Analysis of the Purpose of the Literature Review:

Analysis of the Purpose of the Literature Review:

The purpose of a literature review in academic research is multifaceted and can be summarized as follows:

Contextualizing the Research: A literature review provides the context for your research by summarizing existing knowledge and research findings on the topic. It helps readers understand the background and significance of your study.

Identifying Gaps and Research Questions: It allows you to identify gaps or areas where existing research is insufficient or inconclusive. This, in turn, helps you formulate research questions or hypotheses that contribute to advancing knowledge.

Evaluating Methodologies and Approaches: You can analyze and critique the methodologies used in previous studies, highlighting their strengths and weaknesses. This informs your own research methodology and approach.

Supporting Theoretical Framework: It helps select or develop a theoretical framework by demonstrating which theories or models are relevant and have been previously applied in similar research.

Justifying the Study: By presenting a comprehensive review of the literature, you justify the need for your research and convince your audience of its significance.

Three key components of a literature review are:

a. Summary of Existing Research: This component involves summarizing the key findings and methodologies of relevant studies. It helps establish the foundation of knowledge on the topic.

b. Identification of Gaps and Research Questions: This is crucial for pinpointing areas where further research is needed. Identifying gaps helps clarify the purpose and direction of your own study.

c. Critique and Synthesis: This component involves critically evaluating the quality and limitations of previous research. It also entails synthesizing the information from various sources to create a coherent narrative.

I chose these components because they represent the fundamental objectives of a literature review: to provide context, identify gaps, and synthesize existing knowledge in a way that supports the research problem and justifies the study.

Finding a Gap in the Literature:

Finding a gap in the literature means identifying areas within existing research where there is an absence or deficiency of information, or where the current knowledge base is incomplete or inconclusive.

It is important to identify a gap in the literature to support your research problem for several reasons:

Justification for Research: Identifying a gap provides a clear rationale for why your research is necessary. It demonstrates that there are unanswered questions or areas where current knowledge falls short.

Original Contribution: Addressing a gap allows you to make an original contribution to the field. Your research can fill the void left by previous studies, advancing the state of knowledge.

Research Relevance: It ensures that your research is relevant and meaningful. By addressing gaps, you are more likely to produce research that has practical applications or theoretical significance.

Credibility: Identifying a gap enhances the credibility of your research. It shows that your study is not merely repeating what others have done but is building upon existing knowledge in a meaningful way.

Research Design: Knowing the gap helps shape your research design and methodology. You can tailor your approach to address the identified gap specifically.

Overall, finding and addressing a gap in the literature is a foundational step in the research process, as it defines the unique contribution your study will make and guides the direction of your research. It also helps ensure that your research has relevance and significance within the academic or practical context.

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“Still Alice” by Lisa Genova

“Still Alice” by Lisa Genova, which is a novel that was later adapted into a movie.

“Still Alice” Novel (2009):

The novel revolves around the story of Alice Howland, a renowned linguistics professor, who is diagnosed with early-onset Alzheimer’s disease.
Lisa Genova’s background in neuroscience and her ability to provide an intimate perspective on the experiences of someone with Alzheimer’s make the novel particularly poignant and insightful.
The book explores themes of memory, identity, family dynamics, and the emotional and cognitive challenges faced by individuals with Alzheimer’s and their loved ones.
“Still Alice” Movie (2014):

The film adaptation stars Julianne Moore as Alice Howland and closely follows the storyline of the novel.
Julianne Moore’s powerful performance earned her an Academy Award for Best Actress for her portrayal of Alice.
The movie effectively captures the emotional journey of Alice and her family as they grapple with her diagnosis and its impact on their lives.
Discussion Topics:

Adaptation: How well do you think the movie captures the essence and emotional depth of the novel? Are there any significant differences or elements that stood out to you in either the book or the movie?

Character Portrayal: Discuss the portrayal of Alice Howland in both the book and the movie. How do the mediums convey her struggles and personality? Did Julianne Moore’s performance align with your imagination of the character from the book?

Themes: Explore the central themes of “Still Alice,” such as memory, identity, and family. How are these themes depicted in the story, and how do they resonate with you?

Realism: Alzheimer’s disease is a central theme in the story. How realistically do you think the novel and the movie portray the experiences of individuals living with Alzheimer’s and their families? Did it increase your understanding of the condition?

Emotional Impact: Share your emotional response to the novel and the movie. Did either medium evoke particular emotions or perspectives about Alzheimer’s disease and its effects on individuals and families?

The Power of Storytelling: Discuss the role of storytelling in raising awareness and empathy for individuals facing Alzheimer’s disease. How can literature and film contribute to a better understanding of medical conditions and their impact on people’s lives?

Feel free to delve into any of these topics or bring up other aspects of “Still Alice” that you found intriguing or thought-provoking. Enjoy your discussion!

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FHIMA Benefits and Mentorship

FHIMA (Florida Health Information Management Association) offers numerous benefits and mentorship opportunities for its members. Let’s discuss some of the key benefits and the significance of mentorship within FHIMA:

Benefits of FHIMA Membership:

Networking: FHIMA provides a platform for health information management (HIM) professionals to connect with peers, colleagues, and industry experts. Networking opportunities can lead to valuable collaborations, career growth, and the exchange of knowledge.

Professional Development: FHIMA offers educational resources, workshops, and conferences to help members stay updated on the latest trends and advancements in HIM. These opportunities contribute to professional growth and skill enhancement.

Advocacy: FHIMA actively advocates for the HIM profession by monitoring legislative changes and healthcare policies. Being part of FHIMA gives members a voice in shaping the future of healthcare information management.

Job Opportunities: FHIMA’s job board and career center can be beneficial for members seeking new career opportunities within the HIM field. It serves as a valuable resource for job postings and career advice.

Continuing Education: FHIMA often provides access to continuing education credits and opportunities for certification maintenance, which is crucial for HIM professionals to stay current and maintain their credentials.

Significance of Mentorship:

Knowledge Transfer: Mentorship facilitates the transfer of knowledge and expertise from experienced professionals to those who are newer to the field. This can be particularly valuable in a complex and ever-evolving field like health information management.

Skill Development: Mentors can help mentees develop critical skills and competencies necessary for career success. They can provide guidance on navigating challenges, problem-solving, and making informed decisions.

Career Guidance: Mentors can offer career advice, helping mentees set goals and make strategic choices about their career paths. They can share insights on career development and advancement.

Networking: Through mentorship, mentees often gain access to the mentor’s professional network, which can open doors to new opportunities and connections within the industry.

Personal Growth: Mentorship can foster personal growth by providing mentees with the support, encouragement, and feedback needed to build confidence and self-awareness.

Community and Support: Mentorship creates a sense of community within FHIMA. It allows members to form meaningful relationships, share experiences, and provide emotional support.

In summary, FHIMA offers a range of benefits for health information management professionals, from networking and professional development to advocacy and job opportunities. Mentorship within FHIMA is an integral part of the association’s support system, helping members grow, learn, and excel in their careers. Mentorship relationships can be mutually rewarding, benefiting both mentors and mentees by fostering professional and personal development.

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In what ways did women contribute to political and social action and change during the Civil Rights Movement, both in leadership roles and as crucial participants?

Women played pivotal roles in the Civil Rights Movement, contributing in various ways:

Leadership: Several women assumed leadership positions within civil rights organizations. Notable figures include Ella Baker, who was a key organizer and leader in the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), and Fannie Lou Hamer, a prominent civil rights activist and leader in the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party.

Activism and Advocacy: Women like Rosa Parks, whose refusal to give up her bus seat sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott, became symbols of resistance. Diane Nash and Gloria Richardson were instrumental in organizing protests and sit-ins.

Organizing and Mobilization: Women often served as organizers, mobilizing communities for marches, voter registration drives, and protests. Septima Clark’s work in citizenship schools helped empower African Americans to register to vote.

Education: Women educators like Ruby Bridges and Barbara Johns played roles in advancing civil rights through their actions and advocacy. Ruby Bridges was the first African American child to desegregate a New Orleans school, and Barbara Johns led a student strike against unequal school facilities.

Support Roles: Beyond leadership positions, countless women worked in supportive roles, such as providing food, shelter, and logistics for activists. Their contributions were indispensable to the movement’s success.

Why has the role of women leaders during the Civil Rights Movement often been overshadowed throughout history?

The overshadowing of women’s contributions in the Civil Rights Movement can be attributed to several factors:

Gender Bias: Historically, society has often undervalued women’s achievements and contributions, focusing more on men in leadership roles. Gender bias and sexism played a significant role in downplaying women’s roles.

Narrative Focus: Narratives and historical accounts have tended to emphasize a few prominent male leaders, such as Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X, often sidelining the contributions of women.

Leadership Structures: Civil rights organizations and movements often had hierarchical structures that placed men at the forefront. Women were sometimes relegated to supportive roles within these structures.

Media Attention: Media coverage during the era often focused on male leaders, reinforcing the perception that they were the primary figures of the movement.

Era’s Expectations: The 1950s and 1960s were marked by traditional gender roles, where women were expected to play more supportive roles. These societal norms influenced the perception of women’s contributions.

Historiographical Bias: Historians and scholars have sometimes perpetuated this bias by not fully recognizing or documenting the multifaceted contributions of women.

In recent years, there has been a growing effort to acknowledge and celebrate the vital roles that women played in the Civil Rights Movement. Historians and scholars are working to correct the historical record and give women their rightful place in the narrative of this transformative period in American history.

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Early Childhood Journal

The benefit of Familiarity with Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky:

Early childhood educators can benefit significantly from being familiar with the theories of Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky for several reasons:

Understanding Child Development: These theories provide valuable insights into the cognitive and social-emotional development of children. Educators who are well-versed in these theories are better equipped to comprehend the typical developmental milestones and challenges that children face at different ages.

Tailoring Instruction: Knowledge of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development and Vygotsky’s socio-cultural theory enables educators to adapt their teaching strategies and materials to align with a child’s current developmental level. This helps in providing developmentally appropriate instruction.

Supporting Individual Needs: By understanding these theories, educators can identify when a child might struggle with a particular concept or skill due to developmental readiness. This awareness allows for the provision of individualized support and scaffolding.

Promoting Social Interaction: Vygotsky’s emphasis on social interaction in learning highlights the importance of peer collaboration. Educators can foster peer interactions and group activities to facilitate learning and social development.

Importance of Understanding Play in Learning:

Early childhood educators should recognize that children learn best through play because:

Active Engagement: Play is an inherently engaging activity that encourages children to actively explore, experiment, and problem-solve. This active participation enhances their learning experiences.

Social Development: Play often involves peer interactions, promoting social and emotional development. Children learn valuable skills like communication, negotiation, and cooperation through play.

Creativity and Imagination: Play allows children to express their creativity and imagination freely. This promotes cognitive development, abstract thinking, and problem-solving skills.

Motivation and Enjoyment: When learning is enjoyable, children are more motivated to engage in educational activities. Play makes learning fun, which is essential for long-term interest in learning.

Example of Using Play in Work with Young Children:

As an early childhood educator, you could use your knowledge of the importance of play in various ways:

Structured Play Centers: Create play centers in the classroom that align with the curriculum. For example, a “science exploration” center with hands-on materials for experimenting or a “dramatic play” area for imaginative storytelling and role-playing.

Incorporate Play into Lessons: Integrate play-based activities into lessons. For instance, use building blocks to teach math concepts like counting, sorting, and patterning, making learning math enjoyable.

Observation and Scaffolding: Observe children during play to identify their interests and developmental needs. Use this information to provide appropriate materials and guidance to scaffold their learning experiences.

Encourage Peer Interaction: Promote peer interaction during playtime. Encourage children to collaborate on projects, solve problems together, and learn from each other’s experiences.

By incorporating play into the curriculum and tailoring activities to match children’s developmental stages, early childhood educators can create a stimulating and effective learning environment that aligns with Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s theories of child development.

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In Lara Buchak’s “When is Faith Rational?”

Lara Buchak’s account of when faith in a friend’s trustworthiness is rational can be summarized as follows:

Buchak argues that rational faith in a friend’s trustworthiness involves two key components: evidential support and epistemic humility.

In Lara Buchak’s “When is Faith Rational?”

Evidential Support: To have rational faith in a friend, there should be some evidential support for their trustworthiness. This evidence could be based on past experiences, observations, or any other reliable sources of information. It’s not blind faith; instead, it’s grounded in reasonable expectations formed from prior interactions or knowledge about the friend’s character.

Epistemic Humility: Rational faith also requires a level of epistemic humility, which means acknowledging the limits of our knowledge. Even with some evidence of a friend’s trustworthiness, we must recognize that we can never be absolutely certain about their future actions. Therefore, having faith in a friend doesn’t mean we are certain they will always act in our best interest, but rather that we trust them based on the available evidence while acknowledging the inherent uncertainty.

In essence, Buchak’s account of rational faith in a friend’s trustworthiness emphasizes the balance between evidence and humility. It suggests that faith isn’t the same as absolute certainty but rather a reasoned and justifiable trust in someone’s character based on the information and experiences available to us.

Reflecting on this, I find Buchak’s perspective resonates with the idea that trust is a fundamental aspect of human relationships. We often have to make decisions based on incomplete information, and her framework provides a rational way to navigate this uncertainty. It reminds us that while trust is essential, it should be tempered with an awareness of our limited knowledge, which encourages us to remain open to the possibility of reassessment based on new evidence or experiences. This nuanced approach to faith in relationships aligns with the complexities of real-life interactions.

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“The Fault in Our Stars” by John Green

“The Fault in Our Stars” by John Green and the corresponding movie adaptation. Since this is a text-based platform, I’ll briefly discuss the novel and the movie, and you can use this information as a basis for your discussion.

“The Fault in Our Stars” Novel (2012):

  • The novel is a young adult contemporary romance that deals with themes of love, loss, and the challenges faced by two teenagers, Hazel Grace Lancaster and Augustus Waters, who are both battling cancer.
  • John Green’s writing style is known for its wit, humor, and emotional depth, which makes the characters and their struggles relatable to readers of all ages.
  • The book explores the concept of mortality and the philosophical questions surrounding life and death.

“The Fault in Our Stars” Movie (2014):

  • The film adaptation closely follows the source material and captures the essence of the book’s characters and their journey.
  • Shailene Woodley portrays Hazel Grace, and Ansel Elgort plays Augustus Waters. The chemistry between the two actors is a significant factor in the movie’s success.
  • The film received generally positive reviews for its faithful adaptation and heartfelt performances.

Discussion Topics:

  1. Character Development: How do the characters in the book and the movie evolve throughout the story? Are there any notable differences in their development between the two mediums?
  2. Themes and Messages: What are the central themes of “The Fault in Our Stars,” and how effectively do they come across in both the book and the movie?
  3. Adaptation: How well do you think the movie captures the novel’s essence? Are there any notable differences or omissions that stand out to you?
  4. Emotional Impact: Did you find the story emotionally moving? How did the book and the movie handle the emotional aspects of the narrative?
  5. Casting and Acting: Share your thoughts on the casting choices and the performances of Shailene Woodley and Ansel Elgort. Do you think they portrayed Hazel and Gus effectively?
  6. Philosophical Themes: Discuss the philosophical questions about life, death, and the human condition that are raised in the story. How did they resonate with you?

Feel free to delve into any of these topics or bring up other aspects of “The Fault in Our Stars” that you found intriguing or thought-provoking. Enjoy your discussion!

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Three persuasive strategies used by advertisers: pathos, logos, and ethos.

The three persuasive strategies used by advertisers: pathos, logos, and ethos. These strategies are fundamental in marketing and advertising to connect with consumers and persuade them to buy products or services. Let’s explore each of these strategies further:

Pathos (Emotional Appeal):

Pathos taps into consumers’ emotions, aiming to create a strong emotional connection with the product or brand.
Advertisers often use positive emotions like happiness, joy, and contentment to associate these feelings with their products. For example, commercials featuring families enjoying a meal together to promote a food product.
Conversely, negative emotions like fear, guilt, or sadness can be employed to highlight a problem or pain point that the product can solve. For instance, an ad depicting the consequences of not having home security.

Logos (Logical Appeal):

Logos relies on presenting logical and rational arguments to persuade consumers.
Advertisements using logos provide factual information, statistics, and evidence to demonstrate the product’s features, benefits, and effectiveness. For example, a car advertisement detailing fuel efficiency, safety ratings, and advanced technology.
This approach appeals to consumers who make decisions based on facts and critical thinking, seeking products that provide tangible value.

Ethos (Credibility Appeal):

Ethos focuses on establishing the credibility and trustworthiness of the product, brand, or spokesperson.
Advertisers often use well-known figures, experts, or celebrities to endorse their products, leveraging the credibility of these individuals to boost consumer confidence. For example, a famous chef endorsing a line of cookware.
Ethos can also be built by highlighting a brand’s history, commitment to quality, and track record of customer satisfaction, as seen in your example of Clint Eastwood endorsing Chrysler.
Effective advertising often combines these three persuasive strategies to create a well-rounded appeal that resonates with a wide range of consumers. By using pathos to engage emotions, logos to provide factual support, and ethos to establish trust, advertisers can craft compelling messages that encourage consumers to take action, whether it’s making a purchase or forming a positive perception of the brand.

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A brief overview of each of the seven designated educational philosophies:

A brief overview of each of the seven designated educational philosophies:


Behaviourism is a philosophy that focuses on observable behaviors and external stimuli.
In education, behaviorism emphasizes structured, teacher-centred learning with clear objectives and rewards or punishments to reinforce desired behaviors.
Learning is seen as a response to stimuli, and repetition and reinforcement play a significant role in shaping student behavior.


Essentialism advocates for a traditional and structured curriculum that emphasizes essential subjects, such as mathematics, science, literature, and history.
The goal is to transmit cultural and societal knowledge and values to students.
Essentialism emphasizes teacher-centred instruction, standardized testing, and a focus on academic rigor.


Existentialism in education emphasizes individuality, freedom, and choice.
It encourages students to explore their own values, meaning in life, and personal responsibility.
Learning is often student-centred, and the curriculum may be less structured, allowing for self-directed exploration.


Perennialism focuses on the idea that certain knowledge and ideas are timeless and should form the core of education.
It emphasizes the study of classic works, great books, and the liberal arts.
Perennialism seeks to cultivate intellectual and moral virtues in students and values a structured, teacher-centred approach.


Progressivism is student-centred and experiential, emphasizing problem-solving and critical thinking.
It values active learning, group projects, and hands-on experiences.
The curriculum is often tailored to students’ interests and experiences, focusing on real-world application of knowledge.

Reconstructionism, also known as social reconstructionism, aims to transform society through education.
It emphasizes addressing societal issues and challenges, such as social justice, ethics, and political engagement.
Curriculum often involves critical examination of social problems and encourages students to be agents of change.


Scholasticism, rooted in medieval European philosophy, focuses on integrating faith and reason.
It often involves the study of theology and philosophy alongside other subjects.
Scholasticism seeks to reconcile religious beliefs with intellectual inquiry and encourages critical thinking within the framework of faith.
Each of these educational philosophies represents a distinct approach to teaching and learning, with varying views on the role of the teacher, the curriculum, and the purpose of education. Educators often draw from multiple philosophies to create a balanced and effective approach to teaching that aligns with their educational goals and the needs of their students.

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The impact of protest songs, their reliance on pathos, and an example of a well-known protest song.

Introduction to Protest Songs and Pathos:

Protest songs are a powerful form of music that often serves as a medium for expressing social or political discontent, advocating for change, and mobilizing people to action. One of the key elements that make protest songs effective is their appeal to emotion, particularly through the use of pathos. Pathos is an appeal to the audience’s emotions, and it can be a potent tool in conveying a message or rallying support for a cause.

Example: “Blowin’ in the Wind” by Bob Dylan:

“Blowin’ in the Wind” by Bob Dylan is a classic protest song from the 1960s that exemplifies the use of pathos to convey a powerful message. The song’s lyrics are a poignant exploration of social and political issues of the time, particularly civil rights and the Vietnam War.

Lyrics and Their Emotional Appeal:

The lyrics of “Blowin’ in the Wind” pose a series of questions that challenge societal norms and injustices. Some of the questions include:

“How many roads must a man walk down before you call him a man?”
“How many times must a man look up before seeing the sky?”
“How many deaths will it take ’til he knows that too many people have died?”
These questions evoke a sense of introspection and empathy, prompting listeners to reflect on the profound issues at hand. The repeated refrain, “The answer, my friend, is blowin’ in the wind,” conveys a sense of uncertainty and frustration, highlighting the urgency of addressing these problems.

The emotional appeal of “Blowin’ in the Wind” lies in its ability to evoke empathy and a sense of shared concern. By asking questions that resonate with universal human experiences and concerns, Bob Dylan taps into the audience’s emotions. The song becomes a call to action by appealing to the listeners’ sense of justice, empathy for others, and the desire for a better world.

Impact and Legacy:

“Blowin’ in the Wind” became an anthem for the civil rights movement and anti-war protests during the 1960s. Its emotional power and call for change played a significant role in mobilizing people and raising awareness about the pressing issues of that era. The song’s legacy endures as a symbol of the potential of music to inspire social and political change through its emotional resonance.

In conclusion, protest songs like “Blowin’ in the Wind” demonstrate the compelling impact of pathos in music. By appealing to the emotions of the audience and tapping into shared human experiences, these songs can be emotionally powerful and influential tools for advocating social and political change. They serve as a testament to the enduring power of music as a medium for expressing discontent and inspiring action.

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