Evolution of the Ipod Essay

Evolution of the Ipod Essay.

Personalized music took a big leap towards what we call the Ipod generation today , way back in 1979 when Sony introduced its audio cassette player Walkman. When we see the original Walkman today it does seem outdated and for many a piece of junk. But 30 years back it was a breakthrough in terms of technological advancement and an instant sensation worldwide which continued for decades. WALKMAN:

Walkman is a portable audio cassette player which introduced a change in listening habits and providing people an opportunity to listen to the music of their own choice, which seemed a distant dream before its inception when transistor radios were the only option for the masses.

Origin and History: The first original Walkman was launched by Sony that went on sale on 1st July 1979, in Japan. It was launched subsequently under different names in many countries for instance, – In US it was launched under the name Soundabout .

– In Sweden it was launched under the name Freestyle.

. – In UK it was launched under the name Stowaway. The device was built in 1978, by an audio division engineer Nobotushi Kihara who worked for Sony. Sony’s co-chairman Morita who wanted to listen operas during his frequent plane trips requested for such a device and therefore Nobotushi came up with the Walkman. Although Morita hated the name Walkman and insisted on changing it , but accepted later on when junior executives told him that a campaign had been started and changing the name now would cost the company dearly.

(Sony History) Cassette-based Walkman: The first and original Walkman was a blue and silver cassette-based model TPS-L2. It came with one set of headphones and had limited features of play, stop and forward with no record function. In 1984, Sony presented its memorable model Walkman Professional WM-D6C. It was comparable in audio quality with most non-portable audio cassette decks.. Among the standard play,stop functions it also introduced the record function which made it famous.

Later on, Toshiba’s Walky , Aiwa’s Cassette Boy and Panasonic’s Stereo-To-Go were giving stiff competition to the Walkman. Therefore in 1989, Sony launched its famous and unique playback only model WM-DD9, this model attracted a niche following with hardcore Walkman fans making it a must in their collection. It featured auto-reverse and had improved power consumption requiring only 1 AA battery with optional AC adapter input. Moreover it had superior sound quality as compared to its predecessors.

Although the cassette based walkman had started losing its appeal probably due to increasing competition from Sanyo and emergence of CDs as a better storage medium in all respects, Sony still kept launching new models every 5 years uptill 2000, these models not only continued to represent features of previous models but also had some new ones of their own for intance, WM-701S which also came out in 1989 was more user-friendly as it came with a remote control and slim silver plated body. After which cassettes had reached technological obsolence and any future production of cassette-based models had to be stopped.

(Sony Design- 1980s) PORTABLE CD PLAYERS: Portable CD players took personalized music to a further new level from portable cassette players. These players used audio CDs instead of cassettes , not only CDs were lighter than cassettes but they could store considerably more than multiple cassettes could or could record in a much better audio format which would give a superior sound quality than cassettes. History: CDs as a storage medium were introduced in the early 1980s. Once again Sony created history in 1984 when it launched its CD-based Walkman (which was a first of its kind portable CD player) D-50.

Although it was also known as D-5 in some markets but its official name was Discman. Discman was considered a marvel , its size was just a little more than that of a CD case which made it very handy. Moreover it had additional features and better sound quality as compared cassette-based walkman but still they managed to gain momentum till the late 1980s because CDs were quite expensive prior to that and CD players didn’t had anti-shake protection feature which caused CDs to damage since they were delicate. (Discman) Evolution of CD Players:

Portable CD players had the basic features of a cassette player besides that it also had some new features for instance hold, toggle in later versions and portable CD players in the present age are capable of supporting numerous audio formats as well . In the mid-nineties these players also featured a LCD display also. Since Sony was continuing to face increasing competition from Panasonic in the late 1980s, it improved its own design of Discman and came up with a new model D121 which had additional features from its predecessors.

The competition is still ongoing with Sony, Panasonic, JVC, Bose, Coby etc. coming up with new portable cd players after every few months. Although Ipods are the in thing these days but still portable cd players continue to survive probably because CDs haven’t gone into obsolence like cassettes did. However they don’t enjoy the same popularity they did in late 1980s and mid 90s. MINI-DISC PLAYERS: Mini disc was a magneto-optical disc. It could store upto 80 minutes of digitized audio almost that of CD quality.

Mini-disc players were capable of playing these storage media. The reason MD was launched was because they had the anti-skip feature which prevented disc-skipping even under the most extreme conditions and was unlike CDs which used to skip on the slightest of vibration and shocks and used to annoy users. History: Sony launched its first MD Player in 1992 named MZ1 along with the Mini-disc itself. However many other companies for instance JVC, Sharp, Pioneer and Panasonic launched their respective mini-disc players as well.

MD Players were initially launched as an alternative to Philips analogue cassette system which was quite popular at that time. Moreover till the mid-nineties MD players were popular in Japan and Asia but largely unknown elsewhere. (Music on the move: Minidisc) Evolution of the Mini-disc and the Mini-disc player: nitially when Sony introduced the Mini-disc it was based on ATRAC audio data compression but later it was based on linear PCM inorder to give CD quality audio. Although MD Walkmans when launched by Sony were multi-featured i. e.

they could play and record on MDs from both digital and analogue sources for example, live audio from their microphone inputs ; but were somewhat large and couldn’t be placed in a pocket. Therefore, Sony released a new model MZ-R2 which was quite compact. MD Walkmans gradually improved over the years for instance, when MDLP(Mini-disc Long Play) was introduced in MDs in 2000 which allowed MDs to record 4 times of what they initially could MD Players were enabled with this feature and many in the following years for example, Net MD, Hi MD. (Sony MZ RH1) MP3 PLAYERS:

MP3 players are also technically known as Digital Audio Players. It is a device that stores, organizes and plays audio files. MP3 players were a breakthrough in their own right since they didn’t require CDs or cassettes to be inserted into them , common features of an MP3 player were a flash memory drive or a miniature hard drive, an embedded processor and an audio codec microchip which would convert digitally compressed sound into analogue form which was then played through the speaker jack. The user can store hundreds of songs on the flash memory drive/mini hard drive.

History: The first MP3 player came from a Korean company SaeHan Information Systems which in collaboration with Eiger Labs US launched in 1998 the first solid state digital audio player named MPMan . It featured 32 Mb of RAM which could hold 8 average length of tracks( i. e. 32 minutes of music). (World’s 1st MP3 Player) The same year Diamond Multimedia lauched its version of MPMan named Rio PMP300. However its sales were better than expected initially but later had a fall from grace probably due to lawsuits. (Collecting MP3 Portables)

In 1999, Compaq developed the first hard-drive based mp3 player in collaboration with HanGo Electronics and named it PJB-100(Personal Jukebox). The player had a capacity of 4. 8 GB and it was extensively advertised that it could hold 1200 songs! (Net Audio) Evolution Of MP3 Players: Initially MP3 players supported only the . mp3 format but in the following years MP3 players started supporting multiple formats for example , AAC, WMA, WAV, Ogg Vorbis. – Flash-based MP3 players: These are solid state devices that store audio files on internal flash memory.

Initially internal memory of these players was in a few MBs and users couldn’t store any more than on a CD but soon makers got notice of this and today we see internal memory in GBs which is capable of holding hundreds of songs. (World ‘s 1st 32 GB Flash based PMP) Similarly, internal memory couldn’t be extended by users however in a couple of years removable flash memory was made available better known as memory cards. Moreover with the passage of time , these players became more resilient and required less power consumption as compared to portable CD player or a hard-drive based mp3 player.

– Hard-drive based Players: These devices are also known as Digital Jukeboxes. Initially their capacity was 4-5 GB but these days players are available with capacity upto 250 GB. This loosely means that thousands of songa could be stored on a single player. (Wolverine ESP 250 GB) – MP3 CD Players: With the growth in popularity of MP3 players and mp3 format itself . Many portable CD players started supporting playback for CDs which had MP3 files stored on them. iPOD REVOLUTION: iPod is a popular brand of portable media players which are designed by Apple Inc.

Apple has produced a number of models over years iPod Classic, iPod Nano to name a few. iPods have become a sensation for this generation and seems to be for the following ones too just like Walkman was in the 1980s. As per stats upto September 2008, 173 million iPods have been sold worldwide which has made it the best selling portable music player ever. History: In early 2000, Apple had started making software for the growing market of digital audio players. The company found that the MP3 players were either too big (those that were hard-drive based) or too small (those that were flash-drive based) and had mediocre user-interfaces.

Apple’s CEO Steve Jobs took the initiative, he decided that Apple would make their own PMPs(personal music players). Therefore Apple’s hardware engineering head Jon Rubinstein assembled a team including hardware engineers Tony Fadell and Michael Dhuey and a design engineer Jon Ive, however Apple didn’t make the product completely on in-house instead they used Portal Player( a semi-conductor company) platform based on 2 ARM cores. Nevertheless the product within an year and was unveiled on 23rd October 2001, it was a Mac-compatible product with 5 Gb hard-drive and could hold upto 1000 songs.

The name iPod was suggested by Vinnie Chieco a freelance copy-writer. iPod Models: – iPod Classic: It was the iPod that was launched originally. Uptill now six generations have been produced of this model and is the only model that is hard-drive based. – iPod Mini: Its first generation was launched in 2004. However it was discontinued after its 2nd generation. Its storage medium was based on mini hard-drive. – iPod Shuffle: iPod Shuffle was first introduced in January 2005. Due to it smaller size and sleeker look it became an instant hit. Its flash-drive based PMP. Uptill now 2 generations have been produced of this model.

– iPod Nano: iPod Nano was also a flash-drive based model. It was also launched the same year Shuffle was launched . What separated Nano from Shuffle was its greater storage capacity and coloured display. – iPod Touch: It is the latest in the iPod family and was launched in 2007. It was also a flash drive based model similar to Nano and Shuffle . But Touch is way ahead of all of its predecessors. It was the first iPod with Wi-Fii and Multitouch interface. Moreover it featured the Safari browser and wireless access to iTunes Stores and YouTube. (Identifying Ipods) Software:

Initially when Apple introduced its iTunes software it was only compatible with Mac OS but later on Apple a Windows version of it as well. iPod first generation models although various audio formats, image formats and video formats but only worked with Mac-OS. However when Apple launched its second generation models the software within those models was compatible with MS Windows. Apple developed alternatives for various formats which were previously not supported by it for example, Microsoft’s WMA audio format was not supported earlier so they provided a converter along with their Windows version of iTunes.

Adding further open source formats like Ogg Vorbis, FLAC were previously not supported however these formats can be played now on installing a firmware onto the iPod for example, Rockbox User-Interface: All iPods have colour displays which incorporates anti-aliased graphics and text with sliding animations. Moreover except iPod shuffle and iPod Touch all other iPods have 5 buttons and second generation onwards buttons have been integrated on the click wheel. Click-wheel is an innovation that brings refineness and clarity to the interface.

The buttons given perform the basic play,stop etc. functions as for scrolling the click-wheel is used in a rotational manner. In its later models Apple made some changes for instance, iPod Touch doesn’t have a click wheel instead it has a 3. 5 inch touchscreen and in addition to it a home button , a sleep/wake button and volume up/down button. Hardware: A typical iPod comprises of the following chipset and electronics: – Microcontroller – Audio Chip – Storage Medium – Batteries

Different iPods have used different microcontrollers along their different generations for example, iPod Nano used a variable-speed ARM in its first generation model however it has continued to use Samsung System-On Chip second generation onwards. iPod Classic has a hard-drive based storage medium and has been since first generation however the capacity has increased considerably i. e. from 10 GB in its first generation model to 160 GB in its sixth generation model. Similarly, iPod Mini was based on the Mini Hard-drive however Apple discontinued it after its 2nd generation model.

Moving on iPod Nano, Shuffle and Touch are flash-drive based and there capacity has also increased considerably with newer models. Connectivity: Originally Apple used a Firewire connection was used to the host computer and for charging battery. Third generation onwards, Apple allowed both Firewire and USB connectivity. This allowed for better compatibility with PCs. Therefore 5th generation onwards Apple dropped Firewire for data transfer and made complete transition to USB 2. 0 in an attempt to reduce cost . CONCLUSION: From Walkman to iPod people have seen a great advancements in personal music players.

Walkman ruled 1980s which continued till the mid-nineties. However , after that advancements were made very speedily and we saw MD players, MP3 players and finally the iPod in 2001. iPod completely redefined infact revolutionised portable entertainment. Infact in these 8 years since its inception it has made record breaking sales and won several awards for engineering excellence , it has acheived much more than what the Walkman in a decade and a half. But then again, Walkman has its own place in history and iPod is making its own. ? REFERENCES: Sony Global, n. d. , “Sony History” retrived from : <http://www.

sony. net/Fun/design/history/> Sony Gobal, n. d. “Sony Design- History 1980s” retrieved from: <http://www. sony. net/Fun/design/history/product/1980/wm-2. html> Walkman Central, n. d, “Discman” retrieved from: <http://www. walkmancentral. com/list/discman> Minidisc Org, n. d. “Sony MZ RH1” retrieved from : <http://www. minidisc. org/manuals/sony/Sony_MZ-RH1_user_manual. pdf> Van Buskrik, Eliot, n. d. “Introducing the World’s first MP3 Player” retrived from: <http://reviews. cnet. com/4520-6450_7-5622055-1. html> Menta, Richard, n. d. “ Collecting MP3 Portables-Part 1” retrieved from: <http://www. antiqueradio.

com/Dec04_Menta_mp3pt1. html> Yoshido Junko, n. d. “OEMS ready to roll on jukeboxes for Net audio” retrieved from: <http://www. eetimes. com/story/OEG20000818S0035> Creative, (2007-12-03), “Creative inroduces World’s 1st 32 GB Flash based PMP” retrieved from: <http://asia. creative. com/corporate/pressroom/releases/welcome. asp? pid=12867> Wolverine Data, (2008-01-02), “Wolverine ESP 250 GB” retrieved from: <http://secure. serverlab. net/shop/merchant. mvc? Screen=PROD&Product_Code=5250&Category_Code=ESP&Store_Code=T00107> “Identifying Ipod Models” retrieved from: <http://docs. info. apple. com/article. html? artnum=61688>

Evolution of the Ipod Essay

Structural Functionalism Essay

Structural Functionalism Essay.

The functionalist theory focuses on society as a system of interrelated institutions and structures that are designed to address human needs. They view society as functioning best when there is agreement about the social values and norms. The functionalist theory asserts that our lives are guided by social structures, which are relatively stable patterns of social behavior in each society. Each social structure has social functions for the operation of society as a whole. Functionalists see social structure of society as more fundamental than the individuals themselves.

Functionalism sees society as a skeleton; a set of interconnected parts which together structure an entirety.

Structural Functionalism is considered to be the “framework for building theories”. According to “the Real World” The origins of structural functionalism can be traced back to the roots of sociology. The functionalist theory is the oldest, and still most dominant, theory in sociology. Thomas Hobbes, a seventeen-century philosopher, viewed humans as “self interested beings who were in constant danger of ‘the war of each against all’”.

Many pre-twentieth-century social thinkers were in conflict with the “Hobbesian” problem of social order.

The problem of social order became principal in the minds of many social thinkers following political conflict beginning with the eighteenth century French Revolution. At the same time, the biological sciences were revealing the mysteries of bodily function and evolutionary ideas of survival that created controversy and inspired ideas from philosophers. Consequently, a number of social philosophers used the human body as a comparison to society. Philosophers came up with the idea of “Organic Analogy”; the idea that society, like the body, is a system of parts. Just like bodily health is measured by observing if all of its parts are working properly, society was also observed based on its functioning “parts”.

There were many social thinkers during this time period. Herbert Spencer, a British philosopher and sociologist, was born on April 27, 1820 in Derby, England. Herbert wrote many publications and had many ideas about society, which then led to his impact on psychology and sociology. According to Schultz and Schultz, the people of the United Stated accepted his writings because his views were compatible with the “American way” of life during the time period.

Herbert Spencer believed societies are living organisms that grow and develop and only those who were able to adapt to the environment were able to survive. Those individuals could understand at some level what Herbert was implying in the phrase “survival of the fittest”.

According to Bolender, Herbert Spencer’s Synthetic Philosophy was based upon evolutionary principles that included human awareness and experience. Herbert presented the idea that the mind exists in its current state due to “past and constant” efforts of the mind to adapt to its environment. Many social thinkers of his time thought that his Synthetic Philosophy was “the work of a genius”. His evolutionary writings led to the idea of “Social Darwinism”.

The premise of the functionalist theory was based on evolutionary ideas. Each part of the human body is connected, in some way, to all other parts. Individual organs come together to create something that is “greater than the sum total of their individual parts”. Functionalists believe that all parts of society need to have a purpose or a function to that society and certain needs amongst its people.

Functionalism’s explanations of social variation are especially unsatisfying, though. According to functionalists, if poverty, racism and segregation, sexual abuse and sexism exist, they all must serve a purpose in society. Meaning, they are necessary parts of society for it to be able to function. According to Herbert Gans, the poor do our “dirty work”, filling the dreary, low-wage jobs that are crucial to keep society running but others refuse to do. Herbert Gans explains this idea in a critical essay explaining, “the poor provide a market for used and off-priced goods, and keep thrift stores and social welfare agencies in business”. The idea that society’s separate structures are necessary to keep a functioning society seems outdated.

In today’s society, there is so much crime and danger in our everyday lives and we have so many families struggling to survive. As a society, we should not have to deal with so much crime in our daily lives and we should not have to see our neighborhood families struggling to survive as a necessary structure in society for us to continue to function. Poverty, Condition where people’s basic needs for food, clothing, and shelter are not being met is a huge problem for many of United Stated families. Households are struggling to make a steady income that is enough to provide for the family and have a safe and livable habitat. Functionalists would argue that poverty would not exist if it did not serve a function as part of society. Ultimately the logic that characterizes functionalist thought turns out to be the biggest problem with understanding structural functionalism.

Works Cited

Schultz, D.P. & Schultz, S.E. (2004). A History of Modern Psychology: Eighth Edition, New York: Harcourt.

Ferris, K. Stein, J. (2014). the Real World: an Introduction to Sociology New York, NY: W.W Norton & Company

Structural Functionalism Essay

Close analysis of Rhapsody on a Windy Night Essay

Close analysis of Rhapsody on a Windy Night Essay.

From the opening line Eliot engages the audience by having an auspicious beginning. By using “twelve o’clock”, he has taken an ungrammatical sentence and used it as a bridging between two days. He does this as a way of setting up the novelistic functions within his poetry, a common feature of his writing. He continues with his narrative technique by following the time by the place in which the poem is set. The “lunar synthesis” referred to in the first stanza is used to emphasize the correlation of two things; evolution and Christianity.

By having “whispering” as the next word it gives a hint of secrecy as well as giving the possibility that there is a sense paranoia within the link between the two that constitutes the start of the misconceptions and loss of certainty. This is then followed through the poem by the mention of memory; an element that comments not only on the altered state of consciousness, but in a broader sense, “it’s division and precisions” highlights the view of the modern mind, in that it is dissolving into a more poetic state for deeper understanding.

The auditory imagination inspired with Eliot’s reiteration of memory is further enhanced by the madman. It brings an oppositional aesthetic quality when Eliot delves into the idea of death and “shaking the dead geranium” as a way of bringing something back to life, while still being able to capture the fluidity of the poetry to keep a rich sonorousness quality to his work. The personification of the street lamps is used to emphasize the surreal, almost dream-like representation of life.

By going on to introduce what is viewed as a prostitute uncertain about her solicitation, Eliot is reprimanding the reader into the dangers of fornication, a direct link to the epigraph from The Jew of Malta mentioned in another of Eliot’s poems; Portrait of a Lady, while simultaneously commenting on the implications these surreal images of life impose. The human qualities given to the door are used as a symbol for memory, in that when memory goes, everything is open for interpretation even those wanting to remain hidden.

Eliot delves into the taboo subjects commenting on the deformed humanity which is then enforced with “the corner of her eye” which “twists like a crooked pin”. He uses the “twist” as a motif for the hurt and betrayal that the deformity has created which can then be seen to have shattered the window to the soul. Eliot uses time as a preoccupation throughout many of his poems, however it is intensified in ‘Rhapsody.. ’ with the beginning of each stanza highlighting this.

The “rust that clings to the form” is used to show that something has declined, the degradation because of time that has then caused life to be drawing to an end; “ready to snap”. The idea of death is embedded throughout the poem up until the final line of the poem. Having something so profound like “the last twist of the knife” as the ending helps to create dramatic tension, but to also cease the evolution of time throughout the poem into complete silence, to represent the silence after the last heart beat.

Close analysis of Rhapsody on a Windy Night Essay

Gene Mutations Essay

Gene Mutations Essay.

A gene is a long sequence of nucleotides on a DNA molecule. A mutation is a change in the amount of an organism’s genetic material and when a change in genotype produces a change in phenotype, the individual affected is said to be a mutant. A gene mutation involves a change in one or more of the nucleotides in a strand of DNA. The sequence of nucleotides in a gene controls the order in which amino acids are made into a protein, therefore if the sequence of nucleotides in a gene is altered by a mutation, then the order in which amino acids are made into a protein will be changed.


Most gene mutations produce an inferior version of the phenotype, i.e. the majority of mutant alleles are recessive. If this results in death, then the altered allele is said to be lethal. In the absence of outside influences gene mutations occur spontaneously and at random.

Gene mutations also occur very rarely, i.e. they have a low frequency. Mutation rate can be artificially increased by mutagenic agents. These include certain chemicals such as mustard gas, x-rays and ultraviolet light. The resultant mutations are said to be induced.


There are four types of gene mutation which can occur in an organism; Substitution, Inversion, Deletion and Insertion. These four types of mutation can be categorised into point and frameshift mutations. Substitution, where an incorrect nucleotide is substituted for the correct one and Inversion, where two or more nucleotides are reversed, are examples of point mutations. On the other hand Deletion, where a nucleotide is deleted or lost from the sequence and Insertion, where an extra nucleotide is inserted into the sequence of nucleotides, are frameshift mutations. Point mutations only bring about a minor change and sometimes the organism is only affected slightly or not at all, however if a substituted amino acid occurs in a critical position in the protein then a major defect may arise. Frameshift mutations lead to a major change since it causes a large portion of the gene’s DNA to be misread. The protein produced differs from the normal protein by many amino acids and is usually non-disfunctional.

Gene Mutations Essay