Strengths and Weaknesses Essay

Strengths and Weaknesses Essay.

The word “Mahatma” means “Great Soul. ” A name which had been given to Gandhi by the Indian people when they discovered that they had a Mahatma in their struggle under the leadership of Britain. Gandhi was born when British rule had been established in India. He had been witnessed to the daily difficulties of his countrymen as a British colony. Furthermore, racial persecution had been prevalent in South Africa where he experienced its first bitter taste. Hence, the beginning of his quest for resistance to injustice in his own country.

He introduced the principle of Ahimsa (non-violence) and Satyagraha (hold fast to the Truth) which had helped him to develop an indomitable will and unyielding opposition against the British Rule in which he had been revered as India’s “Great Soul. ” The principles were said to have its strengths and weaknesses which through careful study of the life of Gandhi had been revealed, and which many claimed to be not applicable in the society.

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on the 2nd of October 1869, in Porbandar, a small state in Western India.

His father, Karamchand Gandhi, was Prime Minister of the Princely Indian State of Porbandar in Gujrat. Mohandas was the youngest of three sisters and two brothers. The Gandhi family was known for its wealth, frugality and shrewdness in business. Young Mohandas was the darling of his mother and a pampered child. Gandhi was seven when he got enrolled in Rajkot’s Alfred High School. At thirteen, he was married to Kasturbai. Child marriages, as arranged by the parents, were then common in India. Every student dreamed of Indian independence.

A Moslem friend convinced Gandhi that India was being ruled by the British because they ate meat and the Hindus did not. Meat symbolizes strength and strength means freedom. A family friend advised him to go to England where he could earn a law degree and equip himself to be a successor of his father as a prime minister. Although he would have preferred to study medicine, the idea of going to England excited young Gandhi. He studied law at University College, London. After having been admitted to the British bar in 1891, he returned to India and attempted to establish law profession in Bombay, to his dismay, without much success.

After two years, an Indian firm retained him as legal adviser in Durban. There, he experienced being treated as a member of the inferior race. He experienced humiliation and racial discrimination. On finding that Gandhi was travelling on a first class ticket, he was thrown out of the train by the white train constable. This had been a crucial ground for Gandhi’s quest for equality. He remained in South Africa for twenty years in which many times he experienced imprisonment. He was also overwhelmed at the widespread denial of civil liberties and political rights to Indian immigrants.

In 1896, he began to teach Satyagraha or the policy of passive resistance to, and non-cooperation with, the South African authorities. His first crusade began before he was set to leave South Africa upon reading a newspaper item about a bill which would deprive Natal Indians the right to vote for members of the legislative assembly. However, despite all efforts, the bill was passed. A monster petition was drawn up and even the leading newspapers of India and England backed up his cause. He continued to direct the fight for Indian rights by forming an organization called the Natal Indian Congress.

In 1894, the Natal government decided to discourage them from becoming free men by putting exorbitant annual tax on any serf. Gandhi began the campaign to have the tax repealed. However, in 1896, victory was nowhere in sight. In 1919, Rowlatt Acts had been passed which gave the Indian colonial authorities emergency powers to deal with so-called revolutionary activities, Satyagraha spread throughout India, gaining millions of followers. Indians demonstrated against the Rowlatt Acts which resulted in a massacre of Indians at Amritsar.

The British government failed to make amends with the Indians which led to the proclamation of Gandhi of an organized campaign of non-cooperation. Indians working in public office resigned, government agencies were boycotted and Indian children were removed from government schools. The economic independence for India became a part of Gandhi’s Swaraj or “self-governing” movement. Such aspects were significant as the exploitation of Indian villagers resulted in extreme poverty in the country. As a remedy, Gandhi started the revival of cottage industries.

He even introduced the use of a spinning wheel for the renewal of native Indian industries and as a symbol of a simple village life. Gandhi became the international symbol of a free India. His is a life of spirituality, fasting and meditation. He refused earthly possessions, and wore the loincloth and shawl of the lowliest Indian. Indians treated him as a saint. Hence, the beginning of being called “Mahatma. ” Gandhi’s advocacy of nonviolence, better known as “Ahimsa”, was the expression of a way of life implicit in the Hindu religion.

Through the principle of nonviolence, Gandhi believed that Great Britain would eventually consider violence useless and would leave India. Mahatma Gandhi’s political and spiritual hold on India was so great that even the British authorities did not dare to interfere with him. In 1921, he was given complete executive authority. However, it has been a struggle with the Indian population to fully comprehend Ahimsa. Thus, a series of armed revolts against Great Britain broke out. By such events, Gandhi admitted the failure of the civil disobedience campaign, and decided to end it.

In 1932, he began a new civil disobedience campaign against the British authorities. Having been arrested twice, he fasted for long periods of time which had been an effective measure for revolution might broke out had he been killed by the authorities instead. He traveled through India, teaching Ahims and demanding the eradication of “untouchability. ” Fasting caused public unrest which made the colonial government to intervene and to give in to the demands. Again, Mahatma Gandhi became the most important political figure in India.

In 1944, the struggle for Indian independence was in its final stages. The British government agreed to the independence upon the condition that the two contending nationalist groups, the Muslim League and the Congress party, should resolve their differences. Gandhi was against the condition of the partition of India. However, he agreed later in the hope that internal peace would be achieved later. Disturbances occurred and were only pacified when Gandhi committed fasting. On January 1948, he was assassinated by a fanatic Hindu.

It is of great importance to elaborate on how Gandhi treated the issue on caste and religious minorities. South Africa had been a ground for Gandhi to start the quest to end racial persecution. After his realization that the Europeans in South Africa did not want Indians to be in a high status position, Gandhi tried to oppose them. He did this by burning his “pass” that was issued only to the non-Europeans. Other Indians immediately followed him even though it was against the law. This event was the first of many times that Gandhi used passive resistance to illustrate a point.

He set up meetings for Indians to gather and protest non-violently. “Sammy”, “coon” and “coolie” were the derogatory Indian names which had been called to Gandhi. He set an example not by fighting or trying to get back to those who called him but by refusing to give his fingerprints. By this, other Indians followed him to protect their rights as citizens even if it caused them to be locked in jail. The Indian mine workers boycotted their jobs in order to free the people in jail, and sure enough, Gandhi and all the other prisoners were set free.

The oppressive laws got changed and Gandhi became satisfied with the improvements in South Africa. He radically changed the Indians lives and most of the discrimination that used to exist in South Africa even though it presented to him many problems. Furthermore, Gandhi tried to include the poverty-stricken people in classifying India. He realized their needs and made efforts to help them financially. Gandhi reached out to the inferior castes and began his fight to end discrimination and British control of India.

Passive resistance had been Gandhi’s ticket to gaining freedom from the British authorities. However, discrimination continued to get in the way. Gandhi had been put to prison many times because of his quest for equality and non-judgment in the differences in religion and skin color. Muslim-Hindu hostility was ended shortly when he tried to unite the two religious groups by fasting until violence had been stopped amongst them and the British. Also, it is important to note that the approaches used by Gandhi in his quest for Indian independence is not supreme in its very essence.

It has its strengths as well as its weaknesses. His experiences both in South Africa and India convinced him that not to intervene was to share in the responsibility for the injustices perpetrated by the system, and injustice is a form of violence. The question had been how to intervene with politics without further violence. Gandhi believed in the power of reasoned argument which drew a distinction between aggressive disputes and persuasion. The latter was believed to be the only nonviolent way of dealing with arguments.

Another strength would be through Satyagraha and the power of self-sacrifice in which it is possible to defeat prejudice and speak directly to the soul of another. Suffering love, as Gandhi argued, was profoundly redemptive. It redeems both parties as an appeal to humanity will let the other person to understand that one’s claim is similar to the other’s. Weaknesses were also present in Gandhi’s approach to achieve Indian independence. One of which occurred when he realized that he could not change the thinking of the White population after staying for three years in South Africa.

Furthermore, Gandhi added other nonviolent weapons when he realized that things were not so simple. One was the boycott of foreign cloth in order to put pressure to the British government. It has been said that such additional nonviolent weapon is not nonviolence but an admission of the limitation on the principle of nonviolence. Bikhu Parekh argued that although Gandhi believed that justice would be achieved by nonviolence, if this proved not to be the case, he was prepared to concede the necessity to use violence in certain instances.

So while he was a pacifist in the sense that peace was on of the highest value and of attaching so much importance to nonviolence, he was not a pacifist in the sense of believing that if nonviolence did not achieve what he was expecting, it would be better to stay quiet and not fight for it. In the end, violence would still be used to be successful. In addition, Gandhi realized that no kind of persuasion or Satyagraha is possible if there is no shared basis of understanding. Although this principle was successful in South Africa, he knew it didn’t really achieve very much, and that the system of White domination continued.

Where people were dogmatically convinced that something was right, nothing would shift them – even if you gave up your life in the effort to persuade them. The principle of nonviolence worked in India because the British authorities, although there have been brutalities towards Indians, maintained a relatively open society. There were slow brutality, and diffuse brutality, examples of racism – but not systematic repression. If India had been occupied not by the British but by the Nazis, things would have been quite different. You needed the pressure of an open society for nonviolent resistance to work.

If Gandhi had appeared in Hitler’s Germany, even before he had built up his leadership, he would have been killed. Additionally, Nehru pointed out that there were also dangers in Gandhi’s concept. India might become a land of masochists who considered suffering as a fetish. This kind of concept could brutalize an individual just like what violence can do. There was, too, an element of moral and spiritual elitism in this approach for moral superiority would be asserted, and there was a certain air of arrogance in trying to be someone else’s redeemer. The fundamental weakness was his belief that there was something called the soul.

Hatred and prejudices that surrounded prevented us from getting to it. Once we did, we could touch the pure soul. Bikhu did not believe in that kind of relationship between the soul and external prejudices because prejudices penetrated your core and there was not that pure soul lying there which one could activate. Finally, Gandhi had such a noble goal to make every one equal and equally free, and to unite not only Indian people but also everyone in the world. His personal goal is to succeed in making oppression go away for every man and woman. Gandhi did not succeed according to his particular goals.

However, there is not a possible way to succeed with standards set so high. Gandhi really pushed himself to be the best person he could be. Gandhi was successful in many ways, but not in the way he was hoping for. He did not want Pakistan to become its own state and was hoping the Hindus and Muslims would get along. The violence in India only got worse after he died and Indian society is discriminatory once again. Gandhi had a wonderful effect on people during most of his lifetime, but after he was gone, there was little done to preserve the culture that he molded so finely together.

Gandhi was unsuccessful according to his own standards, and his hopes of changing world culture. WORKS CITED Nanda, B. R. “Mahatma. ” < http://www. mkgandhi. org/biographyicon/bioindex. htm>. Parekh, Bikhu. “Strengths and Weaknesses of Gandhi’s Concept of Nonviolence. ” Bradford University. 12 Feb. 1999. < http://www. civilresistance. info/challenge/bhikhu>. Wolpert, Stanley. “Gandhi’s Passion: Life and Legacy of Mahatma Gandhi. ” < http://www. issi. org. pk/journal/2002_files/no_2/review/2r. htm>.

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Strengths and Weaknesses Essay

Polygamy versus Monogamy Essay

Polygamy versus Monogamy Essay.

In the United States the federal and State penal codes describe marriage as an institution between a man and a woman. Most little girls dream of a fairy tale wedding to their knight in shining armor. However, in other locations around the world the concept of one-on-one marriages is not considered the norm or even preferred. Even in the United States, there are religious factions that believe in what is called a “plural marriage” (CITE). While the idea of monogamy and polygamy range from continent to continent, and from nation to nation, both of these institutions have evidence to prove the usefulness or the detriment to the community.

How are they different and how are they the same? Looking at the two institutions gives insight into the concepts of monogamy and polygamy. Monogamy used to be the institution of marriage to a single partner of the opposite sex throughout a lifetime. However, in the face of death and divorce, a new term of serial monogamy changes the concept ever so slightly.

Serial monogamy is to have a single mate of the opposite sex for a specific period of time (monogamy, 2008). So even from the beginning of human understanding this ideal has changed to really have to meanings.

Polygamy, on the other hand, has not changed in definition over the years. This concept is a marriage where one part of the couple, male or female, can have more than one spouse at the same time (polygamy, 2008). While the definition has not changed, additions or explanations explaining different types of polygamy have been instituted. For instance, polyandry is the marriage of one woman to several men (polyandry, 2008). Polyamory is the idea of two or more females being married to two or more males, or group marriage (polyamory, 2008).

The final separating definition is polygyny, which is the state of a male having more than one wife at the same time. This is the type of polygamy that is found in almost every area of the modern world in some way and is the focus on which to evaluate the differences between monogamy and polygamy (polygyny, 2008). Monogamy History United States history is still considered in its infancy, but from the beginning of this civilization certain ideals and concepts were implemented by the new society. One of the first ideals was the concept of monogamy.

Even though polygamy was still wide spread in many countries, the western Europeans were starting to enact laws condemning polygamy and imposing monogamy on the citizens. These laws from Europe were the influence for the laws of the United States prior to the Constitution and definitely after its signing. The important thing is that the imposition of the monogamous marriage is completely a nation/State/tribe concept and is not necessarily a natural concept for any living being (Sanderson, 2001). Theories of Monogamy

The imposition of monogamy by government is obvious as to the basis of the foundation. First it regulates the amount of children born to those in the community and provides a possible spouse for all inhabitants. This imposed monogamy is what those of democratic systems, and higher education, believe is best for the larger picture, the unity of the nation (Kanazawa & Still, 1999). However, there are other theories in regard to monogamy that are just as possible, even in communities and societies where monogamy is not a laws. One such theory is the woman compromise to polygamy, mainly polygyny.

The theory states that if a woman believes that she is better off and more stable being a second wife to a man than the first and only wife of another man, she will opt to be a second wife (Kanazawa & Still, 1999). In essence it is a logical evidentiary proof of survival of the fittest. The woman goes in the direction that will benefit her and her offspring the best. There are people who believed that this is a viable option when considering the acts of polygyny, and should be studied further in the future. The opposite theory is the male compromise.

Within theory, the males decided to have only one spouse each so that all male member of a society will have an equal chance of marriage. It is this theory, most social scientists believe caused the societal imposition of monogamy in countries that are industrialized and have higher developed civilizations (Kanazawa & Still, 1999). Community So how is monogamy working in the community and marriage? The fact is that children of monogamous relationships are more likely to be mentally healthy with a high self-esteem and better relationships with others.

However, that does not really answer the question. In monogamous societies the children fair better, but do the spouses? Some would say no. The reason is that monogamous marriages spur extra martial affairs which lead to divorce, or lying, or both. These affairs are not healthy for the individuals or the rest of society. These actions can cause the community to break down, rather than to be strong and prosper (Al-Krenawi, & Slonim-Nevo, 2008; Arrington, & Bitton, 1979; Anwar, 2005; Callahan, 1994; Goodwin, 2003; Kanazawa, & Still, 1999; Philips, 2005; Sanderson, 2001; Smith, 2004; Weiner, 2004).

It is this aspect of the monogamous marriage and relationships that those who practice polygamy use to show why their way of life is better. They focus on the rampant cheating of both spouses, and the detrimental effects these actions have on the children. It is there strong belief that it is this reason and this action that proves polygamy is fundamentally more sound and better for everyone involved in the community. The United States looks down on polygamy and still has its condemnation on its law books, but other countries, even when they impose monogamy legally refuse to condemn those who chose a polygamous existence.

Polygamy History As far back as the beginning of Christianity with Abraham, and probably further back from that point in time still is the concept of polygamy. Through the ages an in almost every culture, especially aggregarian cultures, the practices of both polyandry and polygyny occurred. Many researchers believe the ecological, environmental, social and religious factors help to create a preference for one type of polygamy over the other.

Within many aggregarian and preindustrial developed countries families relied on the number of children they could produce rather than the educating and teaching of their children (Al-Krenawi, & Slonim-Nevo, 2008; Arrington, & Bitton, 1979; Anwar, 2005; Callahan, 1994; Goodwin, 2003; Kanazawa, & Still, 1999; Philips, 2005; Sanderson, 2001; Smith, 2004; Weiner, 2004). This idea fostered the concept of polygyny and meant one man had many wives in order to produce many children. Economically speaking, this made the female a scarce commodity and of great value (Kanazawa & Still, 1999).

The children were needed to help with farm and house chores and with younger siblings. There are often times that the females were also offered to members of other tribe, clans, and such as a way to gain an alliance between the families or tribes (Al-Krenawi, & Slonim-Nevo, 2008; Arrington, & Bitton, 1979; Anwar, 2005; Callahan, 1994; Goodwin, 2003; Kanazawa, & Still, 1999; Philips, 2005; Sanderson, 2001; Smith, 2004; Weiner, 2004). However, societal and economically needs were not the only reason people practiced polygamy.

In Islamic nations, the Koran, the book of worship, allows for every man to have up to 4 wives. There are stipulations that have to be met prior to taking additional wives. For instance, the husband must be able to treat all wives equally, and must be able to provide for each financially. The one aspect of the religion that is lost in the concept is that it was to be used to ensure that no widows and orphans were destitute if their husband or fathers were killed in battle (Al-Krenawi, & Slonim-Nevo, 2008; Callahan, 1994; Goodwin, 2003; Kanazawa, & Still, 1999; Philips, 2005; Sanderson, 2001; Weiner, 2004).

Theories of polygamy So, in Islamic nations, the theory is to protect those who need protection, mainly widows and orphans. In non-Islamic nations, polygamy theory is explained that children are the output or the commodity desired. The woman is the manufacturer, in the lowest sense of the word. More women per man, allows for more commodities to be produced, and will make the man wealthier. In non-Islamic countries there is not guideline about how to treat the wives, but it is really fair or just.

This goes for Islamic nations too. For a religion that gives so much protection of its women, it is also the most oppressive and polygamy rules are not enforced very well (Al-Krenawi, & Slonim-Nevo, 2008; Arrington, & Bitton, 1979; Anwar, 2005; Callahan, 1994; Goodwin, 2003; Kanazawa, & Still, 1999; Philips, 2005; Sanderson, 2001; Smith, 2004; Weiner, 2004). Community Islamic children from polygamous marriages often times have problems with self-esteem and find it hard to relate to others in the house and the community.

The idea that surrounds this weakness in mental health is believed to be cause by the lack of attention from the father when he finds a second, third or fourth wife. The children of the first wife will be pushed aside for the children of the second wife and so on. Another view is that when the marriages are not public to the first wife, a funeral can create a nasty problem when other wives and children appear.

In either case, the children suffer, unless that father/husband can provide equally, which more often than not does not happen (Al-Krenawi, & Slonim-Nevo, 2008; Callahan, 1994; Goodwin, 2003; Kanazawa, & Still, 1999; Philips, 2005; Sanderson, 2001; Weiner, 2004). One fact that is true in Islamic countries is that by having extra wives or concubines, and then there is no adultery, because the wives are legally married to the man. The idea is not to look for newer and younger wives, but that is usually what occurs.

Or the man will temporarily marry a woman, which allows him to have a relationship with her, but not be committing adultery. Therefore, the number of extra martial affairs is low in the country, but that does not mean non-existent. Many people from monogamous societies view the extra wives, concubines, and temporary wives as the extra marital affair. Some one is bound to be hurt by the actions, but Islamic men view it as their right and their duty.

They believe it is what Allah wants and requires of a good Islamic man (Al-Krenawi, & Slonim-Nevo, 2008; Callahan, 1994; Goodwin, 2003; Kanazawa, & Still, 1999; Philips, 2005; Sanderson, 2001; Weiner, 2004). Conclusion The United States has seen its own version of polygamy throughout its existence however; no community was so blatant about the belief as the Mormons in the 1800s. Even today, there are Mormons who practice what they call plural marriage.

One thing that does occur in many of these plural marriages is equality between the wives and only men of means and wealth are allowed to take more than one wife. While polygamy is not a dead concept in the United States, it is dying out. However, in other countries, there is a resurgence of the use of polygyny and more men in the Islamic religion are taking up to four wives but they do not always treat them equally. How can they treat the wives equally? In a place where the first wife is usually an arranged marriage and the second wife is for love, there is no equality.

Even with the resurgence of polygamy in Islamic countries, many women are crying out that it is wrong, and that the Islamic male is taking it out of context. The Koran does give way to take up to four wives, but in the verse before states that monogamous marriages are preferred. This shows that even thousands of years ago there was an urge to marry only one spouse that was not based on economic, societal or legal terms, but on the basis that only one spouse is necessary.

Polygamy versus Monogamy Essay

How polygenic traits produce the appearance of blending inheritance Essay

How polygenic traits produce the appearance of blending inheritance Essay.

Several studies have been carried out particularly on polygenic traits that have different alternate forms for example, white flower color vs. purple flower color. However many traits are more multifaceted than this and can take on any number of incessant values. For instance in humans there are not just two groups of people i.e. tall vs. short- but a full range of possible heights. To add on, many traits are not controlled by a single pair of gene but by numerous genes that interact with each other and also with the environment.

The study done on traits controlled by multiple genes and also by the environment is referred to as quantitative genetics.  This is regarded as one of the complex area of genetics but a little understanding of quantitative genetics is necessary for evolution since evolution usually acts on complex traits which are influenced both by genetics and by the surroundings/environment.

Polygenic and appearance of blending inheritance.

One of the main challenges in genetics during the early years of the 20th century concerned the following question: If Mendel’s thoughts were right then how can one clarify the inheritance of quantitative traits? Statistical research reveals that for quantitative traits the offspring of a cross breed tend to be intermediate in looks between the two parents.

For example if one parent is short and the other tall, the offspring tends to be intermediate in height.  This means, the offspring in a cross tend to be a mixture of both parents. This presents a challenge for evolution, since for evolution to occur by natural selection needs the presence of genetically based disparity in the value of a quantitative trait. However if an offspring lean towards the average value of the trait for the two parents then, the required variation for evolution to occur would be lost. The inheritance of quantitative traits is characteristically viewed in terms of what is referred to as polygenic inheritance.

The Assumptions of the Polygenic Model:

This polygenic model makes the following six simplifying assumptions: Every contributing gene has relatively equal and small effects, the effects of every allele are additive, there are no dominance; instead the genes at every locus behave as if they pursue an incomplete dominance, there is no interaction or epistasis among the different loci that contribute to the value of the trait, there is no connection involved and, the value of the trait relies only on genetics & environmental influences can be overlooked .

Example of Polygenic inheritance:

The core color in wheat is decided by two pairs of gene, known as polygenes which produce a variety of colors ranging from white to dark red depending on the mixtures of alleles. Dark red plants are known as homozygous AABB and white plants are referred to as homozygous aabb.  If these homozygotes are mixed/ crossed the F1 offspring are all dual heterozygotes AaBb.  Therefore crossing individuals with the phenotype extremely yields an offspring that is a ‘mixture’ of the two parents. This demonstrates a significant point that many times when one has two parents who vary in phenotype for some traits, then there will be a likelihood of the offspring to be an intermediate to the parents in phenotype. This occurrence is sometimes called regression to the mean.

The following punnett Square will illustrate what happens if 2 double heterozygotes are crossed: Take note that there are five phenotypic classes which corresponds to the number of upper case alleles 0 through to 4 that can be there in the offspring. Also note that even if both parents are intermediate, there will be no blending in the offspring such that one will see that 1/16 of the offspring will be dark red and 1/16 will be white. This replica suggests that when intermediate individuals mate, they produce an offspring that can be greater than either parent. Even if the polygenic replica makes several simplified assumptions it does seem to be a good estimate to the blending inheritance of a big number of quantitative traits.

A more complex example and a detailed mathematical study is shown below:

The height of a tobacco plant is controlled not by a single pair of genes but by a chain of genes at multiple loci that have a small additive effect on the phenotype of the plant. Take for example three loci, each having two alleles i.e. (A, a B, b C, c). Assume in pure-breeding, short plants are all aabbcc and that tall plants are all AABCC, circumstance whereby the height of the plant is determined depends entirely by the number of high case alleles regardless of  which locus the allele is at. Consequently a plant with the genotype AaBbcc is of the similar height as a plant with genotype AabbCc. There are seven probable classes of plant heights but depends with the number of upper case alleles (0, 1, 2,3,4,5 or 6).

If one conceders a pure breeding between a short plant aabbcc which is crossed with a pure breeding AABBCC plant then the F1’s which are as a result of this cross are obviously the triple heterozygote:


It should be noted that these plants will be intermediate in height between the two parents. However what happens when these intermediate individuals are mate/breed? So as to examine this, assume that the gene pairs are not linked, this will allow us to use independent variety to predict the product. The anticipated fraction of offspring in each height class is specified by the following idiom based on the binomial theorem:

N/ (M (N-M)

Whereby N is the figure/ number of alleles in total (6) while M is the number/ figure of upper case alleles in a given class. One way to understand this formula is as the number of methods of choosing a particular plant can have M upper case alleles out of N. At times we say N chooses M for this. N for our illustration is 6. This means that when M is zero there is just one way to get the number of upper case alleles. But if M = 1 there are 6! / (1! (5!) ) = 6 ways to do this.

Consider M = 3. Then we have 6! / (3! 3!) = 6x5x4/3x2x1 = 120/6 = 20.

Note: every gene has a little additive effect; the resulting allocation of phenotype classes closely resembles the Normal Distribution. Other complex replicas in quantitative genetics suppose that the phenotype effects are from both environmental factors and genetics, perhaps intermingle in complex ways. These types of models are known as multifactorial models.

How polygenic traits produce the appearance of blending inheritance Essay

Poor Oral Hygiene Essay

Poor Oral Hygiene Essay.

Prevention is better than cure. Good oral hygiene practices will keep away dental problems. This will in effect save you from toothaches and expensive dental treatment. The most interesting bit is that it is achievable by dedication of just a few minutes a day to oral hygiene care. Numerous oral hygiene products in addition to the usual toothpaste and brush can be found in the market to assist in this mission.

Unfortunately, most people only remember oral hygiene when a problem has occurred.

Research has revealed that although patient activation shows instant improvement in dental hygiene practices, just a small portion maintains these standards six months down the line. People need to take up good oral hygiene practices as a lifelong daily practice.

Awareness concerning the importance of dental hygiene has greatly increased in many countries especially the developed ones. However, modern nutrition and lifestyles have posed a great risk for dental health. In addition to healthy teeth making one feel good, they also enable one to speak properly.

Good dental health is vital for everyone’s general well-being.

It is very vital to learn to keep good oral hygiene from early childhood. Parents have a role to educate children how to use oral hygiene products properly. Any good dental hygiene must be a joint effort that also involves the dentist even though different people have differing needs. (Curtis, 2007).

One must seek the dentist’s advice on how to maintain good dental hygiene. The dentist as well as the dental hygiene specialist in some cases will properly instruct and educate on the right way to brush and floss. These specialists can also identify one’s specific needs and help in building a personal dental care plan.

Good oral hygiene leads to healthy looking and smelling mouth. The following are some of the signs of such a mouth:

– Clean teeth without plaque

– Pink gums

– Fresh breath

It is therefore no doubt that oral hygiene is essential. Lack of proper oral hygiene leads numerous health complications that may end up being very costly to cure. It is a good preventive measure to avert such a situation.

This presentation covers various aspects of oral health and its associated problems. It also investigates the causes of this problem in depth and the possible solutions to them.


Oral hygiene consists of the processes performed in order to keep the mouth clean and in good health. The aim of oral hygiene is preventing the building up of plaque. This is a sticky bacteria film that accumulates on the surface of the teeth. This occurs because of poor dental hygiene and is the main cause of many dental problems. Poor dental hygiene causes demineralization that causes tooth decay. Poor oral hygiene has an ultimate effect of teeth loss. Also, many mouth and dental health problems are caused by poor oral hygiene. Others include:

– Trench mouth

– Oral thrush

– Bad breath

Systemic diseases linked to poor oral hygiene include the following:

– Bacterial pneumonia

– Cardiovascular Disease

– Osteoporosis

– Low weight at birth

– Diabetes complications

– Premature birth

Osteoporosis and loss of teeth are dental health problems that mainly affect the elderly. Osteoporosis is a problem where the density of bones falls making them prone to fractures. This disease affects all bones in the body especially those of wrist, spine and hip. Research has linked osteoporosis with losing bone in the jaw. (Curtis, 2007).

Periodontitis is a dangerous infection affecting the gums and the teeth supporting bones. Bacteria and the immune system of the body disintegrate the bone and its connecting tissue that holds the teeth in place. The teeth eventually loosen up and need removal. Research has revealed that dental x-rays can be used as a tool to screen osteoporosis. It has discovered that the x-rays are very good in differentiating osteoporosis patients from normal bone density cases.

According to the WHO, oral health is big problem to all countries in the world. That is the reason WHO (World Health Organization) has placed great emphasis on developing worldwide policies to prevent oral diseases.

Studies have shown that oral hygiene has greatly improved particularly in developed countries, leading to better oral health. There is however a great concern worldwide that low income as well as other vulnerable people has growing levels of dental problems. These problems affect the health and well being of people. They also contribute to low levels of production in the workplace and high absenteeism in schools. It has also been established that healthy teeth and gums have a close link to a healthy heart.

The mouth has been referred to as the window to the body’s health. One’s state of dental health gives an idea about his general health. Oral health is linked to various other health problems beyond the mouth. It is common for the initial signs of a disease first showing in the mouth. Also mouth infections like the gum diseases more often than not affect other parts of the body.

The mouth contains bacteria. To keep these bacteria under control, good oral health is vital. Gum diseases may lead to bacteria entering the bloodstream. Researchers have discovered inflammations and bacteria from the mouth are connected to other health conditions in other parts of the body.


Some foods are believed to cause cavities. Cooked starch such as crisps may cause teeth damage but to a very small degree because starch is first converted by the saliva enzymes. Sucrose is also known to cause dental cavities. The frequency of sugar consumption is more likely to cause cavities than the amount of sugar consumed (Medicine Net, 2008).

Frequent consumption of sugars increases the time the teeth are exposed to low pH levels, causing demineralization. Frequent consumption of food and drinks that contain sugar should be discouraged to give the teeth a chance for repair by fluoride and remineralization. Limiting consumption of sugary foods till meal times reduces the chances of cavities. Fruit and fruit juice sugars such as maltose, fructose and glucose have equal chances of causing cavities (Curtis, 2007).

Acids in fruit juice and other soft drinks cause enamel demineralization since they lower pH levels. Therefore drinks such as cola and orange juice should not be taken through out the day since they greatly raise the chances of dental cavities.

Sticky foods also have a higher chance of causing cavities. By sticking to the teeth, they reduce the oral pH for long periods, especially if they contain sugar. Teeth should therefore be cleaned at least two times a day to remove debris from the teeth. Brushing regularly and using dental floss helps in removing dental plaque that coats the tooth surface (Ketterer, 1919).

Smoking as well as tobacco chewing has strong relationships with various dental diseases. Also, vomiting regularly is also known to cause a big damage to the teeth.


Oral hygiene involves keeping the teeth and mouth clean to avert dental complications and bad breath. Teeth cleaning involve removing tartar and dental plaque. This helps in preventing gum diseases, gingivitis and cavities. Gum diseases are believed to be the cause of more than thirty per cent of tooth loss in adulthood (Bunting, 1960).

Dental specialists are of the recommendation that teeth should be cleaned professionally at least two times in a year. This involves scaling, polishing and debridement. Fluoride treatment then follows for both children and adults (Kleinman and Loe, 1986).

In between the professional cleaning, good oral hygiene is important to prevent tartar from building up, which could cause the earlier-mentioned problems. This is achieved by careful and frequent brushing using a toothbrush and dental floss. This helps in preventing plaque from accumulating on the teeth.

Today, periodontologists recommend using inter-dental brushes instead of dental floss. They argue that it is gentler to the gums and has low risks of hard dental tissue damage. There exist various sizes of brushes recommended depending on the inter-dental space (Estupinan-Day, 2005).

Using dental floss is essential because it helps in removing plaque and decaying food remains stuck between teeth. This decaying food and plaque causes irritation to the gums, making it easier for them to bleed. Experts recommend flossing of at least once in a day, especially before bed time. This helps in preventing receding gums, cavities and gum diseases (Curtis, 2007).

Foods that are useful to the bones and muscles are also useful to the gums and teeth. Cereals and bread are full of vitamins B while vegetables and fruit contain vitamin C. both these nutrients lead to a healthy gum tissue. Magnesium and zinc can be derived from chicken, fish and lean meat. Experts recommend brushing of teeth after meals and before bed and flossing at least once daily, especially before sleep. However, flossing is recommended after meals for some people.

Foods rich in fluoride help in protecting against cavities. Fluoride helps in making the teeth surface acid-resistant during remineralization. Some specialists recommend drinking of water rich in proteins while others argue that using toothpaste alone is enough. Remineralization can also be encouraged by foods rich in calcium and phosphate such as milk and cheese.

All forms of food raise saliva secretion that helps to stabilize the pH in the mouth to 7. Fibrous food help in increasing saliva flow. Sugarless chewing gums stimulate saliva secretion, helping to clean the teeth surface (Curtis, 2007).

Chewing gum assists in oral irrigation, cleaning and removal of particles. However, it is not recommended for teeth in poor condition as t may end up damaging or removing loose teeth fillings also.

Mouthwash improves oral hygiene while dental chewing gums help in improving oral health. Retainers are cleaned in mouthwash. Dentists also recommend dental braces for good oral health and hygiene.


It is evident that oral health is an important aspect of healthy living. It not only makes people feel good about themselves, but also avoid other numerous complications associated with it. Such complications may in the long run be very expensive to cure. Some of them may even be permanent such as loss of teeth. Loss of teeth may in turn make it difficult to speak properly. It is therefore vital that everyone embraces healthy practices to improve and maintain their oral hygiene. Prevention is no doubt better than treatment.

Poor Oral Hygiene Essay

Population growth trends of the Most Industrialized Nations and Least Industrialized Nations Essay

Population growth trends of the Most Industrialized Nations and Least Industrialized Nations Essay.

World is being divided in two parts demographically. One half of the world including the industrialized countries has completed the demographic transition. In these countries, fertility rate is quite low. In the other half, where birth rates remain high, rapid population growth is beginning to overwhelm local life-support systems in many countries, leading to ecological deterioration and declining living standards. Once this deterioration begins, rapid population growth and ecological deterioration feed on each other, pushing countries into a demographic trap.

There is a broad consensus that high fertility and rapid population growth slows socioeconomic development in less developed countries In general, with economic development (e.

g. , gains in agricultural productivity and industrial technology, better transportation and commercial networks, advances in medicine and hygiene) came improvements in nutrition and health of populations. This improvement resulted in enhanced survival prospects and falling death rates. With a lag, the customs promoting high fertility were eroded.

As societies became more industrialized and urban, parents increasingly perceived fewer net advantages to large families.

Eventually fertility declines caught up with the lower mortality. Today the economically advanced nations of Europe and North America as well as Australia, New Zealand, and Japan have essentially attained replacement level fertility. Thus, based on the historical record of these advanced nations, it seems that economic development brought about the demographic transition.

In effect, ecological deterioration, economic decline, and political instability reinforce each other, confronting governments with the prospect of social disintegration. In this paper a careful, analysis of aggregate of population growth rate will be made in developing and developed countries. The ultimate size of the global population largely depends on how quickly nations of the “third” and “fourth” worlds complete their fertility transitions moving from traditional regimes of high fertility to modern regimes where the average couple desires and produces no more than the two births required for replacement. Brown and Jacobson 1986)

Discussion The world population is larger and wealthier than ever. We understand our needs better than did the early agriculturists. We are also more clever and innovative at harnessing and manipulating the ecological currency of energy. The green revolution is continuing, and seems to be defying the Malthusian vision of increased war, famine, and disease. If only 20 percent of the fresh water on earth were used for agriculture, which is somewhat more reasonable, then under the “best” scenario the earth’s water could support 30. 5 billion people.

But Cohen’s best-case scenarios are purposefully optimistic rather than realistic. As one considers different estimates of the variables involved, such as how much water is conveniently available or how efficient we are with its use, then the numbers start to drop. In Cohen’s worst-case scenario, there is only enough water on earth to support 1. 1 billion people. We passed that number shortly before the beginning of the twentieth century. Indeed, the twentieth century saw a ninefold increase in the total amount of water humans drew from rivers and aquifers.

Meanwhile the population grew six fold. Part of the disparity between six- and nine fold comes from increased need of water for irrigation rather than dry farming and for industry to support the growing population. If cycles of expansion and stagnation punctuate the rhythms of the world system, one would expect that environmentally degradative effects would follow the patterning of the cycles of growth and stagnation. Because of their long temporality, it would be more appropriate to term the increasing appearance of environmental degradative instances as ‘long swings. My beginning and thus far limited exploration of these ‘long swings’ of environmental degradation seems to suggest that they correlate with population growth, at least for one country (China) over a 2,000 year period. Population growth trends have been described to fit an ‘s’ curve (a logistic curve) whereby a period of accelerated growth is followed by a slowdown, and the limits of the curve asymptotically approaches a horizontal line that is parallel to the asymptote of origin.

If this is the case, the dimension of population and its interrelations with the other features of the world system must be included in our analysis of long-term change. Especially in our case, population is a variable that determines the sustainability of Nature, which in turn is also determined by Nature. Symbolic interactionists are particularly interested in how persons nurture both a concept of self and their identities through roles and the interactions of people. To illustrate, consider how symbolic interactionists might examine how adult children care for aging parents.

Analyzing roles would be particularly useful, most notably how adult children adjust to the caregiving role and how aging parents adapt to being the recipients of assistance. In this way, the dynamics of intergenerational caregiving might best be understood when they are examined in the context of the social setting in which they occur. Symbolic interactionists would also explore the redefinition of generational roles that often takes place during caregiving situations. That is, elderly parents once gave assistance; now they are receiving it.

This shift requires the redefinition of role expectations as well as the realignment of family power. Other dimensions of roles are equally important to acknowledge. For example, persons often play several roles at the same time, known as a role set. To illustrate, a man may be a father, but he also plays the role of a husband and company employee. In the foregoing example, he may also be a son as well as a caregiver to his own parents. Also, it is not uncommon for an individual to experience difficulty in meeting the responsibilities or obligations of a role, termed role strain.

For instance, the woman who successfully plays the roles of wife and company executive but has trouble providing care to her newborn child is experiencing a type of role strain, particularly as far as the mothering role is concerned. Role conflict occurs when a person is faced with competing demands in roles originating from two different social statuses. Role conflict can be seen when a female business manager hires a close friend: the demands of being a supervisor might clash with the role of being a good friend.

One mechanism is that more education leads to fewer but higher quality members; then slower population growth implies more capital per worker. Also, an increase in the quality of workers implies greater technical progress, either through absorption of existing technology or the creation of new technology. Both lead to higher incomes. This portion links demographic transitions to East Asia’s growth. We first examine demographic trends in these countries and link them to the rise of school enrollment. We then connect the rise in educational attainment to more rapid economic growth.

We divide the region into three groups. First is North East Asia, including Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore (as an honorary member of this group). They have much in common: culture, ethnicity and historical experiences. Second is South East Asia, including Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines. They are more diverse in culture and ethnicity. Third is China, a country enormous in size and in economic diversity. Japan, much like Europe, passed through the demographic transition to moderate and then low population growth with few of the challenges confronting developing countries today.

Population growth in the 150 years before 1868 was very low. Between 1720 and 1870, the population grew from 26 million to only 30 to 33 million annual increases a fraction of the 2. 6 percent experienced by East Asia’s developing countries in the late 1960s as they entered their rapid economic growth periods. From the 1880s into the early 20th century, Japan’s population growth increased to moderately high levels (averaging 1 percent per annum slightly higher than Europe but significantly lower than the United States over that period).

By the 1920s, Japan’s fertility rate was already in secular decline; government pro-natalist policies from 1940-45 could only momentarily arrest this trend. The implications of Japan’s population dynamics over time for the course of economic development have been enormous, even though largely unplanned. Japan entered Meiji as a mid-sized state with a population large enough that development could be pursued, wittingly or unwittingly, using the marginal gains from surplus agrarian labor in industry.

At the same time, the population was not growing so rapidly as to absorb increases in agricultural output, which were instead a source of industrial capital. Domestic markets were of a size to allow for economies of scale. Moreover, population growth—even in the peak decades—was low enough to accommodate human capital deepening through increased educational spending; productivity was helped through higher capital to worker ratios; and higher incomes led to more savings.

Because Japan had a large population on the eve of modern development (its 34 million people in 1870 was second in size to only the United States and France among the countries later to form the OECD) and a dense man-to-land ratio, it came to have a large pool of agrarian labor to draw into industry. The early growth gains came in substantial part from a surplus of labor, which industry used at low wage rates; low-skilled, labor-intensive enterprises dominated the economy (including the export sector) into the 1920s.

The crossover point at which labor supply became inelastic is still debated. 49 From World War 1, real wages in heavy manufacturing began to increase, but aspects of a dual economy with substantial wage differentials between the large-scale modern sector and traditional small and medium manufacturers persisted until the 1960s. At the same time, it is important to recall Japan’s slow population growth through the nineteenth and early part of twentieth centuries; the labor supply grew steadily, at 0. 5 percent per annum, between 1880-1920.

In consequence, the nation did not face the daunting problems of labor absorption or mass unemployment seen in parts of the developing world today. Freedman ( 1982) notes, too, the importance of an international demonstration effect. The high-consumption lifestyle of the West is initially emulated by the elite and more literate in the developing countries, with a consequent moderation in fertility. Their example then diffuses among the larger population as material aspirations are whetted and economic mobility perceived.

When this happens, receptiveness toward family planning programs becomes more widespread, which in turn validates the growing desire for fertility limitation. Leibenstein’s theory of fertility decline, which builds on the concept of “social influence groups,” fits nicely here. 3 With economic growth and modernization, mobility is enhanced and the distinctions among socioeconomic strata may become blurred. To maintain a relative position in the social structure, and even more so to advance, families feel compelled to manifest a certain consumption standard.

The dual constraints of narrowing income differentials and “required” consumption expenditures, to advertise one’s membership in a particular social influence group, put pressure on the families to restrict numbers and thus to reduce fertility. Fertility and family-size standards may even evolve within social influence groups. While Caldwell’s and Leibenstein’s theories are intuitively attractive, both are handicapped when it comes to empirical verification–finding standardized or comparable data on intergenerational wealth flows or social influence group pressures.

To some extent this situation is the well-known bane of social science, a fortiori for theories of fertility, Unfortunately it seems to be especially problematic for these two models. The concepts of child quality and the opportunity cost of time (especially for the mother) are important. Child quality denotes expenditures per child (“child deepening”) and may reflect parental aspirations for and investments in each child. Increases in income may be associated with reduced fertility not because children are inferior goods, but because parents substitute child quality for child quantity.

Technically put, the income elasticity of child quantity is positive but less than the income elasticity of child quality. More simply stated, parents, on average, opt for having fewer children and spending more on each child. Related to this concept, with the gains in female education and economic opportunity likely to accompany economic growth and modernization, the opportunity cost of a woman’s time (measured by the net wage she could earn in market activities) increases, making time-intensive activities such as child rearing relatively more expensive.

This situation also would tend to depress fertility, ceteris paribus. The key variables in the microeconomic model of fertility are income and prices (in terms of money and time) of child-related versus nonchild-related goods and activities. Symbolic interactionism is a major school of thought in human development, sociology, and family studies and is widely used in the study of close relationships. Symbolic interactionism emphasizes the association between symbols (i. e. , shared meanings) and interactions (i. . , verbal and nonverbal actions and communications). Essentially, this approach seeks to understand how humans, in concert with one another, create symbolic worlds and how these worlds, in turn, shape human behavior. Within the study of relationships across the lifespan, symbolic interactionists are particularly interested in how persons nurture a concept of self and of their identities through social interaction, thus enabling them to independently assign value to and assess value in their lives.

Symbolic interactionism, then, carefully analyzes the actions of individuals, since covert activity is deemed crucial in understanding the impact of society on development. Thus the dynamics of lifespan development are best understood when they are examined in the context of the social setting in which they take place. Relatedly, patterns of interaction, such as those taking place during peer-group or sibling interactions, parent-child relations, or caring for an aging family member, are best understood when their shared meanings are fathomed. This theory is especially useful in analyzing how individuals adjust to various

Population growth trends of the Most Industrialized Nations and Least Industrialized Nations Essay

Population Density Essay

Population Density Essay.

Population explosion and overcrowding has become an ever increasing threat to the world today. Overcrowding describes a condition where space has become limited and therefore, has negative effects. The problem of overcrowding can be more threatening if it occurs in a area where people came from diverse backgrounds and are not civil with each other. Overcrowding is a serious problem. To illustrate, I recall a time when I was living in a college dormitory. There, I have to respect other cultural beliefs, practices and rituals (which may not be agreeable to me) otherwise conflict will become a constant occurrence.

The hardest part was adjusting to the attitudes of others especially those who came from dissimilar backgrounds and races. Attitudes can be the worse problem as there were those who were very sensitive, insensitive, moody, dishonest, and wasteful and use personal belongings without asking permission. Moreover, some acceptable habits, words and gestures can be a taboo to other cultures. Another difficulty that I had experienced is regarding the use of the dormitory amenities.

For example, if I do not want to be late for class, I have to wake up early in order to be the first to take a bath otherwise I will have to wait for those who does not seem to think that time was gold and that others were anxiously waiting for them outside while they perform their bathroom rituals. Study hour was also a big frustration as my roommates talked on and on and blasted their stereos while I tried to concentrate. In a larger scale, my dormitory experience aptly describes what America is currently facing and will continue to be facing with its growing population.

As a country that has become a symbol of hope and prosperity all over the world, it has become a melting pot for many cultures from Asia, Africa, Europe and South America. Many cities in America now had become congested with the influx of immigrants. The presence of Chinese, Japanese, French, Indians, Mexicans, etc brought into constant contact different practices, beliefs and attitudes which of course could trigger conflict and misunderstanding between neighborhood, workplaces and schools.

Because of these misunderstanding, which is often aggravated with the inability to communicate well due to language difference, there is constant tension and crime increases between races and cultures, especially among the youth (Katz & et. al, 2005, pp. 234,320). Another problem with overcrowding in the American scene is regarding problems with housing and increasing homelessness. Between neighbors, long standing residents will find themselves resisting newcomers and will have to fight over neighborhood parking, home upkeep and noise.

Long standing residents, especially the rich, will also have clashes with the housing enforcement officials regarding who and what should be allowed in their particular neighborhood. Moreover, with growing population, slums and ghettos will proliferate as many newcomers and immigrants will first settle in these areas since it is cheap and where workplace is near. The problem with slums is that it lacked amenities, can be the means for the fast spread of diseases and has high level of pollution.

Usually people who occupy these areas become accustomed to their unhygienic surroundings (Katz & et. al. , 2005, p. 313; Hirsch & Mohl, 1993, pp. 68-70). Other negative effects of overcrowding are unemployment, noise, traffic and pollution. There would be more people seeking for work and going about in the city. Work competition would be stiffer and traffic conditions can become worse as more people have the possibility to violate traffic rules. America today is now facing a problem with overcrowding in their prisons as more and more people are apprehended by the law.

Noise and environmental pollution would become an increasing problem for more people means there are more cars honking their horns and giving off car exhaust and more people contributing to waste (Katz & et. al, 2005, p. 324). To avoid overcrowding, rules are usually enforced. Most organizations or groups would limit the number of participants or members by specifying who should join and what were the requirements needed to be accepted. In America, overcrowding is mostly caused by the influx of immigrants so that immigration tried to tighten the entry of foreigners in its territory through stricter requirements and policies(Grant,1996,p. 10).

Regarding housing problems resulting from overcrowding, housing policies (such as limiting the number of house occupants) are also enforced (Gaile & Willmott, 2004, p. 165). On the other hand, some governments established rules that promote birth control (Grant, 1996, p. 210). Another way to solve overcrowding would be dispersal and decentralization. This two tries to discourage people from crowding themselves in one particular area by setting up situations and enforcing policies that would encourage them to settle elsewhere (Katz & et. al, 2005, p. 287).

One example would be the transfer of industries from urban cities to suburban areas so that people will no longer have to leave rural towns or suburbs and settle in cities to find employment. In the case of the wealthy Americans, in order to escape the noise, congestion and pollution in the cities, and to build better homes and live in a more congenial environment they themselves voluntarily relocated to live in the suburbs (Hirsch & Mohl, 1993, p. 67). Therefore, overcrowding is a situation that needs to be avoided especially if it occurs among people of diverse backgrounds.

Contact of diverse backgrounds has the tendency to result to conflict and misunderstanding because of the difference in beliefs, practices and attitudes. The problem could be aggravated with the proliferation of slums and ghettos, increased noise, traffic and unemployment. To solve the problem of overcrowding, rules and policies are established that would prevent the people from giving birth to more babies or encourage them to settle to less populated areas or prevent them to settle in a particular area.

Population Density Essay

Perpetual Increase of Tuition Fee Essay

Perpetual Increase of Tuition Fee Essay.


Like any other individuals, we are pursuing our right in every ways, delivering our thoughts and standing for what is due. We live side by side of our political system; adhere to what is implemented, grasp what has been told and act supposedly. The people is the basic unit of the nation that should be valued, cared and needs be sustained to augment their knowledge and skills in order to have cooperation in uplifting the economy and the living situation of every individual.

Education is essential, basic and a must to a person for education is the source of knowledge and can improve you eventually as you step up in every stage that is prepared for a long time. The knowledge that has been thought will be passed down up to the next generation. It truly depicts that education is very treasure for everyone. This is something that can inform you from the lowest up to the highest information that could help you achieve your ambition and goals even how hard it is.

But how is education be attained and sustained if it costs too high that even a single bar of it can’t be grasp? How could we possibly digest education when it is deprived to us because of costly tuition fee rate? Is education nowadays a right or just a privilege?


Our country is indeed aiming for quality education. Every school promotes its unique and exquisite style of performance and in every State Universities and Colleges is having their center of Excellency. But on the other side of the story tuition fee is always increasing and again and again inflating. Majority of the settlers here in our country is having difficulty striving just to uplift the way of living they have. This could be the means of conflict between the students and the learning institutions. “Higher education for a better nation” but how our nation will be better if this education they offered can’t be afforded? Just in this time many of my fellow youth are studying not inside the learning institution but they are studying how they can supply their daily needs and studying what job they are in.

Unemployment rate has never been going down it always strikes the sky above. Why not create or craft new and effective formula and try to break down the problems into pieces. We are facing financial crisis and here comes the inflated tuition fees what is the outcome of it? Probably crushed and ruined dreams of every youth will be as huge as a mountain. It is in this environment that the government intervention is needed. Our tuition fees are not Income Generation of our Alma matter, we are not investors here and we are not investing just to build glamorous buildings and infrastructure, because we just need a simple apparatus just to learn perfectly.

Students are investing for their future and we are not business partners of every learning institution. We came to feed ourselves of information not to feed the institution. Students are being aggressive because of this scenario happening they form groups and parties leading to an action appealing this kind of imbalance movement tuition fee hike. Of course they are full of potentials some of them are really solid leaders and if this scenario will continue eventually they will be like handicap persons who cannot move because they were tangled down in the reason of they do not hold degrees.

As what we are claiming and what has been told to us by our hero Dr. Rizal “Youth is hope of our nation” if youth are not properly equipped of information how can we stand for that claim? If we are not properly educated we will be wasted. Truly if this problem will arise gradually nothing would be left for our youth. Our future depends on what we are studying if this would be taken away from us because of the tuition fee hike our lives will be fruitless and our nation wouldn’t be productive enough. Education is a must for everyone in fact education is right but what we are facing today is now a privilege. Education is a long term solution to the problems that we face.

So what effect does it have on students?

The increase in tuition fee every year means additional loan and burden to parents and more money comes out from the pocket for tuition. So if a student budget a certain amount of money for his or her whole course of study, that student will have to add extra amount of money to the old budget in order to be able to pay all his or her tuition fees.

Some students strive to work just to sustain its study, double their time and their effort just to have more savings and for other school projects and requirements. Instead of focusing their mind and ability performing student responsibilities it was divided into different activities in order to sustain the education they have. It can result to stop schooling for a while just to earn more money and save more and more to prepare for its education. It can also be the cause of delay for their future and just a waste of time if they will stop and again another fruitless for their lives again. Depression, frustration and disappointment will be felt by these students. The students also become desperate to debt just to continue and pursue their dreams. So much stress imparted to these students.

These effects are really inevitable if this burden continue. Students are the source of man power if they are equipped with the best offensive knowledge and defensive techniques supporting our system providing strong foundation from what they have learned.


High tuition fee can motivate students to strive more and learn how to value education more, because nothing more education is a right, the fact that we can’t deny. But as of now we are still a developing country. We should not quickly shift and leap forward for costly tuition fee. Many of our youth is dreaming of education especially tertiary level education. Government should take a look of it; it is also under its jurisdiction to embrace with attention. Give out hope to these youth to pursue the dreams they want.


Since it’s somewhat impossible to stop the increase, the least we could do is to give more options to people who clearly have little capability to send themselves to a learning institution. We can still promote scholarship grant or any internship in universities just to ease up the tuition fee bills. But in this time we should make sure that those beneficiaries are much more deserving so that it will not be wasted. Government should donate some facilities or buildings just to lessen the tuition fee, like sponsoring from other groups or any party list groups. We should also consider the life style of the people or income they receive comparing to the tuition fee, if necessary to decrease the tuition in such way students can grab somehow. Reaching out to students what is due to them. We can help one another in formulating solutions to simplify things correctly.

As what University of the Philippines created called STFAP or Socialized Tuition and Financial Assistance Program, we can adopt this idea and be regulated in every learning institution. I think it could be more practical in this way so that students may not carry heavy loads. For those who came from low income families they will be receiving monthly allowance and instead of working at night just to sustain education they have. Under the STFAP, you can get benefits with regard to tuition fee payments, laboratory fees and, in some cases, a monthly stipend from the university. The brackets with their corresponding benefits are as follows: * Bracket A (income of over PhP1,000,000 annually) students pay the full tuition fee at PhP1,500 per unit * Bracket B (income of PhP500,001 to PhP1,000,000 annually) students pay only the base tuition at PhP1,000 per unit

* Bracket C (income of PhP250,001 to PhP500,000 annually) applicants pay 60% of the base tuition at PhP600 per unit * Bracket D (income of PhP135,001 to PhP250,000 annually) students pay 30% of the base tuition at PhP300 per unit * Bracket E1 (income of PhP80, 001 to PhP135, 000 annually) and Bracket E2 (income of PhP80, 000 or less annually) students do not have to pay tuition fees. Additionally, Bracket E2 students get a monthly allowance valued at PhP12, 000 every semester or about PhP2, 400 every month. Students categorized under Brackets A through D also have to pay full laboratory and miscellaneous fees amounting to about PhP2, 000 upon enrolment.

Perpetual Increase of Tuition Fee Essay

Infinite Person Essay

Infinite Person Essay.

I think that people like Mother Teresa to me is a perfect example of a infinite person.She give us all a new meaning to life. She truly proved that one person can really make a difference in the lives of millions. Mother Teresa set examples for future generations to continue her work.This shows how much of an impact she truly had. She made a difference, not by helping everyone, but by making people stop and realize how they could do the same.

It should be instilled in our minds that we have a duty to help and serve others.

If we as a hole took the examples of Mother Teresa and followed them our society would be a much better place. She went to countries with no medical care, no food, no drinking water, and never mind other necessities. Mother Teresa used her power of love from God to help those in desperate need. Mother Teresa didn’t get paid for anything she did nor would she except money from organizations or donations.

It was not like Mother Teresa had an overwhelming amount of money but she was simply a person who devoted her entire life to serving others and helping those in need. Many people may not have noticed it, but all Mother Teresa had to do was touch a person and that was almost enough. She helped thousands of people in poor countries with ailing diseases, but most importantly see touched the souls of common men. She made even the rich and selfish take a deep look into their lives, which brought out the best in everyone.

Infinite Person Essay

Inside Job Documentary Essay

Inside Job Documentary Essay.

The documentary Inside Job does a very good job of explaining what happened in a relatively short period of time and in an accessible way. The film also has compelling villains and outrageous behavior that is bound to engage and enrage viewers. It’s basically an overview of the financial crisis of recent years, which we are still recovering from. The thesis seems to be that the regulations that were put in place after the Great Depression have been systematically dismantled since the Reagan years (powered by Wall Street lobbyists) which played a pivotal role in this meltdown and lesser ones in previous years.

And very little is being done to fix this faulty system and the ones who should be held liable are not and still filthy, filthy rich and very powerful. The most breathtaking fact is that the arrogance, greed and corruption that these people exhibit and the fact that none of them have been indicted for fraud and violation.

This film not only makes me angry but also furious.

This shows concept of capitalism at its worst. It is not about right, left, democrat or republican nor the failure of capitalism, it was about pure greed and corruption. What happened and continues to this day is not capitalism. It is corporatism I think which is also known as fascism. If it were truly capitalism, there would be no such thing as “too big to fail” and there would be so many fines and prison sentences handed down it would hugely dwarf the savings and loan scandal.

This film portrays lots of psychopaths that only care about one thing: furthering their own personal gain and the ends justifies the means is their mantra. Over here psychopaths means the people who are over obsessed with money and they just want more and more. There is a lot of wrong doing which is not ethical but legal because the American government helped them to make it legal like CitiGroup acquiring Traveler. Why does the financial system have to grow more complex, in the sense of allowing high leverage, moral hazard, opaqueness, and brittle interconnections to flourish? Of course panic will continue to exist and be unpredictable.

But the system itself needs to be transparent, properly capitalized, compartmentalized, and policed, so bankers don’t extract mountains of money in good times and then have it go down in flames in bad times every few years. If we can build a robust Internet or electrical grid, we can build a robust financial system. They should all be able to get bigger and more capable without being at risk of constant collapse. You can’t eliminate risk of failure, but you can keep it reasonably small. There is simply no excuse for building a system which can collapse in its entirety without government bailouts.

And ultimately, that’s what makes the financial crisis so scary. The complexity of the system far exceeded the capacity of the participants, experts and watchdogs. Even after the crisis happened, it was devilishly hard to understand what was going on. Some people managed to connect the right dots, in the right ways and at the right times, but not so many, and not through such reproducible methods, that it’s clear how we can make their success the norm. What makes me sad is that our key systems are going to continue growing more complex, and we’re not getting any smarter, or any less able to ignore risks that we know we should be preparing for.

In my opinion, the movie has a bright side and a dark side. I enjoyed seeing known people talk about the economical crisis and giving their side of the story. I enjoyed seeing witnesses given in Washington by bankers accused of their shameful practices. I think the movie put my attention on the deep problem of lobbying, which results in inefficient regulation and creates a threat for the whole system. The big problem with the movie, however, is black and white approach it takes. It presents 10% of a complicated picture and makes one to believe that it is 100%. For example, deregulation is widely accepted as one of reasons for the economical crisis. In the movie, it is represented in such a way that it looks ridiculous how a law on deregulation could pass – corrupted officials is a hint.

The facts are well presented in the movie. Some of them are true like: 1) Banks want to be Too Big To Fail because they know that if they’re too big, they’ll be bailed out. 2) The progressive deregulation of the financial sector since the 1980s gave rise to an increasingly criminal industry. 3) The industry has made more money since the crisis. 4) The average salary of a Goldman Sachs employee is $600,000. 5) AIG paid Goldman Sachs $13 billion in taxpayer money. 6) AIG’s Joe Cassano made $315 million after the company took at least $85 billion from taxpayers. But some of the facts shown were not true.

Like the one where it says Dick Fuld earned $485 million, on the other hand it was less than $310 million. It also says that in 2008, the collapse of Lehman Brothers and AIG triggered the crisis. But that is not true as the origins of the crisis can be traced back even further, to the implosion of two Bear Stearns hedge funds run by Ralph Cioffi and Matthew Tannin, the Bear Stearns High Grade Structured Credit Strategies Fund and the Bear Stearns High Grade Structured Credit Strategies Enhanced Fund. It actually all started back in early 90’s.

I don’t fully understand the working of the derivatives and credit swaps we’ve heard so much about. But I’m learning. These are ingenious, computer-driven schemes in which good money can be earned from bad debt, and Wall Street’s Masters of the Universe pocket untold millions while they bankrupt their investors and their companies. The crucial error was to allow financial institutions to trade on their own behalf. Today, many large trading banks are betting against their own customers.

In the real estate market, banks aggressively promoted mortgages to people who could not afford them. These were assembled in packages. They were carried on the books as tangible assets when they were worthless. The institutions assembling them hedged their loans by betting against them. When the mortgages failed, profits were made despite and because of their failure. There is no moral justification for how Wall Street functions today.

One of the most fascinating aspects of “Inside Job” involves the chatty on-camera insights of Kristin Davis, a Wall Street madam, who says the Street operated in a climate of abundant sex and cocaine for valued clients and the traders themselves showing themselves as psychopaths. She says it was accepted parts of the corporate culture that hookers at $1,000 an hour and up were kept on retainer and that cocaine was the fuel.

There’s a lot to dislike about Wall Street that I have generated after watching this film mainly the pay, the culture and in many cases, the people. A lot of observers understood we had a housing bubble — Dean Baker, for instance, had been sounding the alarm for years — but few of the housing skeptics saw everything going on behind the bubble: That the subprime mortgages had been packaged into bonds, that the bonds had been sliced into tranches, that the formulas being used to price and rate the tranches got the variable expressing correlation wrong, that an extraordinary number of banks had purchased an extraordinary amount of insurance against getting that correlation wrong from AIG, that AIG had also priced the correlation wrong and would be unable to pay its debts in the event of a meltdown, that a meltdown would freeze the mostly unregulated shadow market that major financial institutions and players used to fund themselves, that the modern financial system was so fragile that an uptick in delinquent subprime mortgages could effectively crash the global economy.

What’s remarkable about the financial crisis isn’t just how many people got it wrong, but how many people who got it wrong had an incentive to get it right: journalists, hedge funds, independent investors and academics regulators. Even traders, many of whom had most of their money tied up in their soon-tobe-worthless firms.

I don’t think anything can change my views about US markets. After watching this movie and my own views from reading day by day news articles and after President Barack Obama again reelecting those people to run the government who got us into this mess.

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Insights on Guidance Counseling Essay

Insights on Guidance Counseling Essay.

It is said that school is second to home, and teachers act as a child’s parent. The role of a teacher therefore is equated to the role of a parent. One of these roles, and perhaps the most complicated one is the role of giving guidance.

First, one cannot guide if he is lost. Meaning, inorder for a person to be able to give out guidance to another person, he must first examine himself very well. Because guidance is all about leading someone to the right path.

Therefore, if a student is problematic with his studies and is at risk of failing or dropping out, it is the teacher’s primary role to examine the cause – it could possibly be because the teacher is so strict, or could be because the teacher’s main concern is only imparting the subject matter without giving importance to his/her student’s interest. Because sometimes, it could also be that a teacher is the one who is lost.

Guidance takes two to tango. It is not one sided. There must be a giver and a taker. The teacher acts as the giver of help, and the problematic person as the taker of the teacher’s advice. This relationship must be seriously attended to by each side until both parties reach the point of stabilization. If ever one of them breaks from this act while in the middle of the process, then guidance is not given at all, there is only waste of time, and the child remain helpless.

Teach a man how to fish, and he will live forever. Guidance must not be spoon-feeding. It should not be about being dependent and giving solutions to a man’s problem. Instead, it is about teaching a person how to be independent and strong enough to find solutions to his own problems. Guidance is given so that a person must learn to make his own decisions, his own insights and realizations.

And lastly, united we stand, divided we fall -guidance is collaborative. Inorder for guidance to succeed, it needs everyone’s support-both from the school’s community and the child’s community. It needs constant cooperation between the child’s family and the school’s guidance committee which could be composed of the guidance counselor, principal and the teacher. The center of focus is the problematic child. It is like bayanihan, it demands everyones effort to help for it to be successful.

Insights on Guidance Counseling Essay