The economic effect of the Olympic games Essay

The economic effect of the Olympic games Essay.

Abstract:

The Olympic games are one of the world most important activity from a sporting point of view because all of the most important players in the world will be there and will raise the prestige of the country but also from an economic point of view because to host such an event you attract new investments , business opportunities and the number of tourists will raise and that will boost the economy of a country for the long. Purpose of search: The aim of this paper is to show how the Olympic games can influence the economy.

Key words: Olympic games, economic effect,costs.

JEL classification : L83,D6
Introduction:

The contribution of an Olympic game to a country economy is very significant , also it helps in developing the host city area by creating new job opportunities from the infrastructure level to the tourism .However this major sport events has it’s advantages it also has disadvantages like: building and maintaining the infrastructure, costs of hosting the event and overpopulation.

Critical analysis of the specialty literature:

Studies have showed that there is a period of three years where the GDP which is the principal factor to measure the health of a country’s economy, grows to a maximum level being represented by the year of the event then it starts to decrease. According to Huang (2011):“Most of hosted successfully Olympic Games all bring remarkable economic benefits to host country’s development of various industries. For example, p reparations for the Olympic Games brought Korea 7 billion dollars in production and 2.7 billion dollars in national income from year 1981 to 1988, the average annual economic growth rate reached 12.4%.”

Tourism is also a very important branch from which you can increase the GDP and to develop the area in which the event is hold with the construction of the Olympic village, stadiums and already existing local attractions. But to have a continuous income the sport tourism it is still a need to invest and promote the sport industry. Plus there millions of people watching the event from home and might consider in the future visiting the country. Another plus for a country which host the event comes from the sports industry .According to Mingxiao (2005) :” Sports industry is one of the important material bases to sports economic development and socialprogress, has an important stimulat ing role on sports economy and even national economic growth, and is the emergence of modern human economy in the form of a new industrial economy “.

For the short run the country who organizes the games has for the beginning very high cost of investments and little revenues but they will be covered the cost and will make a profit in the long run period . In some particular cases they might never be recover the costs. The most expensive winter Olympics games were in Sochi, Russia in 2014 an it cost 50 billion dollars from which $6.4 billion was spent on sports related costs. Initially it should have cost only 12 billion but the place was chose poorly because Sochi has a humid subtropical climate being located near the Black Sea and they went over budget with the cost of maintaining the winter conditions.

Conclusion:

My opinion regarding the economic effect of the Olympic games is that the economic boost is very significant for the country and it can be see in the raise of the income from tourism industry and sports industry. It is also good because there are a lot of investments in infrastructure that will last for a long period of time, it creates new jobs for the people, and to host such an event has raised the prestige of a country and the GDP.

References:

Andersen ,A.,1999.Economic impactstudy of the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games ,Centre for Regional Economic Analysis ,University of Tasmania.

Baade ,R.,A. Matheson, V., 2002.Biddingfor the Olympics: fool’s gold ?,Transatlantic Sport: The Comparative Economics of North American and European Sports, London, Edward Elgar. Bingfeng,Y.,2010. Probe for development strategy of China’s sports economy. Sports Culture Guide. No.4, p. 65-68. Brunet, F., 1993 . Economy of the 1992 Barcelona Olympic Games , Lausanne, International Olympic Committee. Brunet, F., 1995.An economic
analysis of the Barcelona ’92 Olympic Games:resources, financing and impact , The keys to success,Autonomous University of Barcelona.

Economics Research Associates, 1984. Community economic impact of the 9184 Olympic Games in Los Angeles and Southern California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles Olympic Organizing Committee. Guangxin,Z.,2008. Think about the development of China’s sports industry. Guangming Daily. Sept, 17. Humphreys,J.,M., Plummer , M.,K.,1995.The economic impact of the state of Georgia of hosting the 1996 Olympic Games ,Georgia , Seig Centre for Economic Growth.

Kim, J.G., S.W. Rhee, J.C. Yu, et al., 1989 .Impact of the Seoul Olympic Games on national development , Korea Development Institute
Hongye,G.,2006. Western Economics, Beijing ,China Renmin University Press. Huang,L.,2011. Article title: Research on Effect of Beijing Post-Olympic Sports Industry to China’s Economic Development , Energy procedia vol. 5,p. 2097–2102. Li,W., Wei,W.,2008. Analysis of Market Behavior and Performance of Sport Goods Industry in China under Industrial Organization Theory . Journal of Tianjin University of Sport, 23 (6) , pp. 469–471. Liqun ,Z.,2008. The Olympic Games held by the big country influences little on the economic entity. Southern Metropolis Daily Mark., Jul, 28,, GC03 edition. Mingxiao ,B., 2005. Basic theoretical issues of the sports industry Sports Scientific Research., 26 (4) ,pp. 22–29. Papanikos, G.,T.,1999. The tourism impact of the 2004 Olympic Games, Athens, Tourism Research Institute study series 5

Preuss, H., 2004. The economics of staging the Olympics: a comparison of the Games 1972-2008,London, Edward Elgar.

The economic effect of the Olympic games Essay

Essay sample (Eiffel Tower) Essay

Essay sample (Eiffel Tower) Essay.

Introduction

Have you ever wanted to travel the world and see the most significant structures that our world has to offer? Since the beginning of time, man hasn’t stopped looking for ways on developing the human’s passion to create the most innovative and revolutionary masterpieces of all time. There are a lot of places to visit that will surely make one’s trip worthwhile. One of the utmost places to plan a trip to is the city of romance, Paris.

There are many beautiful attractions to be seen there and is one of the most visited countries on the planet.

Here people can enjoy the wonders of three of the most famous landmarks and monuments, Notre Dame de Paris, Napoleonic Arc de Triomphe and the renowned Eiffel Tower. “The Eiffel Tower makes no such direct symbolic appeal. Its aesthetic purpose is the structure itself; it is no more than simple beauty in its own right” (Lienhard, 2003). According to Lienhard (2003), the Eiffel Tower signaled the future and a new concept of beauty as it carried a new intimation of a whole new construction, the skyscraper.

History of the Eiffel Tower

The tallest made-made structure in the world, Eiffel tower believe it or not was built for the Universal Exposition in the year 1889 in commemoration of the French Revolution and the birth of democracy. The fair held a contest for the most impressive monument to honor France’s greatness. Lots of designs were submitted but the commissioners already had their eyes on the work of the famous architect, Gustave Eiffel. However, due to controversies about safety due to the design’s mathematical calculations and so over three hundred people signed a protest petition. In addition, others feared that it might overshadow France’s many other landmark such as the Notre Dame. Nevertheless, despite the controversial protests, the monument was built with design features like the guard rails and screens for safety precautions.Gustave Eiffelwas then considered as the most self-made man in the industrial era. At the hike of his private life, his being efficient and economical paved way to his financial success.

The Eiffel tower was a design of Alexander Gustave Eiffel with the assistance of engineers Maurice Koechlin and Emile Nouguier, and architect Stephen Sauvestre. “The Eiffel Tower, Gustave’s most famous and least utilitarian project, symbolized for him man’s ability to overcome the forces and difficulties that nature and life put in his way” (Hutton, Bourque, & Staples, 1986)According to the same authors (1986), the tower is rich in symbolic meaning. Thus,generally thought of as an unabashed celebration of modern industrial society, it was originally intended as a form of integrative propaganda meant to narrow the gap industrialization had created between workers and the middle classes. The Eiffel Tower was built as the gateway or entrance arch to the World’s Fair.

It was in the year 1900 changed both the function and the symbolic meaning of the tower. “A “vertical bridge” between earth and heaven, the Eiffel Tower is a Promethean challenge to “that old abandoned cathedral to be glimpsed in the pale distance”; a “piece of vainglorious ironwork” (unequincailleriesuperbe), it soars like “a beacon of shipwreck and despair” over the city’s poor, who will, in the future as in the present and the past, be “crushed, pounded, kneaded, devoured, vomited, swallowed again, and vomited yet again three score and ten times [jusqu’áseptantefois], ” but should they look toward “that sterile Babel” (Burton, 2001). Additionally, Burton (2001) states that For the French, the Eiffel tower is primarily a symbol of Paris, of the popularity of Paris and of France all overthe world; it is the very image of France to the masses of tourist who flock here. It is alsothe place from which our first radio programmes were broadcast and is still one of ourprincipal transmission centres. This known masterpiece is his most famous design and his most famous utilitarian project.

The building of the Eiffel Tower

Although there were a lot of criticisms and strikes, the tower was built with almost three hundred workers labored to finish it. Thus after two years,it stood at almost over three hundred meters in height created with Cast Iron and was known to be the highest manmade structure in the world during that time. It is said that the cost to build the magnificent tower reached more than seven million French Gold in 1889. “The structure proved the ability of Iron to span huge spaces, rise to extraordinary heights, and offer great wind resistance and thus led to the skyscrapers and immense bridges if the twentieth century, built mostly outside France” (Hutton, Bourque, & Staples, 1986).The lease was for twenty years so when it expired, it was then that Eiffel lost his tower over to Paris.

The Eiffel Tower used around eighteen thousand iron bars and more or less two million five hundred thousand rivets. It is brown in color which is said to being repainted every seven years. There were around twenty five painters who need to do the paint job that needs to use sixty tons of paints and it would normally take them about a year and a half to finish. The tower’s total surface area is said to be two hundred twenty thousand square meters with one hundred twenty five meters on each of the pillars. It weights a hefty ten thousand tons comprising of both the metallic and non-metallic parts. The tower was built to have a hundred and eight stories, two elevators and a total of one thousand seven hundred and ten steps from the ground going up to the top platform. Due to its depth and height, the tower was wired of five billion lights.

While it is a fact that the Eiffel Tower was built with Iron, it is considered as a poor material due to a single beam will be unable to withstand stress. It was the Prince of Wales oversaw the opening of the tower.Not long after Eiffel lost control over his tower, the First World War happened and so Eiffel tower was almost torn down in 1909 but withstood it because it was made over to a military radio and telegraph centre and so it is for this reason that the tower’s lease was renewed for seventy years.“After 1900 the major structural emphasis in French modern architecture was on the development of reinforced concrete rather than iron. While iron continued to be widely used elsewhere, the abundance and relative cheapness of cement in France, and the power of the cement lobby, imposed a predilection for concrete construction. The French had then become every prominent in the development of concrete” (Hutton, Bourque, & Staples, 1986).

About Eiffel Tower

For the French, the renowned tower is a symbol of Paris – Its popularity all over the world — The Eiffel Tower was seen as proof of the “deicidal” character of contemporary secular culture.(Burton, 2001). “During its first ten years, the tower drew millions of visitors. Despite a small group who opposed the tower, it was admired even by socialists who denounced the economic system it was to preserve. Since 1900 both the function and the symbolic meaning of the tower have changed. It has been used for aerodynamic and meteorological experiments and military and civilian radio, telegraph, and television communication. Illuminated advertisements, a giant clock, and a thermometer have adorned it, and it has served as a stage for pyrotechnic displays. Its association with the moral and social value of labor was soon lost.” (Hutton, Bourque, & Staples, 1986).

The tower’s construction was based on the brilliant mathematical calculations of Gustave wherein the curve of the base pylons were analyzed accurately so that the intensity of the wind would be gradually be converted into forces of compression, thus allowing the tower to withstand the strong winds effectively.

The Eiffel tower now considered as the most familiar structures in the world, it was renovated in 1986 to welcome more visitors around the globe. According to studies made by researches everywhere, the Eiffel Tower receives the most number of visitors than any of the other popular and paid monuments in the planet. With this regard, the tower has more than five hundred employees to host and manage the daily operations.

During the tower’s existence, it has been a perceived to have seen a few strange happenings. It includes having been climbed by a mountaineer, individuals parachuting off it and in the year 1989, the tower commemorated its centenary through firework displays and music being played. Experiences of tourists and those who have seen the Eiffel Tower

Over the years, many people have been lured by the magnificent monument that rises in the heart of Paris. It is said that the view of Paris from the very top of the tower is splendid. The view at nighttime should never be missed as it will be one of the most beautiful sights one would ever experience.

According to Rosenzweig, Holtzman, Sabourin, &Bélanger (2000), “The nighttime view from the Eiffel Tower with the wonderfully illuminated landscape of exhibition grounds, palaces and fountains spread out below, with all the lights and shadows of nocturnal Paris framing it in.” The Eiffel tower is a must see tourist attraction and every individual should visit at least once during their lifetime.Today, the Eiffel Tower is always crowded with visitors from all over the world.

Conclusion

One of the most magnificent monuments all over the world, Eiffel Tower still stands tall and glorious even after more than one hundred years sharing its stunning beauty to everyone who visits Paris. Indeed, it is one of the most genius creations of mankind proving that humans are capable of doing a lot of wonder. I realized that like the Eiffel Tower, we are all capable of withstanding the tests of time. Through careful planning and believing that we can accomplish anything however big or small, nothing is impossible.

The story of the construction of the Eiffel Tower shows us also that we should be mindful of our own capabilities because maybe one day, we can make history in our ways. “The Eiffel Tower is considered as a most remarkable achievement of construction in riveted steel. Its loftiness and the structural accuracy of its lines give it something more like dignity and beauty than you would have supposed possible” (Wendell, 1916).

References
Burton, R. (2001). Blood in the City: Violence and Revelation in Paris, 1789-1945.Ithaca, NY:Cornell University Press. Darras, J. and Snowman, D. (1990). Beyond the Tunnel of History. Ann Arbor, MI:University of Michigan Press. Hutton, P., Bourque, A. and Staples, A. (eds.). (1986). Historical Dictionary of the Third French Republic, 1870-1940.Vol (1).Westport, CT:Greenwood Press. Lienhard, J. (2003). The Engines of Our Ingenuity: An Engineer Looks at Technology and Culture.New York:Oxford University Press. Rosenzweig, M., Holtzman, W., Sabourin, M. and Bélanger, D. (2000).History of the International Union of Psychological Science (IUPSYS).Hove,

Essay sample (Eiffel Tower) Essay

Was Louis XIV A Good Or Bad Monarch Essay

Was Louis XIV A Good Or Bad Monarch Essay.

Louis XIV, also known as Le Gran Monarque and the Sun God, was not indeed such a good king for France. The reign of Louis XIV was hurtful in many ways to France and its people. First of all, Louis XIV financially destroyed France by doing things that he thought would help but just hurt France in the long run. Louis was constantly at war with another country, which not only hurt France financially, because wars were very expensive during that time, but it also depleted France¡¯s once massive army.

He also persecuted the Huguenots and fifty thousand of them fled from France, many of them skilled and very well educated, which also hurt France. It seemed as if the way Louis XIV ruled France was to mainly help himself, and if he did want to make France greater, he failed to do so throughout his reign.

The things that Louis XIV did throughout his reign over France used up much of France¡¯s wealth.

The thing he did that hurt the most was building his palace and capitol at Versailles. This palace spanned across a third of a mile with hundreds of fountains and other great and expensive things were built in this palace. This took enormous amounts of money to build. His whole plan to keep the high nobility in one place and neutralize their political power with endless ceremonies and having them live a court life succeeded but was not worth all the money and time he had put into it. The money he used could have been put to better use to help the country, not only on himself and the high nobles. Also, during a time of famine, crop failure, and bitter cold, Louis raised the taxes immensely to stave off bankruptcy but brought about greater misery on the common people of France.

Louis XIV used much of the country¡¯s money and its huge military on wars that were many times unnecessary. He was too overconfident and believed that he could regain France¡¯s ¡°natural frontiers¡± along the Rhine and the Alps. He wanted to remake the huge multinational empire that Charlemagne once ruled. He wanted France to be the influence in all the countries of Europe. In the first two wars, it looked as if he was actually going to be able to accomplish this feat. France¡¯s power and prestige was at its peak, having a great influence in many places, especially to the German princes who tried to copy the standards of Versailles. Louis had built up a magnificent army and it seemed as if there could be no other army who could beat the French. But when alliances were made, things turned around for Louis and the French.

The next two battles were hard on the French. These alliances and leagues were harder for France to beat and the French army was affected badly. At the end of his third battle, there was an agreement to hold to the status quo and nothing changed for France. His final war was the Spanish Succession. He was trying to be king of Spain since the king of Spain had died with no heir left behind. And so the French once again fought with another team of alliances and soon.

All this fighting only devastated the French both economically and also with respect to the population of people in France. When both sides had enough losses, they ended with a treaty at Utrecht. This was a typical balance of power peace. So at the end of all his wars and fighting, Louis pretty much ended up with what he started with relating to the French borders and French influence. All this fighting was fatally flawed for Louis¡¯s reign over France. All this fighting only devastated the French both economically and in respect to the population in France.

Louis XIV attacked the rights of the French Protestants, or the Huguenots. He neglected the Edict of Nantes, which gave rights to the Protestants, some of these rights were full liberty of private worship, liberty of public worship wherever it had previously been granted and its extension to numerous other localities and to estates of Protestant nobles were given full civil rights including the right to hold public office. All the persecution of the Protestants by Louis caused approximately fifty thousand Huguenot families to leave France. Among these people there were many industrious and skilled workers, sailors, soldiers, officers, and other useful citizens were the backbone to Frances economic and social success as in any other country. And other countries welcomed all those who fled since they would help the economy of that country instead of France. Of course there were still other workers and soldiers in France, both Huguenots who put up with the persecution and Catholics, but a great percentage of the number of workers in France left for another country and hurt the French badly.

Louis XIV most likely wanted to help France as much as he could but it seems as though he hurt it more, as he thought he was helping France. He economically destroyed France, using money carelessly and ending up with a huge debt that Louis XV had to deal with, especially with the construction of Versailles. Secondly, he tried to help France by extending its borders and making France the most influential country in Europe but the cost of French lives and the finance put into these wars were not worth the little extension he was able to make. And the harsh persecution of the Huguenots led to less workers in France and more in other countries since the majority of them fled to different countries along with their skills. Over all, the one known as Le Gran Monarque and the Sun King was actually a king who weakened France and left it for his successors to take care of the problems and debts that formed over time as he ruled France.

Was Louis XIV A Good Or Bad Monarch Essay