6 ways to write a Public Speaking Outline

I. Introduction

  • Importance of effective public speaking
  • Overview of the speech

II. Understanding Public Speaking

III. Preparation for Public Speaking

IV. Overcoming Public Speaking Challenges

V. Public Speaking Event

VI. Conclusion

  • Recap of key points
  • Encouragement for effective public speaking

VII. Additional Resources

This public speaking outline provides a structured framework for understanding and preparing for public speaking events, along with tips for overcoming challenges and improving one’s public speaking skills. Utilize the linked resources to further enhance your knowledge and confidence in public speaking.

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How does the story define or depict what it means to grow up?

First, review these guides to thesis statements in literary analysis ess:

  Then, think about the stories we read in Module 2 (“A&P”, “Boys and Girls”, and “The Lesson“), and choose one story to focus on.

Now, consider these questions:

· How does the story define or depict what it means to grow up?

· According to the story, what character trait or life lesson is essential to have in order to be an adult?

Write a thesis statement over the chosen story.  

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Describe how you spend most of your time. Is this what you expected? Why or why not?

Time Management as an Online Student



This discussion aims for learners to examine their own time management to promote success as online students.


Now that you’ve completed the time management tool in the Week 1 Lesson address these items in your answer:

  • Describe how you spend most of your time. Is this what you expected? Why or why not?
  • How will you rearrange these items to dedicate enough time to your schoolwork?
  • What changes do you want to make? What professional resources are available to help with those changes?


1-As you address the assigned questions, remember to use at least one required source and to find an outside scholarly source to support your time management improvement strategies. We look forward to hearing from you!

2-Please be sure to include citations from the textbook and other course materials to support your discussion responses. Also, include the complete reference for your citations at the bottom of your discussion post. At this point, I’m not concerned about perfect APA formatting as this writing style you will learn throughout this class. Lastly, have fun and learn a lot this week!

Use this book as reference https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/reader/books/9781284322712/epubcfi/6/24%5B%3Bvnd.vst.idref%3DCH01_01%5D!/4/12/8/1:23%5B%2019%2C78%5D

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The Love Suicides

The Love Suicides

Question 1

The world of The Love Suicides depicts a strange world where people have a certain belief about love and what it means to be in love. More importantly, the beliefs that guide the conduct and behaviors of each community member are well displayed by the characters in the play. For instance, the Japanese culture in which the play is based practices ‘giri.’ This is where one is born of a certain rigid and inevitable class. This phenomenon is what shapes the life of Jihei and Koharo who are so despairingly in love. For them, they do not care the burden their society put on them, but rather find love no matter the shame. The character’s situation is life in a part of the world and the past years of our country. The relationship between people of color and white was not taken lightly but defined the struggle for individual liberty.

The characters are driven to act in ways that end their lives only in pursuit of happiness. The nature of their world is driven, and one may feel that it is a little misunderstood. However, these characters act in such ways because they believe that death does not signify the end of their lives and that they will be reunited after death. This world of The Love Suicides presents the idea that lovers who died together will ultimately be reunited and reborn in the same lotus calyx.

The motivations of Jihei and his mistress Koharu are familiar to the modern world. Some people get entangled in love that the world opposes, and thus they seek to move to make it work. However, their decision to commit suicide to be together through death is misguided. Jihei is already married to Osan and Koharu is his mistress. Therefore, their actions mean that he will desert his family. One can judge the decision by Jihei to fight for a prostitute when he has a family to take care of. Withholding judgment will mean that people lack conviction and will support cruel acts in the name of love

Jihei chooses to fight for love by pursuing Koharu, a prostitute. This action is out of touch with reality as prostitution is a taboo. Women or men that practice the vice are regarded as out of touch with the expectation of their community. In extreme cases in some part of the world people with promiscuous behaviors are jailed or executed. This is not the case in the world of The Love Suicides. The play unfolds with a varied twist which ranges from poignancy to humor. For instance, it is lovable that after the lovers commit suicide, they live happily ever whereas we know nothing of life after death. This was necessitated by the society believes that one can find cherish by being reborn after death. Therefore, Jihei and Koharu succeed in living an honorable life on earth and in heaven. 

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Why is it important to create a detailed outline for your essay?

Creating a detailed outline for your essay is important for several reasons:

  1. Organization: An outline helps you organize your thoughts and ideas logically and coherently. By outlining your essay, you can ensure that your arguments and ideas flow clearly and logically, making it easier for your reader to follow and understand your main points.
  2. Efficiency: A detailed outline can help you save time in the long run. By creating a roadmap for your essay, you can ensure that you stay on track and don’t waste time writing content that doesn’t contribute to your overall argument.
  3. Clarity: An outline can help you identify gaps in your argument or areas needing further development. Reviewing your outline ensures that your essay is well-structured and includes all the necessary information to support your thesis.
  4. Revision: A detailed outline can also make the revision process easier. If you encounter any problems or inconsistencies while writing your essay, you can refer to your outline to see where you went off track and make any necessary changes.

In summary, creating a detailed outline for your essay is a crucial step in the writing process that can help you organize your thoughts, save time, improve clarity, and streamline the revision process.

How difficult was it for you to move from your prewriting in Week 2 to your basic three-point outline here?

For some people, prewriting is a valuable tool that helps them generate ideas and organize their thoughts. Moving from prewriting to a basic three-point outline can be a natural and straightforward process. They may find that the ideas they generated in the prewriting phase easily fit into the outline format.

On the other hand, some people may struggle with the transition from prewriting to outlining. They may find their ideas scattered or disjointed and have difficulty putting them into a coherent outline. In this case, it may be helpful to revisit the prewriting phase and spend more time developing and refining ideas before creating an outline.

Overall, the difficulty of moving from prewriting to a basic three-point outline can vary depending on the individual’s writing process and the complexity of the assignment. With practice, however, most writers can become more comfortable with this process and develop effective strategies for organizing their ideas.

How difficult was it for you to develop vivid supporting details?

To develop vivid supporting details, you must clearly understand the main points you want to make in your essay. Once you have identified your main points, you can brainstorm supporting details that illustrate and reinforce your argument.

One helpful strategy for developing vivid supporting details is to use sensory language that appeals to the reader’s senses. For example, instead of simply stating that a place is beautiful, you could describe the colors, textures, and sounds that make it so. Using descriptive language that engages the reader’s imagination can create a more vivid and engaging picture.

Another effective technique for developing supporting details is to draw on personal experiences or anecdotes that illustrate your argument. Sharing personal stories or examples can help your reader connect with your argument more emotionally and make it more memorable.

In summary, developing vivid supporting details can be challenging, but with careful planning, brainstorming, sensory language and personal anecdotes, writers can create compelling and persuasive essays that engage their readers.

After outlining your main points, sub-topics, and vivid supporting details, do you feel more comfortable about writing a five-paragraph essay?

A detailed outline helps to provide a roadmap for the essay, ensuring that each paragraph contributes to the overall argument and supports the thesis statement. By breaking down the essay into specific sections, the writer can focus on developing each idea in detail without feeling overwhelmed or unsure of what to write.

A well-structured outline can help writer manage their time more effectively. By identifying the main points, sub-topics, and supporting details in advance, the writer can allocate the appropriate amount of time to each section, ensuring they have enough time to develop each idea fully.

In summary, a detailed outline can provide a solid foundation for a five-paragraph essay, making the writing process more manageable and efficient. Using the outline as a guide, writers can focus on developing each idea in detail and create a compelling and persuasive essay supporting their thesis statement.

Other areas of cultural difference only minimally affect how gender is understood and valued in a culture; gender itself is the strongest component of culture.

While gender may be a significant component of culture, other factors such as religion, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and historical context can also influence how gender is viewed and treated within a particular culture. These factors can affect how individuals are socialized, the roles and expectations assigned to men and women, and the extent to which gender equality is promoted and achieved.

Therefore, it is important to acknowledge and understand the complex interplay between gender and other cultural factors when examining gender issues in different societies.

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750-word discussion “my papa waltz” analysis

“My Papa’s Waltz” is a poem by Theodore Roethke that describes a childhood memory of a dance with his father. The poem has been subject to much interpretation and analysis, with critics debating the true nature of the relationship between the speaker and his father. In this analysis, I will explore some of the poem’s key themes, including the relationship between the speaker and his father, the symbolism of the dance, and the poem’s use of language.

The relationship between the speaker and his father is a central theme of the poem. Some critics have suggested that the poem portrays an abusive relationship, with the father being drunk and rough with the speaker as they dance. Others have argued that the poem is a fond memory of a happy moment shared between father and son. The truth is likely somewhere in between, with the rough and playful dance. The language used in the poem suggests a complex and ambiguous relationship between the speaker and his father. For example, the line “We romped until the pans / Slid from the kitchen shelf” suggests a playful and joyful relationship between father and son. However, the line “But I hung on like death” suggests that the dance was also rough and perhaps even dangerous.

The symbolism of the dance is another important theme of the poem. The waltz is traditionally a dance that is associated with love and romance, but in this poem, it takes on a different meaning. The dance is not a romantic one, but rather a rough and tumble one between father and son. The dance can be seen as a metaphor for the relationship between the two. The roughness of the dance suggests a certain amount of conflict or tension between the two, while the fact that they are dancing together suggests a level of intimacy and connection.

The poem’s use of language is also worth analyzing. Roethke uses a number of literary devices to create a vivid and evocative picture of the dance. For example, the line “The whiskey on your breath / Could make a small boy dizzy” uses synesthesia to create a sense of disorientation and confusion. The use of the word “whiskey” suggests that the father is drunk, while the use of the word “breath” suggests a level of intimacy between father and son. The line “At every step you missed / My right ear scraped a buckle” uses imagery to create a sense of physical discomfort and even pain. The use of the word “scraped” suggests that the buckle was sharp and painful, while the fact that the father missed a step suggests a certain level of carelessness or even neglect.

In conclusion, “My Papa’s Waltz” is a complex and evocative poem that explores the relationship between a father and his son. The poem can be read in a number of different ways, with some critics interpreting it as a fond memory of a happy moment shared between father and son, while others see it as a depiction of an abusive relationship. The truth is likely somewhere in between, with the rough and playful dance. The poem’s use of language is particularly powerful, with Roethke using a number of literary devices to create a vivid and evocative picture of the dance. Overall, “My Papa’s Waltz” is a powerful and moving poem that explores family relationships’ complex and often ambiguous nature.

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Describe the importance of revisiting your ideas and discuss how you would use feedback to improve your work.

Revisiting your ideas is crucial for personal and professional growth, allowing you to refine and improve your thoughts and concepts. As you continue learning and gaining new experiences, revisiting your ideas helps you see things from a different perspective and identify gaps in your original thinking.

Revisiting your ideas also helps you stay relevant and adaptable to changing circumstances. The world is constantly evolving, and what might have been a great idea a year ago might not be as impactful today. By revisiting your ideas, you can ensure that you are up-to-date with the latest trends and developments in your field, and adjust your thinking accordingly.

Feedback is essential to the revisiting process, as it provides valuable insights into how others perceive your ideas. Feedback can come from various sources, including peers, mentors, and customers. It can help you identify areas where your ideas may be unclear or incomplete and provide suggestions for improving them.

To use feedback effectively, remaining open-minded and receptive to criticism is important. Try not to take negative feedback personally, but instead use it as an opportunity to learn and grow. Look for patterns in your feedback, and use it to identify areas where you need to improve. Be proactive about seeking feedback, and make it a regular part of your process for revisiting your ideas.

In summary, revisiting your ideas and using feedback to improve them is critical for personal and professional growth. You can refine your thinking and stay relevant in a constantly changing world by remaining open-minded and receptive to feedback.

Discuss how you would apply one of the revisions from the large-scale category to your work.

One revision from the large-scale category that I could apply to my work is reconsidering my project’s overall structure or framework. This revision involves taking a step back from the details of my work and examining the bigger picture to ensure that the overall structure is sound.

To apply this revision to my work, I would start by reviewing the goals and objectives of my project. I would then assess the current structure of my work and determine if it aligns with these goals and objectives. If not, I would consider alternative structures that would better support my goals.

Once I have identified potential alternative structures, I would then evaluate them based on their potential impact on the project. I would consider factors such as feasibility, cost, time, and resources required, as well as how the new structure would affect my work’s overall quality and effectiveness.

If I decide that a new structure is warranted, I would then create a detailed plan for implementing the changes. This would include a timeline, a list of necessary resources, and a plan for communicating the changes to stakeholders.

Revising my project’s structure can help ensure that my work is aligned with its goals and objectives. By taking a step back and examining the big picture, I can identify potential improvements that could significantly impact my project’s success.

Discuss how you would apply one of the revisions from the small-scale category to your work.

One revision from the small-scale category that I could apply to my work is to revisit the language and word choice used in my written communication. This revision involves examining the words and phrasing used in my writing to ensure that they are clear, concise, and appropriate for the intended audience.

To apply this revision to my work, I would start by reviewing any written communication that I have produced, such as emails, reports, or presentations. I would then examine the language and phrasing used in each communication to identify any areas where it could be improved.

To improve the language and word choice in my writing, I would consider the following strategies:

  1. Simplify language: I would strive to use simple and straightforward language that is easy for the intended audience to understand.
  2. Avoid jargon: I would avoid using technical terms or jargon that might be unfamiliar to the intended audience.
  3. Eliminate unnecessary words: I would look for opportunities to eliminate unnecessary words or phrases to make my writing more concise.
  4. Use active voice: I would strive to use the active voice whenever possible to make my writing more engaging and direct.
  5. Vary sentence structure: I would aim to vary the structure of my sentences to make my writing more interesting and engaging.

Once I have revised my written communication, I would then seek feedback from others, such as colleagues or supervisors, to ensure that the language and word choice are appropriate for the intended audience. By revisiting the language and word choice in my writing, I can improve the clarity and effectiveness of my communication, and ensure that it is well-received by its intended audience.

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Limitations of the Applicability of the Keynesian Economic Policies

Limitations of the Applicability of the Keynesian Economic Policies

The Keynesian principles of economics are a school of macroeconomic theory that basis its arguments on the principles and ideologies of John Keynes, a twentieth-century economist. The principles point out that the decisions of the private sector at times result to inefficient macroeconomic results and, thus, campaigns for responses by the public sector through such actions as monetary policy and fiscal policy by the central bank and the government, respectively, to stabilize the output in the cycle. The principles of this economist argue for a mixed economy, one mainly composed of the private sector but also has a considerable role of the public sector and the government. This particular economic model was seen and practised during the Second World War, the great depression and during the economic expansion of after the war (Chapter 12. Keynesian economics and the Great Depression).

This paper, therefore, will look at and try to solve the issue of what the economists of the Keynesian principle suggest is the best solution for the problem of insufficient aggregate demand if it were to exist in an economy. Furthermore, the article will also attempt to find out whether there are any limitations or shortcomings of the applicability of the principles proposed in the Keynesian economic theory.

After the great depression, the socialist cause became extremely popular, especially in the 1930s. While the capitalist world at this time was experiencing one of the most challenging depressions, the Soviet economy was experiencing a booming growth. The depression hit, and most Americans were caught by surprise, as they had to come to believe in the notion that their nation was destined to attain immense success. The economic system based on capitalist ideas seemed inadequate to address these challenges and was actually on the verge of collapse. To revive it, a number of countermeasures had to be developed, nut to develop such measures, an understanding of what had happened was also crucial. One English economist, Keynes, who tried to explain what had happened to the capitalist economy in his book, made this task easier (Chapter 12. Keynesian economics and the Great Depression).

Keynes began his task by attempting to look at and understand the production process. In a certain period, a company produces certain products worth a certain value. From the revenues generate from the sale of these products, the company pays and compensates for the production cost, which in many cases includes wages, rent, salaries, raw materials, supplier and interest on loans. After all this has been paid off, the company’s profit remains. According to the economist, one thing never to forget here is that the production cost to the business organization represents income to another firm or individuals. The profit is also the income the owners of the firm gain. Because the production value is exhausted, the value of the products has to be equal to the generated incomes resulting from its production (Chapter 12. Keynesian economics and the Great Depression).

In terms of the whole national economy, the aggregate picture is similar to that for an individual company. The value of all products in the economy during a certain stage is equivalent to the overall profits established during the matching stage. As it follows, for a company to sell all its products, customers must spend all of their incomes in the aggregate. If any amount equal to the society’s total income is spent on services and goods of a certain company, then the production value is realized in the realized sales. As a result, profits remain high, and business owners are willing to manufacture or produce similar amounts or more amounts of the product (Chapter 12. Keynesian economics and the Great Depression).

Keynes referred to such a trend as a circular flow because money flows from businesses to the society in the form of salaries, wages, rent, profits and interests, and the money then flows back to the companies when the society procures the merchandise and services created by the companies. However, this flow is never complete. When money moves from the companies to the society, some of it never goes back to the companies. Therefore, this circle has leakages. This is because not all people spend all of their money. They save certain percentage and, therefore, they withdraw it from the spending stream. Another group of people who take loans from banks because they spend more money than their income also offsets this saving. Keynes, however, argued that at the peak of success savings are usually more than what customers borrow; therefore, there is usually a net leakage or a net saving from the circulating flow of expenditure and income (Chapter 12. Keynesian economics and the Great Depression).

Keynes also pointed out other kinds of leakages. Firstly, individuals buy services and goods from foreign businesses, but the capital they spent on importing these goods and services cannot be spent on products that are produced domestically. Secondly, the taxes individuals pay are also not included in the income, expenditure flow. Leakages that result from imports, saving and taxes can be offset by exports. This happens when foreigners purchase goods produced in the US in levels or amounts similar to the imports bought by US citizens. The government makes use of taxes to finance the buying of services and goods. If it makes use of all taxes for the same reason and balances the budget, then the expenditures of the state will offset taxes in the spending flow. On the other hand, if business people want to expand their capital, they have the option to finance investment on capital goods through taking loans from funds saved at the bank. Investment, thus, may in a way offset the leakage in savings (Chapter 12. Keynesian economics and the Great Depression).

If these three are injected into the flow of income and expenditure then they are just as significant as the three leakages in the savings, and spending becomes equal to the production value. Everything that businesses produce has the potential to be sold and success reigns.

The economist, however, held the belief that it was unlikely that the process could go on without interruptions for a long period. Investment, which is needed to absorb savings enlarges the stock of capital and, therefore, increases the productive capacity of an economy. Income and production must, therefore, increase in the following period to fully use the new capacity of production. However, with increase income increases in savings occurs, which calls for increases in investment, and according to Keynes, this investment is never forthcoming. He saw that people with higher incomes saved more percentages of their income than those with lower incomes. He held that this pattern is true for the whole society, as the society’s aggregate income increase, total society’s savings increase (Chapter 12. Keynesian economics and the Great Depression).

This means that, at each new higher income level, an even larger income level is kept away as savings. Therefore, investment would have to increase at a higher rate than income if it would successfully offset savings constantly. Only such a quick increase would allow businesses to sell all of their products, but as investments grows quicker, the quicker is the increase in the capacity to produce. As a result, the economy has to invest in even larger amounts in each successive time if it is to maintain the balance. Keynes, however, pointed out that in any mature economy generated by the private enterprise the number of investments profitable enough are limited, thus, as the process of growth of the economy continues, so does the difficulty of finding enough outlets of investment. Suppose it becomes difficult to find sufficient outlets for investment. In that case, investment falls short of total and saving expenditures of products fall short of the product value of the produced goods. If a business is unable to sell all of its produced goods then it reduces the level of production for the next period. This in turn results to decline in income, decrease in employment and reduction, in production (Chapter 12. Keynesian economics and the Great Depression).

However, with the decline in incomes, more consumers spend less on products in the following period. This leads to further cuts in the levels of production and the downward trend continues. Under such circumstances, incentives to expand a business’s capital are low, and investment reduces. All types of expenditures decrease. Savings, as well, decline with decreases in income. This process goes on until the time when income reduces so much such that there is no longer surpasses the decreased investment level. Equilibrium is realized at such low levels of income. Leakages from the flow of expenditure and income are equal once more to the injections into the flow. The economy becomes stable but at a level where significant unused capacity of production and unemployment exists (Chapter 12. Keynesian economics and the Great Depression).

The application of Keynesian economic policies has several limitations according to several of his critics. One such criticism that pointed out the limitations of the Keynesian policies is the neoclassical macroeconomists who in the 1950s started to disagree with the policies and methodologies Keynesian employed. Keynesian and his successors focused on the dependence of consumption of income that is disposable, and of investment on current cash flows and current profits. Furthermore, the Keynesians posited a curve that connected the nominal inflation of wages to unemployment rates. To support his theories, Keynesians and his successors traced to the logical basis of their model and supported their theories with statistical data for evidence. Neoclassical macroeconomists demanded that macroeconomics be based on similar foundations as theories of microeconomic theories, rational, profit- maximizing companies and utility- maximizing customers (Akerlof, 2007).

An Australian economist who pointed out that the Keynesian economic policies exhibited and made use of a collectivist approach pointed out another limitation of the applicability of the economic policies of Keynes. The economist argued that such theories or approaches encourage planning that is centralized which in turn leads to capital malinvestment, which is the predominant cause of cycles in business. The critic also argued that the studies by Keynes of aggregate relations in an economy are not applicable, as recessions are, as a result, of micro- economic factors. He pointed out that what begins as a temporary fix by the government usually grows to become expanding and permanent programs of the government, which limits or eliminates the civil society and the private sector all together (Hayek, 1989).


Akerlof, G. A. (2007). The Missing Motivation in Macroeconomics. American Economic             Review 97, 5–36. 

Chapter 12. Keynesian economics and the Great Depression. Retrieved from             http://www.public.coe.edu/~eichhorn/Pmac/HuntCh12.pdf

Hayek, F. (1989). The Collected Works of F.A. Hayek. University of Chicago Press.

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Political Discourse Analyzing

Political Discourse Analyzing



 The famous “I have a dream” speech electrified America in 1963, when it was delivered in front of the Lincoln Memorial. The main message in the speech was that all people were created equal, which was not the case in America’s political dispensations at that time. I have a dream comes alot to the minds of many people as a struggle for freedom, of the black African race in America (Hutcheon, 2000)

Cohesion in a political discourse finds words with related meanings, and identifying connections between words in a text. I have a dream speech by Martin Luther King is one of the speeches that have stayed popular for a long time in the whole world. An excerpt from the speech states, “I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at a table of brotherhood”.  The connection is evident that sons in either case are son which is the bottom line. 

According to Goddard, (1998), and Hutcheon, (2000), stylistically the speech is a political treatise, or a work of poetry delivered masterfully like an improvised sermon. Former slave owners and former slaves are both able to bear sons and become like brothers. This connection that former slave owners and former slaves are supposed to be like brothers. But Martin Luther King could see this in a dream that would come true (Morris, &, Hirst, 1991; Halliday, 1985).

The bursting biblical language and imagery used especially in the first parts of the speech portrays a picture of seething American nightmare of racial segregation against the blacks. The former slave owners are the whites and the former slaves are the blacks.  His use of the phrase, “now is the time”. For example, now is the time to open the doors of opportunity to all God’s children. Now is the time to lift our nation from the quicksand’s of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood. This reflects the need for urgency in realizing the dream. It calls for action, and it is the kind of urgency seen in America today, of it has to happen now. This implies that now is the task that is given the first priority (McCarthy, 1991).

A greater part of King’s approach was more visionary and eloquence to the non violent movement against black segregation in America. The second part of the speech deals with the dream in a fairer future of racial harmony and integration (Halliday, 1978; Todorova, 1999). The part of the speech that says; I say to you today, my friends, that inspire of the difficulties and frustrations of the moment I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream. The repetition of this phrase continually emphasizes in driving home Martin Luther King’s inspirational concepts.


Coherence serves as a quick way to analyze the overall form rather than the content of an argument in a speech. The coherence through parallel structure was highly applied by Martin Luther King in his speech. The reader or listener can easily predict what King is about to say. Looking at the speech, it presents a powerful rhetorical effect of using parallel structure to create refrain. For example, I have a dream that one day the state of Alabama, whose governor’s lips are presently dripping with the words of interposition and nullification, will be transformed into a situation where little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls and walk together as sisters and brothers. This sentence can easily be connected to the following: With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we be free one day. The linguistic features are powerful determinants of similarities and differences between registers. I have a dream today stretches cohesion to the inter clause, inter sentence and inter paragraph level. 

The logical coordination and subordination of ideas is clear. The super ordinate is supplied from the title “The American Dream”.  All the words, paragraphs, and sentences make a comment either directly or indirectly about this title, and are thus subordinate to it. All the first six sentences allure directly to the title by relating some aspects of King’s dream for America. This illustrates a superb and logical subordination to the title, and coordination with one another. This coordination is shown clearly by grammatical parallelism of the sentences. “This is the faith” is also subordination to the entire sentence that begins with “I have a dream” but coordinates with “This is our hope”.  The rhetorical synonym that substitutes faith for hope is a reiterated idea.

In addition to pronoun references, synonyms, and repeated words, parallelism is an important means of creating coherence. It provides the reader or listener with the cue of the way things are going in the speech. Martin Luther is able to create a link between sentences and enhance the coherence of paragraphs. One can follow the movement of King’s mind over the American Dream with a clear understanding and gist of the text.


The speech clearly enchants the soul; this is very remarkable emotion in both sound and power. The mood of the day gave a sense of perpetual slavery among the blacks, and a sense of guilt in the midst of the whites. This is well shown by the phrase: Free at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty, We are free at last! The linguistic order came out as a fervent emotional sermon. I have a dream can be claimed to be a rhetorical masterpiece, given King’s magnetism and open sincererity that makes equal platforms come from the ruled to the ruler.  In trying to discover particular cases of all available means of persuasion could be attributed to oratory skills that King had. This was both an art and talent used by King to bring a bridge between reason and imagination. Thus the discourse enlightens the understanding levels through imagination, passion, and influence.


The amazing rhetoric demanding racial justice and an integrated society became the core of the the black community. The speech was widely acceptable among the blacks; this was evident by the large crowd that gathered for the speech. This was familiar to subsequent generations of Americans as US declaration of independence. He carefully chose words that directly touched on the social and political upheavals of that time in America.  He gave the American nation a word to describe what was happening. It was a kind of rhythmic, which came with hope and freedom.

Towards the end of the speech, he changed his act so as to drive the final message home. As much as his target audience for the speech was the United States government, and other stakeholders, His attention turned to black people.  The African American people who had gathered at this venue, and those listening across the nation; he reminded them that there is need for perseverance, as freedom was coming. He reminded the whole nation that freedom is coming to all corners; as illustrated by his voice that displayed seriousness, urgency, and boldness equated to the quest for freedom (McCarthy, &, Carter, 1994;Pulverness, 2001; Reah, 1998).

Using critical discourse analysis in this speech demystifies anything apparent from the speeches. This tends to be associated to power, struggle, and politics. A critical analysis of the topic reveals that it was chosen after extensive research, and thorough thoughtfulness.  I have a dream is ingrained in the whole speech, always emphasising the central theme of the message. The speech talked about what touched the hearts of Americans, both black and white.  His phrase that said, to save man from the morass of propaganda, in my opinion, is one of the chief aims of education. Education must enable one to sift and weigh evidence, to discern the true from the false, the real from the unreal, and the facts from the fiction.

 It clearly touches both races as two sides of a mirror. This is further illustrated by the following: In a sense we’ve come to our nation’s capital to cash a check. When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men, yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed the “unalienable Rights” of “Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.”

Education is vital to all the American citizens, just like the promissory note for equal access to peace.  This is a model of effective communication and a powerful example of African American. The speech gave a vision of what a redeemed America may appear, with the hope that this redemption will come to pass one day.  He dearly cemented this hope by saying  that let us all hope that the dark clouds of racial prejudice will soon pass away, and that in some not too distant tomorrow the radiant stars of love and brotherhood will shine over our great nation with all their scintillating beauty (Cheung, 2001; Franklin, 1999).



The speech really informed the American people of the plight of the segregated black people. It did not only inform the American, but the whole world, through many generations to date. The need for freedom and equality became so paramount that the dream was realized. Today Americans have a president who has black African origins. This is an example of the realization of the American dream of integration, and not segregation (Abla-Juez, 2009; Gee, 2005; McCarthy, 1991)

During the march to Washington for jobs and freedom, most people realized that the march was highly credited with helping to pass the civil rights act (1964), and the National Voting Rights act (1965). Because he wanted everyone, both blacks and whites to get along and be united against racism.  When he said that, machines and computers, profit motives and property rights are considered more important than people; the giant triplets of racism, militarism and economic exploitation are incapable of being conquered. He was clearly against the Vietnam War. 


King must have read the bible, The Gettysburg address, and the US Declaration of Independence is connected to his speech. Given the socio-political situation, the speech could not have come a better time. King must have felt it must be a case of the future, he argued his point passionately and powerfully. The organisation of the speech takes care of all situations and times. Like when he talked about no time to engage in the luxury of cooling or to take the tranquilizing drug addiction of gradualism. Now is the time to make real the promises of democracy. Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice.

This illustrates that now is the time is very situational and a matter of urgency to open doors of opportunity to all God’s children. The speech took care of situations that both affected blacks and whites. Especially i n the part that he said; The marvellous new militancy which has engulfed the Negro community must not lead us to a distrust of all white people, for many of our white brothers, as evidenced by their presence here today, have come to realize that their destiny is tied up with our destiny. And they have come to realize that their freedom is inextricably bound to our freedom. We cannot walk alone.

The power that King used is comparable to Obama’s speech that is very current. The speech and therefore any situation befit the main message of the speech. King himself also gave the undertone that it was situational by asserting that he was happy to join with the congregation on that day in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of the American nation.


According to Morris & Hirst, (1991, pp.24-32), in seeking the truth, King really employed inter-textuality, because inter-textual references were put in a hybrid discourse. It appealed to different ethnic audiences. The speech was an ambitious, broad ranging statement that encompassed creativity. The enormous use of inter-textual references specifically defines other words such as allusion, influence, reference, and reformation. Like when the New Testament eludes readings from the Old Testament. ‘I have a dream’ you probably would be doing more than just quoting a small phrase from Dr. King. You would probably be attempting to pull in the wider context of his speech and the moment in history and perhaps even of the character of Dr. King, himself.


I have a Dream was a seventeen minute speech, that was delivered to over 200000 civil rights supporters. It has been ranked the top American Speech of the 20th century. He educated, inspired, and informed many generations that came long after the speech was delivered. The register and ideology used in this political discourse were based on his ideology.  It also gives a poetic register. The speech created transition of democracy, and separating the register of politics from the norm.


Martin L. and Coretta, K. (2007) I Have a Dream, Scholastic Inc., New York.

Abla-Juez, L. (2009) Perspectives on Discourse Analysis: Theory and Practice. Cambridge Scholars Publishing

Gee, J. (2005) an introduction to discourse analysis: Theory and method. Second Edition New York, NY and London, UK: Routledge

McCarthy M. (1991) Discourse analysis for language teachers Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,

Cheung, C. (2001) ‘The Use of Popular Culture as a Stimulus to Motivate Secondary Students’ English Learning in Hong Kong’, ELT Journal 55 (1): 55–61.

Franklin, P. (1999) Profession 1999, New York: Modern Language Association.

Goddard, A. (1998) the Language of Advertising: Written Texts, London and New York: Routledge.

Goddard, A. (1998) Hutcheon, L. (2000) ‘Blame Canada: Where Defence of the Humanities Makes the News’, MLA Newsletter 33 (3): 3–4.

Goddard, A. (1998) Hutcheon, L. (2000) McCarthy, M. (1991) Discourse Analysis for Language Teachers, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

McCarthy, M. and Carter, R. (1994) Language as Discourse: Perspectives for Language Teaching, Essex: Longman Group

Pulverness, A. (2001) ‘Content-Driven: Materials Design for Intercultural-Awareness’, Paper presented at IATEFL Conference, Brighton, England.

Reah, D. (1998) the Language of Newspapers, London and New York: Routledge.

Halliday, M. 1985 Introduction to Functional Grammar, London: Edward Arnold.

Todorova, R. (1999) ‘Teaching Intercultural Competence through Advertisements’, IATEFL Literature and Cultural Studies Special Interest Group Newsletter, 17: 27–30

Halliday, M.A.K. (1978). ‘Is Learning a Second Language like Learning a First Language all Over Again?’ Language Learning in Australian Society: Proceedings of the 1976 Congress of the Applied Linguistics Associations of Australia. Melbourne: Australian International Press & Publications. Pp.3-19.

Halliday, M. (1985) Introduction to Functional Grammar, London: Edward Arnold

Morris, J, and Hirst, G. (1991) `Lexical cohesion, the thesaurus, and the structure of text.” Computational linguistics, 17(1), 21–48

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Rise of American Literature in the 17th century


Like any other of the national literatures, American literature was molded by the history of the country itself. For approximately one hundred and fifty years, America was simply a cluster of colonies spread near the eastern seashore of the continent of North America (Paul 110). Several colonies, which did not want to be part of the north decided to move towards the western side. After succeeding in rebelling against the motherland, the colonies came together to form the United States of America, an independent nation. The nation continued to expand even more, and by the end of the nineteenth century it had reached the Gulf of Mexico to the south, the 49th parallel to the north, and the pacific to the west (Paul 120). By the end of the same century it had found its place among the most powerful countries in the World. Its wealth attracted interest of other nations, and eventually it involved itself in both world wars. The emergence of science as well as industry, coupled with the change of people’s way of thinking and feelings all contributed to the development of the American Literature. The following is the history of literature in United States of America form the 17th century to the birth of a new nation (Paul 130).

Rise of American Literature in the 17th century

The American literature was initially a colonial literature, it was first written by men of, English origin.  The person who initiated the American literature was a soldier, by the name of John Smith who wrote down his thoughts (Paul 160). His renowned books include, A True Relation of … Virginia … (1608). The general History of Virginia, New England, and the Summer Isles (1624) .Even though these earlier works were mostly on praise of the authors themselves, they were to help other Englishmen get more colonies (Paul 180). With each passing day, more works were authored, every work describing a certain colony. Such work included Daniel Denton’s work in 1670 where he described New York, William Penn’s work in 1682 description of Pennsylvania, and Thomas Ashe’s description of Carolina (Paul 200). These are a few, among many works, which were in praise of America. These authors swore allegiance to the British Government, even though others had a different opinion that motivated the colonists to relocate from their own motherland. More significant, is the issues raised by the writers, questioning the government involvement with the church. The position that most authors felt was no right, was the one taken by Nathaniel Ward in 1647, where he defended the colonists who had sponsored innovative ideas in Massachusetts, in the aftermath more authors published their satisfaction with the position taken by Nathaniel (Paul 230).

 Some religious works that were also published include the work of William Bradford that described the history of the Plymouth Plantation, which showed the separation of the pilgrims Separatists from the Anglicans (Paul 250). Other published religious work includes Roger William’s work, which was more drastic as it called for the church and the state to go different ways.  He also advocated for the church to be given powers and called upon religious tolerance (Paul 270).  Some poetry work were published, in 1650 Anne Bradstreet published her work titled in The Tenth Muse. The work consisted mainly, of her feelings about the relationship between religion, and family.  Another work was that of Edward Taylor whose work was a reflection of his happiness in the beliefs of Christianity and experience (Paul 300). All works from different authors that was done in the 17th century had the British influence.

The 18th century

At the beginning of this century, some writers that included Cotton Mather, continued with the work that the older generation of writers had left. Mather’s enormous history of the Puritan in New England, Edwards was another author who tried to continue with the works from the older generation his work, the Great Awakening, the two authors work was on defense of the prehistoric convictions of the puritan’s (Paul 280). Even so the authors were putting up a defense for a hopeless cause. Other writers like John Wise, a minister moved to another less strict belief. Samuel Sewall wrote down some other changes in his diary, despite the fact that he was genuinely religious(Paul 230).. His daily records portrayed how the secular life was taking over from the stiff Puritanism.  The other work by Mme Sara Kemble which she describes her journeys to New York, her comments were from a view of an Orthodox believer. But her comments were not as rigid as the ones of the other Pilgrim founders. Down south William Byrd from Virginia differed harshly with the older generation. His major works include Restoration wit(Paul 240).  The struggle of the revolution, in America enhanced the division between the political ideas of America, and the British.

The American Revolution struggle was inspired by some of the political writers, even though the colonizers knew that a revolution was on the offing they still proceeded with the war. Of all the political writers the ones that stand out are these two writers, Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Paine. Franklin was born in 1706 started to publish his works on a newspaper which was owned by his brother. Franklins experience to write various articles, and reports helped in his compilation of the issues he wrote in connection to the difference of opinion with Britain. Thomas Paine relocated to Philadelphia from Britain he got a job as a editor, approximately 14 months later Paine became the most  efficient propaganda peddler in aiding the colonialists. (Paul 300). His other work includes the pamphlet which motivated the colonialists to proclaim independence. The crisis paper of America motivated the Americans to fight through the most difficult years of the war.       

The new Nation

After the war, some of the persuasive men were not able to bring people to listen. Both Paine and Samuel could not persuade the people who were interested in making up the new administration. Others succeeded, like Franklin who practiced tolerance in addressing the constitution. However a dissimilar faction of authors became leaders during the new period. Hamilton later became the federal party leader, after writing approximately 51 papers for the federals (Paul 350). In which he persuaded the bestowment of power to the national government as opposed to the state governments. Thomas Jefferson remained an influential writer during and after the war (Paul 370). His greatest work was the summary he did on the Declaration of independence.

The most outstanding works of the period

During this period, the works that were now recognizable included poetry, which was used as a weapon during the revolution (Paul 390). The most outstanding poet in America during this period is Philip Freneau, whose poems revolved around satires; he later changed his poems to reflect on other areas of the American diverse culture like love, and in that he wrote some romantic poems (Paul 400). Such as on a honey Bee, and To a Caty-did. They formed the important part of poetry in 19th century.

Work Cited

Finkelman, Paul. Encyclopedia of African American history, 1896 to the present: from the age of segregation to the twenty-first century. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.

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