Funny Face Movie Review Essay

Funny Face Movie Review Essay.

There are pictures about the existence of which you know from the very childhood. Those are masterpieces of the last century which have been still living nowadays. One of such chefs-d’oeuvre is the musical Funny Face.

The play Funny Attractive Face had been already staged in 1927 on Broadway. The title, the main song and four items of the program were taken from that play for movie known as Funny Face nowadays. The plot of the musical was mostly changed to Wedding Day (1951).

Wedding Day was the Broadway musical play by Leonard Gershe, loosely based on affairs in his friend Avedon’s life. Roger Edens, the producer of Metro Goldwyn Mayer bought the play for their studio with Astaire and Hepburn in mind. With uncommon generosity, Arthur Freed, the musical producer allowed Edens to take Funny Face to Paramount. In 1957, the world, at last saw that marvelous movie. The motion picture was written by Leonard Gershe, produced by Roger Edens and directed by Stanley Donen.

Richard Avedon inspired Gershe’s story with his innovative photographs of haute couture and was, thus, hired as “special visual consultant” for Funny Face. The movie stars Audrey Hepburn (Jo Stockton), Fred Astaire (Dick Avery), Kay Thompson (Maggie Prescott), Robert Flamyng Paul Duval) and Michel Auclair (Prof.Floster). The genre of it can be defined as musical, romance and comedy. The picture admires us with the most beautiful places of New York or Paris and the final act “Bonjour, Paris” has been shot against the background of the Eiffel Tower.

An unforgettable dance performed by Audrey Hepburn and Fred Astaire, the catwalk of Miss Hepburn’s dresses by Givenchy, couple of witty jokes…all these give the style and lightness to the film Funny Face.

With a simple plot, reminding the story of Cinderella, the events of the movie begin in New York City within the bureaus of the famous fashion magazine named Quality. Its President, Maggie Prescott is the woman who rules what the fashions of the day should be, herewith the scenario satirizes the world of fashion. The character of Maggie is said to be based on both Vogue editor Diana Vreeland and Harper’s Bazaar editor Carmel Snow. According to scenario, Maggie has a strong intention to find a real Quality Woman for representing and promoting the magazine, all the more so “a collection will be designed for her by the greatest couturier in Paris!” (Edens&Danon, 1957).

Maggie wants her to be both “beautiful” and “intellectual”. Fashion photographer Dick Avery discovers such a treasure, Jo Stockton, in a godforsaken Greenwich Village bookstore neighborhood Manhattan. Jo, being a shy bookshop clerk and amateur philosopher finds that the fashion industry is nonsense, saying: “it is chichi and an unrealistic approach to self-impression” (Edens&Danon, 1957). At first view, she has simply “perfectly funny, attractive face”… Maggie, the editor of magazine finds no signs of beauty in such a mousy person.

Only later she admits the girl being the standard of style and feminine charm. But Jo’s reaction for that is unbelievable: “I see no functional advantage in a marvelous mouth” (Edens&Danon, 1957). Later on, Jo agrees to pose as a model in Paris and thus receives the possibility to attend the Professor Floster’s lectures about empathic abilities. Soon Maggie, Dick, and Jo leave for Paris preparing for an outstanding fashion event. Eventually, her snobbish attitude toward the job softens and Jo begins to enjoy the work and the company of her handsome photographer.

It should not go unmentioned that the beauty queen Audrey Hepburn was the muse of Hubert de Givenchy throughout his life. “Givenchy’s elegant and classic style is noted for its separate skirts and tops; unusual embroidered and printed fabrics; tubular evening dresses; sumptuous ball gowns; jeweled headbands; shawls; the princess silhouette; sleeveless coats and funnel necklines.” ( Jo demonstrates some variants of that beauty throughout the film. No wonder, that she changes her attitude to fashion and modeling! According to the writer’s theme, Jo and Dick fall in love on the various photo shoots and demonstrate feelings for each other.

Their love has to overwhelm jealousy trial, which is caused with Floster’s making a pass at Jo. Shortly she feels herself totally disappointed with the Professor’s behavior, and desperately looks for where her beloved Dick could be. Meanwhile, Jo has to do the runway show, and before her wedding gown finale, she runs away with eyes full of tears…The girl heads towards the little church where they once shared a romantic moment during the photo shoot. There, she meets Dick dreaming with the reflective face of his dear Jo. The story ends happily with kisses and embraces of two hot beloved people.

It is rather all what I wanted to tell about the naive and innocent events of Funny Face. To my mind, the film can provoke interest among people appealing to fashion history and those who are fond of music and dancing. Givenchy clothes and the magic music composed by Gershe will not leave them indifferent. Nowadays, in an era of celebrity-fashion worship, the film Funny Face looks better than ever and remains one of the treasures of the American musicals.

Edens, R. (Producer), & Donen, S. (Director), (1957). Funny Face (Motion Picture).United
States: Paramount Pictures.

Funny Face Movie Review Essay

Fact Finding: Instyle Magazine Essay

Fact Finding: Instyle Magazine Essay.

Instyle is a women’s fashion magazine originally launched in the United State by Time Warner Inc. The magazine issues monthly, providing photographs and articles about fashion, beauty, lifestyle, and celebrity styles to readers. ( After 18 years development, Instyle becomes an international brand that has editions in seventeen countries. The brand has five extensions – the InStyle website, InStyle Weddings, InStyle Hair, InStyle Makeovers, and Instyle books. The mission of Instyle is to translate high fashion and celebrity glam into options for readers to buy and try (Instyle Media Kit, 2012).

Instyle targets 18 – 50 years old women, with the core target market being from 25 – 35 years old. Most of them have college educational level while some of them attended graduate program.

They are financial independent. Many of them have home ownership (Instyle Reader Profiles and Circulation, 2011). They are interested in the “trend of the moment”. They focus on building and enhancing their own personal styles. Because of their busy career, they don’t have much free time to discover fashion by themselves.

Thus, they are willing to receive dressing guides and suggestions by professional experts. Instyle ranks 43 in the Top 100 Magazine by Circulation, with a rank of No.3 in women’s fashion magazine. Within women’s fashion magazine industry, Instyle competes with the likes of Cosmopolitan and Glamour. Instyle competes with Glamour in circulation. Glamour circulated 2.3 million in 2011, while Instyle circulated 1.7 million. Instyle was only 0.6 million behind Glamour (Top 100 Magazine by Circulation, 2011).

Cosmopolitan, the main and biggest competitor of Instyle is the best seller in the women’s fashion magazine category with a circulation of 3 million (Top 100 Magazine by Circulation, 2011). Covering wider topics than Instyle, the content of Cosmopolitan includes articles on relationships, sex, health, careers, and self-improvement. According to statistical distribution of Cosmopolitan’s contents, contents on relationships holds equal weightage as the combined contents on fashion and beauty. In a survey conducted to know which fashion magazines women are most involved with, 52% of the participants voted for Cosmopolitan while only 35% of them supported Instyle (Cosmo Media Kit, 2012). Comparing to its competitors, a strength that makes Instyle stand out is the practical beauty advice it offers. Instyle believes that everyone has his/her own attributes. Hence, Instyle teaches readers how to optimize their attributes and how to connect fashion with their attributes (NBC News, Feb 2009).

Readers make use of these advice and fashion tips from experts to choose the right clothes and make up for their own style (The Daily Telegraph, Sep 2012). The magazine gives readers different dressing codes for different professions. In its latest September issues, a brand named Ann Taylor presents a style guide for different occasions including “the editor”, “the agent”, “the creative director” and “the entrepreneur”(MIN Media Industry Newsletter, Sep 2012). Although this style guide may indicate that Ann Taylor has various pieces suitable for any occasion, it also inspire readers about which style fit their job best and what pieces are included in that style (Introspection). In 2011, Instyle cooperated with Selfridge, the world’s best department store, to launch a multi-platform little book of beauty advice. After launching the book, Instyle packed all the advice into a stand-alone beauty bible, distributed within the magazine as a free supplement.

The Instyle editor viewed the supplement a good way to share beauty knowledge with readers (Targeted News Service, Mar 2011). In order to have deep understanding about the reputation of Instyle, I interviewed several friends who follow fashion magazines about what are the differences between Instyle and other top fashion magazines like Cosmopolitan and Glamour. They all agreed about the “reality” of Instyle – Instyle speaks to how we can take the things we see in other “luxury” magazines like Cosmopolitan and make them real (Introspection). Another strength Instyle has is that clothes showed in the magazine are more realistic and attainable.

The editor of Instyle, Ariel Foxman, claims that Instyle features more mass-market advertisers and fewer luxury brands ( Unlike Cosmopolitan and Glamour that have more beautiful spreads but feature more exclusive brands that many people cannot afford, Instyle is a middle-class friendly magazine because of focusing on mass brands ( Instead of showing how creative and encompassing fashion can be, Instyle embraces the simple way of displaying clothing and accessories average people can really wear. I have subscribed Instyle for two years.

There are certain sections of Instyle that I view as Instyle’s opportunities to gain more readers. First, I love the piece-by-piece break down in Style File. It makes it easy to see what each individual piece should look like so I know what to look for. Another favorite is the Party Guide section in the entertainment portion of the magazine. Each month, this article provides a menu, decorating ideas, and a preparation schedule for throwing a party. Although I have never followed a whole party plan, I often steal bits and pieces to add a special touch to events I am involved with. These two sections I enjoy most, again, contribute to the reality of the magazine. (Introspection).

Key Insight – Instyle magazine
Fashion is no longer expensive and abstract. Women’s fashion magazines can bring fashion closer to the real life.

Creative strategy – Instyle magazine
Who is our target?
Realistic doer

* They are middle to upper class women between ages 20 – 50. Most of them have college educational level. They have an average household income of $60000 or greater. Being independent both mentally and materially, many of them have the house ownership. * They are ambitious. They believe that if you love something, you have to try your best to pursuit it. Therefore, pictures and advertisements on the magazine cannot satisfy them, they often want to own pieces wore by the celebrities and models. They are doers rather than dreamers. * They are adventurous. They are interested in exploring new dressing experience, so they are willing to find and try different styles presented on the magazine. Where are we now in the minds of this person?

* The up-to-date entertainment reports in Instyle are interesting to look at. * Instyle is bulky and thick, with too many advertisements. * Instyle is closed to the real life because of its shopping session that tells you where to shop a particular piece, and its makeup and dressing tips. Where is our competition in the minds of this person?

* Cosmopolitan. Magazines like Cosmopolitan contain more various and diversified topics than Instyle. Those topics important in a women’s life, including love, relationship, fitness and health. * Vogue and Elle, depict fashion as an art. Focusing on the high-end couture, Vogue and Elle stimulate readers’ imagination about how beautiful will they be if they own all the luxury clothes made with expensive materials. Where would we like to be in the mind of this person?

* Instyle is a realistic magazine. It does not purely present advertisements of luxury brands. It guides readers to discover the little celebrity stylist inside of them. * Instyle focus on how to get the style you like, how to alternate your current clothes, which pieces to get, how to make those pieces work for multiple outfits. What is the consumer promise, the “big idea”?

* You will enjoy a fashionable world where fashions are affordable, readable and practicable. At the same time, you will gain lots of useful instructions and advice about how to style yourself. What are the supporting evidences?

* Instyle has more mass-market advertisers than other fashion magazines, so brands on Instyle are inexpensive, can be afforded by middle class women. * Instyle already has some readable news – it provides an insight into the world of Hollywood glamour and trends, also celebrity stories (without gossip). * Instyle has an interactive online game on its official website to test readers’ fashion tastes. After readers complete the genius’s look, the site rewards with points to the genius and provide advice of how to make it trendier. The game makes fashion practicable and realistic because it is an educational guide telling you how to dress yourself. What is the tone for this advertising?

* Clever, realistic
The Product Manifesto – Instyle magazine, fashion is not a dream.
You graduated from college for four years. Now you have a decent job in
Manhattan New York. Living in the world’s fashion center, living at the age of 27, you feel that it’s important for a woman to keep up-to-date and follow the latest fashion trend.

However, you have no idea where to start. You buy fashion magazine every month (you have tried many of them except Instyle). You see lots of pictures and advertisements of latest styles but you are still confused. You appreciate fashion as an art but you feel fashion is untouchable. Dreaming about clothes on those luxury designers’ advertisements is a waste of time because you still buy nothing new after flipping over a heavy six-hundred-page fashion magazine.

It’s Saturday again, you have a free afternoon of your own. Looking forward to productive shopping experience, you decided to count on fashion magazines one more time. You pick instyle from the magazine crowd in convenient store. After one hour, you walk out of your apartment and go shopping happily because you finally know how to make your fashion dream come true.

Following the tips and guides on the magazine, you find the right place to get the style you like. You even find some accessories that models wear in fashion shows! This time you are finally able to get something back after flipping over hundreds of pages. You are finally able to get something back before the stores close. “Fashion can be something I can really wear,” you stand in front of your mirror and smile.

This is who we are. We are realistic. We aim at making fashion real. Fashion is not a dream because we help you get your dream style by providing you the locations of every piece in each picture. Fashion is not a dream because we help you get your dream style by offering you tips about what you should buy to get a certain style you want. Fashion is not a dream because we help you get your dream style by presenting mass-market advertisements, not only high-end designers. Fashion is not dream because we help you get your dream style by putting up inexpensive pieces on our pages.

Fact Finding: Instyle Magazine Essay

Why Vintage Fashion Will Always Be Popular Essay

Why Vintage Fashion Will Always Be Popular Essay.

Old style fashions have observed a robust resurrection in the previous pair decades, starting with the grunge design in the early on 90′s. Functioning class rock rings out there of towns like Dallas aided release thrift-store throwback items into the national limelight. The fashion started as a direct end result of economic challenges and mellow attitudes in the pop culture movement. By the past due 1990s, thrift-store trends acquired gained an eclectic but popular representation in the generation X market. Over the earlier ten years, numerous of these types of low-budget style alternatives became the goal for high-fashion designers as vintage relocated off Primary St and on 5th opportunity.

Vintage Fashion Becomes Mainstream

Many popular creative designers went retro at the change of the century, bringing back classic appears like pleated corduroy pants from the 70s. Actually the bell-bottomed jeans appear prominent in the course of the hippie era created it’s way into popular department stores. Today, vintage clothing is associated with unique, classic appears which have stood the test of time.

A developing number of nationwide restaurants specialize in reprocessed clothes. These retailers run like second hand stores yet are highly discerning. As an alternative of following the music model of selling contributed clothes, vintage and recycled clothing stores spend substantial charges for special posts that seize a fascinating or even nostalgic item of fashion history.

One legendary designer that demonstrates the benefit of vintage is Yves St Laurent. The developer produced drinking straw hats that fetched more than $5,000 a item at Christie’s auction house. A 60s Mondrian mini dress simply by Laurent offers for more than $10,000. Why Vintage Designs Will Always Be Around

Exterior of high fashion, the music shop style retains the strong recognition that found in the 1990s. There are a handful of factors this particular fashion trend might by no means fade: * Recycled clothes are environmentally friendly or even “green” that is chic in itself. * The encounter of looking for rare and valuable items on discount shelves provides a treasure-hunt experience that remains exciting. * The point is constantly a concern also. Vintage clothes are frequently more affordable than big-box retailer attire. * There is a “scene” for thrift store searching and vintage enthusiasts. There is a whole movement of social networking, online groups, sites and other collectives which are committed to the vintage fashion tradition. What’s New About Vintage?

One of the main modifications in the vintage fashion landscape more than the past 10 years will be the incorporation of aged and new. Several vintage types are used to exaggerate modern items. For example, big sunglasses and classic wind-breaker jackets taking up in modern hip hop music movies and shows. Today’s vintage clothes includes whatever is two or maybe more decades outdated. The genre should go all the method back to the 1920s, before which clothing is regarded old-fashioned. Along with nearly a century of styles to pick from the options are endless.

Why Vintage Fashion Will Always Be Popular Essay

The Negative Impact of Celebrity Fashion on Teens Essay

The Negative Impact of Celebrity Fashion on Teens Essay.

Teens find brands to be something that will make them look “classy” as many teens say today at school. Teisha-Vonique Hood from SMU stated that when people associate themselves with a particular brand or branded image, they immediately assume a new identity that is in some sense, confined to the societal points of that brand. They classify themselves through the brands they wear and it makes them feel like they fit in. There is always that new shirt or those new jeans or just some new trend that happens to begin.

Teens may feel like if they don’t have the latest brands, they aren’t worthy or not able to fit in and be themselves.

Also, teens find themselves to be a little under-confident or intimidated by other people in their school. Ehow contributor, Ashton Pittman said that many teens pick up on fashion trends in an effort to stave off humiliation and mocking from peers. The majority of teens in high school have a fear of getting bullied or excluded.

They use fashion to hide their fear and to feel more confident on who they are, or who they are trying to be.

Their attitude towards fashion and the way society shows it to be can change a lot of teens’ opinions. Stated in SMU study, as a result of this need for peer acceptance, teenagers are receptive to characteristics such as character, personality, etc. Since a lot of teens try to find their identity through high school and fashion, it can ultimately change not only their personality, but their character towards other people and family. Tying into this, celebrities are a big impact on teen fashion. Ashton Pittman also states that often, fashion for teenagers is the result of the desire to be like a celebrity. Teens look at celebrities and say “Oh well if they can wear that, then why can’t I” and most of the time they end up giving the wrong idea to their friends and people around them.

Have you ever tried to dress some way so that others accept you? A lot of teens don’t realize that this is an issue on their everyday life because they are so caught up with trying to fit in. Just because other teens have the latest brand and you don’t, doesn’t mean that you aren’t unique.

The Negative Impact of Celebrity Fashion on Teens Essay

Strategic capabilities of H&M Essay

Strategic capabilities of H&M Essay.

Exclusive summary:

This report analysis the strategic capabilities (resources and competences) of the H&M by using the strategic tools value chain, core competences and identify the strength and weakness of firm. It discusses the company financial position and their cultures. It also use TOWS matrix to recommend the strategies and use Ansoff matrix for method and direction. It also access or evaluate those strategies by using the Suitability, Feasibility, and Acceptability.

1. Introduction:

This report investigates the H&M strategic capabilities (value chain, resource audit and core competences).

Accounting ratios are used for financial position which helps to comparison with rivals. TOWS matrix will help in recommendation of future strategies and SFA criteria evaluate the strategies. Ansoff model is used for the new direction and method to the recommendation.

1.1. H&M Company Profile:

H&M was established in 1947 by Erling Persson in small town Västerås in Sweden. Its first was called Hennes, Swedish for “hers” selling only women’s clothing.

In 1964, the first store outside Sweden opens in Norway. In 1968, E. Persson acquired property and stock of hunting equipment shop named Mauritz Widfoss in Stockholm. Inventory of men’s clothing included in store prompting to expand business of men’s and children’s clothing. The store was renamed Hennes & Mauritz, which later became H&M (H & M Hennes & Mauritz AB, 2013) Now H&M is leading global clothing retailer with turnover including VAT of SEK150 billion and profit after tax with SEK 17.2 billion in 2013 and 3132 store in 53 countries around five continents and online online store is available in 9 countries.

H&M has more than 60 years’ experience in clothing market. It offers collection of women’s, man’s, children’s and cosmetics. The main business concept is to provide fashion and quality at the best price. (H & M Hennes & Mauritz AB, 2013) As it is seen in time line (Appendices 1). Clothing and fashion retail is hyper competitive market. H&M faces competition from the local chain, departmental store, individual shop and international chain. But in each and every market H&M is facing with international retailer. Zara, Gap, Uniqlo and H&M are the most serious competitors. (Penanster, 2012)

2. Value chain of H&M:

Value chain is the categories of activities in an organisation which create product & service. It helps strategist to think of an organisation in terms of set of activities – primary and supporting activities. These activities help to analyse source of competitive advantages. Primary activities are involved in physical delivery or creation of product or service. The importance each of these activities will vary between different types of organisation. Supporting activities helps to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of primary activities.

Supporting Activities


Primary Activities

Source: Adapted with the permission of The Free Press, a Division of Simon & Schuster, Inc., from Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performanceby Michael E. Porter. Copyright © 1985, 1998 by Michael E. Porter. All rights reserved Figure 1.1: H&M value chain

2.1Buying and Design Department:

H&M value chain has very important role of buying organization as it does not produce any good itself. It focuses on current fashion trend composition and gives to production section which is responsible to production office. It is entrusted to buying and design department. Department is located in head office where all the idea and collection produce. H&M has team of budget controller, 160 designers, 100 patterns designer and 100 buyers who constantly working on creating and latest fashion. Fashion has very short shelf life so it is risky industry so some part of collection will not receive by customers. It’s very important to find the balance between component and business concept- fashion, quality and best price. It also collaborates with famous designers to create more value to product and brand. (H & M Hennes & Mauritz AB, 2013)

2.2 Production supply

H&M do not own any production or manufacturing operation. Company have 22 production offices which are responsible for contract with 900 independent suppliers. It is cost effective, time saving and do what is best for company. So it is entrusted for independent suppliers and H&M crated code of conduct which allows controlling and ensuring quality of products. Production office are able to examine the sample garment as testing equipment are transferred so that it will reduce the time. So the communication between production office and supplier plays crucial role. (e.Business watch, 2011) H&M works hard on sustainability matter, including ethics and human rights, and works on a daily basis to offer sustainable collection customers. (THOMASSON, 2014) .

2.3 Outbound logistics:

In fashion industry it is crucial for business to have lead time as short as possible. As fashion product have very short life cycle. At present lead time takes around three weeks to six month for H&M after pattern is created by designer depending on garment. H&M is aiming to cut lead time by using information technology and commutation (ITC), effective logistics and advance planning. Company has established effective buying process that allow store to be restored quickly with best-selling product during the season. New goods arrive at shop everyday so H&M can constantly renew range in shop that makes customer visit frequently. It is all possible by effective logistic and ITC system. (e.Business watch, 2011) Distribution channel of H&M most of goods arrive in Germany, Hamburg at distribution centre and ware house where all product are inspected before its transfer to other stores. Every country has their owned distribution centre so it’s quick to transfer from production office to distribution department and to store. All online demand is send by distribution centre. (e.Business watch, 2011)

2.5 Marketing and Sales:

All commutation is aimed for long term brand building. By internal or external commutation H&M always tries to maximise the consumer expectation and confidence in H&M Brand. H&M is concerned about healthy, positive reflecting value image of brand. They cancel the contract with top model Kate Moss after drug scandal when she was recorded using cocaine. (, 2005) Core competence.( Fashion, quality in best price)

Price: Best price is part of H&M business concept and one of the competitive advantages. They have several stages for price reduction. First of all most of the operation is performed by company and using only few middle man. Second they buy in large quantities as its market and sales is huge which subsequently help to reduce the cost. After that they collaborate with large number of supplier in different market, so they are able to use the advantage of each market where production can be done in lowest cost. Furthermore their 60 years of experience in this industry is another competitive advantages of company when coming to cost saving. H&M main concern in every stage is to reduce cost and to offer the best price. (H & M Hennes & Mauritz AB, 2013)


In present situation company must pay great emphasis in quality of products. It’s hard to please customer in this hypercompetitive market. Quality is important issue along with low price. H&M offer customer quality with combination of best price and fashion. They are more concern of customer satisfaction and brand image with it comes to quality. They can refund if some product is does not match the standard. H&M have maintained its quality not only in product, but also in environmental impact and fair labour practice. (H & M Hennes & Mauritz AB, 2013)


H&M one of the core business concepts is to look after the current trend and design new collection. H&M team up with famous designers such as Karl Lagerfeld, Stella McCartney and lately with Viktor & Rolf and offer fashion conscious customer exciting opportunity in H&M best price. H&M also have 100 designers, 50 patterns designer working on latest trend. Each collection must achieve the right combination of sustainable fashion, quality and best price. (H & M Hennes & Mauritz AB, 2013) Fashion can be cheap and ethical as H&M is lobbying in Bangladesh and Cambodia government to raise the minimum wages and for fair wages. (THOMASSON, 2014)

3. Financial analysis:
From the calculation of (ROCE) Returns on capital employed on 2012 is greater than year 2 013 hence, it shows that business was more efficient 47.12% in 2012 and 46.65% in 2013. Quick ratio suggest that firm is more leveraged in 2012 than 2013. It is clear that company have better position of cash on hand to meet account payable and other expenses in 2012 than 2013. “The minimum level of ratio is often stated 1.0 or 1.1 in successful firm that is regarded as having adequate liquidity, however it’s not unusual for acid ratio to be below 1.0 without liquidity problem…” (Mclancy, 2008). It is not risky business as it is above the minimum level. Interest cover ratio also reflects the inconsistent earning of the company.

But in the year 2013, company is more burdened by aggressive market expansion and brand expansion. It should be compare against industry average. Its interest covered ratio in 2012 is 4350 times and 2013 is 2502.8 times which 18047.2 is less than 2012, and both are above the industry average 22.58 times. (, 2013) From the stock turnover ratio it is clear that there is slide change in figure in 2012 it as 3.36 time and 3.29 in 2013. It implies slow sales which increase stock of company. The industry average is 5.28 (, 2013) and firm inventory is below the industry average which is serious problem and need to resolve as soon as possible by reducing the bulk buying process.

3. Culture:

H&M story “never ending passion for fashion.” Ever since H&M founder Erling Persson opened the first Hennes store in 1947, the cornerstone of H&M has always been offering customers fashion and quality at the reasonable price. H&M journey continue with the business concept “Fashion and quality in best price” in sustainable way. H&M evolve with the new market, new concept and new innovation with endless love of fashion. H&M value are core of “the H&M way” and it is also known as H&M spirit. This is very successful business concept with the history of 60 years’ experience.

4. Strength and weakness of H&M:

Global Presence

Strong brand image

Low costs / cheap prices

Associated with celebrities and guest designers
Excessive Expansion

Slow Distribution System
Amount of suppliers (required resource)
Buying large volume


H&M’s strength include strong brand image with reasonable price. H&M good brand image has motivated, attracted skill manpower and motivate them to unit and also benefited by its commitment. Its global presence and excessive expansion policy crated more value to its brand and associated brand. They offer quality clothing at affordable price by outsourcing the production unit, purchasing in bulk and reducing the middle man. Their entire concept of wide range and low priced wearing apparel has brought many loyal customers for many years. H&M is also associated with famous designer and celebrity which enhance the brand image. They also have many complementary businesses which help them in control and flexibility.


As company is core concept is to provide quality product in best price they want cut the expenses everywhere possible. So their distribution system is centralised and very slow to reach at store and customers. Customer is very disappointed as they are not able to get the order item in time of their need. (, n.d.). H&M is also expanding its market in overseas which is always challenging in the present market with its distribution system is very slow and macro- environmental factor like recession, unemployment and large number of production unit is difficult to control and maintain its structure. Buying large volume could also lead overstocking and later to lowering of the already affordable prices as some fashion doesn’t work in market of if it reach after the expire of certain fashion or season. 6. TOWS MATRIX:

The TOWS Matrix is simple tools for generating strategic options. It is very useful for company for making new strategies how to defend from threats and weakness and take advantages on strength and opportunities. It use internal and external environment SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats) and collaborating each other it identify some strategic option. (, 2014)

TOWS Matrix


Global Presence

Strong brand image

Low costs / cheap prices

Associated with celebrities and guest designers

Excessive Expansion


Slow Distribution System
Amount of suppliers (required resource)
Buying large volume

Rise of new market
Depreciation of Sterling
Increasing demand from aging population
High demand of sports/ leisure designer were clothing
Rise of emerging market as designer hub.
Growing importance of online sales

S-O Key Area (Offensive Strategy) 1. Excessive Expansions + Rise of new market and = Market Development 2. low cost / cheap price + Associated with celebrities and guest designers + High demand of sports/ leisure designer were clothing = Product Development

O-W Defensive Strategy (Needs Investment) 5. Growing importance of online sales + Slow Distribution System =
Market Penetration

Public funding pressure
Economic stagnation
Issue of sustainability and ecology

6. S-T Defensive Strategy (Requires Careful Planning) Public funding pressure (Threat) + Economic Stagnation (Threats) + Low costs / Cheap price = Market Penetration

T-W Key Area (Exit Strategy?)

Figure of TOWS Matrix

Ansoff Matrix:
Source:. (Ansoff, 1988)

Source: Adapted from H.I. Ansoff, Corporate Strategy, Penguin, 1988, Chapter 6. The two recommended Strategies for H&M for 2013- 2018 are as follows. Low cost / cheap price + High demand of sports/ leisure designer were clothing (Offensive strategies) Product Development. This (OS) quadrant opportunity and strength suggest how company can benefit from the strength on opportunities. It is concerned with offensive strategies which may lead them to hypercompetitive market and cost leadership strategies.

H&M one of the core advantage is fashion, quality in best price. Product development refers to the strategies by which an organisation delivers modified or new products to existing markets. (Johnson, et al., 2011)They have more than 150 designer and 100 pattern maker who can do research in sector and lots of experience in clothing industry so it’s easy for them as they have expertise. As H&M have global presence, associated with celebrities and guest designers they can enter in sports and leisure designer clothing in reasonable price which is core concept of firm.

Defensive Strategy (Needs Investment) Growing importance of online sales + Slow Distribution System (Market penetration) Opportunity and Weakness OW- quadrant suggest how company can overcome the weakness. Online shopping is getting very popular with the innovation and revolutionary technological invention where smart phone can do more than calling alone. It’s multi-functional such as sending and receiving email, watching movie, internet browsing, shopping. So its opportunity to enter in this market where you can reach and get access in world market without boundaries Market penetration refers to a strategy of increasing share of current markets with the current product range (Johnson, et al., 2011). As it is clear from the SWOT analysis that company distribution system is very slow. So it is very important for company to develop smooth distribution system.

Now ICT Information communication and technology very advance so with the help of ICT company can develop system that make fast distribution. So it is very important for business to build and establish its competence. (Johnson, et al., 2011) Suitability of Growing importance of online sales + Slow Distribution System (Market penetration online shopping which can fulfil global demand): Suitability is concerned with assessing which proposed strategies address the key opportunities & constraints an organisation faces, through an understanding of the strategic position of an organisation. (Johnson, et al., 2011).

H&M have 6 online store in which can distribute more than 15 countries but product doesn’t reach in time and most of time is too late as customers are so offset with its late delivery. H&M must compete with ZARA, Gap, Uniqlo as they are the main competitor. To compete with them H&M must establish quick distribution system by investing in ITC new software which is supportive to distribution channel. New market in china is growing every day as their economy is growing rapidly so it good to establish good online shopping store and distribution channel in each and every county with the partnership with FedEx International Shipping Services. Which will deliver all the online demand of H&M

. Acceptability:

Acceptability is concerned with whether the expected performance outcomes of a proposed strategy meet the expectations of stakeholders (Johnson, et al., 2011) looking at the financial performance company have positive outcome. Although their ROCE is decline by few percentage but 46.67% is promising. Quick ratio is above the industrial average so it shows they have enough cash in hand so they can invest on other sectors. Now interest covered ratio is far more grater then industry average as it is owed by equity holder. There is no risk of debt and interest payable or long term debt. As this company have much more money to spend so they don’t have any long term debt. It is very positive for company not have any debt and too much money to spend so it is acceptable strategies. As it is able to fit with in organisational value and culture and they have already started online trading it just need more attention and focus on distribution. As stake holder are happy with the company performing and working ethically and sustainably.


Feasibility is concern with weather a strategies could work in practice. ROCE is 46.67% in 2013 and 67.12% in 2012 which is good enough for retail industry. It means business is efficient although there is slide decrease in 2013. There is no gearing in this company as they are totally own by equity holder. As there is no gearing company don’t have any interest payable. (Appendices 2) But they do have to pay dividend. H&M is aggressively expending in and have got 3200 store in more than 53 countries. Their core competence is fashion, quality in best price. They have got 150 designer and 100 patternmaker how subsequently look after designing process. They have 900 independent suppliers so it help them to reduce the cost by completion among the suppliers.

Managing change:

In current situation H&M online shopping delivery is very slow. Customer review suggest that its delivery is not made in time. After they set a partnership with FedEx. Its delivery time will be quick and can deliver item within 5 working days after items is being ordered. Company have to change its distributor to satisfy the customer demand for quick delivery and its complexity of company structure. It also need to change its way of trading for globalisation and technological innovation. There may be some resistance for change although they have open online store in 5 countries they are not performing well they need to spend more in this sector to overcome this problem and change.

Strategic capabilities of H&M Essay

Is Fashion A Waste Of Money Essay

Is Fashion A Waste Of Money Essay.

If there was ever an absolute scam, this is it. Billions of people around the world have been brainwashed into believing that brand names equate to better quality and ‘cool factor’. While this may be the case in some instances, it is not the norm.

Whether it be sunglasses, watches, hats, handbags, pants, jackets, shoes, or any other material possession, much of the world is not happy unless they have an item made by their favorite designer. The problem is that designers charge insane amounts of money for products that often cost them about the same amount as it costs mosts of the markets to make their products.

The difference is that they claim their name and minimum amount of labour is used to make hundreds, sometimes thousands of shillings extra.

The brainwashing goes even further when people insist that they need to buy new clothes each season to keep up with the changing fashion. High end clothing companies and designers would have you believe that you are not cool unless you pay them very high amounts of your hard earned money four times a year to keep up with the ‘in crowd.

’ What a creative way to suck consumers dry.

The cost of creating those things has nothing to do with the price, it is all about who else is wearing them, who designed them and who is selling them.It’s not about price, it’s about competing with everyone around you. And for what? To look the best?

Is Fashion A Waste Of Money Essay

Evolution of Polo Ralph Lauren Essay

Evolution of Polo Ralph Lauren Essay.

Polo Ralph Lauren has become one of the most renounced clothing companies of the 20th and 21st century. The creator of Polo is a man named Ralph Lifschitz who was born on October 14, 1939 in New York, New York (Ralph Lauren). He was born to Fraydl Kotlar and Frank Lifshitz who were Ashkenazi Jewish from Belarus. In 1955, when Ralph was 16, he and his brother changed their last name to Lauren because they were made fun constantly for having a Jewish last name but his brother Lenny kept the last name (Ralph Lauren).

At the age of 18 Ralph worked for various fashion stores such as: Bloomingdale’s, Brooks Brothers, and the Rivetz of Boston neckwear company as a salesman for all of the stores (Vogue). While he worked at all these jobs Ralph studied at the City College of New York for business. Three years later in 1960, Lauren was drafted in to the military and he joined the U.S. Army Reserves and he started basic training at Fort Dix (Vogue).

Lauren once said “When I was growing up, officers in uniform were very impressive to me… When you wear an old military jacket there’s some sort of connection to those qualities, the way the uniforms were made really inspired me for some of my designs that I made later on.” (Vogue). Four year later, in 1964 Ralph marries Ricky Low-Beer.

Since Ralph had been around clothes so much-to be more correct neckties- he created his first line of neckties in 1967 but instead of using his name Ralph Lauren, he uses the alias Polo (Vogue). In 1968 Polo menswear launched and it featured English-cut suits, pleated pants, and Fair Isle sweaters (Vogue). Ralph told Vogue “none of the magazines even wrote about my new line, or came to my show”. The president of Bloomingdale-Marvin Traub-took notice of his new line and gave Ralph his own in-store boutique at the age of 29, it opened in 1969. The boutique was very successful and helped position Bloomingdale and Ralph as the new faces of menswear.

In 1970 when Lauren was 30 he received an Coty Award for menswear after designing an unlined, “unconstructed” suit which is basically what most of the suits today look like. In 1971 Ralph puts the man playing polo on the
cuff of the shirt instead of on the chest of the shirt like it is now (Vogue). There were some trademark issues which made it to where Ralph couldn’t just put Polo on his clothing. Since Ralph couldn’t do that he called it “Ralph Lauren” but later he will get the Polo trademark and call his brand Polo Ralph Lauren. By the end of the 1970’s Polo Ralph Lauren will have expanded from the little boutique in Bloomingdale’s to Rodeo Drive in Beverly Hills, Houston, Dallas, Detroit, Chicago, Atlanta, and Palm Beach and Fort Lauderdale, Florida and this was the first sign to Ralph that his clothing company was going to be a big.

When the collared shirts with the polo-player logo was introduced in 1972 it was released in 24 different colors. If you had a polo shirt at this time, it showed your class in the preppy world. Ralph Lauren was once asked “how can a Jewish kid from the Bronx do preppy clothes?” and he replied with this “Does it have to do with class and money? It has to do with dreams.” (Ralph Lauren). Women found his clothes fashionable because it gave them something different to wear than the traditional gypsy and hippie styles of clothing, after figuring out that women liked his clothing he started a womenswear line in 1972 and it was a huge success. Four year later, in 1976 at the age of thirty-seven Ralph Lauren wins another Coty award for womenswear and this makes him the first designer to win in both categories of menswear and womenswear. He also wins a Coty Hall of Fame award, and in celebration of the award The New York Times did an article on him and pictured him with model Patti Hansen in a Tux laughing with Lauren in a Tuxedo Jacket and jeans, both holding cigarettes, the title of the article was “I’m having a Black Tie Affair with Ralph Lauren.” (Vogue). This gave the brand of Ralph Lauren a huge push around the world because he had a supermodel pose with him in this article and the fact that he was in Time magazine which people all over the world read also put his name out there in the world. In the 1980’s and 1990’s is when Ralph Lauren gained most of his wealth of, 6.5 billion dollars (Ralph Lauren). In the 1980’s Ralph Lauren expanded his business to include children wear, eyewear, underwear, jeans, shoes, accessories, housewares, furs, luggage, and a plethora of other products (Ralph Lauren: American Classic). Even though most of the companies that expanded too fast like this suffered brand image dilution, Polo was
actually made stronger because of many reasons. Mainly because Ralph designed everything himself and if he didn’t directly design the item he still had the last say on how the item looked and what material was put inside it. Another reason Polo stayed in high fashion is because retail never lowered and it was always a higher price. Ralph once said “I won’t lower my price for anyone. If you can’t buy my clothing than don’t buy it.” (Ralph Lauren: American Classic). In the 2000’s Ralph Lauren made a multimedia marketing joint venture with NBC and allies, and ValueVision, operator of Home Shopping Network. Polo Ralph Lauren became one of the first companies only to use advertisement through electronics, was created in 2000 and this was one of the first fashion websites in history (Ralph Lauren: American Classic). In 2001 Polo made their first online magazine telling people all things celebrity, sport, art and culture about polo, that same year Polo created this was made to provide fashion fans with a look behind the scenes in collection-development and fashion shows, while offering style and beauty tips (Ralph Lauren: American Classic). Through the 46 years Polo Ralph Lauren has had hundreds of fashion shows but never overseas until now. He’s chosen to do his first fashion show overseas at one of the most historic art schools in the world called École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, France on October 8, 2013 (Ralph Lauren’s first..). Ralph Lifschitz was just a boy from a working class Orthodox Jewish family in the Bronx who started out selling neckties in many of the high fashion stores in New York. He came from the bottom just selling and making neckties in a small boutique in Bloomingdale to creating and breaking down barriers in the fashion industry. Ralph now has hundreds of stores across the world which has made him a billionaire. Polo Ralph Lauren was made to celebrate the preppy, sporty, wealthy, and traveled, while keeping a modern look. Polo has been around for 46 years and has never lost its value which is very rare for any company to do. Works Cited

“Ralph Lauren. Biography” Bio. True Story. 2013. Web. 13 Oct. 2013 “Ralph Lauren.” The World of Fashion in Voguepedia .2012. Web. 14 Oct. 2013 “Ralph Lauren: American Classic.” Eurbanista Brand Strategy, Sustainability and the Digital Revolution in Fashion, Luxury and Media. 2009. Web. 14 Oct. 2013 “Ralph Lauren’s first international runway show honors Paris
school restoration.” Luxury Daily. 2013. Web. 14 Oct. 2013

Evolution of Polo Ralph Lauren Essay

Old Fashion Technology Versus Modern Day Technology Essay

Old Fashion Technology Versus Modern Day Technology Essay.

In today’s world everything is so much quicker, easier, and more convenient. When you have the technology right beneath your hands, why not take advantage of it? Even though the technology’s is much more expensive than the old fashion routine, not only is it worth it, but it’s also much more enjoyable. I prefer to take full advantage and use modern day technology rather then go back into time and try to accumulate what they did hundreds of years ago.

Why shovel the snow in your driveway when you have the advantage to use a big, powerful snow blower. Dig inch by inch, by inch, and tossing the shoveled snow to new grounds instead of just walking your way through the snow and watching right in front of your eyes, the snow being thrown to the other side. Not only is it a lot quicker, more convenient, and easier, but it could also be much more effective in the long term.

Such as, in today’s world many people suffer from bad backs when they get older because of the prior snow shoveling they’ve done in the past. It might not hurt when you’re a kid, but if you do it a lot, it could be very risky in the near future. So, why take the chance? The technology is right beneath your hands, the only thing may preventing you is the money.

Another great explanation I would like to use and why I prefer to take full advantage of today’s modern day technology is the bread machine. Several years ago before my mother ever heard of the bread machine for your kitchen, she used to make bread the old fashion way. She didn’t mind making the bread, the only thing preventing her was time. Time was a big issue for her and she would rarely have any time to even dish out a piece of bread once a month on the dinner table for us. However, when she received a bread machine from my grandparents last Christmas, she’s now able to make bread every other day and although she misses making bread the old routine way, she claims she would never go back because the bread machine is much more convenient, quicker, easier, and time consuming for her.

An excellent last explanation I would like to use and supporting using modern day technology rather than old fashion technology is the high powered boat and Jet Ski. Which is more convenient, quicker, and easier? The high powered Jet Ski or this wooden canoe made in the 1970’s. Great question, but completely oblivious. Not only do you save many steps by using a high powered boat, you’re also accumulating great speeds which in result if your looking to get from Point A to Point B, becomes much more time consuming than the old fashion canoe. Preferably for me, the canoe isn’t very exciting. I find it very difficult to get everyone to paddle the boat at the same time, when one gets tried, another gets tired, then the last one or two people are dependant on getting that boat to Point B.

I believe today’s modern day technology is amazing and I am very happy to be apart of it. Although the only thing preventing people from using modern day technology is the price, it’s definitely worth to have if you have the extra cash. Many elderly people prefer old fashion techniques because that was the way they were brought up, well I was brought up with this great technology beneath my hands so that brings me to take full advantage of it and I believe it’s time to move on. When something is much more time consuming to use, easier to equip, and saves you health risks in the near future, why not take advantage of it?

Old Fashion Technology Versus Modern Day Technology Essay

Deborah Tannen’s Theory Essay

Deborah Tannen’s Theory Essay.

In contemporary society biological factors are no longer the sole components that distinguish men and women. Rather anything from clothing or hairstyles to make-up or accessories can indicate specific messages about an individual. According to Deborah Tannen, women are more frequently considered marked beings in our society while men have fewer clothing or style options and are therefore free to remain unmarked. Although Tannen argues that it is possible for men to remain purely “unmarked” her assertions do not hold up well in a changing world.

Because the term “marked” is a social construction, it is not possible to remain completely unmarked, as styles and trends repeatedly change with different ages, generations, and geographic locations.

In her study Tannen reveals that among four women and eight men present during a business meeting the women had several more features to observe compared to one another. However, Tannen’s conclusions seem partially invalid for her findings are based on only one particular event.

In a business-like environment, it is more likely to find conservatively dressed men with less notable markings than women. Even though women may not only be identified based on their apparent style but also how they choose to present themselves. (i.e. Baggy clothes vs. tight clothes, make-up vs. no makeup). In general, Tannen’s findings appear questionable mainly because her approach when defining a “marked” individual seems limiting. For example, Tannen would call a man wearing a shirt a marked individual. However, it is quite common for men in Scotland to wear skirts. Without ever considering these geographic differences, Tannen makes bold assumptions based on her own biases.

When speculating a specific sub-culture such as the generational “rave”/dance culture, Tannen’s argument holds no validity. Clearly both men and women in this culture wear similar styles of clothing and accessories that are in essence, uni-sex. While piercings and jewelry might “mark” a man in society such stylistic choices are considered quite common and acceptable among “ravers”. Similarly women who wear baggy clothes and baseball caps are not “marked” as less feminine than those who wear tighter clothes and make-up within this sub-culture are.

According to Tannen, “each of the women at the conference had to make decisions about hair, clothing, make-up and accessories and each decision carried meaning…. men can choose style that are marked but they don’t have to, and in this group none did.” (231-2). Although Tannen makes the distinction between the style of men and women at a business conference, she fails to mention that their age and field of work influences what should be “marked vs. unmarked” and what styles appear appropriate vs. inappropriately.

Clearly, Tannen states that all four women are marked yet some are considered more severely marked and judged than others are. Specifically, the women with the long, blond, hair, dressed in tight clothing and heels were more severely marked in Tannen’s eyes. However, Tannen never mentions that in another profession, such as the entertainment or fashion industry, the women style might be considerable less marked than an individual dressed more simple and conservatively.

In conclusion, the assumptions that Tannen makes in her article infer that men in society can remain unmarked. Although men are objectified and sexualized less than women this does not mean that they are not in the public eye. Tannen’s view on today’s “marked” society is based truly on her opinion. She omits geographical, generational and age differences when making her conclusion.

Deborah Tannen’s Theory Essay