Henry Hudson Essay

Henry Hudson Essay.

There are many sailors who navigated the sea from as early as the 15th century in an effort to discover new routes. At that time, it was difficult, because the ships were not as string as todays, but that was not a reason to hold them back. Some sailors died in the seas and were never heard of again. Henry Hudson is one of then, who navigated the seas with the aim of finding the route that links England to China and India.

This research paper examines the life of Hudson on the sea. The birth of Henry Hudson

Henry Hudson was a great explorer, who achieved his greatest exploits in the service of a foreign nation. He was born in England, (London) at around 1565-1575. The exact date of his birth is not known. His parents are said to be William and Barbara Hudson, meaning that he was from a rich family. (Doyle J. A. , pg 7). Henry Hudson’s grand father was the founder and the executive of the Muscovy Company, a great British company in the 15th century.

According to Doyle, Hudson was a pupil at a school of seamanship, and is said to have grown and spent most of his childhood near the sea.

Very little is known about Hudson’s life as a youth, but it is said that he married a stubborn lady called Katherine, and together they had three sons, whom they called John, Richard and Oliver. (Elizabeth Era) Discovering river Hudson Steve Otfinoski says that Henry started out his sea life as a cabin boy, where he leant to sail and to navigate the sea, and while he was not in the sea, he was a trader and a learner of foreign languages. He says the eventually, the sailor was able to work his way up to become a sailor, and later on a captain of a ship.

By the year 1606, Hudson had become an experienced sea captain and a navigator, and was now ready to set his own voyage in search of a new route to Cathay, which is today known as China. (Otfinoski Steven, pg 8-9) Henry’s voyages began in 1606, when the Muscovy Company was experiencing difficulties in its trade with Russia because the sea route that was used for transport froze during winter. The company was interested in trading with China too, and they thought that they could find a route around Russia to reach China.

Henry learnt of the plan and proposed a daring way that the company could use to reach China, which was even shorter than that another sailor, John Davis had discovered. Impressed with his proposal because he was an experienced man who possessed information that could lead his to find the passage; they hired Hudson to search the route. The voyage was dangerous, so Hudson was denied the company of reputable sea men, and was forced to take his son John as a cabin boy and other hired men to sail with him. (Doyle J. A, pg 7)

Hudson had been instructed by the company to sail through the Northeastern route, and that he would not find another route under any circumstances, but he opted to take any route that seemed best to him to reach the west. The journey was rough and terrifying, and Hudson’s crew, which consisted of eighteen members from England and Dutch, sailed from the Netherlands in the Half-moon in early April. This ship was not huge enough, and his crew did not share a common language. It disliked each other and detested its captain.

By mid May, the seas were surrounded by Barents, and the crew threatened to rebel if Hudson failed to abandon his quest in search of the route to China and take another course to better seas. The crew made a stop at the Faroe Islands to take fresh water before sailing to North America. There was a major storm along the way, which forced Hudson to anchor in at a place called Penobscot, so that the ship could be repaired. The crew then sailed southwards, along the coast until she reached the mouth of a large river, which was surrounded by “a very good land fall, which had a pleasant land to look at.

” (Lewis Tom, pg 40) The arrival of Hudson and his crew marked the arrival of the first Europeans to the land of Native Americans. Lewis says that an Italian sailor, Giovanniors Verrazano had arrived at the river in 1524 with his crew in a ship called the Dauphine. He also talks of Estevan Gomez, a Portuguese sailor sailing for the Spanish in 1525. However, these two did not document their arrivals, so there has been no evidence to prove that they actually arrived earlier at the mouth of the river.

Therefore the first true European discoverer of the river, if only because he and a crew member recorded in their journey to its headwaters in the early autumn of 1609 was Henry Hudson. (Lewis Tom, pg 42) Thus the river which he found was the one which today bears the name, the beautiful river “Hudson” of New York after its discoverer. Hudson then sailed up stream for more than two hundred English miles and observed how extremely qualified it was to be colonized and that it could be used for commercial activities. (Kohl J. G. etal, pg 37) Henry’s encounter with the Native Americans

In the book ‘Hudson’, it’s written that after several encounters with the native population, Hudson concluded that they were very good people. (Stanne S. P. , pg 96) The crew in the ship was violent, and at one time when the ship had anchored for repair, some of the sailors went ahead to kill about twelve people, and destroyed their property. (Keller Allan, pg 7) Lewis says that not all the contacts with the Native Americans were pleasant. The sailors who accompanied Hudson and others who ventured in navigation were brave men, who were used to problems and the hardships encountered at the seas and lands they barely knew.

This made them daring, unpleasant, undisciplined and at times violent. (Lewis Tom, pg 42) They could capture and steal properties from the natives or destroy them. They were not afraid to kill; to them, it was just like killing a deer and a part of what they were used to doing. Lewis said that the few who could read and write left behind their journals, and from what they wrote, it is true that they never thought twice about killing the people; they were single minded. They were also a determined lot, and if killing was the only way to get what they wanted, then they would do it.

However, they regarded the people who inhibited the river valley with a lot of suspicion and mistrust. To them, the Native Americans were wild, (neither tamed nor domesticated). They were regarded as savages, who had a hint of the ‘fang and claw. ’ If Native Americans dared to provoke the Europeans, they would easily be destroyed. (Lewis Tom, pg 42) Hudson’s voyages After discovering that the Hudson River was not the passage to China, Hudson never gave up the search for the route. The crew set out North on ‘Hopewell’, a small ship.

The seas were rough and frosty, with dense fogs around the ship, and the rain froze into ice sheets on the decks and the sails. The hands of the crew were sore from pulling the ropes coated in ice. This forced Hudson to abandon his ship and turn back to England. While at home, he decided to try out a new route towards Northeastern, traveling along the Northern coast of Russia and then around the great land mass of China towards India. Although another Englishman had already tried following this route, he had failed because his ships were driven to shore by ice and frozen in, killing everyone.

Hudson was convinced that his attempt would be more successful. So, he hired a new crew and began the journey during spring, when the waters at the Northern shore would have no ice. (Panza Kenneth S. , 2007) Three months of sailing found the crew up against a long and thin barrier of land. They sailed along; looking for a way through, but the weather was getting colder as they went deeper. Soon, the water began to turn to ice, and the crew begged Hudson to return to England. So again, he was forced to turn the ship around. Instead of heading towards England, he sailed across Atlantic towards North America.

Robert Juet, Hudson’s first mate and other crew members realized that they weren’t headed home and threatened a mutiny. This forced Hudson to return to England, failing his third attempt to find the route. Again he planned a fourth attempt to find the route, but this time, he planned to go across North America through a narrow channel, the Furious Overall, hoping it would lead to the North West passage. No ship had sailed far into the passage because it had floating cakes of ice, sucking Whirlpools and rocks. Hudson found a ship, ‘The Discovery’, selected a crew and made his son John the cabin boy.

He made a mistake by hiring Robert Juet, despite the fact that he had threatened a mutiny before. As the ship sailed along the Furious Overall, the tide began to pour away with alarming speed. The sharp rocks which were above the water’s surface suddenly jutted above the waves, threatening to tear the boat. The sailors begged Hudson to turn back, but he failed to listen. They sailed on for six weeks, and managed through the Furious Overall and came to a wide space, which they thought as the Pacific, but it was not. They sailed on, but the weather was growing cold again, and the crew started to complain.

The water became icier and the crew had to haul the ship at the shore. There was no food, so they had to eat frogs. At spring, the ice melted and the crew was ready to head home. The death of Hudson Instead of going back to England, Hudson wanted to head west again. One summer morning, Hudson got out of his cabin to check the weather. He was suddenly attacked by three men, who tied his hands and his feet. They dragged Hudson, his son, the faithful crew members and the sick sailors into the ships tiny life boat. They then pushed the boat in to the bay, leaving Hudson and the sick men to die of hunger and returned home. (Johnston H. H.

, pg 48) The sailors had a hard time finding their way to England, and the journey was getting longer. Due to hunger, they ate bones of birds and candles, sprinkled with salt and vinegar. When the crew arrived home, only five people were alive, and Robert Juet had died of hunger. Henry Hudson was never heard of again. Furious Overall was renamed Hudson Strait and the huge body of water Hudson had discovered, Hudson Bay. (Bauer S. W, etal, pg 47-50) Conclusion Hudson was one of the sailors who set the pace for others to find not only the route connecting England and China, but also others that connected England with other continents.

(Sherman J. etal, pg 9) Although little is known about his child hood, he came to be known when he was a middle aged man. Today, he is remembered mostly through the Hudson River and the Hudson Bay, which he discovered, and the Hudson Strait. Later on, other navigators found the sea way Hudson was looking for. Works cited 1) Bauer S. W. , Park Sarah, Wise James, The Story of the World: Early modern times, from Elizabeth the First to the forty-niners, Peace Hill Press, 2004 2) Doyle J. A. , The Middle Colonies, Kessinger Publishing, 2005

3) Fleming Fergus, Off the map: tales of endurance and exploration, Atlantic Monthly Press, 2005 4) Elizabeth Era, Henry Hudson, retrieved on 3/17/2009 from http://www. elizabethan-era. org. uk/henry-hudson. htm 5) Johnston Harry Hamilton, Pioneers in Canada, BiblioBazaar, LLC, 2007, pg 48 6) Keller Allan, Life along the Hudson, 2nd edition, Fordham Univ Press, 1997, pg 7 7) Kohl Johann George, Noel Robert Ralph, A Popular History of the Discovery of America from Columbus to Franklin, University of California, Chapman and Hall, 1865

8) Lewis Tom, The Hudson: A History, Yale University Press, 2007, pg 41-42 9) Otfinoski Steven, Henry Hudson: In Search of the Northwest Passage, Marshall Cavendish, 2006 10) Panza Kemmeth S. , Henry Hudson and Early Hudson River History,2007, retrieved on 3/17/2009 from http://www. hrmm. org/halfmoon/halfmoon. htm 11) Sherman Josepha, Henry Hudson: English Explorer of the Northwest Passage, The Rosen Publishing Group, 2003, pg 9 12) Stanne S. P. , Panetta R. G. , Forist B. E. , Hudson River Sloop Clearwater, Inc, The Hudson: an illustrated guide to the living river Rutgers University Press, 1996

Henry Hudson Essay

A Model of Christian Charity Essay

A Model of Christian Charity Essay.

In 1630, John Winthrop led a fleet of 17 ships and a thousand puritans from England to the Massachusetts Bay. With a new place to call home, John Winthrop and the puritans hoped for a fresh start in the new world. The main reason for this new beginning was due to the fact that they had broken apart from England’s Church and had declared to start their own church. They believed that starting a new church was ordained by God and that the Massachusetts Bay area was given to them by God in order to start the Church.

With a plan to start a new Church, John Winthrop created, “A Model of Christian Charity” to help set guidelines. These guidelines were a mix of logic and Biblical teachings that would be used to help start the new Church. Without these guidelines the new Church surely would have not been very successful. Winthrop was essential to the foundation of the new Church, and without him, the Church would have surely failed.

John Winthrop’s writing gives a foundation in which the puritans can build the Church. A main point that John Winthrop wrote is that Christians need to start serving the Lord with all of their heart and try to increase the body of Christ. Increasing the body of Christ meaning that the puritans would influence others to trust in Christ and grow the population of Christ followers. The body of Christ means the community of those who follow Christ, and the doctrine that Winthrop wrote told the puritans that they need to profess themselves as followers of Christ. They need to be able to show others the Christ in them. Winthrop says that Christians are bound together by the love of Christ, and that love is unbreakable.

Another main point that Winthrop mentions is that they need to go against the crowd, the crowd meaning the English Church. Since the puritans are breaking away from the English Church, then it would be wrong to copy the English Church. That would be too easy, instead they need to do what they feel is right and go against the English Church entirely. These main points of Winthrop’s covenant were vital to the foundation of the new Church.

At the end of his covenant, Winthrop discusses what will happen if the puritans were to break the covenant. If the puritans were to break the covenant then the Lord will strike them down for not keeping the covenant. Winthrop explains that Massachusetts would be a city on a hill in which people would admire and look up to. Not one that breaks the covenant and disobeys God, rather one that praises him. The puritans need to be a beacon of light to the world and show others the way to Christ. After the puritans had landed in Massachusetts, they began the new Church and succeeded in doing so. Later in history, people use Winthrop’s ideas to say that God had chosen the United States as a beacon of democracy and freedom for others to follow, just like people followed the puritans.

A Model of Christian Charity Essay

Reigh by Elizabeth I Essay

Reigh by Elizabeth I Essay.

By 1571, Elizabeth I had solved most of her internal and external problems that she had faced at the beginning of her reign? Assess the validity of this view In 1558 Elizabeth inherited a throne encumbered with various internal and external problems, due to the actions in previous reigns of the ‘little Tudors’. Internal problems referred to predicaments occurring in England and personal issues with the monarch, e.g. the religious settlement of Catholicism in Mary Tudors reign and rebellions posed a significant problem of domestic policy at the beginning of Elizabeth’s reign.

External problems refereed to dilemmas occurring outside of England, e.g. Mary’s loss of Calais in 1558 produced the external possibility of French invasion during Elizabeth’s reign. Along with debasement of the coinage and inflationary pressures, it is evident that Elizabeth was presented with formidable problems at the beginning of her reign. The first major internal problem faced by Elizabeth at the start of her reign was her gender.

The idea of a female monarch met hostility in Tudor England and Elizabeth was faced with criticism by the Protestant preacher John Knox who wrote ‘to promote a woman to bear rule, superiority, dominion, or empire above any realm, nation or city is repugnant by nature and a insult to God.’ However Elizabeth overcame the issue of her gender in her appointment of administrators and management of political matters. Immediately after coming to the throne, Elizabeth successfully established her royal and political authority by appointing William Cecil as her principle secretary, a successful partnership in government which lasted 40 years. Elizabeth then appointed Thomas Parry as controller of the household and Robert Dudley as Master of the Horse. The appointment of her friends and supporters highlight that Elizabeth overcame her internal problem of her gender as Elizabeth had successfully established her authority, despite being a female queen she was supported by influential male figures, thus advocating to Tudor England that the her reign will not suffer from political instability as Edward VI and Mary I reigns did.

Elizabeth was intelligent in not making any further appointments as it made political sense to keep speculation alive of Mary’s councillors being reappointed, a political motive that worked for Elizabeth as 9 of Mary councillors assured Elizabeth of their loyalty. Elizabeth then went on to reduce the number of privy councillors from 39 to 19, 10 of who had served Mary, and Elizabeth kept nobles such as the Earl of Winchester who had long political experience and had shown his excellence as an exchequer. Reducing the number of privy councillors allowed policy making to be more efficient and created a form of collective responsibility and corporate decision making within the council, thus Elizabeth had solved the internal problem of her gender as her changes to the privy council also meant that no individual could exert huge amounts of influence over her and the fixed membership assured Elizabeth of the councillors loyalty, a issue which caused the downfall of Somerset in Edward VI’s reign.

Thus this supports John Guys interpretation of Elizabeth that she ‘controlled her own policy more than any other Tudor’ and her ‘instinct to power was infallible’ Elizabeth further solved the issue of her gender by maintaining good relations with Parliament, Elizabeth managed some issues under royal prerogative and allowed all member of the privy council to play a role in the management of Parliament, especially Cecil who played a important role in the deliberations of the commons with C.Maccafrey describing Cecil as a ‘crowns manager of political business.’ The election of the speaker under Elizabeth’s was a strong political motive as it benefited the crown in enjoying management of the House of Commons. Thus Elizabeth had succeeded in maintaining a strong parliament; supported by John Guy view ‘legislative business was properly directed.’ Elizabeth further overcame her internal problem by using public relations to influence her political authority.

At her coronation on the 15TH January Elizabeth was welcomed as Deborah ‘the judge and restorer of Israel’. To be likened to an influential female is evidence that Elizabeth overcame the issue of her gender at the beginning of her reign, as it highlights the public’s acceptance of her as Queen. However it is debated by a minority of revisionists that Elizabeth did not solve the internal problem of her gender at the beginning of her reign. This is due to the fact that during Elizabeth’s 45 year reign, Parliament only met for a total of 3 years, and 11 out of 13 parliamentary sessions were to ask for revenue. Thus this enforces the view that Elizabeth was unable to work with parliament, supported by the excessive use of royal prerogative over issues Elizabeth did not wish to discuss. It is further argued that Elizabeth did not solve the issue of her gender as she was over ruled by Cecil on many occasions, for example Cecil threatened to resign in 1560 if England did not support him in Scottish policy.

The issue of Bishop Oglethorpe not elevating the host during Elizabeth’s coronation mass is further indication of the unsolved problems which were existent at the beginning of Elizabeth’s reign. However I believe that Elizabeth did overcome the issue of her gender, as unlike previous monarchs, Elizabeth was never threatened to be overpowered by one of her administrators, and according to her tutor Roger Ascham ‘her mind had no womanly weakness, her perseverance is equal to that of a man’, thus this interpretation supports the fact that Elizabeth overcame the issue of her gender due to her abilities of choosing first rate advisors and having the remarkable gift of winning the devotion of the public. A further internal problem faced by Elizabeth at the start of her reign was the religious settlement after 1558. The legal status of the church had not been altered with the death of Queen Mary thus meaning that the English church remained in communion with the Church of Rome, however Elizabeth was protestant.

Thus Elizabeth solved the internal problem of religion through the introduction of the 1559 religious settlement. The act embraced two sets of parliament, the Act of Supremacy 1559 and the Act of Uniformity 1559. The Act of Supremacy restored the royal supremacy of the church which had been removed under Mary, the act replied heresy laws which had been revived under Mary and re-established communion in both kinds. The act further defined Elizabeth to be ‘Supreme Governor’ and not Supreme Head of the church, reflecting the assumption that only God could be head of the church. The act of Uniformity specified the use of a single Book of Common Prayer, specified that ‘ornaments of the church and of the ministers thereof’ should be those that were there I the second year of the reign of Edward VI and the act further laid down a punishment of a shilling for not attending church. The 1559 religious settlement also enforced the 1559 injunctions, which were a set of rules about the conduct of church services and the government of the church issued in the Queens name as the Supreme Governor.

The first injunction stressed the ‘suppression of superstition’ (catholic practises such as candles). Thus the 1559 religious settlement highlight how Elizabeth overcame the issue of religion as there was a now uniformed principles of church services. Elizabeth overcame the issue of many bishops resigning due to not being able to take the Oath of Supremacy by appointing 27 new bishops, many of whom had opposed Mary’s religious policies and would support Elizabeth in the House of Lords. The appointment of Matthew Parker as archbishop of Canterbury was a conscious strategy to reshape the hierarchy of England and further evidence that Elizabeth overcame the religious issue left by Mary. Elizabeth’s dislike of clerical marriage and prevention of musical culture in cathedrals and catholic colleges highlights the extent to which Elizabeth created a erastian nature of the church.

Although it is argued that Elizabeth did not successfully resolve the internal issue of religion as according to historians such as Peter Lake the religious settlement had a two speed view, Elizabeth’s view that the settlement was final and complete and then the view of bishops that the settlement was simply a interim arrangement and full scale reform needed to be implemented. The religious settlement was not seen final by many historians as Neale argues that the Queen was conscious of the dangerous political situation with France, and therefore used the 1559 religious settlement to gain parliamentary confirmation of royal supremacy and delay any other significant changes in her reign. The puritan challenges to the settlement are further evidence of the religious settlement not being successful. The vestments controversy occurred due to failure of the convocation of Canterbury 1563 to secure reform, thus many bishops decided they did not wish to follow the rules of clerical dress outlined in the Act of Uniformity as they believed the albs and copes to be ‘popish’ and ‘superstitious’.

Thus the Queen summoned Parker to enforce the rules, thus Parker threatened to remove preaching licences of anyone that did not obey and in 1566 issued the ‘Advertisements’. However 37 clergymen refused to sign and were deprived of their posts, this conflict expresses that Elizabeth did not solve the issue of religion as it highlighted that the Queen could not enforce her will in all respects and highlighted fundamental issues in the relationship of the Crown and the Church. However Elizabeth succeeded in her religious settlement and overcame her internal problem, she wished not to make ‘windows into men’s souls’ and thus allowed the survival of Catholics. An external problem faced by Elizabeth at the start of her reign was the issue of her marriage and succession. When Elizabeth inherited the throne in 1558, it was assumed that she would marry a prince and continue the Tudor line, as failure to marry would bring around a troubled succession.

There were a number of suitors for Elizabeth, arguably her favourite being Robert Dudley of whom she arguably had a ‘emotional dependency’ on, however the suspicious death of his wife Amy led to the marriage never occurring, which pleased Cecil who was horrified at the prospect of his own power and influence being eroded. Thus Elizabeth chose not to marry and not to choose a successor, however she overcame the internal problem of this. By remaining unmarried, her authority remained undiminished and Elizabeth maximized the diplomatic advantages from the prolonged marriage negotiations. She used marriage talks as a form of foreign policy, e.g. marriage talks with the Habsburgs minimised the possible Catholic backlash to her Religious Settlement, and she gained financial benefits from Eric of Sweden. Not naming a successor also had benefits for Elizabeth, as it avoided any factions arising in the privy council and any unnecessary competitions for influence and power, as Elizabeth once commented ‘if my successor were known to the world, I would never esteem my state to be safe”.

Although it can be argued that as Elizabeth died the virgin queen, she did not solve the issue of her marriage and succession due to never being married. As Elizabeth did not produce her own natural protestant heir, Elizabeth faced real threats from Mary Queen of Scots. Many English Catholics supported Mary’s claim to the throne and when Mary arrived in England there were several plots to dethrone or assassinate Elizabeth including the Ridolfi, Throckmorton and Babington plots. Although after Elizabeth’s death, James Stewart inherited the throne in a unchallenged succession, thus Elizabeth had solved the problem. The issue of foreign policy was Elizabeth’s biggest external problem during her reign. Elizabeth had inherited the throne at a time where finances were weak, with Sir John Mason declaring ‘our state can no longer bear these wars’. Thus Elizabeth wanted to secure Calais and conclude peace with the Scottish Queen as Elizabeth commented that ‘the greatest burden of these wars resteth uponth Scotland’.

Thus Elizabeth resolved issues of foreign policy in her reign by the signing of the Chaetae Cambersis in 1559 which brought peace along England, Scotland, France and Spain, France would retain Calais for eight years and then would be returned to England providing England had kept peace. However external problems of foreign policy occurred again after the death of Henry II who was succeeded by his son Francis who was married to Mary Queen of Scots. This led to a strong guise faction in France who sought to make Scotland an instrument of French policy making.. Thus England was faced with the threat of invasion from Scotland and France. However Elizabeth resolved this issue by sending the Navy to the firth of forth to block French reinforcements from landing and sending an army to Leith where the bulk of the French force were situated. Elizabeth’s intervention meant the siege failed, and in 1560 the Treaty of Edinburgh was signed which forced Mary Queen of Scots to recognise Elizabeth as Queen and effectively weakened the Franco-Scottish alliance.

Elizabeth had also succeeded in foreign policy with Spain as she avoided having a civil war with Spain, the policy of harassment by taking money from Spanish ships in Cornwell and Devon strengthened England’s finances. However it can be argued that Elizabeth did not solve the issue of foreign policy, Anglo Spanish and Anglo Dutch relations came to a halt after the Spanish harassments meaning that loyalty with Phillip had disintegrated thus Phillip began to support plots against Elizabeth such as the Ridolfi plot and the 1569 Northern Rebellion. Although I believe Elizabeth did solve her external problem to a small extent, as relations were improved but would still be another 14 years until Elizabeth could feel secure from threats to English stability. Thus at the end of her 45 year long reign, it is concrete to state that Elizabeth did successfully conquer most of her external and internal problems she faced at the beginning of her reign.

Known as the ‘Golden Age’ by many historians Elizabeth was able to establish a secure Church of England and her reign also saw significant expansion overseas. Great explorers were encouraged such as Sir Francis Drake, Sir Walter Raleigh, and Sir John Hawkins. She achieved an excellent reputation as a good and wise ruler, who was truly loved by her people – she was highly accomplished in the art of rhetoric and Public Relations Queen Elizabeth I surrounded herself with highly intelligent and loyal advisors such as Sir William Cecil, Sir Francis Walsingham and Sir Robert Cecil who gave her sound political advice and unlike the reigns of Edward and Mary, Elizabeth was able to expand overseas. Thus the internal and external problems at the beginning of reign soon became insignificant hurdles for the great queen, whose monarch is still described by historians today to be the greatest monarch in England.

Reigh by Elizabeth I Essay

Benefits Of PEST analysis Essay

Benefits Of PEST analysis Essay.


PEST analysis is used to evaluate the political, economic, social and technological influences that organizations might face when they are about to start a project. It provides external factors that organizations should take into consideration before they start the projects. In this case study, the UNISION used PEST analysis to investigate the external environment surrounding migrant workers; it helps UNISON to identify and understand the reasons why migrants come to the UK and the issues they face.

PEST analysis possesses several advantages; first of all, it is relatively simple and only costs time to do, the only thing that managers should do is to brainstorm from four different aspects and summarize their perspectives.

Secondly, PEST analysis helps managers to understand their business better. Since managers have to do lots of detailed research from four different aspects, they might find some problems of their business, which they never noticed or considered before. Last but not the least, PEST analysis helps companies to avoid the future threats and difficulties.

Owing to PEST analysis involves the external threats of organizations, although some of them are unpredictable and inevitable, it will still be possible for companies to take precautions and minimized the loss that might be brought by the threats.


First of all, the employers were ignoring employment law. Some companies were paying the migrant workers less than the minimum wage while others forced workers to worker longer than the working time directive. Secondly, migrant workers have language barrier. The majority of the workers have the difficulty in communicating in English; so, they are always reluctant to complain about their treatment by employers while they might not understand the content of their employment contracts and companies’ rules very well. Some companies might use the language barrier to exploit the migrant workers. Then, the migrant workers may also be exploited owing to the shortage of right protecting awareness and racist attitudes.


First of all, many workers move to UK because the free visas and the expansion of the European Union. Secondly, according to the case study, the average monthly salary in the UK in 2007 was almost £2,500 whereas in Poland it was £500. Lots of workers who were from less economically developed countries were willing to move to UK in order to have a higher salary and better living standard. The migrant workers are also able to send money back to their families who remain in their home countries. Thirdly, migrant workers went to UK because there were many jobs that local people do not want to do owing to the poor working condition and wages, those migrant workers can take these jobs easily without any competition. Moreover, technological factors also promote people to move to UK. For example, the development of technology created job positions and reduced the cost of transportation; online service allowed workers send money to home easily.


In political factors, migrants contributed to the exchequer by pay tax. In economic factors, migrant workers increased the size of the total labor market and they took the jobs that local British people do not want to do, such as jobs in agriculture, hospitality and food packing. As the result, the GDP of UK increased 0.5% by migrant workers, which was equivalent to £6 billion in 2006. In addition, some business leaders claimed that migrant workers always have a more positive work ethic than the native worker, which means migrant people are more keen to work, this inspired companies to be more competitive and boost the economic development. In social factors, migrant workers replenished the shrinking workforce that caused by aging population in Britain. Also, having workers from different countries means having various cultures and experiences, this will help companies to develop in a multicultural way and inspire the people to create more innovative products.

Benefits Of PEST analysis Essay

On Seeing England for the First Time Essay

On Seeing England for the First Time Essay.

In this essay titled, On Seeing England for the First Time Jamaica Kincaid subtly argues that England’s vain dominating presence, produced from the common admiration for England, played a negative role in her life.

Kincaid develops this claim of England by battling the reality of England versus her childhood idea of England. Since this is the beginning of her work not only is the purpose to entice the reader but to also inform them of the “reality” of England which conquered her lifestyle and inhibited her natural growing culture.

Kincaid writes in a serious, somber tone for people who also feel dominated by England or another culture. Questions for Discussion: 1. What is ironic about the author’s words, “Seeing England for the First Time” is that in reality neither is she really looking at England nor is this her first encounter with England. The author is only looking at a map of England, not the people or lively culture. Also, the author describes throughout the paragraphs the huge role of England in her life. Including the presence at her family breakfast table and most importantly the relationship between her father and his English hat.

2. In paragraph four Kincaid’s words, “I had long ago been conquered” refers to the huge and dominating role of England in her life. Where as the people in her life constantly regard England Jensen 2 as the highest of the high and the source of all final judgment in her life. The large presence and highly regarded culture of another country in her own land hinders Kincaid in a dominating way, making her feel unimportant and small. 3. The authors talks largely about the British influence in her life, especially in regard to marketable items. In paragraph two Kincaid talks about her family breakfast and the many foods which come from England. The most basic parts of her, her shoes, her clothes, and her father’s clothes all contain the words, “Made in England.”

Questions on Rhetoric and Style: 1. The use of parallelism in Kincaid’s excerpt is prominent and helps argue her point of the beautiful versus ugly, or more specifically, the reality versus ideal part of Europe. For example, “England was a special jewel all right, and only special people got to wear it.” This lets the reader see England as a special place, but then author takes it back as a conceited statement. 2. The mutton simile produces an ungraceful image of England. However, when she retracts that same simile by saying, “It could not really look like anything so familiar…” this makes the reader question as to why she would compare England to something as brute and ungraceful as an animal leg and then retract it saying that mutton is too familiar. This produces a confusing image of a country that looks better than it really is. 3. The use of listing can be seen in paragraph two when talking about her breakfast and clothes. In this listing she talks without passion or a personal opinion which makes the reader stop and grabs their attention. The use of listing, since there is no passion, also gives it a somber tone and sort of power of knowledge.

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On Seeing England for the First Time Essay

“The Puritan Dilemma’ by Edmund S. Morgan Essay

“The Puritan Dilemma’ by Edmund S. Morgan Essay.

Puritanism, superficially thought to be a belief in which the Church of England should be removed from Catholicism and its hierarchy, demands more of the individual than the church. It demanded the faith, strength, and determination to please God. The Puritan Dilemma, by Edmund S. Morgan, is the biography of John Winthrop, a Puritan who departs from England in order to create a haven and an example of a community where the laws of God were followed diligently. As a man with power and as a Puritan, Winthrop must face difficult decisions and at the same time make sure they are justified by God.

The dilemmas, specifically paradoxes, which Puritans encountered in everyday life, were anything but simple; nevertheless, Puritans made their best effort to try and resolve them.

One paradox in Puritanism involved the relationship between man and sin. “Puritanism required that a man devote his life to seeking salvation but told him he was helpless to do anything but evil.

Puritanism required that he rest his whole hope in Christ but taught him that Christ would utterly reject him unless before he was born God had foreordained his salvation. Puritanism required that man refrain from sin but told him, “he would sin anyhow” (5). This states that people were predestined to go to heaven or be damned in hell for eternity. God chooses the future, whether they live a life of good or that of evil.

The idea of predestination made its believers have various reactions. Some did their best to be good, while others lived a more carefree life. Winthrop accepted human nature. He recognized that “all men were brothers in sin” (27), yet he “must do what he could to prevent and punish evil” (27). As governor and as a person, he dissuaded from sin and at the same time he accepted that he was part of it. “No Puritan could be a Puritan and remain untouched by it, for it arose out of the central Puritan dilemma, the problem of doing right in a world that does wrong” (182). Nevertheless, Winthrop is an example of what faith and determination can do to one’s perspective.

Puritans have been thought of being severely strict and reserved. Contrary to popular belief, they did have enjoyable lives- at least to moderation. To young Winthrop, Puritanism meant, “the problem of living in this world without taking his mind off God” (6). He wanted to enter the ministry, but decided that he wanted another life. “He liked his wife…He liked to smoke a pipe. He liked to tinker with gadgets. He liked all the things that God had given to him, and he knew it was right to like them, because they were God-given. But how has one to keep from liking them too much? How love the world with moderation and God without?” (6).

This states that Puritans were careful about becoming too attached to the pleasures of the world. Winthrop, “tried one way after another to keep his exuberant worldly spirit within bounds and gradually denied himself many of the things that he liked most”(6). Even in his marriages, he made sure that his love for his wives did not affect his love for God because ” the Puritan loved his God with all the sensual abandon he denied himself in dealing with the world”(9) Winthrop, through the years, never let material things get in the way of God.

Winthrop faced several challenges when he was the governor of Massachusetts. Leaving England itself was a challenge since Winthrop had doubts about the migration to America hence, “the move to New England would be wrong unless there was a good chance that the colony would be an economic success” (35). Yet, he longed to use his talents in the cause of God because a “man’s duty to God was to work at his calling and improve his talents like a good and faithful servant. If he could do it better in New England than in old, that was a good reason for moving. God was the overwhelming reality, indeed the only reality.

Success and failure were relevant only as indications and not always reliable ones…” (35). Winthrop had more problems with Separatism. Separatists sought to separate completely from the Anglican Church and ” looked for perfection in this world and had come to New England to be right while the rest of the world went wrong”(65). Their viewpoint contradicted the Puritan belief that evil was everywhere and that trying to escape was futile. Separatists also threatened relations with England, which would have cause problems with the king and overall trade. For these reasons, Winthrop was against it. Winthrop genuinely wanted what was best for the colony.

In summary, Puritanism is a religion that requires strong devotion from its believers. Puritans had to change their behavior, way of thinking, and overall way of life in order to accommodate God’s laws. Winthrop was a strong believer of God and never let his love for him stop. He successfully combined his leadership skills with religion to create a community like no other, one that fully abides God. Winthrop did his best to try and resolve problems in the best way possible. He lived a life of devotion and when he died he “reached what in life he had never sought, a separation from his sinful fellow men” (184).

“The Puritan Dilemma’ by Edmund S. Morgan Essay

“The General History” by John Smith Essay

“The General History” by John Smith Essay.

Smith wrote many accounts of his experience in Virginia and New England, including The Generall Historie of Virginia, New England, and the Summer Isles. In these works, especially in his account of fighting off 200 Native Americans while using one as a shield, Smith provided early examples of the tall tale. Furthermore, his discussions of leadership and survival in the Virginia wilderness make him one of the first American writers to explore the themes of self-creation, practicality, industry, self-reliance, and cultural contact.

The Jamestown colony as plagued from the beginning by unfortunate circumstances. While out exploring, John Smith was captured by the Indians. After being brought to many chiefs, John Smith was brought to the emperor of the Pamaunkee. The emperor had planned to kill John Smith at first by placing his head against a rock and bashing it in. Then Pocahontas, the emperor’s daughter, threw her head in the way and prevented his death. The emperor then decided to let Smith live and to have him as a slave.

This story also had more action than some other which I read which does make it interesting, but every once in a while it is difficult to understand due to the Old English. This story was insightful into the lives of one tribe of Indians near Jamestown.

When food shortages, heat, poor leadership, and inadequate preparation threatened to destroy the settlement, Smith came to the rescue by delegating responsibility and motivating his fellow settlers to work.

“The General History” by John Smith Essay

Why Did Phillip II Launch The Armada Essay

Why Did Phillip II Launch The Armada Essay.

Why did Phillip II launch the Armada and why did it fail? In the summer of 1588, the catholic king of Spain, Phillip II, came up with a plan to conquer protestant England. He would collect his army from the Netherlands and a huge fleet of 130 ships across the channel, with the help of France.

Why did Phillip launch the Armada?- Phillip launched the Armada for many reasons. When Elizabeth became queen, Phillip asked her hand in marriage, but she refused.

This angered him, as he hoped to keep power over England, and also keep it catholic. This was also an embarrassment as Spain was one of he most powerful countries in Europe. England was also helping protestants in the Netherlands, (which Spain ruled) to revolt against the catholic Spanish. As well as helping the Portrageas gain their independence from Spain.

Phillip also had the support of the Pope who encouraged him to invade England. Elizabeth had been excommunicated from the church so the pope thought she ought to be removed.

During the 1560’s English ships began to loot Spanish fleets returning from America with gold. Phillip blamed Elizabeth for backing such raids and taking her share of the profits. In 1587 Elizabeth executed Mary queen of Scots which also angered Phillip as he saw Mary as the rightful queen of England.

Why the armada failed- Phillips plan was to send a fleet from Spain and an army from the Netherlands to invade at the same time. England was aware of the Spanish plans, attacking at Cádiz, in Spain and succeeding in delaying it for another year. This meant that the Spanish had to use old, not so good boats for the invasion. The barrels were also destroyed and so the new ones were unseasoned so when the food was put in them, the barrels and food rotted. The man in charge of the Spanish armada was the duke of Medina Scronia, he was not a sea captain, and he was in charge of the army and was sea sick!

The English admirals were experienced and well trained. When in the channel and fighting, the English couldn’t break the crescent formation. Ships were set on fire and sent into the Armada, producing a panic that broke the Spanish formation. The Armada was forced to sail around Scotland, where they didn’t have good maps for. Bad weather also contributed to Spain’s misfortune, as it bashed many of the boats to bits. On August 8th the English defeated the Spanish and the Armada sailed home with only about 50 ships left.

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Why Did Phillip II Launch The Armada Essay