature vs. Nurture Essay

Feminism and Marginalization Essay

Feminism and Marginalization Essay.

Female characters in Death of a salesman are marginalised and trivialised. Criticism from feminists reflects the lives of women and what extent they are marginalised and trivialised. Women are being relegated to a secondary level and are made unimportant as portrayed by critics, feminist and Arthur Miller in his book Death of a salesman and this can be derived from their views towards the topic. There are different reasons why and different ways in which women are made unimportant and ways in which this may be stopped if not minimized.

Some feminist view marginalization and trivialization as factors brought about by equality or difference in gender or sex. They argue that women’s supposed differences from men have been used over the centuries to justify discrimination against women and their exclusion from full social and political citizenship. They argue that the constant differentiation, however has been that women have been given an inferior or secondary status in the society because of the assumed natural sexual difference pg9-10 (freedman.


For centuries difference has been the starting point of and justification for the creation of different social roles for men and women. Not only was women’s biological capacity for child birth and breast feeding and the generally lesser physical strength seen as determining their social role in the home ,occupying themselves with domestic chores and bringing up children, but it was also claimed that these biological differences made them unfit to participate in the public sphere. Women were judged to be less reasonable than men, more ruled by emotion, and thus incapable of political decision making, for example.

They continue to say that the social roles and modes of behaviour that civilizations have assigned to women have kept them in an inferior position to that of men. This means that women are not like the Working classes in Marxism ideology: they have not emerged an oppressed group because of particular historical circumstances, but have always been oppressed in all forms of social organization. Ortner(1998: 21) argues: the secondary status of women in the society is one of the true universals, a pan-cultural fact.

And as she goes on to explain, this secondary status of women can be explained by the fact that within multiplicity of cultural conceptions and symbolizations of women that exist and that have existed in different societies, there is a constant in the women are being closer to nature in their physiology, their social role and their psyche. Whereas women have been perceived as closer to nature, men have been perceived as closer to culture, more suited for public roles and political association.

For this reason, women have been relegated to a secondary status in the society, often confined to roles in the home rather than able to accede to powerful public positions. For example Willy Loman treated his wife Linda badly, he overpowered her and he bosses her and disrespects her and s always rude to her and this is why she kept herself busy with house hold duties as any other oppressed wife would do. E. g he doesn’t give her a chance to talk when she tries to give her own opinion pg31 and he shouts at her a lot even she is doing the best she can to make situations better pg69 (Arthur Miller. Death of a salesman) Carol Gilligan believes that the reason why women are marginalized and trivialised is because their voices have not been heard, that women have not been given a chance to air out their views because of the common culture that men are more superior.

‘Only if we can understand why their voices have been silenced, and how the dominant ideal of moral autonomy in our culture, as well as the privileged definition of the moral sphere, continue to silence women’s voices, do we have a hope of moving to a more integrated vision of ourselves of our fellow humans generalized as well as ‘concrete’ others’. Benhabib 1988:95) for example: where Linda tries to give suggestions or to air out her opinion then Willy tell her to shut up and he told her not to interrupt him. Willy does not allow her to say what she wants to say, he does not give her the opportunity to speak.

This in its own way is marginalization and trivialization because it proves how men feel that everything they say is right and matters most than what women say because they feel that they are more superior than women. pg31 and pg49(Arthur Miller. Death of a salesman) Feminist ambivalence to maternalism is based on the argument that women’s public role if framed women’s condition of oppression: the ideology of domesticity and women’s exclusion from public roles in society. The qualities and capacities make women different from men are those acquired through their condition of oppression. Pg31(Sara Goodman and Diana Mulinari. Feminist intervention in discourses on gender and development). Dorothy Smith(1987) has shown how men in position of power do not only control the world but name it and how women are excluded from the process of description and ordering the world.

SHULAMITH FIRESTONE 1979:12 believes that women’s oppression is thus the primary oppression, ‘an oppression that goes back beyond history to the animal kingdom itself’, and this oppression is based on biological oppression. The effects of biology are all-pervading, and women’s inferior social position can be explained by biology- their reproductive capacity and their weakened physical condition – these biological factors being reinforced by men’s development of social structures that keep women tied to their reproductive role. pg69 (freedman. Feminism).

Examples of oppression are where Linda always tries to make situations better as way to please her husband, she takes a lot from Willy and never complains about the way he treats her. She takes all this in because she believes in pleasing her husbanding and by so doing it is shown that she is oppressed, she is not doing what she wants but what she thinks is right because she lives under the shadow of her husband and her dictatorship. E. g Linda looks out for her husband, does everything in his favour and does everything for him. E. where she asks her sons not give Willy a hard time and where she tries to make the situation batter by telling him that it was just a joke yet she know it wasn’t and she does this to protect him pg42-48(Arthur Miller. Death of a salesman) Firestone(1979) says women’s liberation is therefore ’a struggle to break free from oppressive power structure set by nature and reinforced by man’. She believes that women must be liberated through destruction of biological oppression and this can happen through the development of reproductive technologies that will free women from their biological reproduction capacity.

In my opinion, marginalization and trivialization are phenomenons that exist in everyday life because it is believed that man are superior and women are inferior and this idea contributes thus they encourage marginalized and trivialization of women. Inequality and difference are also contributing factors because they give the impression that just because women and man are different based on their sex, women are believed to be incapable of a lot of things including decision making thus giving man the impression that they are able to rule or they are more capable of a lot than women.

Oppression is also a contributing factor because it limits women from doing things to their full capacity in that they live according to what they are stipulated to do and this oppression gives man the power to belittle women and to make them unimportant. I believe that equality meaning equal opportunities to both man and women is the best solution to stopping marginalization and trivialization of women.

Feminism and Marginalization Essay

A Mother Daughter Relationship Essay

A Mother Daughter Relationship Essay.

Most parents expect many things from their children but most importantly wish their children to be successful and happy, but parents hold different expectations based on their child’s gender. The expectations that both mothers have are common because both of them have daughters. These differences in expectations of gender can be seen in literature such as Girl by Jamaica Kincaid where she will list everything a women is expected of doing in the house and in Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? by Joyce Carol Oates, the mother argues with her daughter to be more like her sister which is portrayed to be perfect.

Both of these mothers have high expectation in their daughters and show them tough love in their parenting. Mothers expect more from their daughters to be successful and by satisfying gender roles that society has made for them. Both mothers in the literature show their interest in their daughters by pleasing certain gender roles.

In Girl we can tell her mother is listing what her daughter is expected to do in the house to become the perfect housewife and she must also act a certain way into becoming a lady. In Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? Connie’s mother always compares her to her sister June; the mother favors June over Connie and wants her to be more like her sister. June is everything her mother wants in a daughter while Connie is not. “A traditional gender role orientation emphasizes differences between men and women and assumes that each sex has a natural affinity to particular behaviors. Those who maintain a traditional gender role orientation are likely to be influenced by the rules and rituals of the generations that came before them, by their parents and grandparents” (Blackstone 335).

This quote from Amy Blackstone explains that gender roles are affiliated with previous generations of the family, which can indicate that the mothers are passing down to their daughters what they have learned from their childhood with their own mothers. Mothers often want their daughters to follow their footsteps and have certain types of criteria that have to be met by them. In most cases, this creates a communication barrier between the two and often leading them to have conflict among their relationship. We see this happening more in the literature of Girl when her mother states “ this is how you iron your father’s khaki pants so that they don’t have a crease… this is how you sweep a corner; this is how you sweep a whole house; this is how you sweep a yard” (Kincaid 47).

The mother teaches her daughter how to iron and clean the way she knows how to, implicating that she must follow her mothers footsteps because this is the right way and that she must do it when one day she gets married or has a house. But not all daughters have the same opinions as their mothers, which can result in having a communication barrier as we can see in Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? the story states “Connie’s mother kept picking at her until Connie wished her mother was dead and she herself was dead and it was all over.” (Oates 324). Connie’s mother picks on her daughter so much in the story that it makes Connie not want to have any relationship with her mother by wishing both of them death. According to Estherann Grace who has a masters degree in adolescent medicine said, “The strength of the mother/daughter bond contributes to the intensity of the emotional response both negatively and positively.

This closeness stems somewhat from the expected psychological identification of a developing adolescent becoming a woman, following in her mother’s footsteps. The teenager needs to clarify the differences to establish her own identity.” (Grace 414) In order to solve their differences Connie needs to talk to her mother about the problems they both have and talk to each other about their point of views and figure out the underlying message why her mother and her don’t get along. Both mothers from the short stories show tough love for their daughters as one of their parenting techniques. For Girl the mother tells her daughter “on Sundays try to walk like a lady and not like the slut you are so bent on becoming” (Kincaid 47), she tells this to her daughter because she secretly cares about how her daughter will turn out to be as a woman. The mother uses a form of reverse psychology so her daughter can prove her wrong that she will not become a slut that her mother thinks she will become.

In Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? her mother proclaims to Connie saying “Why don’t you keep your room clean like your sister? How’ve you got your hair fixed- what the hell stinks? Hair spray? You don’t see your sister using that junk.” (Oates 323) The mother complains to Connie to her because she wants her to become just like her older daughter since she seems to believe that her oldest became successful and that Connie is doing the complete opposite of the mother’s expectations. But in Connie’s point of view she rebels to being anything like her sister because she has her own personality and doesn’t want to follow someone else’s footsteps. According to Gregory Patterson “Kids need more parental involvement. Whether it’s in setting high expectations and then holding children accountable, or by being closely and continuously involved as you set and hold high standards.”(Patterson 4)

With this being said, Patterson would approve of the relationships that both mothers have with their daughters because it makes the parent become more involved with their children lives since its giving the child to hold high expectations of the parent which later on will lead to positive outcomes to the child. Although these mothers have unique ways of parenting, other parents might say this type of parenting can result of psychological abuse to their daughters. Psychological abuse is the parent’s behavior that can aggressively harm their child’s mental health (McCoy and Keen 123). We can see this psychological abuse for both literatures, in Girl her mother refers to the daughter to be turning into a slut, which will deliberately hurt the daughter’s feelings.

Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? the mother tells Connie to stop acting like she’s pretty because she’s not. Connie states that these words are familiar to her indicating that her mother verbally attacks her often which results into a psychological abuse. As stated by Monica McCoy and Stefanie Keen, “parents with good intentions may become verbally aggressive…whether the parent deliberately ignored the child, intended to harm the child with harsh words, or behaved out of ignorance.” (McCoy and Keen 125) The quote explains that even parents who have good intentions to their child can still accidently harm them with harsh words that can cause the psychological abuse towards the children.

In conclusion, mothers expect more from their daughters to succeed in life with what the mother has provided to them varying from everyday life to academics and also by satisfying gender roles that society has made for women. While some of these gender roles can be protested by their daughters, it will most likely create communication barriers between their mothers relationship and cause several problems between the two. As a parenting technique both the mothers have portrayed themselves as very harsh and heartless mothers but in all realty this points out that they have good intentions for being so strict on their daughters. Both mothers use though love in their parenting to show what their daughters are expected of and to hopefully guide their daughters in life with what the mother has taught them.

Works Cited
Blackstone, Amy. “Gender Roles and Society.” Human Ecology: An Encyclopedia of Children, Families, Communities, and Environments, (2003) 335-338 Grace, Estherann. “Mothers and Daughters: The Challenge of Communicating.” Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, 19.6 (2006): 413-414. Keen, Stefanie M., and Monica McCoy. Child Abuse and Neglect. New York and London: Psychology Press, 2014. Print. Kincaid, Jamaica. Girl. Backpack Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing. Ed. X.J. Kennedy and Dana Gioia. 4th ed. New York: Person Longman, 2012. 46-50 Oates, Joyce Carol. Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been. Backpack Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing. Ed. X.J. Kennedy and Dana Gioia. 4th ed. New York: Person Longman, 2012. 323-337 Patterson, Gregory A. “Tough Love is Two Words – and Two Necessities.” Phi Delta Kappan, 93.5 (2012): 4.

A Mother Daughter Relationship Essay

Racial, Gender, And Sexual Oriention Micro Aggressions Essay

Racial, Gender, And Sexual Oriention Micro Aggressions Essay.

The three types of micro aggression are racial micro aggression, gender micro aggression, and sexual orientation micro aggression. Racial micro aggression consists of subtle insults which can be verbal, nonverbal, or visual directed towards people of color, often automatically or unconsciously. It is a subtle form of racism. Racial micro aggression can take a number of different forms including: nullifying racial-cultural issues, making stereo-typical assumptions, and cultural insensitivity. They also play a role in unfairness in the legal system as they can influence the decisions of juries.

Gender micro aggression is related to acts that perpetuate stereotypical gender roles. An example of this could be a male faculty member asking his male colleagues to help him work out a glitch in a piece of equipment in his laboratory but not asking his female colleagues making the notion that a woman’s mechanical aptitude is inferior to that of a man’s. These gender micro aggressions include devaluing, minimizing, belittling, and demeaning comments about women and women associated activities.

Sexual orientation micro aggression is associated with actions that maintain stereotypes about homosexuals.

An example of this would be assuming that all homosexual males personify women with high-pitched voices and manicured nails and that all lesbians have manly characteristics that signify that they are gay. The dynamics of micro aggression are the forces that tend to produce activity and change in racial, gender, and sexuality incidents. The dynamics behind micro aggression also tend to send messages towards people. An example of this could be when an white person asks an Asian American or Latino American to teach them words in their native language. This sends the message that they aren’t American and a foreigner.

Another example would be a white person stating that an African American is very articulate. The actual message it sends is that it is unusual for someone of color to be intelligent. There are four dilemmas that we face during micro aggression. The first is the clash of racial realities where white Americans tend to think that racism is on the decline and that African Americans are doing better in life than 30 or 40 years ago. On the reverse side, blacks view whites as racially insensitive. The second dilemma is the invisibility of unintentional expressions of bias.

This refers to the issue that in most cases racial biases are invisible and the wrongdoer is unaware of any injustice. The third is the perceived minimal harm of racial micro aggressions. This conveys the fact that when an individual is confronted with their micro aggressive acts the perpetrator usually believes that the victim has overreacted or is being overly sensitive. The last dilemma is the Catch 22 of responding to micro aggressions. The victim is usually perplexed about how to react whether it be deciding to do nothing or confronting the perpetrator. Sometimes, micro aggression can manifest in counseling.

Under Denial of Individual Racism, a common response by Whites to people of color is that they can understand and relate to experiences of racism. Under Color Blindness, for example, a client of color stresses the importance of racial experiences only to have the therapist reply, “We are all unique. We are all individuals. ” or “We are all human beings or the same under the skin. ” These colorblind statements, which were intended to be supportive, to be sympathetic, and to convey an ability to understand, may leave the client feeling misunderstood, negated, invalidated, and unimportant.

In clinical practice, micro aggressions are likely to go unrecognized by White clinicians who are unintentionally and unconsciously expressing bias. As a result, therapists must make a concerted effort to identify and monitor micro aggressions within the therapeutic context. CHAPTER 7 – CULTURALLY APPROPRIATE INTERVENTION STRATEGIES The communication styles identified in this chapter were verbal and non-verbal. Most communication specialists believe that only 30 to 40 percent of what is communicated conversationally is verbal. There are a number of non-verbal communication styles.

These are proxemics, kinesics, paralanguage, and high-low context communication. The two concepts presented in sociopolitical facets of nonverbal communication were 1. Nonverbals as reflections of bias – this is represented in the example of the white women walking down the street past the white, black, and latino teenager. When passing the black and latino teenager she automatically clutched her purse and switched it to the other side. The women who switched their purse were operating from stereotype, biases, and preconceived notions about what minority youngsters are like. 2.

Nonverbals as triggers to biases and fear – this is represented in the differences in that which cultures communicate. Whites often perceive black persons as a “threat” because of the way in which they communicate. Blacks are often high-key, animated, heated, and confrontational. They also believe the black male to be hostile, angry and prone to violence. Implications for Clinical Practice 1. Recognize that no one style of counseling or therapy will be appropriate for all populations and situations. 2. Become knowledgeable about how race, culture and gender affect communication styles. 3.

Become aware of your own communication and helping styles. 4. Try to obtain additional training and education on a variety theoretical orientations and approaches 5. Know that each school of counseling and therapy has strengths but they might be one dimensional 6. Use an approach in training programs that call for openness and flexibility in conceptualizing the issues and actual skill building. It is important to know this because communication styles are strongly influenced by race, culture, ethnicity, and gender. These implications lend support to the notion that various racial groups exhibit differences in communication style.

CHAPTER 8 – MULTICULTURAL FAMILY COUNSELING AND THERAPY There were five components of the multicultural family counseling and therapy: a conceptual model. 1. People Nature Relationships 2. Time Dimension 3. Relational Dimension 4. Activity Dimension 5. Nature of People Dimension Activity Dimension The primary characteristic of White U. S. cultural values and beliefs is the action orientation. They believe that we must master and control nature, we must always do something about a situation, and that we should always take a pragmatic and utilitarian view of life.

Counselors expect clients to master and control their own life and environment and to take action to resolve their problems. It is evident everywhere and is reflected in how White Americans identify themselves by occupation. American Indians and Latinos/Hispanics prefer a being or being-in-becoming mode of activity. The American Indian concepts of self determination and noninterference are examples. The Latinos/Hispanics believe that people are born with dignity and deserve to be treated with respect. They are born with innate worth and importance.

The inner soul and spirit are more important than the body. Both the Asian and African Americans operate from the doing orientation. However, the “doing” manifests differently than in White American lifestyle. The active dimension in Asians is related not to individual achievement, but to achievement via conformity to family values and demands. African Americans exercise considerable control in the face of adversity to minimize discrimination and to maximize success. Nature of People Dimension Middle class White Americans generally perceive the nature of people to be neutral.

Environmental issues such as conditioning, family upbringing, and socialization are believed to be the dominant forces in determining the nature of the person. People are neither good nor bad but are a product of their environment. African Americans tend to have a mixed concept of people, but like their White counterparts, they believe people are generally neutral. Asian Americans and American Indians tend to emphasize the inherent goodness of people. Latinos may be described as holding the view that human nature is both good and bad. The Key Points for Clinical Practice

1. Know that our increasing diversity presents us with different cultural concepts of the family. 2. Realize that families cannot be understood apart from the cultural, social, and political dimensions of their functioning. 3. When working with a racial/ethnic group different from you, make a concerted and conscientious effort learn as much as possible about their definition of family and the values along with it. 4. Be attentive to cultural family structure and extended family ties. 5. Don’t prejudge based on your own ethnocentric perspective. 6.

Realize that most minority groups view the wifely role as less important than the motherly role. 7. Utilize the natural help giving networks and structures that already exist in the minority culture in community. 8. Recognize that helping can take many forms. These forms often appear quite different than our own, but they are no less effective or legitimate. Multicultural counseling calls for the counselor to modify our goals and techniques to fit the needs of minority populations. 9. Assess the importance of ethnicity to clients and families. 10. Realize that the role of family counselor cannot be confined to culture bound rules.

Effective multicultural counseling may include validating and strengthening ethnic identity increasing ones own awareness and use of the client support system, serving as a culture broker, and becoming aware of the advantages and disadvantages of being from the same or different ethnic background as your client. You shouldn’t feel you need to know everything about the ethnic group, you should avoid polarization of cultural issues. 11. Accept the notion that the family therapist will need to be creative in intervention techniques when working with minorities. Bold = most important points in clinical practice

CHAPTER 9 – NON-WESTERN INDIGENOUS METHODS OF HEALING Culture bound syndromes are disorders specific to a cultural group or society but not easily given a DSM diagnosis. These illnesses or afflictions have local names with distinct culturally sanctioned beliefs surrounding causation and treatment. They include amok, ataque de nervios, brain fag, ghost sickness, koro, mal de ojo, nervios, and rootwork. It is very important for mental health professionals to become familiar not only with the cultural background of their clients, but to be knowledgeable about specific culture bound syndromes.

A primary danger from lack of cultural understanding is the tendency to overpathologize or overestimate the degree of pathology. The principles of indigenous healing 1. The healing begins with an opening prayer and ends with a closing prayer. The pule creates an atmosphere for healing and involves asking the family gods for guidance. The gods aren’t asked to intervene but grant wisdom, understanding and honesty. 2. The ritual elicits a truth telling sanctioned by the gods and makes compliance among participants a serious matter.

The leader states the problem, prays for a spiritual fusion, reaches out to resistant family members, and attempts to unify the group 3. Muhiki occurs which is a process of getting to the problems. The foregiving, releasing of wrongs, the hurts, and the conflicts produces a deep sense of resolution. 4. After the closing prayer the family participates in pant, the ritual in which food is offered to the gods and the participants. Implications for Clinical Practice 1. Do not invalidate the indigenous practices of your culturally diverse client. 2.

Become knowledgeable about indigenous beliefs and healing practices. 3. Realize that learning about indigenous healing and beliefs entails experimental or lived realities. 4. Avoid overpathologizing and underpathologizing a culturally diverse clients problems. 5. Be willing to consult with traditional healers or make use of their services. 6. Recognize the spirituality is an intimate aspect of the human condition and a legitimate aspect of mental health work. 7. Be willing to expand your definition of the helping role to the community work and involvement.

Racial, Gender, And Sexual Oriention Micro Aggressions Essay

Heroes And Heroines Essay

Heroes And Heroines Essay.

Historically, fairy tales and other folklore have followed relatively strict gender role profiles. The heroes or heroines of the story all tend to be handsome or beautiful, compassionate and kind, which always wins out. Meanwhile the villains and antagonists are almost directly opposite in physicality, are ugly or brooding in nature, which shows a clear contrast between themselves and the hero or heroine, and an ever-impending conclusive loss at the end of the narrative. In the examination of folklore, one can see that common aspects of gender roles can be found in almost every fairy tale ever created.

The Brothers Grimm are well known for their collection of fairy tales and folklore literature, many of which reflect these gender roles. An analysis of three of their more popular works; mainly Rapunzel, Rumplestiltskin, and The Old Woman in the Wood, show clear gender roles and allude to the perspective of the culture in which they were created.

The story of Rapunzel reflects a clear gender role stereotype commonly found in fairy tales and folklore.

Rapunzel is the helpless maiden in need of saving, stolen from her family and confined to a high tower by the evil Enchantress. The Prince would be considered the hero of this story, finding Rapunzel trapped in the tower and conspiring to help her escape from her prison. However, the fable of Rapunzel is unique due to the fact that the Enchantress exiles Rapunzel to the desert to live in misery for the rest of her life and swindles the Prince into becoming trapped in the tower as well. The Prince jumps from the tower and ultimately reunites with Rapunzel, where they live happily ever after. The gender roles of this story clearly reflect the beautiful (but quite helpless) female in need of saving, as well as the handsome hero coming to the rescue. Although the story takes a turn and the evil D’Amico 2

Enchantress, who follows almost to the T a female fairy tale villain (Rapunzel can be quoted in the fable as saying, “Tell me, dame gothel, how it happens that you are so much heavier for me to draw up than the young king’s son?” the hero Prince and Rapunzel still find happiness.

Rumplestiltskin also shows clear contrast in gender roles, with similar gender stereotypes as the fable of Rapunzel. In this particular story the Miller’s Daughter could be considered the Heroine, in which she becomes the Queen and works against Rumplestiltskin to save her child. However, even though the Queen plays an influential role in the story and ultimately outsmarts Rumplestiltskin, she still falls into the gender stereotype of a helpless female in need of saving.

When her father brings her before the King and proclaims she can spin gold from straw, she is essentially helpless and awaiting the death sentence that failure would bring. Rumplstiltskin plays a unique role in the story however, playing both savior (at least temporarily) and ultimately the villain. As per the gender standard in the story Rumplestiltskin sweeps in and saves the Miller’s Daughter by helping her spin the straw to gold and keeps her from death. Rumplestiltskin transforms into the villain when he tries to take the Queen’s child, loses his bet, and destroys himself in frustration.

The story of The Old Woman in the Wood reverses the established gender roles and is relatively unique in that the helpless character in the particular story is one the reader wouldn’t necessarily expect. The poor servant girl plays the role of the Heroine in this story, where she becomes involved in the plight of a dove while wearily traveling through the forest. She unlocks several aspects of a great tree in assistance of a dove seeking her help, each time receiving items such as food, clothes, and a bed.

Ultimately the dove asks her to help one last time by acquiring a small plain ring from the house of an old woman with an extensive collection of rings in her home in the woods. The servant girl complies and is able to get the ring from the old woman, who puts up a rather big fight, before returning to the great tree. After leaning against the tree, it changes into a Prince who explains to her that he had been trapped by the old woman. “You have delivered me from the power of the old woman, who is a wicked D’Amico witch.” The gender roles are clearly defined here, although switched. The Prince in this story is the helpless individual in need of saving and the Heroine is the one who, although unknowingly, sweeps in to save the day from the evil witch. Once again, as with almost every tale in folklore, the couple lives happily every after and the witch is beaten.

Although gender roles in folklore and culture can potentially switch, with both males and females fulfilling the roles of Heroes and Heroines, almost every story tends to follow the same gender role guidelines. The (sometimes) handsome prince/ male saves the helpless female from the evil witch or enchantress, where they live happily ever after. Published in 1812, these stories by the Brother’s Grimm were influenced by the culture of the time period, which is what mostly defined the gender roles in each story.

It is important to remember that most folklore, although around for ages, was adapted to fit into societal roles in each culture. The stories published in the 1800’s reflected the cultural roles of women in that society as underprivileged homemakers (which is why most stories, at least by the Brother’s Grimm, tend to cast the female as subservient and helpless); as well as their hopes and aspirations for the future, which were prevalent in most stories involving Heroines or other similarly empowered women.

Works Cited
Carnegie Mellon School. “The Old Woman in The Wood.” N.p., Nov.n2004. Web. . Carnegie Mellon School. “Rumplestiltskin.” N.p., Nov. 2004. Web. . Carnegie Mellon School. “Rapunzel.” N.p., Nov. 2004. Web. .

Heroes And Heroines Essay

The Role Of Women In The Modern World Essay

The Role Of Women In The Modern World Essay.

The role of women in society has been greatly overseen in the last few decades. In the early days women were seen as wives who were intended to cook, clean, and take care of the kids. They were not allowed to vote while men took care of having jobs and paying any bills that had to be paid. Women have always been mistreated and seen as inferior, when compared to men’s physical strength and ways of thinking. But with the development of industry, the role of women in modern society has significantly changed after the First World War.

Twenty first century has brought in its trail a new hope for women. Dramatic changes have happened in the role, ambitions and attitude of women. Women have departed from their traditional role of reproducers, mothers and wives only. From a non-entity, they have been able to establish an identity of their own in the modern society. Modern women have proved that they are second to none, whether it is home, or outside home at their workplace.

Even in areas which are far away from their traditional role as a housewife. With changing times, they have risen [ up to the occasion and managed the work both inside and outside the home at her work place. – such as in industry, media, IT, politics [], technology, administration/ management, armed forces or civil services.

At home, they bring up children with love and affection and manage household activities. They have shown their capability to deal with the recent economic depression with ingenuity. Like a financial expert they meet the challenges of the present times of ever rising prices in their own income. Outside, they work shoulder-to-shoulder with men almost in all the areas. They are educated. Many of them are financially independent. Modern women are more aware than their predecessor of their rights and are keen to exercise them. They know their worth in within the family, in the society and in the world. It did not happen overnight. Women fought a fierce battle to reach up-to present position. They continuously worked hard to get equality, liberty and opportunity.

Despite women’s emancipation, there will always be a shadow of doubt when hiring a female. A recent study carried out by the University of London revealed that 70% of the big companies are still more likely to accept a man, just because he is a man, rather than a more experienced and competent woman. This reliable research proves that people’s way of thinking cannot be changed over night, diminishing women’s chances of success in their careers.

The Role Of Women In The Modern World Essay

Should Boys And Girls Study Together Essay

Should Boys And Girls Study Together Essay.

As our world has become more complicated education is generally available to both genders all around the world. Teenagers may attend single-sex or co-educational high school. However, some people believe that students should be educated with different instructing methods according to their gender. This is not the case for three reasons. The two genders can learn to valuable information from each other learn to socialize together and learn to how to protest themselves.

First of all, girls and boys will learn valuable information about opposite gender.

According to scientific research, most boys are more logical than girls. This is very helpful for girls and boys to influence each other. For example, when girls solve problems, they are always impacted by their emotions. Therefore, boys can teach them how to solve problems without overly emotional overreacting.However, many parents may think that it is not necessary girls and boys to study together. Because girls and boys at this age still are not mature.

They may not be in a position to teach each other. They should focus on their studying. If they are allowed to learn in the same class, they can come together and share their ideas because they have different thinking strategies. Their academic results are generally better than single-sex school. I used to study in the co-educational high school. There were many students who not only really enjoy school activities but also got great grade.

The second important thing is girls and boys should learn how to communicate with each other. When students finish their studies, eventually they need to join the workforce. In a working place, no matter if an office, a social service center or business firm, it is must work with the opposite gender very often. On the other hand, parents worry about their children who may make a relationship in the co-educational school and result in neglecting their studies. Teenagers always so interested in the opposite gender that they dress themselves up in order to attract the opposite-sex. Also, people who want to present the best of themselves improve their flaws.

Girls and boys should not be planned from studying in the co-educational school. Otherwise, they will not know how to protect themselves. Single-sex school consider that problems are easy to be fixed. For example, special classes help students to learn how to integrate into society. However, this classes are usually not useful to students. When single-sex school’s students socialize with people, they do not know how to solve real life situations. Many teenagers watch pornographic magazines and online x-rated movies because they are curious about the opposite gender’s thinking and bodies, but this is not a good way to know the opposite gender. If every high school education allow both genders’ curiosity about each other, and they will be ready to integrate into society.

In conclusion, boys and girls do not need to be educated in separate classes because when they study in the mixed gender classes, more ideas will come out and they will be more adapted to the society after students graduate from school. The separate class for boys and girls will create more distractions. Moreover students will be less prepared for the real world and collage. The separate classes will create problems and will be unbeneficial for students and teachers.

Should Boys And Girls Study Together Essay

The Differences between Men and Women Essay

The Differences between Men and Women Essay.

Men and women differ in many ways. The basic knowledge known by all people is that gender differences differ only in physical appearances and culture. For example men are usually taller than women or as some cultures differ a women has to be as good as men to survive in this world. But the correct way of putting a differentiation between these two genders are the differences not only physically but in aptitude, skill and behavior.

The fact goes on about how women are more sociable and more flexible with their natural nurture and care to others back in the days.

Yet these facts still goes on but another issue about women has been seen through out the year which is none other than the fact that they have more motivation to achieve in something rather than letting the men deal with all the worries. In a college or any institute of education, we see the women achieving more success. Successes in education nowadays are depended on the writing skills also in verbal communication skills.

It is believed that, women are better in these areas. On the other hand, it is said that men are more aggressive either physically or verbally. They also love taking risks. We see our brothers or male cousins or even our uncles and fathers playing the play station or the Xbox ,fighting games enjoying all the aggressiveness in them and having to dare each other and taking risks. It is also a proven fact that men are convicted in crimes more than women especially in violence crimes.

As we all know, gender also differs in terms of biologically issues. Biologically, women are more of the stronger sex than the men. The men are weaker. In recent years of studies, biologically sex differences have been found that the brain of an average men has around 4% more cells and 100 grams more brain tissue than an average female brain [Wikipedia,2006] It is also known that the brains of a male is 10% more lager than the female brains but women have more nerve cells in certain areas. Women also tend to have a larger corpus collusum – the group of nerve fibers that connects left and right hemispheres.[Joanna,2006] It is said that it makes the women transfer data’s more faster than men which results flexibility and multitasking in women. Men are usually left-brain oriented [Joanna,2006] which results that men are better at solving abstract equations and problems.

The biggest issue that differs among women and men are the fact that men seem to find it much easier to visualize. They have the way of going through dimensions and relatively heights and objects. There are studies shown that ¼ women have succeeded in outperforming the men in visualizing which shows that women can be as good as men. These two genders are of the same creation of species called humans. In general basis, it is said that an average men is taller and heavier than an average women. In sports, men are more likely the stronger ones than women in strength and speed. What about managing and leading?

Typically when comparing a manager or a leader, it is framed up into the command and control style of both genders and the team building and consensus approaches. “_Women_ _managers tend to have more of a desire to build than a desire to win_” says Debra Burrell, a psychological social worker and regional training director of the Mars-Venus Institute in New York. “_Women are more willing to explore compromise and to solicit other people’s opinions._” [Joanna,2006] Also according to Burrell, men would often think they will under estimated by they’re workers or employees if they’d ask others for advice. She said that these men would probably perceive as an unsure leader who doesn’t have answers.

Women are typically proven that their strengths differ in many ways from the men’s. Women tend to be better at empowering staff than do of men. Women are easily to comprise and easier to confront with their openness and more accessible confrontation. Women leaders are known to be of the more assistance than the men in the matter of efficiency. Women have the sense of handling a diversity management with their tolerance and understanding. They can easily identify a particular problem and case more accurately. In terms of giving a fast and effective feedback, women tend to be better at defining them at job expectations.

On the other hand, men are straight forward human beings that have more confident and tend to be the decision-makers compared to women. Male managers are also more adept at forming “navigational relationships,” that is, temporary teams set up to achieve short-term goals, says management psychologist Ken Siegel, whose Los Angeles firm, the Impact Group, works with executives to develop leadership. [Joanna,2006] It is also a known fact that women are more cooperative than men.

However, even though these two genders differ in many ways, it is proven that both female and male are successors with their own capabilities and skills.


Before one seeks to determine which gender makes better managers, and which gender makes better leaders, the fundamental step is to firstly clarify the distinction between the role of a manager and a leader. The term ‘manager’ and ‘leader’ have often been used interchangeably and carelessly presumed to be synonymous with one other. However, there are fundamental differences between the characteristics, roles, and features that are expected of managers and leaders that draw a unique contrast between both positions.

Managers are often identified as those appointed and put into a position that requires them to write business plans, set budgets and monitor progress (Robbins & Decenzo, 2001). Principally administrators, they often work within established guidelines and use their formal authority to control and ensure their subordinates achieve the tasks and goals at hand. Managers mostly use a transactional style whereby they tell subordinates what to do and motivate them to do it through their legitimate power of providing reward or punishment.

They are also concern with the problem at hand and focus on what needs to be done. Being in a managerial position, one usually understands and applies corporate procedures and standards of the department to consistently produce error-free results within the constraints of time and money. He or she ensures the team is striving to achieve results and overcome obstacles before seeking support (Sweeney, 2001). Managers have often been found in studies to be more conventional and seeking stability and control. The description of a manager can be summarized as being a captain, an analyst, a controller, and a conductor (Zimmerman, 2001).

Leaders on the other hand, are those that either are formally appointed or could be one emerging from within a group (Robbins & Decenzo, 2001). Leaders are the ones that establish direction and vision when creating an agenda and successively work to align people behind that vision. Their ability to influence and motivate others is not so much through the legitimate power that managers possess but rather through referent power whereby they have followers rather than subordinates.

In contrast to the manager’s role of directing, monitoring, and supervising subordinates to minimize deviation and produce predictable results, leaders seek to engage and support others in the company to empower and energize them to release their skills effectively, be willing to take risks, and run along with the vision and goals (Hart & Waisman, 2005). Those in the leadership position are comfortable with taking risks and do not mind breaking conventional rules and predictable routes of the corporation to achieve better results. Thus, a leader can be described in summary as a visionary, a collaborator, a negotiator, and a sales-person (Zimmerman, 2001).

However, in today’s ever dynamic business environment, corporations are constantly seeking to improve the capabilities and skills of their workforce to increase productivity. Managers today are now trained and probed to take up the characteristics, mind-sets, and roles of a leader as well as maintain their present competencies. Thus, the best elements of both disciplines have been combined to produce optimum results and the line of distinction between the two is now often blurred. Therefore, the fact that managers today now possess both the features of a manager and a leader, and vice versa, needs to be taken into consideration when identifying whether males or females make better managers and leaders.


There are always arguments that who will make better managers either males or females. Therefore there are researchers who investigate whether males or females will be better managers. Researches have shown that women are more willing to explore compromise and to solicit other people’s opinion. This is because, women might try to sit down and figure out which solutions will best suits the problems and they will think about the consequences which the decision they choose. Women will take their time to listen to their staffs’ opinions and other people opinion and then make judgments of other people opinions.

Besides that, women are better at making the staff feel organized and rewarded. This might be the nurture of every woman because they are good at appreciating their staff and make them feel recognized and rewarded. As a manager, being able to make their staff feel recognized and rewarded is important because when a particular employee feels that they are being treated well they will try their best to accomplish their work even though they might need to work overtime to get it done.

Women managers tend to have more desire to build than a desire to win. Women doesn’t really care who will win but they are more prone to how they develop and to manage the work in a progressive way. Women managers seldom like to compete to win but they consider more about the quality of the work. Therefore some people might say that women tend to be slow to complete their work but the results of their work are fantastic because they take time to plan out the work.

Women tend to be better at team building. This is because women are good at encouraging participation and facilitating groups. This is because women are more willingly to listen to their employees’ problems. Besides that women are also better at facilitating their employees because they are able to encourage them to think and will help them whenever they need their managers help. Research has shown that women do not acquire any further leadership skills to become a better manager because of the nurture characteristics which they portray.

However women managers were found to have problems in managing self. They usually have difficulty such as handling pressure, coping with one’s own frustrations, developing one’s capabilities and responding to feedback. Besides that women are more likely to voice their frustrations openly. In our daily life we could see that women are more likely to tell their friends about their problems as to compare with men where they usually keep their problems to themselves.

In a research done by Brunel University, it shown that women graduate with MBAs, they make better managers because they gain intrinsic benefits such as confidence, credibility, assertiveness, job satisfaction and interpersonal skills. Nowadays one third of MBA students are women. This may because of the social change which occurs. Now women could further their education. However men see their MBAs as a way to get a better pay and promotion. Women value their MBA experience where they could alter perceptions of themselves. In the research, both sexes argued that in the MBAs they valued the experience in increase marketability and mobility. Therefore women reported that their experiences in MBAs are encouraging because they gain greater confidence and self-belief. Through the experience women are more capable to handle their bosses.


Even though most of the people said that they do believe that there are gender equalities, however there are still people who are unsure whether men or women will make better leaders. Therefore researches were done to investigate who will make better leaders. As mention above in the gender differences section, women tend to be better than men at empowering staff (Joanna, 2006). They found that women are more willing to give up power to their staff because they trust their employees could do better when they are given power.

Besides that also mentioned above, women encourage openness and they are more accessible. Women leaders usually encourage their staff to talk to them whenever the staff feels that they need their leaders’ help. Women leaders could accept their staffs’ ideas as long as their ideas make sense to their companies’ objectives. However in these issues, men leaders usually will figure out solutions for the problems and asked their employees to just follow his way. This is because most men are more dominant than women and they have been practicing this attitude for a very long time.

Women leaders are more likely to respond more quickly when they are called for assistance. This might be the nurture characteristics which women have because whenever they face difficulties they want to solve it as soon as possible. For example women usually have to rear their child, therefore in order to cope out with the behaviors of their own child they have to respond quickly to their child.

In addition women could identify problems more quickly and accurately. It is strange because women usually have the intuition and they will know when there is something not right. Therefore when working with women leaders, they are more sensitive to the work and they are more alert compared to men. They will usually take precautions and they are usually not a risk taker as compare to men.

Male leaders usually are faster at making decision and more confident as to compare with women. Most of the male leaders are more adept at forming “navigational relationships” which means that temporary teams set up to achieve short term goals. Men usually could mix around very easily with other people because they are the more easy going people. However women will only mix around with people whom they like. Women don’t talk much to people whom they just got to know because they might not trust them.

Lastly as mentioned above in the gender differences section male leaders often think that if they ask for advice from other people when they face difficulties they might be perceived as unsure or as a leader who doesn’t know things that are related to their fields. In other words male leaders are quite arrogant because they are not willing to ask people when they are in doubt. This might lead to insecurities in oneself.


Gender Differences.

Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikipedia Foundation, Inc.

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Female Managers. Written By Grainne Hehir -Dow Jones Newswires

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Women in Business.

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Do Women Make Better Managers?

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Robbins, S.P. & Decenzo, D.A. (2001). _Fundamentals of Management, 3rd ed._ New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Hart, L.B. & Waisman, C. S. (2005). The Sorts of Leadership_. Alexandria, 59,_ 20-22. Retrieved on March, 2006 from the ProQuest database.

Zimmerman, E. L. (2001). What’s Under the Hood? The Mechanics of Leadership vs Management. _SuperVision, 62,_ 10-13.

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Sweeney, P. (2001). What’s the difference Between Leaders and Managers?_Franchising World, 33,_ 64-66.

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The Differences between Men and Women Essay

The Gender Theory Essay

The Gender Theory Essay.

Shopping is something that can be quickly defined as a woman’s paradise or “realm of expertise”. It has often been said that women spend more time and money shopping that men spend time and money shopping. In my experiment, I will go to Costco and choose five people at random. I intend to prove that women will spend more time and money shopping at Costco than men will spend time and money at Costco. I also intend to prove that more women will need assistance with placing their items in their vehicles than men will need assistance with placing their items in their vehicles.

The gender role theory played a significant role in this experiment. In the theory, women assume the role of the nurturer and caregiver. Men, on the other hand, assume the role of the protector and the aggressor. Subject A- Female (37) 1. Time spent in Costco- two hours. 2. Amount spent in Costco- $149. 27. 3. Assistance needed with placing items in vehicle? No Subject B- Female (52) 1.

Time spent in Costco- one hour. 2. Amount spent in Costco- $50. 12. 3. Assistance needed with placing items in vehicle? No Venus vs. Mars 3

Subject C- Male (31) 1. Time spent in Costco- three hours and thirty minutes. 2. Amount spent in Costco- $412. 92. 3. Assistance needed with placing items in vehicle? Yes Subject D- Male (47) 1. Time spent in Costco- three hours. 2. Amount spent in Costco- $371. 58. 3. Assistance needed with placing items in vehicle? Yes Subject E- Male (22) 1. Time spent in Costco- twenty minutes. 2. Amount spent in Costco- $22. 12. 3. Assistance needed with placing items in vehicle? No The gender role theory was switched with the test subjects.

The women, Subjects A and B, were defensive when approached for the experiment. They both were short and to the point with their answers. They were both aggressive to the point wherein they asked me to stand at least an arms length away from them. The men, on the other hand, were quite the opposite. Subjects C and D both were inviting and talkative. They both shook my hand and held lengthy conversations with me after I assisted them with placing the items in their respective vehicles.

Subject E behaved the same way as Subjects A and B. Venus vs. Mars 4 The expected outcome did not occur. Out of the five test subjects, the men spent more time and money shopping at Costco. The men, for the most part, were the ones who required assistance with placing their belongings in their vehicles. If this experiment were to be performed again, more test subjects should be used in order to have a basis for proving or disproving the gender theory.

The Gender Theory Essay

The relationship between men and women in Browning’s poems Essay

The relationship between men and women in Browning’s poems Essay.

Browning presents the relationship between men and women in the two poems in a number of ways. Such as mans power over women, women as possessions/belongings/treated like children, women in their traditional role, the death of the women, men as inhuman/ uncaring and how the male character feels about the death of his wife/lover. All of these points are shown and used by Robert Browning in the two poems, Porphirias Lover and My Last Duchess.

In the poem Porphirias Lover presents the relationship between men and women as showing the men being in control.

From lines thirty one to thirty three Browning wrote Be sure I looked up at her eyes happy and proud; at least I knew Porphyria worshipped me; The word worshipped means to treat somebody or something as divine and show respect by engaging in acts of prayer and devotion, also meaning great excessive love, admiration, and respect felt for somebody or something. So in that line Browning shows us that the male is in control by writing the fact that Porphyria worships the man, as Porphyria gives herself to the man during her acts of seduction.

(Murmuring how she loved me). The murmuring is a quite sexy thing to do, so this justifies the fact that she is seducing him.

In the poem My Last Duchess, Browning presents the relationship between the men and women as showing the men being in control. From lines thirty nine to forty and on line forty three. Browning writes If she let her be lessoned so , and a few lines after Never to stoop. This means, that if the Duchess allowed the Duke to teach her everything will be ok. The other means that he shall never compromise. In the first quote, this is traditionally saying that men are cleverer than women. As during those times, men had a lot more power and rights than the women so education was more available to the men than the women.

The second quote meaning that he would never compromise shows the power that he has over his wife. The way that Robert Browning crafts his verse always leaves the reader trying to find its purpose. Almost everything he writes about the relationship between men and women leaves the reader thinking why? Why the man is always the dominant role, why the man is always the one doing something about it? These questions are what make the poem so appealing to the audience. This is why Browning presents the relationship between men and women like he does in both poems.

In the poem Porphirias Lover, Browning presents the women as possessions, belongings and even being treated like children. In line thirty six, Browning writes That moment she was mine, mine fair, The she was mine tells us that he is saying that Porphyria belongs to him and the repetition of mine fair shows the reader that he is really protective over her and that he doesnt want anyone else to have her. Fair tells the reader that he won Porphyria fairly and that there would be no justified reason why she should not be his. The use of the repetition of words is very useful to make the phrase more appealing as it stands out to the reader, alerting him that they need to pay attention to the words. This reveals o us the narrators obsessive personality.

In the poem My Last Duchess, Browning also presents the woman as possessions, belongings and being treated like women. On lines twenty three Browning wrote Too soon made glad. Meaning that she is too easily pleased, also the reader understands that his judgement is really obvious and that it is the only one that counts. Like a child. As a child commonly finds things interesting especially when things new to them. Also on lines thirty two and thirty three Browning wrote Somehow I know not how as if she ranked my gift of a nine-hundred-years-old name

This means that she is showing no respect even though he is a Duke. Also just like a child, as a child does not show respect to the elders as they have not yet matured. To the reader it is like the woman is a silly little girl who needs to be kept under control by the male in this poem. If she let herself be lessoned also gives the reader the impression that she never listens to him as it says If she let. This shows the amount of control that the male role is trying to put on the female.

In the poem Porphyrias Lover, Browning presents the women in their traditional role. On line 8 Browning writes And kneeled and made the cheerless grate blaze up, and all the cottage warm; This is when Porhyria first enters the cottage and the first thing she does it light the fire. In more recent times the male character would have already ensured that the house was warm and welcoming for his wife. (Also, now days we would not be lighting the fire, but lighting the central heating). When Porphyria lights the fire before doing anything tells the reader of the traditions of the time as women doing all the housework was the norm during the period that the poem was written.

In the poem My Last Duchess, Browning presents the women in their traditional role. On line 43 Browning writes Never to stoop. Meaning that he will never compromise. In modern times the male learns always to compromise in a relationship when he has a different view on a subject. This shows the female in the poem is also being treated in their traditional role. Browning may show this in his poems to make the writing more interesting and appealing to the reader.

In the poem Porphyrias Lover, Browning shows the death of the women secretively, like it is slowly unravelling during the poem. On line 35 of the poem it says While I debated what to do Here it shows that he is unsure of killing his lover and maybe has other feelings for her that cause controversy. From line one to four Browning writes The rain set early in tonight, the sullen wind was soon awake, it tore the elm-tops down for spite, and did its worst to vex the lake. At the start of the poem this sets the mood straight away that everything is not right. The reader then knows that something is about to occur.

In the poem My Last Duchess, Browning shows the death of the women secretly as well. On the first two lines Browning wrote Thats my last Duchess painted on the wall, looking as if she were alive. Here this could be that the painting is so realistic that it looks as if the Duchess were alive or that it is a painting of the deceased Duchess. This sets the reader thinking at the start of the poem and makes the reader want to read on. Also on line forty five Browning writes I gave commands; Here the reader can guess what he has just done. (Meaning that he has given commands to kill his Duchess.) But until you read on, the reader cannot fully identify what is going on. This makes the poem more appealing to the reader as there are lots of cliff hangers in the poem.

In conclusion, I think that in both poems, Browning based his writing on what appealed to the audience the most. As there are so many techniques used in the two poems that make me want to read on. Also he bases the stories of the poems on things that does affect us and things that we do have interest in. The use of the historical background makes readers think of opinions and the use of the unwinding death of the female roles makes the reader want to read and read on. This is probably the reason why Brownings poems are famous as they are very appealing to the reader.


poem Porphirias Lover written by Browning

The relationship between men and women in Browning’s poems Essay