Determine whether a network scenario is fully secure.

Administrators often implement firewalls and intrusion detection systems (IDSs) as part of a defence-in-depth strategy.

Answer the following question(s):

  1. 1. If your network has a firewall and an IDS deployed, would you consider it fully secure? Why or why not?

Fully address this task’s question(s); provide valid rationale for your choices, where applicable.

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Discuss the influence of feeling on your thinking.

Discuss the influence of feeling on your thinking. Are ruled more by your heart than your head, or vice versa? Do you tend to focus on the positives or worry about the negatives? What difference does that make? Identify at least one thing you can do to improve your ability to have balanced thinking (thinking that considers both “heart” and “head”).


A topic, problem, question, or issue which includes Critical Thinking, Clinical Reasoning, and Clinical Judgement is given for this ESSAY (4-5 pages).  In analyzing the topic, problem, question, or issue, students will utilize critical thinking analysis on the topic’s discussion.


Rating CriteriaEmergingDevelopingMastering
The issue/ problem is not stated or fails to identify and summarize accurately.Issue/ problem is not stated or fails to identify and summarize accurately.Issue/ problem is stated, described, and clarified so that understanding is not seriously impeded by omissions.Issue/ problem is stated clearly and described comprehensively, delivering all relevant information necessary for full understanding.
Analyzes supporting data and evidence     Points:     /2Information is taken from source(s) without any interpretation/ evaluation. Viewpoints of experts are taken as fact, without question.Information is taken from source(s) with enough interpretation/ evaluation to develop a coherent analysis or synthesis. Viewpoints of experts are subject to questioning.Information is taken from source(s) with enough interpretation/ evaluation to develop a comprehensive analysis or synthesis. Viewpoints of experts are questioned thoroughly.
Influence of context and assumptions         Points:     /2Approach to the issue is in egocentric and socio- centric terms. Does not relate to other contexts. Analysis is grounded in absolutes, with little acknowledgement of own biases. Does not recognize context and underlying ethical implications.Presents and explores relevant contexts and assumptions, although in a limited way. Analysis includes some outside verification, but primarily relies on authorities.  Provides some consideration of assumptions and their implications.Analyzes the issue with a clear sense of scope and context, including an assessment of audience. Identifies influence of context. Questions assumptions, addressing ethical dimensions underlying the issue.
Student’s position (perspective, thesis/hypothesis)       Points:     /2Position is clearly adopted with little consideration. Addresses a single view of the argument, failing to clarify the position relative to one’s own. Fails to justify own opinion or hypothesis is unclear or simplistic.  Presents own position, which includes some original thinking, though inconsistently. Justifies own position without addressing other views or does so superficially.  Position is generally clear, although gaps may exist.Position demonstrates ownership. Appropriately identifies own position, drawing support from experience and information not from assigned sources. Justifies own view while integrating contrary interpretations. Hypothesis demonstrates sophisticated thought.
Conclusions and related outcomes (implications and consequences)       Points:     /2Conclusion is inconsistently tied to some of the information discussed; related outcomes (consequences and implications) are oversimplified.Conclusions consider evidence of consequences extending beyond a single issue. Presents implications that may impact other people or issues. Presents conclusions as only loosely related to consequences. Implications may include vague reference to conclusions.Conclusions and related outcomes (consequences and implications) are logical and reflect student’s informed evaluation and ability to place evidence and perspectives discussed in priority order.  
Total:        /10   


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Possible Confusion Between Theological Beliefs and Ethical Principles

Possible Confusion Between Theological Beliefs and Ethical Principles

Theological beliefs play an important role in shaping the ethics of the believers. Religion has used a measure of standard against which people gauge their ethical standards against. However, some theological beliefs contravene with ethical principles taught by the Bible. In some cases, the Bible requires some degree of ethical practice that contravene integrity of other ethics in the as commanded by God (GAN, 2016). For instance, the Bible commands Christians to trust and respect God in all their endeavors. Moreover, the Bible teaches that no one is supposed to wrong the other by committing any form of crime.

One of the factors of theological belief that confuses with ethical principles is obedient to God. The Bible teaches that it unethical for Christians to disobey God’s commands. However, in the process of obeying God, Christians engage in activities that harm and hurt others in the society (GAN, 2016). For instance, Abraham is regarded as the father of faith in the Bible. One day Abraham was ordered to sacrifice his only son Isaac to appease God. Abraham was obedient and went over to sacrifice his son, but God offered him an alternative. By agreeing to offer his son as a sacrifice, Abraham was ready to cause harm to his son in the name of being obedient to God. His willingness to offer his son as a sacrifice was against a principle advocated by the Bible that one should love his neighbor and do no harm to him.  Moreover, it is unethical to commit murder in the society. Abraham’s actions would amount to murder against what the Bible advocate that you should not kill. In the modern society, Abraham’s actions would amount to crime since it is an unethical commitment in the society.

It is difficult to prove when a person has received a divine command from God and when someone is acting in fulfillment of his selfish interest. Obedient to God may prompt the society to change from observing ethical principles to a society that is guided by religious authority. Moreover, obedient to God may be used to justify some awful acts against others in the society. For instance, in the Bible, God ordered Saul to “Now go and Smite Amalekites, and utterly destroy all that they have and spare them not; but slay both man and woman, infant and suckling…” (Cupp, 2017). The theological teachings at times justify the commitment of crime against humanity which is unethical. Committing genocide in the name of a command from God is unethical to act since it amounts to a lack of respect for humanity. Therefore, following the religious authority at the expense of what is wrong and right can lead to controversy in the society. Obedience makes it obligatory for the believers to act as per what God commands/ voice of God. However, it is possible for some people to commit unethical acts in the name divine command from God (GAN, 2016). Such an act put the authenticity of divine command in the spotlight since it possible for some people to fashion the command with their malicious interests (Cupp, 2017). Moreover, it is difficult to prove whether a person has a divine message or not.

Despite being an important source of ethics, some theological beliefs may lead to contravention of important life values. Such contravention undermines what the theological beliefs advocate for since most of the ethical values are derived from the babble and other religious books.


Cupp, K. (2017). When being religious means being unethical. Journeys in Alterity. Retrieved from

GAN, P. C. B. (2016). Ethics precedes religious beliefs: The basis of solidarity. Asian Journal of humanity, vol. 23, no.2. pp. 51-69.

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Review the Council for Exceptional Children’s Ethical Principles. What is the difference between a law and an ethical principle?

The Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) has established a set of Ethical Principles to guide the professional conduct of its members. These principles cover professional behavior, confidentiality, and respect for individual differences.

A law is a rule or regulation enforced by a governmental authority, while an ethical principle is a set of guidelines that are not necessarily enforceable by law but are based on the values and beliefs of a particular profession. Laws are enacted to provide a legal framework for actions and behaviors, while ethical principles guide professionals in making decisions and judgments that uphold the integrity of their field.

An example of an overlap between a special education law and a CEC ethical principle is the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and the principle of Non-discrimination. Both IDEA and the ethical principle require that students with disabilities be provided with equal educational opportunities and that their individual needs are met. Compliance with IDEA is not only a legal requirement but also aligns with the CEC ethical principle of Non-discrimination.

It is important to follow laws and ethical principles because they guide appropriate conduct and decision-making. Laws provide a minimum standard of behavior, while ethical principles set a higher standard based on the values and beliefs of the profession. Following both ensures that professionals meet legal requirements while also upholding the integrity of their field.

While there may be some overlap between laws and ethical principles, contradictions can arise. For example, a special education law may require that all students with disabilities receive the same accommodations, regardless of their individual needs, while an ethical principle may require that accommodation be tailored to each student’s unique needs. In this case, following the ethical principle may lead to a violation of the law. Professionals need to navigate such contradictions carefully, using their professional judgment and seeking guidance from relevant authorities when necessary.

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Ethical Decision Making In Healthcare

Ethical Decision Making In Healthcare

While ethical healthcare decisions should be made about the patient’s health, a mutual understanding should be stricken between the healthcare provider and the recipient. This way, healthcare practitioners administer healthcare services to the patient following the ethical codes of conduct governing the healthcare practice; besides, the patient’s decisions, beliefs, and cultural practices should be upheld. The patient’s resolutions should be considered when giving out healthcare guidelines to a patient, especially when the patient’s demands contradict the healthcare practice’s guidelines. As a result of this, ethical doctrines governing the healthcare practice which abides by the patient’s decisions are discussed, the similar cultural beliefs upheld by patients, and how ethical healthcare decisions can be made, which enhances the patient’s health status, and supports their cultural beliefs.

When making health decisions, the principle of beneficence should be upheld. The ethical aspect of beneficence in healthcare requires healthcare practitioners to extend acts of charity, mercy, and show great connotation of doing good to others (McCullough, 2020). As a healthcare practitioner, looking after John, decisions should be made to improve John’s healthy status despite his decision. For instance, the nurse can volunteer to treat John from home and bring him to the healthcare facility only when Renal Dialysis is needed. This way, John’s decision to be home will be considered without violating healthcare administration. Through beneficence, a patient’s satisfaction levels improve, increasing their chances of recovering.

Health maximization is a vital aspect of Ethical decision making in healthcare. The health maximization principle of ethical healthcare decision making entails upholding such health practices, which prioritizes the patient’s health status (Meeker et al., 2019). John decides to go home despite his critical health condition, which demands a stay in the hospital for effective healthcare administration and closer surveillance. The interdisciplinary healthcare team should, therefore, formulate measures aiming to prioritise and maximise patients’ health benefits despite their decisions. This can include formulating an outpatient department for Renal Dialysis for patients uncomfortable when put under inpatient care. This way, John will continue with his medication and stay at home as well, thus maximizing his health benefit, and considering his decision as well.

The interdisciplinary team should embark on developing cultural competence among patients. Some cultural practices and beliefs perceived by patients hinder effective healthcare administration. Therefore, the healthcare disciplinary team should develop programs aimed at instilling cultural competence among patients (Pinho et al., 2017). The latter therefore aims at addressing the divergent worldviews perceived by patients, which hinder effective healthcare delivery. Through this, John will change his mentality of leaving the hospital and will continue with his medication. However, cultural competence does not entail changing patient’s worldviews but harmonizing their cultural beliefs with healthcare doctrines, to ensure that patients see the essence of their health condition, over their cultural beliefs.

Respect for autonomy is a vital aspect of ethical decision making in healthcare practice.  In healthcare practice, the principle of respect for freedom entails acknowledging patient’s decisions on the mode of healthcare delivery they are comfortable with (Scott, 2017). Through this, healthcare practitioners should not go against the patient’s choice. If the recommended mode of healthcare delivery is not appropriate for the patient, like John’s case, the interdisciplinary team should formulate other healthcare interventions that are suitable for the patient.

The interdisciplinary team should uphold cultural diversity in healthcare practice. Cultural differences between nurses and patients hinder the effective delivery of healthcare services. For instance, nurses could have undermined John’s inferior culture. Cultural relativism entails that a person is judged from their home culture, and not based on the dominant culture. If John’s cultural beliefs like denial of blood transfusion and injections are accepted and respected by nurses, John might have agreed to stay in the hospital until he recovers. The hospital’s interdisciplinary team, therefore, should train its staff on embracing cultural diversity and acknowledging a patient’s cultural beliefs, practices, and differences, hence facilitating effective healthcare delivery, despite the differences.

Harmonizing cultural differences help enhance the relationship between nurses and patients, hence improving healthcare delivery. To harmonize the cultural differences between the two parties, which hinder the effective delivery of healthcare services, the interdisciplinary team should adopt a communication department within the healthcare facility. Through this, the underlying cultural differences between nurses and patients will be resolved, making patient’s change their perception on the patient’s beliefs and world views, which in turn transforms to patients making more sound health decisions, with help from the nurses who understand them well (Purnell & Fenkl, 2019). For instance, if the nurses understood John’s cultural beliefs, they would have helped him make a sound decision, like staying in the hospital and not to terminate his medication. Ethical decision making in healthcare is dependent on understanding between nurses and patients.

Ethical decision making is vital in addressing conflicting uncertainties in the healthcare practice regarding overlapping cultural values, methods, and worldviews between patients and healthcare providers. Respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice are vital aspects of ethical decision making governing healthcare practice.


McCullough, L. B. (2020). Beneficence and wellbeing: A critical appraisal. The American Journal of Bioethics20(3), 65-68.

Meeker, M. A., McGinly, J. M., Jezewski, M. A. (2019). Metasysnthesis. Dying adults’ transition process from cure-focused to comfort-focused care. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 75: 2059-20171.

Pinho, M., Borges, A. P., & Zahariev, B. (2017). Bedsides healthcare rationing dilemmas: A survey from Bulgaria and comparison with Portugal. Social Theory & Health15(3), 285-301.

Purnell, L. D., & Fenkl, E. A. (2019). Transcultural diversity and health care. In Handbook for Culturally Competent Care (pp. 1-6). Springer, Cham.

Scott, P. A. (2017). Ethical Principles in Healthcare Research. In Key Concepts and Issues in Nursing Ethics (pp. 191-205). Springer, Cham.

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My Utopia Job

Title: My Utopia Job

Thesis: My utopian job will be passed on past work experiences, especially on every bit of good on that I have learned through listening and learning various concepts in school.


Since joining my school, I have been exceptional in performance and always working for the betterment of my future career. Interacting with my classmates and other senior officials has built-in me explicit skills that I can use to build concrete future establishments and other meaningful issues about my future success. The vibrant learning processes that had been realized during my stay in school have not only shaped my focus but also rejuvenate my enthusiasm to meet my future careers with utmost efforts to achieve my dreams. The system has also boosted my morale in making and serving my intended audience with explicit confidence. 

Every person has driving factors, strengths, and weaknesses that require the proper balance to meet the exceeding challenges that might be realized in their dispensation. For the case of Utopia’s job, every person is destined to be the best upon called to work and position. This allows them to explore various concepts associated with their credibility and the resumption of roles they are supposed to take. 

Thesis Statement: My perfect job will be passed on past work experiences, especially on every bit of good on what I have learned through listening and learning various concepts in school.

  1.  (Transitions: “The paper will begin by discussing the main points for resumptions to my Utopia Job.”
  2. Body

As opposed to other careers, my Utopia Job as an executive requires basic knowledge and skills in management across almost all fields. It also depends on the learned skills from skills and interaction with other seniors in the same position.

  1. Main Points of Analysis
  2. Learning and Interactions: Learning and interacting with others not only allow one to exercise his or her expertise but also boosts his or her skills and knowledge.
  3. Management Roles: Management roles and capabilities acts as the gate pass to success and realization of future careers.
  4. Being Focus and Determined: Remaining focus and determined is the best way to meet one’s goals and objectives across all disciplines.
  5. Growth and Development: Growth and development of a person are subject to success and helps in determining points of weaknesses for proper and timely attention.
  6. Knowledge and Skills: Skills and better understanding in a particular field boost morale and reiterates the intended success. 
  7. Strengths
  8. When it comes to achieving and realizing one goal and objectives in his or her place of work or managerial roles, he or she must have particular advantages that can keep him or her steadfast and up-to-the game. My Utopia Job is based on the following strengths.  
  9. Proper and Good Communication skills: The success of any goal is based on how parties involved participating in finding its solutions (Russo-Netzer & Littman-Ovadia, 2019). This is only possible through the execution of proper communication skills. The language also builds the needed confidence to meet the demands of the workplace.
  10. Exceptional Creativity: Being creative help in formulating better solutions to any problems within the workplace (Duan, 2016).
  11. New Management tools
  12. Interrelationship Diagram

A technique for dealing with complex problems and issues in the workplace. It allows teams to systematically handle their problems and formulate an amicable solution to it (Bullington, 2018). The technique of multiple directions thinking among members for a comprehensive solution. “It systematically surfaces the basic assumptions.”

  1. Process Decision Program Charts

Management technique for the preparation of contingency plans. Modeled to validate the success of realized problems. It enhances subjective probabilities. Notably, the decision making process in the Process Decision Program Charts leads people in various stages of the problem and the possible solution that it may need at the final pint (Glegg, Ryce & Brownlee, 2019). The various events that are charted in the technique help in addressing all the likely contingencies. “PDPC emphasizes on the “failures” (problems) on project schedules.”

  1. Matrix Diagrams

The management tool shows the relationship between methods and objectives, causes, and results as well as people and tasks. It aims at determining the relationship between columns and rows (Beare, Caldwell & Millikan, 2018). “The intersection of the grid will clarify the problem strength.”

  • Ideal Jobs
  • Referral Hub Administrator
  • Public Affair Executive
  • Student Records Administrator.
  • Conclusion

Summary Remark: In the end, every job opportunity requires skills and knowledge to meet the constant demands that it is associated with across all disciplines. My Utopia Job is, therefore, related to the explicit evaluation of various skills and interactions enjoyed in school to boost my management skills and capabilities.

Concluding remarks: My Utopia Job is based on learning and interactions, management roles, growth, and development, as well as strengths such as creativity and exceptional communication. Across various new management tools such as matrices and interrelationship diagram, essential ways of addressing management roles are correctly outlined.

  1. References

Beare, H., Caldwell, B. J., & Millikan, R. H. (2018). Creating an excellent school: Some new management techniques. Routledge.

Bullington, K. (2018). Sticking Out the Storm. Quality Progress51(9), 24-32.

Duan, W. (2016). The benefits of personal strengths in the mental health of stressed students: A longitudinal investigation. Quality of Life Research25(11), 2879-2888.

Glegg, S. M., Ryce, A., & Brownlee, K. (2019). A visual management tool for program planning, project management, and evaluation in pediatric health care. Evaluation and program planning72, 16-23.

Russo-Netzer, P., & Littman-Ovadia, H. (2019). ” Something to live for”: Experiences, resources, and personal strengths in late adulthood. Frontiers in psychology10, 2452.

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The Barrier to Implementation of Ethic Programs and Solutions

The Barrier to Implementation of Ethic Programs and Solutions

While organizations develop an ethics program in their workplace, the implementation will depend on the availability of role models and the mode of communication. Ethical culture does not happen; they need a role model to pursue. They need people who will lead in doing what is right. Lack of role models or having the wrong ones is a great hindrance to implementing ethics programs in the workplace. The lack of a role model impacts how much the company can achieve. Role model communicates a positive message toward the organization that all the employees are satisfied and willing to work. There is a need for the organization and crafters of this program to ensure there are right people who can serve as a role model in order to encourage an ethical culture in the workplace.

Communication is the second barrier to the implementation of an effective ethics program. Cultures are formed for people to follow. There is a great need that once these ethic programs have been formed, the right channel to be used to ensure everyone understands what is expected of them. These lead to the conclusion that communication is a key component to ensuring successful implementation of ethics programs in the workplace or a community. Communication enables an individual to understand guidelines on their daily activities as well as encouraging them to participate in the ethical practices suggested. Lack of communication means a lack of proper understanding and what is expected of them. The organization should ensure there is the right channel for all people concerned to understand. Otherwise, it would be almost impossible to implement the program successfully.

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The Enactment of Ethics in Counselling

Websites with Career Guidance and/or Testing

The one-stop career website offers career information, training and how to search for them. The website offers extensive information on diverse career choices and tries to help people choose the appropriate career in line with their capabilities. Notably, the website offers numerous information on different types of jobs and offers training in these diverse fields.

This website tries to counsel people on career choices depending on their traits and capabilities. Notably, the website takes a unique approach by necessitating people to clearly understand their personality, strengths, and weaknesses and incorporate them in the job search.

Robert Walters looks at the contemporary world and things that transpire in the career world. Walters talks about the experiences that people go through in their careers or in pursuit of them and try to offer guidance with respect to these real-life experiences. Importantly, the website talks about trends in the world and thus tries to counsel people by offering them information about the contemporary world. Consequently, the focus on the career life stories of diverse people and recent trends strengthen the career advice on the website.

The occupational outlook handbook offers career advice. The handbook gives career information on duties, pay, education and training, and the outlook for numerous occupations. The website tries to offer diverse information on a career by understanding the distinctions of different individuals. For instance, the website will offer different people distinct advice depending on their qualifications such as educational level, educational choices, median level, and growth rate. Consequently, the website offers crucial advice on on-job-training.

The United States Department of Labor offers career advice while paying attention to the expectations of different states in the United States. The website informs people on job opportunities and expectations locally and regionally. Importantly, the website offers links and contact details for different cities within the US.

The USA Jobs website has a help center that offers career information and guidance. The website offers information on how to apply for a job and how to maximize the chances of a great career. The website understands the essence of credibility and thus tries to convince clients to maintain a good track record in their pursuit of a good career. Notably, the website presents unique hiring paths by enacting an inclusiveness approach in their advice phase.

This website enacts a unique approach by offering career advice to teenagers and young adults. While a lot of sites target the general audience, the website tries to guide teens irrespective of their status. For instance, the website guides teens who are still in school in applying for jobs over the summer and using the knowledge and skills to increase their credibility within their working timeframe and ultimately grow to be open-minded and career driven individuals. Notably, the website insists on the need to avoid being caught out by the career chances that people neglect their school duties or expectations.

This sophisticated website offers diverse counseling to different groups of people. The website deals with students, parents, businesses, and citizens in general. It tries to match people with the appropriate jobs by understanding their unique features. The website insists that developing a career can be a long-term process which may require a lot of knowledge and at times compromise in pursuit of the right one.

The website looks at the specific group of women. The website offers advice for women who are looking for a job, currently have a job, and who intend to quit from a job. Imperatively, the website tries to help women understand their rights to avoid being exploited in their line of duty or pursuit of a career. The unique focus on women ensures that the websites understand the challenges and shortcomings they encounter and thus try to motivate and empower them.

There are a lot of issues where people are scammed or exploited in pursuit of employment opportunities, and thus the outlined website tries to advise people on how to avoid being scammed or how to discover scammers. The website points out that scammers try to take advantage of people who are desperate for a job in a tough market thereby outlining the need to be ready for them before they strike. The website offers crucial guidance on the things that point to scammers and guides people in the job application phase.

The SBA website helps people find the right path when starting their own businesses. The website acknowledges the importance of self-employment and thus offers personal and legal advice on how to go about it. The website offers basic counsel from the coming up with a business to the latter stages of setting up business accounts, getting insured, and running the business. The website offers counsel on each step and necessitates people to inquire on any phase of the process.

A lot of people get into trouble for lack of knowledge of tax information, and thus this website tries to resolve this problem by offering tax counsel. The website offers counsel to people in different types of work such as self-employed individuals and business structures. The website offers advice on tax obligations on the diverse group with the aim of setting them on the right career path in line with legal expectations.

Ultimately, this website offers help to people on vocational rehabilitation and employment services. The website deals with job training, resume development, employment accommodations, and job skills coaching.

Distance Career Guidance and Testing

The practice of counseling aims to promote respect for human diversity and dignity. The profession of counseling runs on five core values that integrate virtues such as integrity, competence and ethical treatment, social justice, inclusiveness, and enhancing human development. The practice of distance career guidance may be imperative to reach a wide range of people and offer counseling services to a wide array of people without being limited by distance or financial needs. However, the practice may threaten the comprehensive enactment of some of the ethical standards set forward for the practice of the profession.

Coinciding with Ethical Standards

The appropriate enactment of the distance counseling with genuine expectations will essentially outline the effective enactment of ethical guidelines. The primary aim of counseling is to guide and help people, and thus counselors should be primarily driven to carry out this responsibility especially on distance counseling. Ultimately, the practice will effectively fall in line in respect to ethical standards if all parties are driven by the need to get the best out of the counseling process. The professionals should adhere to the rules and regulations of the land and respect the needs and expectations of their clients. The clients, on the other hand, should be honest and forthcoming with the information they share to have concise advice.

It is imperative to acknowledge that the move to enact distance counseling has some positive impact while some of its aspects help improve the attainment of ethical requirements. Notably, it coincides with the need to offer people a chance for counseling irrespective of their diversities. The enactment of distance counseling ensures that different people can get a chance to be counseled as the use of technological tools does not limit people depending on their distinctions. Importantly, the counseling services are open to a lot of people globally, and thus a counselor in the United States can counsel an individual in Africa or Europe without being limited by any disparities between them.

Conversely, the counseling type helps develop new and essential relationships while incorporating an inclusiveness approach in practice, the code of conduct outlines the need for counselors to facilitate the growth of customers by fostering their interest and welfare while promoting healthy relationships. Therefore, the appropriate enactment of distance counseling can help improve ties and help the clients gain essential esteem as they are not subjected to a physical face to face approach. Notably, the enactment of an inclusiveness approach ensures that minority groups will feel appreciated as they are given the same priorities as the other communities.

Ultimately, the approach can be in line with ethical expectations if the counselor heeds to the professional responsibility of maintaining open, honest, and accurate communication while dealing with the clients and other professionals (ACA Code of Ethics, 2014). Therefore, heeding to the outlined expectations ensures that the professional is still pursuing his or her responsibility thereby not being limited by distance. The essence of counseling is to guide people, and therefore professionals should be willing to overcome barriers in the quest for the successful delivery of their work. Notably, the enactment of distance counseling serves to strengthen their ethical stance as they want to help people from a broad range.

Conflicting Ethical Issues

The enactment of distance counseling has widened the use of technology in offering interventions but consequently encountered new ethical challenges. The most rampant issue that conflicts with the efficiency of distance counseling is the issue of confidentiality or privacy. Notably, counseling sessions should ensure that the information shared is private and confidential and thus avoid displaying it to the public. However, the interactions entail people from diverse locations, and thus either party can fail to heed to these guidelines. Similarly, the technological world has a few flaws such as cyber-security issues, and therefore people can acquire videos, conversations, or messages shared online without the consent of either party. Importantly, the issue of cyberbullying means that data shared on an online platform may not be as confidential and thus posing a danger to the clients.

The use of online means to offer guidance provides extensive dangers such as the fact that email is not in real-time and thus asynchronous outlining a situation where a client may possess a more intense psychological holding environment than the one held in traditional in-person relationships (Childress, 2000).  Therefore, the approach outlines an environment where people may feel less inclined to be truthful especially depending on the platform offered. The traditional approach of face-to-face interactions made it easier to share thoughts while the use of online techniques may limit people from being completely forthcoming with essential information.

The consumers of online counsel should consider their safety. People who may have to the access of the client’s email can go through it. Importantly, human error can come into play such as sending the email to a wrong person. Therefore, the use of the online platform conflicts with the effective enactment of the code of ethics Section A on avoiding harm and imposing values. Leaking counsel information and undermining safety measures limits the comprehensive enactment of the code of ethics.

Consequently, counselors need licenses to carry on their trade. Therefore, there may arise ethical concerns as they may offer professional services beyond their set limits. Counselors are licensed to carry out their work in outlined locations, and thus they need to observe these licenses. However, the online platform means that a counselor licensed to work in California may have clients from Michigan and thus outlining ethical concerns which may damage the effective enactment of the codes of ethics. Counselors are expected to provide care to clients residing within their licensed or certified provinces or states (Kraus, 2011). However, the online platform highly conflicts with the adherence to this guidance.

There are legal and ethical concerns that conflict with the practice of video-based professional services that distance counseling may input. Notably, some professional may fail to keep records for these services which are imperative in accordance with the law. The counselors have to maintain high credibility levels by ensuring they are following a professional approach in their line of duty. Conversely, it is essential to observe the rules and regulations and thus to keep records for a set period of time mostly five years (Lindinger-Sternart and Piazza, 2014). The practice of video-based professional services outlines numerous issues that might arise such as professional relationship, confidentiality, and informed consent. If they are not well addressed, they may harm the enactment of ethical standards and damage the reputation of an institution while harming the client.

Finally, distance counseling may limit credibility as it may prove hard for clients to determine whether the counselors are legitimate or not. The world is continually evolving with technology at the height of it. Therefore, people can come up with websites or other online channels and offer career advice to diverse people in search of an extra coin or website traffics. It is hard to appropriately understand the ingenuity of websites and other online platforms that counselors may opt to choose. Similarly, people can draft their own licenses, and since the interactions are online, it may be hard to take action on these people without sufficient information. Therefore, distance counseling can violate the expectations of counseling and stamp on numerous ethical requirements.


ACA Code of Ethics. (2014). Journal of Counseling & Development, 84(2), 1-24. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6678.2006.tb00401.x

Childress, C. A. (2000). Ethical Issues in Providing Online Psychotherapeutic Interventions. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 2(1). doi:10.2196/jmir.2.1.e5

Kraus, R. (2011). Ethical Issues in Online Counseling. Online Counseling, 85-106. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-378596-1.00005-8

Lindinger-Sternart, S., & Piazza, N. (2014). Major Ethical Considerations and Technological Challenges Related to Distance Professional Services. International Journal of Social Science Studies, 3(1). doi:10.11114/ijsss.v3i1.620

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Potential Ethical Situation

Potential Ethical Situation

Ethics which is also referred to as moral philosophy, is a branch of philosophy involving defending, systematizing and recommending concepts of wrong and right conducts that addresses disputes of moral diversity often. Philosophical investigates the best ways of humans to live and the kinds of actions that are right or wrong in certain circumstances. Related fields to ethics are moral psychology, descriptive ethics, and value theory. Questions dealing with human morality and concepts like good or evil, right and wrong, virtue and vice, justice and crime are what ethics seeks to resolve. (McKee, 2012)

Some situations require a person or organizations to make decisions on alternatives that can be evaluated as wrong/unethical or right/ethical. The following are some of ethical situations that have been linked have led to breach of ethical principles.

Clinical Clients

Health care professionals in different delivery fields have the legal and ethical responsibility to safeguard the information regarding their clients with confidentiality and utmost care. Scholars and those who are involved in research also have the ethical and legal responsibility to safeguard the privacy of people participating in the studies and other research projects.

Clinical health workers are responsible for setting professional boundaries with for example the instances where dual multiple relationships are unavoidable. Health workers should not engage in dual or multiple relationships which might lead to risks in professional judgment being compromised or lead to the client being exploited or harmed. In this case involving Sondra who sought counseling to in order to seek help with her recent separation from her husband from social health worker martin who was also divorced, the two met weekly for approximately one month. At the end of the last therapy session when she was leaving the office, martin asked her out for lunch which she agreed to. This led into a social relationship which led to sexual intimacy. The relationship fell a part six months later and Sondra filed a complaint against Martin with the state licensing board and a negligence lawsuit alleging emotional harm. In this case, martin was in violation of principle C-Integrity. By taking advantage of the client’s situation and drawing her closely to the point of sexual intimacy, martin lacked integrity in his job as a clinical health worker. An individual who upholds integrity must ensure that he or she upholds ethics (McKee, 2012).

Research Participants

Some of the cases that have been reported about research work to have violated human rights are: the study on 400 poor black men with syphilis who were enrolled in the study about syphilis unknowingly. They were told they were being treated for bad blood, a term used to describe several illnesses. There was no treatment for the condition at first but with the discovery of penicillin as a cure, the medicine was withheld from them because the scientists wanted to know how the disease spread and killed. That was very shameful and unethical. It was a total disregard and violation to human rights. This case is known as the Tuskegee experiment. It emphasizes on respect to persons, beneficence where people are to be treated in ethical manner. It states that research work should do no harm, maximize benefits and minimize harms. It also emphasize on justice to all for example. Exploitation of unwilling people like prisoners and minority groups of the society as research subjects is unlawful. These researchers were in violation of Principle D- Justice, which states the psychologists have to carry out their duties in regard to fairness and social equity. They ought not to have let their personal bias cloud their professional judgment (Banks, 2012).

Graduate Students

Another case that raised questions on students’ sensitivity on culture was when over 500 year old bones which belonged to some Ontario’s original inhabitants. The university of Louisiana State was being asked to return the stolen bones of about 200 people that were unlawfully gathered for research. These cases and several others led to the questioning or researchers on how much freedom the students had while undertaking their research. They had no respect to the culture of the Ontario inhabitants. This case was in breach of principle E- Respect for people’s rights and dignity. This principle states that psychologists should not act in a way that violates the rights and culture of the clients regardless of personal of professional opinion he may have (G., 2012).


To maintain professional ethics in supervisory process can be very challenging and unique. Ethical violations occurring in therapeutic relationship can be passed to the supervisory roles. Supervisory relationships can be fraught with chances of uncomfortable and inappropriate situations. For example in this case where Mary’s supervisor uses her as a confidante and openly discusses other worker’s short comings but never bother to approach the worker’s about it. May is indirectly in breach of principle B-Fidelity and Responsibility. Fidelity and responsibility requires that information from others should be kept private and confidential (Edwards, 2012).


Sexual involvement between a faculty member and a trainee or consultee student in unisex university USA in 2009 portrayed clearly abuse of power by a supervisor who took advantage of inequalities of working relationship. This could affect or damage the trust relationship between the teacher and the student and teachers are viewed as professional role models for their trainees. This may affect the trainee future professional behavior (Edwards, 2012). This is yet another case which resulted into breech of principle C-integrity.


Mc Kee, A., & Eraut, M. (2012). Introduction (pp. 1-19). Springer Netherlands.

Banks, S. (2012). Ethical issues in youth work. Routledge.

Corey, G., Corey, M., Corey, C., & Callanan, P. (2014). Issues and ethics in the helping professions. Cengage Learning.

Edwards, J. K. (2012). Strengths-Based Supervision in Clinical Practice. SAGE Publications.

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Ethical Hacking Essay

Ethical Hacking Essay.

Ethical Hacking Essay. Ethical hacking is an emerging tools used by most of the organizations for testing network security. The security risks and vulnerabilities in a network can be recognized with the help of ethical hacking. This research completely concentrates on ethical hacking, problems that may occur while hacking process is in progress and various ethical hacking tools available for organizations. Information is the important source for any organizations while executing business operations. Organizations and government agencies have to adopt ethical hacking tools in order secure important documents and sensitive information (Tipton and Krause, 2004).

Ethical Hacking Essay

Ethical hacker professionals have to be hired in order to test the networks effectively. Ethical hackers perform security measure on behalf of the organization owners. In order to bring out the ethical hacking efforts perfectly a proper plan must be executed. Ethical hacking has the ability to suggest proper security tools that can avoid attacks on the networks. Hacking tools can be used for email systems, data bases and voice over internet protocol applications in order to make communications securely.

What is ethical hacking essay?

Ethical hacking can also be known as penetration testing which can be used for networks, applications and operating systems (Jeff Forristal and Julie Traxler, 2001). Using hacking tools is a best method for identifying the attacks before it effect the entire organization. Ethical hackers are nothing but authorized users for the sensitive information or networks of an organization. Using hacking techniques for handling employees in organization and for solving critical judicial cases is not a crime. An ethical hacker use same tools and actions as performed by normal hacker.

What is ethical hacking introduction?

The main aspect in ethical hacking is that target permission is essential for performing hacking on the information. Ethical hacking can be used while performing security audits in the organization (Kevin Beaver, 2010). Thus, ethical hacking can help in testing the networks by finding out various vulnerabilities. In ethical hacking, a user will get permission to access the important data.

What is the importance of ethical hacking?

Aims and Objectives Aim To investigate the importance of ethical hacking and its implementation in organizations Objectives * Finding the importance of ethical hacking tools * Understanding the ethical hacking process Implementing ethical hacking tools in an organization Purpose of Study The main of this research is to recognize ethical hacking tools that can be used in organizations and government agencies. Testing the networks is essential in order to maintain security for the organizational information. The difficulties in networks have to be recognized by the security professional so that they can be solved before effecting the organization operations (James S. Tiller, 2005). This research also focuses on carrying out the ethical hacking tools in a particular organization.

What are the types of ethical hackers?

The advantages of using ethical hacking in business firms can be evaluated by this study. Ethical hacking tools can be implemented in various fields of applications. Various security professionals can be efficient in ethical hacking tools by undergoing a training process. Another major intension of this research is to identify the importance of ethical hacking professionals in providing security to the networks. (Nina Godbole, 2008). Thus, this research entirely focuses on ethical hacking tools which can be implemented for testing the networks.

What are the 7 types of hackers?

Research Context This research on ethical hacking can be very useful to many organizations as it can provide clear idea about hacking tools. Security professionals and normal users have to be trained well in order to use hacking tools. The importance of ethical hacking while solving many judicial cases can be identified with the help of this research. Management of an organization can be benefited largely through implementing hacking tools. Hacking tools implementation process can be understood with the help of this research (Ronald L.

What are the 3 types of hackers?

Krutz and Russell Dean Vines, 2007). Network security or data security engineers in organization will come to know about new ethical hacking methods and techniques that are available in the present market by concentrating on this research. The concepts in this study provide knowledge related to security improvements. Business users can hack the data in order to use it for the purpose of evaluating a correct process. Management has to take precautionary measures while allowing the professional to hack ethically because data may be misused (Rajat Khare, 2006).

What is the purpose of hackers?

Scholars who concerned with information security can take the help of this study for attaining the knowledge on hacking systems. Many organizations are encouraging ethical hacking professionals in order to control their business operations effectively. Email systems, data bases and communication applications can avoid or identify attacks by adopting the hacking tools. Malicious attacks on the information or software can be prevented by implementing this research while using ethical hacking tools.

The organizations that concerned with security in networks have to use ethical hacking tools (Greg Meyer and Steven Casco, 2002). Hence from the above discussion it can be understood that, business firms, investigating agencies, government systems and web users can make use of this research to achieve the important information in authorized manner. Chapter 2:Literature Review Ethical Hacking and its importance The word hacking is defined as an illegal use of the other’s computer system or the network resources. Hacker is the term which is formerly meant for the skillful programmer.

This is mostly found in the countries like United States and many other countries. The word hacker refers to the names of the persons who enjoys the work in learning the details of the computer systems and stretch the capabilities from the system (Rajat Khare, 2006). The system of hacking describes the fast improvement in the new programs that make the codes for the providing a better security to the system with more efficiency. The word cracker also belongs to the same field it make use of the hacking skills for the unlawful purposes like email id, intruding into other’s system.

Hacking is of different types such as back door hacking, viruses and worms, Trojan horses, Denial of Services, anarchists, crackers, kiddies and ethical hacking (Kevin Beaver, 2010). In the types of hacking system one of the most common hacking is ethical hacking. This is defined as the services that provides the securities for the customer’s networks, information assets and identifies the vulnerabilities to maintain the reputation of the corporate sectors before it exploit the company. This type of the hacking system provides the high securities to the customer’s methodologies and techniques to yield high qualities of infrastructures.

The ethical hacking system includes some of the service like: * Application Testing * War Dialing * Network Testing * Wireless Security * System Hardening Application Testing This is an uncover design or the logic flaws which result in the compromising with the unauthorized accessing of the systems, networks, applications or the information regarding the systems. This application testing is used for investigating and identifying the extent and the criticality of the problems exposure to the thick client (Java) and thin client (web browsers) applications.

This application testing includes the services like client-side application testing and web application testing’s (Joel Scambray, Mike Shema and Caleb Sima, 2006). The client-side application testing is the process of developing the software that is used for the measuring the integrated security into the client software constituents. In this system this testing application is based on the gathering of the information by observer using the reverse engineering system. War Dialing This is one of the services that are provided by ethical hacking.

War dialing is a method of dialing a modem number to identify open modem connection that supplies access in a remote way to a network for targeting a particular system (Kimberly Graves, 2007). This word is originated from the day the when the internet has come into the existence in most of the companies. This follows the method of scanning to find the strength of the network connection. The tools of War dialing work on the concept that organizations do not pay attention to dial-in ports like they do towards the firewalls. Network Testing

The networking testing services of the ethical hacking provides the information on the exposures of the network, services, and solutions on the convergence, protocols and system devices including the virtual private network technologies. This testing process includes a number of constitutes in external and internal devices. It also analyzes the applications of the voice over Internet protocol within the environment of the organization (Greg Meyer and Steven Casco, 2002). The main goal of the network testing application is to make obvious demonstration of the political effects on its development.

By making use of this application into the organization, it provides a complete enlightenment to the work for determining the result in the organization. Wireless Security Wireless security services measures the security in the available architecture to provide a guidelines to ensure the system integrity and accessibility of the resources. The working of wireless security is based on the three phases. In the first phase of the operation it identifies the activeness of the wireless networks (Cyrus Peikari and Seth Fogie, 2003).

The team of the ethical hacking demonstrates the exposure to the attackers with the space in the wireless network. In the seconds phase of this system it implements a normal users to evaluate the measures of the security that secures the infrastructures of the organization to control the accessing of the devices. During the third phase the team will try to utilize the discovered threats to gain access on other networks. This provides the security in wireless local area network, virtual private network, intrusion detection system and wireless public key infrastructure.

System Hardening The system hardening stresses on the network vicinity. Security is the prime factor that determines the level of integrity of the information and resources used in the computing. Effective deployment of the security controls unauthorized, accidental disruption if resources in information technology (Kevin Beaver and Peter T. Davis, 2005). The system hardening assessment is complemented in three phases. The ethical hacking team will analyze the network to identify the loop holes in security updates and other frequent security defects.

Scanning of the remote access devices is done for finding out the vulnerabilities. The configuration vulnerabilities and missing security updates are determined in the initial phase. In the second step the host operating system is examined to determine the services available for remote users and their level of impact. All the TCP/IP services and also the Telnet, FTP, Send-mail, DNS and others are tested (James S. Tiller, 2005). The packet fragmenting and loose source routing are used in an attempt to bypass filtering routers and firewalls.

The last phase is complicated as the team uses the information gathered from the first two steps to mine the weaknesses and threats that were identified to gain access to the host system. Before the start of the three steps the boundaries for actions and events are determined. Hence from the above context it can be stated that ethical hacking is a methodology that is used for gathering the information on the hacker. The ethical hacker is the expert who is hired by an organization to solve the problems related to hacking in their network and computer system.

Need for Ethical Hacking The process of employing someone to hack ones company is ethical hacking. Ethical hacking is one of the tools that are used to judge the security programs of the organizations. It is also referred as penetrating testing, red teaming, intrusion testing, vulnerability and even security judgments. Each one these has different meanings in different countries. Hacking is also described as new development of the existing programs, software and code. It makes them better and more efficient (James S. Tiller, 2005).

Ethical hacker can know the details of computer while hacking and become the security professional. It involves in foot-printing, scanning, tacking all the secured information. Ethical means a philosophy with morality. Hackers hack systems to detect dangerous, unauthorized access and misuse (Shon Harris, Allen Harper, Chris Eagle and Jonathan Ness, 2007). Threat and vulnerability are the two dangers the hacker has to face. The hacking report must be confidential as it should face the organizations security risks. If this goes wrong in any way the organization results in fatal, penalties and loss.

For example: computer crime is done by misuse of their hacking skills. The need to hack is for catching the thief. Ethical hacking is the correct method to make your computers work properly (Kevin Beaver, 2010). Ethical hacker needs higher level skills compared to penetration testing. Penetration testing is same as ethical hacking but the hacker uses the penetrating tools and tests the security danger. Ethical hacking is known as “White Hat” in some of the literature. It tests both the security and protective issues whereas penetrating test mainly leads with the security issues (Asoke K. Talukder and Manish Chaitanya, 2008).

Some of the websites and companies offer the training, but they cannot be created they are self-made. Various types of testing need different types of software’s and tools. Game freaks use hacking technology in order to win the game. Hackers will discover many ways to hack like trial and error method, operating systems, online and determining the threats. Ethical hacking is done by hackers on behalf of the owners, and in normal hacking they use their skills for personal use (Debra Littlejohn Shinder and Micheal Cross, 2008).

Cyber terrorism includes common hacking techniques such like viruses, email bombs and natural disasters. Thus ethical hacking is done by hackers on owner’s request. Mainly this is seen in corporate companies and organizations. Ethical hacking techniques are used for game cheat codes, hacking accounts and other for good result. Majorly used for fight against cyber terrorism and to take preventive action on hackers Types of ethical hackings Ethical hackers use various methods for breaking the security system in the organizations in the period of cyber attack.

Various types of ethical hacks are: Remote Network: This process in especially utilized to recognize the attacks that are causing among the internet. Usually the ethical hacker always tries to identify the default and proxy information in the networks some of then are firewalls, proxy etc. Remote dial up network: Remote dial up network hack identify and try to protest from the attack that is causing among the client modern pool. For finding the open system the organizations will make use of the method called war dialing for the representative dialing.

Open system is one of the examples for this type of attacks. Local Network: local network hack is the process which is used to access the illegal information by making use of someone with physical access gaining through the local network. To start on this procedure the ethical hacker should ready to access the local network directly. Stolen Equipment: By making use of the stolen equipment hack it is easy to identify the information of the thefts such as the laptops etc. the information secured by the owner of the laptop can be identified (Kimberly graves, 2007).

Information like username, password and the security settings that are in the equipment are encoded by stealing the laptop. Social engineering: A social engineering attack is the process which is used to check the reliability of the organization; this can be done by making use of the telecommunication or face to face communication by collecting the data which can be used in the attacks (Bryan Foss and Merlin Stone, 2002). This method is especially utilized to know the security information that is used in the organizations.

Physical Entry: This Physical entry organization is used in the organizations to control the attacks that are obtained through the physical premises (Ronald l. Krutz and russel dean Vines, 2007). By using the physical entire the ethical hacker can increase and can produce virus and other Trojans directly onto the network. Application network: the logic flaws present in the applications may result to the illegal access of the network and even in the application and the information that is provided in the applications.

Network testing: In this process it mainly observes the unsafe data that is present in the internal and the external network, not only in the particular network also in the devices and including the virtual private network technologies Wireless network testing: In this process the wireless network reduces the network liability to the attacker by using the radio access to the given wireless network space. Code review: This process will observe the source code which is in the part of the verification system and will recognize the strengths and the weakness of the modules that are in the software.

War dialing: it simply identifies the default information that is observed in the modem which is very dangerous to the corporate organizations. Techniques and tools required for ethical hacking Ethical hacker needs to understand how to find the network range and subnet mask of the target system. IP addresses are used to locate, scan and connect the target systems. Ethical hacker also should find out the geographical location of target system.

This can be done by tracing the messages that are sent to destination and the tools used are traceroute, Visual route and NeoTrace to identify the route the target (Kimberly Graves, 2007). Ethical hacking should use right tools or else task accomplishment of task effectively is difficult. Many security assessment tools will produce false positive and negative or may they even miss susceptibility to attacks. In case of tests in case of physical security assessments they miss weakness. In order for ethical hacking specific tools have to be used for the task chosen.

The easier the ethical hacking will become if many tools are used. The right tool must be used at right place. The characteristics in tools for ethical hacking is it should have sufficient document, detailed reports should be there on the discovered attacks regarding their fixing and explosion, Updates and support. The general tools used for ethical hacking in case to find passwords are cracking tools such as LC4, John the Ripper and pwdump (Bragg, Mark Phodes Ousley and Keith Strassberg, 2004).

The general tools like port scanner like SuperScan cannot be used to crack passwords. The Web-assessment tools such as Whisker or WebInspect tools are used for analysis of Web applications in depth. Whereas network analyzer tools such as ethereal cannot give good results. While using the tools for any particular task it is better to get feedback from the simple Google searches such as SecurityFocus. com, SearchSecurity. com and Itsecurity. com will give nice feedback from the other security experts which makes ethical hacking easy and to select the right tool.

Some of the commercial, freeware and open source security tools are Nmap (Network Mapper), Etherpeek, SuperScan, QualysGuard, WebInspect and LC4, LANguard Network Security Scanner, Network Stumbler and ToneLoc. The capabilities of many security and hacking tools are often misunderstood, such as SATAN (Security Administrator Tool for Analyzing Networks) and Nmap. The other popular tools used in ethical hacking are Internet scanner, Ethreal, Nessus, Nikto, Kismet and THC-Scan (Kevin Beaver, 2007).

Cain and able is a ethical tool used for recovery of windows UNIX problems. This is only password recovery tool handles an enormous variety of tasks. It can recover the password by sniffing the network, cracking the encrypted passwords using Dictionary and Cryptanalysis, recording VoIP conversations, decoding scrambled passwords, revealing the password boxes, uncovering cached passwords and analyzing routing protocols. Ethereal is a fantastic open source tool used as network protocol for UNIX and Windows.

It allows examining the data which is present in disk or file and can capture the data. This is also known as Wire shark. It has many powerful features which have very rich display filter language and ability to view the TCP session. Another cracking tool Aircrack is the fastest available cracking tool (John Hyuk Park, Hsiao-Hwa Chen and Mohammed Atiquzzaman, 2009). Thus proper tools and techniques has to be used for better hacking and it will be easier by using more and more tools required.

Ethical Hacking Essay

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