Electronic Auditing Procedures to Monitor the Computer Use of Employees Essay

Electronic Auditing Procedures to Monitor the Computer Use of Employees Essay.

Imagining weight on a scale, when one goes up, the other one goes down. The natural order of life is the balance signaling there is always a price to pay for an achievement. In line with the explosion of the information and technology development, the quality of life has been literally perceived as jumping onto a higher level of realm. But on the other side of the scale is the humanity, the price to pay for such an advance achievement. Consequently there is the need to look into the matter on whether the technology should advance the humanity or it should be the otherwise.

Therefore, this report will focus on the causes and the effects of the problems arisen, thus outlined few suggestions to overcome the issue before the spark triggered the fire. This report has been designed structurally from identifying the problem, the effect and subsequently discuss on the measurements to balance the order. There are lots of companies have run the electronic auditing procedures to monitor the computer use of the employees.

They perceived this matter seriously because the future achievement is their priority.

But is the implementation of the employee monitoring system is necessary is still under a heat debate because it deals with their privacy and individual right. We should make a clear statement that company computing systems are provided as tools for business and all information created, accessed, or stored using these systems are the property of the company and are subject to monitoring, auditing, or review. Even though the management has the authority to do so as the management is their source of income, but it is appropriate for the management to also look into their welfare as equal priority.

Therefore, this report will focus on both side of the scale and dwell into both the benefits and the harms on implementing such a major monitoring system. Below (Diagram 1. 0) is the finding of a research conducted by The American Management Association as published in the Business Week, December 2012 edition. Before we dealt with the issue, it is best for us to understand on how does the system works. Then only we will proceed on the why should we or should not we implement such system.

First off, the system enable the administrator to overlook or monitor the employees screen using his/her own computer, to be exact, we can know what the employees are viewing or doing with their computer. This gives the advantage for the administrator to save a screen shot of the employee’s computer to be kept as evidence in the time to come. Next, the administrator can also access in to the employees computer at any time, any will, as if we are using the employees’ mouse and keyboard. With that, the administrator can turn off or terminate the non-work related program accessed by the employees.

On the other hand, the administrator can as well have access into all of the documents, folders and the program installed or downloaded into the computer, even without the employees’ consent. Diagram 2. 0 can best summarize the whole idea of the employees monitoring system. A drop of water can spoil the whole pot of milk. Sometimes precautions are essential to make sure things are in order. In nowadays life, the world is but at the fingertips. Most of the information is accessible anywhere anytime with the internet network so well established.

It is no doubt the digital world evolves and still evolving in a drastic manner that brings the world into the greater level of live. But ironically, the money value for the technology drops steadily compare to the drastic development of the cyber world. We are getting a first class infrastructure development with an increasing transferring speed into the cyber world yet the subscription fee does not increase as much in parallel. The end result is the technology is now affordable even to the lowest hierarchy of the society.

This easy-accessed phenomenon created another easy-influenced phenomenon where the cyber space has been widely used in reverse quality achievement so known as the cyber abuse. Cyber abuse has also become an infectious viral hit other than the gangnam style and the Harlem shake. The first and foremost situation to draw a frown on the face is the frequent visit to indecent websites, or pornography to be frank. Psychologically, such an act can retard the brain development yet catalyst sexual sensation. Though it is sensual to the eyes and the lust, but it will draw the vision into the dust.

This situation also encourages sexual harassment among the colleague which will later on put a flame onto the company’s fame. Not to be pessimist, but this is what really happen in the world of reality. Though it goes mutual but a lot of families are in serious crisis because the authority put the hand on the elbow and let the spark burns the oil. The affairs among the colleague will definitely fuel up the existing official internal affairs, not to mention in depth in the report. Next is the overused of the social hub.

When a thousand miles of distance only separated by an inch of screen, the company’s achievement will be a thousand light years behind the mission. Such scenario shifted the working focus to series of pointless communication resulting in miscommunication and lack of communication situation among the subordinates thus creating a plosive conversation here and there with huge blows, reaching no common goals, drowning further away against the stream. Good communications skills will no longer go verbally but upon a long sour facial expression, or even in written form.

Verbal communication has always been the best medium in delivering day to day conversation, sharing thoughts and ideologies, thus nurturing a good social responsibility among the society. With verbal communication at stake, the social responsibility has also being driven onto the cliff, just a step towards rolling down the hill. We can no longer practice good discussions skills, daily conversations are no longer moderate. There is a call to climb back the cliff to rectify the problems. It is belief the implementation of the employee monitoring system can enhance the information transferring system thus improving the communication system.

With the widespread of such working environment, next comes the misused of the communication and information technology. Blackmail and poison pen letter have since become threats. Dissatisfaction now leads to direct complaint to the superior without direct confrontation or discussion; even a compliment can turn into a complaint with such scenario growing firm affectively in the habit formation. Lot of reports has been lodged without thorough investigation, even worse when it is a blind accusation where the innocents have to take on the blame.

A bunch of ants can also be a disaster; the growing numbers of complaints also bring chaos to the management. Worse still, most of the complaints have to be left unattended without resolution. This will also tainted our reputation and credibility as the top management because of our failure in resolving all the complaints. Another less concern issue is the online games addiction. Though such matter seems to leave no major effect but it still leaves a black dot on the blank slate. Employees with such addiction set aside practically all other activities in favor of playing computer games almost endlessly.

Gamers who engage with extremely excessive daily gaming routines can find it difficult to make room for much else in the office. Some addicts allow jobs and careers to collapse in order to spend more time playing their favorite games. Furthermore, online games are not merely games, to a larger extend, they deal with gambling. With financial issue at stake, the focus is now on winning the jack pot like an ant in the hot pot. The company’s economy status is no longer the major concern as long as it does not effecting the payrolls.

All of the above mentioned situations subsequently lead to the climate changes of the working environment. Workers are building and living in the virtual world of their own, reflecting the world of reality at the other side of the mirror, turning everything upside down. Another minor issue not to be missed out is the waste of time and energy. In the name of time, verily, man is in loss. The company’s performance is greatly affected when most of the task are not submitted in due time. Even when it is, the quality and the outcome do not get the end meet.

Worse still when we have to bare all of the cost of the energy wasted for each and every workers’ entertainment. Based on the research conducted by The American Management Association, every company loses quit an amount of budget due to non-work related browsing. Somehow, it is understandable that the entire act can created a stress free working environment where they can channel the tense into the cyber space. Looking at the positive side, the use of the cyber space is actually one of the most powerful and effective information transferring and sharing method.

The continuous development of the cyber technology has proved that the digital networking chain is indeed the key towards ultimate success if being use in proper management. Another major issue to look into is the misused of the confidential information of the company. Again, based on the finding, most of the employees confessed of leaking the confidential information to third parties, non-related to the company, or even to the archrivals of the company. It implies the information security breach where the employees can easily access and leak the information to the outsider.

Nonetheless, this has also caused quite a few billions loss to the company income. Such scenario reflected on the management failure in preserving it confidentiality and information security system. Here comes the call to put all of the employees’ communication system inclusive of e-mail to be put under strict surveillance. However, it should be noted that enraged employees can cause an organization legal problems and liability in other methods such as by writing a letter, having a conversation, sending a fax or making a phone call just as easily as by sending an e-mail or misusing the Internet.

So much so, we must recognize that some activities have a limited investment return. For example, with the exception of support center telephone operators, few telephone conversations are monitored because some casual or personal usage is expected and tolerated. Though the implementation of the electronic auditing procedure can benefit the company in almost every aspect but the invasion of the individual right and the employees’ privacy are the aspects not to be neglected. Ensuring proper use of organizational technology begins with outlining what is proper and what is not.

Looking from the angle of an outsider, the welfare of the workers is not taken care of and it can cause a serious morale problem. Still, monitoring can be controversial because employees often view it as invasive, distracting, and stressful However, precaution steps need to be outlined to curb the problems mentioned. It can be considered as a system upgrading process to improve the company’s achievement. Our view is that we are showing a great concern towards the workers progression from time to time. There’s no doubt that the employee monitoring has become more common nowadays.

However, overly intrusive practices can create the negative perception that the boss is watching. The solution, therefore, is to balance your need for protection with your employees’ desire for as much privacy as possible. So the idea is to implement the system with a little modification where the management can still monitor the employees’ computer yet the employees are still comfortable with such implementation. As the years roll by, workers can develop self awareness thus nurturing a great self discipline in carrying out the tasks assigned.

In the case of e-mail, we should only use the company’s local area network emails outlook system to oversee the whole information transferring system. In a way, there is no other email service provider to be use in the office. The implementation of the system can be carried out in a specified timeframe so the employees still have the key to hold onto their privacy life. Yet the management should also take into consideration to block the access into certain website and IE download as a mean to overcome the individual morale issue while in the office.

Workplaces subjected to high security surveillance basically are culturally troubled where trust is missing. Data collected during monitoring is subject to misuse in ways that could result the organization to liability. Our concern is that without proper handling and adequate corporate governance, employers may abuse the monitoring system. Human resource department should take the initiative to development a better programmer team under the management surveillance to take care of the system or it might become an individual right violation if the teams themselves misused the authority to oversee the system.

It is utmost important now to develop a highly skilled, knowledgeable and professionally high etiquette team to encourage employee loyalty and lead to more satisfied employees. Managers and technology professionals must take steps to ensure the negative impact is minimized. With consideration from every point of view, it is utmost important to highlight there is a need for a change of wind. Given the risk of legal liability, productivity loss, and drain on bandwidth, it is clear why we must implement a blended and acceptable use policies and monitor resource usage.

To qualify, the consent can be expressed in the written form with the business related reasons stated clearly on why it is being implemented. A great start is a good jump towards success, the best starting point for any organization should be the consultation with their legal counsel and other relevant parties to determine what type and scope of policy would be best suited for the organization. There should also be a defensive wall from accessing into improper website. Other than that, employees should also know that the monitoring system will only being carried out during the working hours.

They still have their right into their own privacy life during the lunch hour and after the office hour. Therefore they can still maintain the stress free environment at the office. Again, the implementation of such system must be within the employees consent so they are aware of the situation that they are being watch at certain timeframe. The company policy should also embrace that the computer system and communications services are the property of the employer as well as include the penalties for policy violations, up to service termination.

To show our concern towards both the company’s prospect and the employees privacy right, the approach to create the balance is neither the management is doing nothing nor monitor everything, but overseeing something yet the employees can still do their things at their own pace and comfort. With the implementation of this blended and modified monitoring system, let us put forth the hope of bringing the company into a greater level in the economy world.

Electronic Auditing Procedures to Monitor the Computer Use of Employees Essay

Organizational Behaviour Essay

Organizational Behaviour Essay.

Part A consists of three questions. Be sure to include both the questions and the responses in the document you submit. Your total combined responses for these three questions should not exceed 1000 to 1500 words.

1. Marketing specialists at Napanee Beer Co. developed a new advertising campaign for summer sales. The ads were particularly aimed at sports events where Napanee Beer sold kegs of beer on tap. The marketing group worked for months with a top advertising firm on the campaign. Their effort was successful in terms of significantly higher demand for Napanee Beer’s keg beer at sports stadiums.

However, the production department had not been notified of the marketing campaign and was not prepared for the increased demand.

The company was forced to buy empty kegs at a premium price. It also had to brew some of the lower priced keg beer in vats that would have been used for higher priced specialty beer. The result was that Napanee Beer sold more of the lower priced keg beer and less of the higher priced products that summer.

Moreover, the company could not initially fill consumer demand for the keg beer, resulting in customer dissatisfaction.

Use open systems theory to explain what occurred at Napanee Beer Co. Begin with a brief description of open systems theory. Use your own words (paraphrase) and remember to cite all sources using APA style.

The open systems theory states that organizations are entities that continually exchange resources with its external environment. The organization is dependent on the external environment for resources such as raw materials, employees, financial resources, and information and equipment which are the organizations inputs. Those inputs are used by the organizations internal subsystems, such as production and marketing, and are subsequently turned into outputs such as products, services, employee behaviours, profits/ losses, and waste/ pollution (McShane & Steen, 2009, p. 4).

According to the open systems theory (McShane & Steen, 2009, p. 4), the organization Napanee Beer Company’s internal subsystems were not operating efficiently. Due to the lack of communication between the marketing group and the production team, production was unaware of the increase in demand for the product and did not order enough inputs to meet this larger demand. Consequently, the materials used were much more expensive than they would have been had they been ordered earlier. This oversight cost the company sales on higher priced specialty beer and caused customer dissatisfaction.

Had the production team been aware of the success of the marketing campaign, which was geared towards sporting events where Napanee Beer sold kegs of beer on tap, they would have been able to order the appropriate amount of kegs, saving the company a lot of money. This is not an issue between the external and internal environment but an issue with Napanee’s internal subsystems effectiveness (McShane & Steen, 2009, p. 4.). The lack of communication between departments weakened the company’s ability to maximize its input to output capability; therefore, the company was not functioning at a high level of efficiency (McShane & Steen, 2009, p. 5.).

2. The sales office of a large industrial products wholesale company has an increasing problem: salespeople are arriving late at the office each morning. Some sales reps go directly to visit clients rather than showing up at the office as required by company policy. Others arrive several minutes after their appointed start time. The vice-president of sales doesn’t want to introduce time clocks, but this may be necessary if the lateness problem isn’t corrected.

Using the MARS model of individual behaviour, diagnose the possible reasons salespeople may be engaging in this “lateness” behaviour. Begin with a brief description of the MARS model. Use your own words (paraphrase) and remember to cite all sources using APA style.

The MARS model represents the four factors that influence people’s behaviour and performance. These factors are motivation, ability, role perceptions, and situational factors (McShane & Steen, 2009, p. 26). Motivation is what drives a person in a particular direction and the passion and persistence in which they pursue something (McShane & Steen, 2009, p. 26). The ability of an employee refers to their natural aptitudes as well as their acquired capabilities (McShane & Steen, 2009, p. 27).

An employee’s competencies refer to his or her skills, knowledge and other characteristics that may be beneficial to the organization (McShane & Steen, 2009, p. 27). Role perception is the third factor in the MARS model. This refers to how closely the employee’s perception of their job duties aligns with the employer’s (McShane & Steen, 2009, p. 27). The final factor in the MARS model is situational factors. Situational factors involve conditions that are not part of the employee’s skill set or personality and are often out of their control (McShane & Steen, 2009, p. 28).

According to the MARS model of individual behaviour, the possible reasons salespeople may be engaging in this “lateness” behaviour is first the lack of motivation they are feeling to show up to the office at their scheduled start time (McShane & Steen, 2009, pp. 26-28). This could be due in part to the lack of incentive they receive for showing up on time. Furthermore, the absence of negative consequences for showing up late has not shown the sales reps that the company is serious about this policy. In order for the sales reps to be motivated to show up to the office in the morning instead of seeing clients first, there needs to be some kind of reinforcement from the company that demonstrates that showing up on time is a behaviour that they expect and value.

The sales reps were most likely hired because of their ability to gain new customers and sell products; therefore, they see this aspect of their job as being priority and do not see the value in showing up at the office first. The biggest factor effecting this situation is role perception (McShane & Steen, 2009, p. 27). The sales reps do not have a clear understanding that arriving at the office on time is an essential part of their job duties. It is clear from the sales reps behaviour that they are not aware of the importance of being at the office in the morning before they head out to see clients. While this may be a company policy in writing, it is not well practiced in the office, so it is perceived by employees as a recommendation rather than a rule. Situational factors may also contribute to the “lateness” problem (McShane & Steen, 2009, p. 28). This could be because face time at the office does not support their task goals which are to go out and see clients and sell products. The sales reps might find the commute to the office an inconvenience whereas they could instead cut that commute out of their day and drive straight to a client’s office.

3. Big Box Construction Company has received warnings from government safety inspectors that employees at some of its construction sites are not wearing the required safety helmets and noise-protection equipment. The company could lose these contracts if safety practices are not maintained. The company has warned employees that they could be fired if they don’t wear the safety gear, but this has had little effect. Describe an A-B-C analysis for this situation and provide two types of behaviour modification interventions that might change employee behaviour in this situation. In an A-B-C analysis of this situation the antecedent would be the warning the employees received from the company informing them that they must wear safety gear on the job site.

The behaviour is that some of the employees are not wearing safety equipment on the construction sites. And the Consequences are that the employees face termination if they continue to disregard this policy (McShane & Steen, 2009, p. 66). Two types of behaviour modification interventions that might change employee behaviour in this situation are: 1) Positive reinforcement, the supervisor can offer praise to the employees who are adhering to the safety guidelines (McShane & Steen, 2009, p. 66). In addition, there could be a reward in place such as a bonus for employees who are wearing their safety equipment on the site every day. 2) Punishment, although punishment might generate negative feelings toward the company and supervisor, it is necessary because of the severity of the breach (McShane & Steen, 2009, p. 67). The type of punishment will depend on the frequency of the offence. For example, the first offence could result in a write-up, the second offence in a suspension without pay, and the third dismissal.

Part B

Read Case Study 4.1: Conestoga-Rovers and Associates on pages 97 and 98 of the textbook and answer the three discussion questions that follow it. Your answer for this case study should not exceed 600 to 800 words in length and should incorporate, where appropriate, content from Lessons 1, 2, 3, and 4.

Questions

1) Why does Conestoga-Rovers and Associates and other companies try to create a positive work environment?

The text explains that according to the dual cognitive-emotional attitude process, the positive emotional experiences employees encounter on a daily basis at Conestoga-Rovers contributes to their job satisfaction (McShane & Steen, 2009, p. 80). When employees are satisfied with their job they are more likely to be accommodating to the organization’s clients, helpful to their co-workers, and can experience increased overall productivity (McShane & Steen, 2009, p. 87). Therefore, it is beneficial for the company to foster a positive work environment where its employees are frequently feeling positive emotional experiences, so that their outlook on their jobs and the company will be much more favourable (McShane & Steen, 2009, p.80).

According to the model of emotions, attitudes, and behaviour (McShane & Steen, 2009, p. 79), our emotions will have a direct impact on our behavioural intentions which in turn will most likely affect our behaviour. If the employees at Conestoga-Rovers are bombarded with positive emotions in their work environment, than they are more likely to behave in a way that is agreeable to the company.

Conestoga-Rovers acknowledges and appreciates its human capital and realizes that its employees knowledge provide a competitive advantage to the company (McShane & Steen, 2009, p. 7). They realize that in order for the company to retain its valued employees and attract new ones they need to foster a positive work environment. By “adapting employment practices” to suit the needs of their employees the company is striving to retain its valued intellectual capital (McShane & Steen, 2009, p. 6).

2) How does this company manage to provide events and perks that employees value?

At Conestoga-Rovers and Associates having fun and maintaining a work-life balance are fundamental to the company and its employees. This is evident in the many perks this company offers its employees that vary from its extremely active social committee to the onsite daycare facility. As stated in the case study, an employee of Conestoga-Rovers suggested that the company build an onsite daycare facility, never really expecting that they would take her request so seriously. However, much to the employee’s delighted shock the company complied. This demonstrates the company’s dedication to its employees wants and needs.

In addition the company has assembled a social committee to listen to what it is that employee’s value and have evidently been able to deliver to the Conestoga-Rovers employees what they want. By doing this for their employees the organization is building organizational commitment and loyalty to the company (McShane & Steen, 2009, p. 89). By involving employees in company decisions that affect them and listening to their needs they are strengthening their employee’s social identity within the organization. This shows employees that their opinions are not only heard but are valued and trusted by the organization (McShane & Steen, 2009, p.89). The company has a “work hard-play hard mantra”, and their “social events and activities play an integral role in the company’s culture (McShane & Steen, 2009, p. 97). This is evidently closely aligned with its employee’s values; therefore, the employee’s feel comfort in their shared values with the company prompting them to remain loyal to the company (McShane & Steen, 2009, p. 89).

3) Is it possible that employees can have too much fun at work?

From personal experience, I think that it is possible to have too much fun at work. When there are too many social events at work it takes away from an employee’s personal time and time at home with their family. An employee can feel forced to participate in social events that they do not want to partake in, and this can end up having a contrary effect to what the company is striving for. This added pressure to attend social events can add stress for the employee and take away from time needed to complete his/her work.

Conversely, having fun at work can help build camaraderie amongst the employees and reduce the consequences of stress such as job burnout. Attending social functions can give employees a break from the monotonous routine of their job tasks; therefore, reducing the risk of emotional exhaustion and indifference towards their jobs (McShane & Steen, 2009, p. 91). Fun events with co-workers can also help to build on an employee’s social awareness. For instance, when employees are interacting with each other and building personal relationships as well as professional relationships they are better equipped to “perceive and understand the emotions” of their co-workers (McShane & Steen, 2009, p. 84). Because they are getting to know their peers personal situations a little better, the interaction allows them to be able to experience some empathy for their co-workers.

Organizational Behaviour Essay

Human Resources Internship Essay

Human Resources Internship Essay.

I applied for the Human Resources internship at Maryville Academy-Scott Nolan Center through the website indeed. com. During my internship with Maryville Academy-Scott Nolan Center, I supported the HR department and organizational initiatives. My responsibilities with recruiting initiatives included initial resume screening and on-boarding. Positions I screened for included but were not limited to mental health counselor, staff nurse, utility manager and receptionist. I also supported administrative aspects such as filing, data entry, and HRIS maintenance.

Since the Scott Nolan Center is in a transitional period, I helped develop several job descriptions.

From the human resources perspective, I did payroll and disciplinary action forms, as well as legal documents such as FMLA. I completed 432 hours of the Maryville Human Resources Internship Program. Expectations Prior to Internship Before the internship started, I had an interview with my Human Resources manager to discuss my expectations as well as her expectations for this internship. I expected to get involved with daily Human Resources functions.

I expected to be working in a fast-paced organization.

Also, I expected a certain amount of training since I did not have any relevant experience prior to the internship. One other thing I was concerned with was that there might be a difference when recruiting for non-profit organizations compared to for-profit organizations. I thought recruiters would pay attention to some unique personalities or rules when they screened qualified applicants. For instance, some for-profit organizations might focus on people who have the required skills, such as sales skills, customer service skills and presentation skills.

For this particular non-profit organization, I would pay more attention to personality traits, such as openness and agreeableness. Beyond My Expectations Beyond my expectations, I learned that every organization has its unique culture. It does not matter if it is profit or non-profit. Some organizations focus on employees’ training and development, while other organizations focus on select candidates who have certain minimum skills before they can be hired. These employees require little training and development.

The organization I worked for is a children’s psychiatric hospital. Its patients are youths who are suicidal or suffered from sexual and physical abuse in their family. These patients are very sensitive. Thus, they are looking for employees to be energetic, positive and have professional nursing or therapy skills. They want their employees to not only care about the patient physically, but also mentally. During the recruiting process, I considered not only whether candidates had the essential KSAs to finish tasks, but also whether their personality would fit the organization.

My expectations about this internship mainly focused on recruiting, as well as maintaining the employee database, such as workers’ compensations and payroll. Since the hospital was expanding, several new positions were created. Beyond my expectations, I had to update and develop several job descriptions. On the legal aspect, I was not expecting to get very involved. However, I had a chance to follow a FMLA case and to issue disciplinary action forms to employees who violated organizational policy. These legal documents made me realize the importance of legal documents in uman resources management.

Selection Process General Process A significant portion of my internship responsibility was recruiting. These responsibilities ranged from screening candidates’ resumes to interviewing and preparing hiring documents. I would screen resumes from our database and select whom I believed would fit in the position. Then, I would conduct a phone interview with the applicant. After the phone interview, if I still felt the individual fit the organization, I would schedule an in person interview with our Human Resources Manager for the applicant.

Our manager would make the final decision after the interview. If our manager decided to hire this individual, I would start preparing hiring paperwork including background check, reference check and medical record. My responsibilities would be all the above-mentioned tasks, which concluded with filing all the documents and sending it to the orientation group in order to prepare new-hire orientation documents. Screening Resume Before the internship, I read an article by Applicants (2009). He gave me several tips I kept in mind during the resume screening process.

First of all, I was aware of potential adverse impact during the screening process. I should not focus on screening applicants from particular race or gender group. Companies have significant discretion in defining the basic qualifications for each position that they fill so long as those qualifications are defined by the outset of the hiring process for the position. When I selected qualified applicants for phone interviews, I chose candidates who met the minimum qualifications. Then, we chose whoever had best matched our skill requirements to continue to the next phase, which is an in person interview.

These minimum requirements were determined by job descriptions. The job description helped us identify which candidate was able to perform the job, such as develop policy and communicate with patients. Thus, developing a job description was very important. After screening resumes for minimum qualifications, phone interviews were conducted. Importance of determine personality traits and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCBs) during selection process We wanted to select employees who we believed would be successful in the job.

According o Barrick and Mount (1991), the “Big Five” personality dimensions are related to job performance. Their study indicated that Conscientiousness, which is a tendency to show self-discipline, act dutiful, and aim for achievement against measures or outside expectations showed consistent relations with job proficiency. Extraversion, which is characterized by positive emotions, surgency, and the tendency to seek out stimulation and the company of others, was a valid predictor for occupations involving social interaction. The other three factors- Openness, Agreeableness and Neuroticism had small correlation score.

Since most of the positions involved interacting with children, Extraversion would be the factor I needed to pay attention to. From this article, I understood the importance of using personality traits during the selection process. To help me determine useful personality traits for different positions, Raymark, Schmit and Guion (2006) talked about identifying potentially useful personality constructs for employee selection. They created the Personality-Related Position Requirements Form (PPRF), which was a job analysis form to be used in making hypotheses about personality predictors of job performance.

People predicted job performance by identifying whether the candidate’s personality matched the dimensions they determined in the job analysis. For example, the author conducted a job analysis and hypothesized that several dimensions were essential to perform the job efficiently, such as leadership, sensitivity to interests of others, cooperative or collaborative work tendency and general trustworthiness. Then, authors linked candidates’ personality with these dimensions to identify who fit the position best.

I did not get a chance to use the actual form due to the limited resources and budget at work; however, I learned from it. Before screening for every position, I read the job description in our database and analyzed potential personalities that would fit the particular position. I also discussed these personalities with my manager for suggestions. When I screened resumes and interviewed, I would look for the specific personalities to match required skill sets as well as the organization’s culture. Employees in the organizations are always helpful. They are very easy to talk to.

Everybody worked together and helped each other out. I talked to my manager about our organizational culture and she said that we are helpful, energetic and team-orientated. It was difficult to draw personality traits simply from the resume, so I looked at the format of the resume to determine if the candidate was detail-oriented or not. If the format of the resume was disorganized, there was a greater chance that the candidate was not careful, as opposed to one with an organized resume. If a potential employee was careless when editing their resume, I would conclude that they would not try their best at work.

If the candidate passed the resume phase it meant a chance for a phone interview. This was the phase where we could get a general sense of the candidate’s personality. I talked to my manager before conducting phone interviews to discuss traits I should look for. For example, I would look for people who are energetic and outgoing; and people who were patient and easy to talk to. Their tones on the phone and language they used would be a big part of the determination process. We were looking for candidates who had positive tones and good communication skills.

Even though there was no list of personality traits to look for, I tried to analyze the job description. I discussed the jobs with my coworkers and drew a list of personality traits in my mind when I phone interviewed candidates. When they responded to our questions, we were looking for people who answer calmly and respectfully. Other than personality traits, OCB was another important factor I paid attention to when I conducted the phone interview. OCB is the “performance that supports the social and psychological environment in which task performance takes places” (Organ, 1997).

Research results showed OCB has significant relationships with important organizational outcomes such as productivity, efficiency, and turnover (Podsakoff, Whiting, Podsakoff, & Blume, 2009). With minimum qualifications, I wanted to select candidates who showed OCBs in their phone interview. Podsakoff, Whiting, Podsakoff, & Mishra (2010) also talked about the effects of OCBs on selection decision in employment interviews. The article reports on an experiment examning the effects of job candidates’ propensity to exhibit OCBs on selection decisions made in the context of a job interview.

The result showed that candidates who exhibited higher levels of OCBs were generally rated as more competent, received higher overall evaluations, and received higher salary recommendations than candidates who exhibited lower levels of OCBs. When I asked job candidates questions, I was looking for people who showed higher levels of helping, voice, and loyalty behaviors in their answers. I believe employees who love to help others, who would express their feelings to improve rather than criticize, and who showed loyalty to their employers would work well in our organization.

I talked to my manager about these factors and she agreed with me. For example, for the receptionist position, when I asked the candidate about their past working experience, I would like to hear examples of them voluntarily helping their co-workers, or solving conflicts between co-workers. Also, I would want to hear them talk about what did they achieved at the past job, like what did they do to improve the company or themselves. Another thing I would ask them is why were they looking for a new job?

Candidates’ responses and attitudes toward their old employer would give me an idea of their loyalty if they were work for our organization. If these personality traits and OCBs showed during the phone interview, I would invite candidates to come in for an in-person interview. The reason for conducting a walk-in interview after a phone interview was because by meeting with the individual, it helped us to know the individual better. Our organization required employees to have an in-house observation to give them a chance to get in touch with patients and observe their reactions.

I was not able to participate in the in-house observations; however, I tried my best to select potential candidates from the first two rounds of interviews. Selection Decisions Dalessio and Imada (1984) talked about relationships between interview selection decisions and perceptions of applicant similarity. The study had shown that interviewers’ final decisions were related to: [a] the degree of similarity between the interviewers’ perception of the ideal employee and the applicant, and [b] the degree of similarity between the interviewers’ self-perception and the applicant.

This was a useful tip when I interviewed. I sat in several interviews before personally conducting one. I observed the communication between applicants and my Human Resources Manager. Since all these candidates passed the minimum qualification, my manager looked for someone who best fit the organization. “Fit” is the word we use in our selection process. Many applicants had the minimum qualifications for the job; however, we wanted someone who fit in the organization. Garcia, Posthuma, & Colella (2008) talked about how interviewers construct fit perceptions about applicants.

Their results showed that performance expectation had a direct effect on fit perceptions. Unanimously with the study, our manager wanted to select people who she thought would perform well in the organization. She had an idea of what an ideal applicant would look like in her mind. For example, when we hired nurses, my manager looked to see if the applicant was careful, sensitive, caring and good at teamwork. If the applicant used to work in teams and got along with his or her team members, she would be able to determine if this applicant fit our organization. This person should have high Agreeableness.

If we were hiring for a receptionist, we would want to look for candidates who love to help others. From these observations, I learned to study the interview questions and pay attention to personality traits and OCBs that we were looking for in an ideal employee. Each time, I would read these different interview questions for different positions and rehearse the questions in my mind. Also, I identified personality traits and OCBs that were related to the position. Combined with the PPRF I mentioned earlier, I discussed with my manager about our expectations for an ideal candidate before the interview.

What were the essential skills and personalities that fit in the organization? After I identified those aspects, I would start the interview process. The more the individual matched our requirements, the more likely this individual would be hired. Each position requires different personality traits; unfortunately, I am not able to list them out specifically due to the confidentiality policy of the organization. Difficulties Encountered Unavoidably, we chose some overqualified candidates to pursue to the next step, which are the background check and drug-screen test.

We chose these candidates because they would be quick studies and help others develop. However, our compensation was not the most attractive in the industry. We lost several over-qualified candidates right before orientation. Some left due to compensation limitations; some left due to lack of potential opportunities. We lost both time and money due to the unexpected losses. I discussed these issues with my manager. She told me that they lost more than 70% of over-qualified individuals among all over-qualified individuals during the recruiting process in the past.

Even though the turnover is high, they have better potential compared to individuals who have minimum skills only. Her ways to avoid the situation was to not interview over-qualified individuals if they required much higher compensation than what we could offer. I disagreed with her opinion. Compensation definitely matters to jobseekers, however, it is not the only thing that matters. I believed more factors should be considered before we decided if an interview should be conducted, such as potential growth, training and development, as well as a benefit package.

According to Wells (2004), there are pros and cons of hiring overqualified candidates. The potential advantages include they might be able to pick up tomorrow’s leaders today at below-market prices. If they were hired, they could help employees meet their goals sooner and potentially contribute a lot more to the company. However, there were disadvantages as well. Overqualified candidates were often too expensive. If we didn’t give them a better compensation package, situations similar in our organizations would be likely to happen again. Also, Wells mentioned that they were likely to intimidate others.

Hiring a person who is far more experienced than his or her peers or immediate supervisor could create upside-down reporting relationships and authority tensions. Careful assessment was required when intending to hire overqualified candidates. From the article, I learned that I should decide how to define over-qualification. I brought up the topic at one of our intern meetings. We agreed that being at the wrong level and salary expectation was one of the most important factors. It looked kind of like Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (Maslow, 1943).

He used the terms Physiological, Safety, Belongingness and Love, Esteem, Self-Actualization and Self-Transcendence need to describe the pattern that human motivations generally move through. When primary needs were satisfied, people seek for higher level needs. I think over-qualified employees do the same. Compensation is a primary need for job seekers. However, it is not the only factor that matters. If we provide fair amount of compensation, they look for other factors such as personal growth. However, if the compensation level is much lower than the average, they seek for other companies.

Our organization does not have to have the most attractive compensation, however, it should be the average in the industry. We provided minimum pay at the phone interview. Also, there was a pay expectation on the job application. Comparing our minimum pay and candidates’ expectations, we would be able to draw a picture of the possibility of follow through the hiring process with the over qualified candidates. For example, we would give applicants a realistic preview of what the job would be. During the phone screen process, I told them the salary for the position and paid attention to their response.

If the candidate hesitated, they most likely would not continue the process. We would not follow up with this candidate. The next step was to ask if we could do something to position the job opportunity to better take advantage of the applicant’s experience. For instance, if the applicant’s past experience was specialized in child care, we would transfer the applicant to the childcare facilities within the organization. Or, if the applicant obviously had more skills and experience, we would offer a higher-level position instead of an entry-level position.

Also, we arranged in-house observations for applicants to give them a preview of certain responsibilities of the job and observe their reaction in the real work environment. Lastly, we assessed what career stage the person was in. We would like to know if they had ambitious goals and wanted fast growth. As a result, we looked at three predictors of candidate’s success on the job: the ability to do the work, the ability to work well with others and motivation. Motivation factors include, career growth like promotion opportunities and personnel growth, such as education reimbursement.

Following these assessment steps, we successfully decreased the drop off rate for overqualified candidates. During my internship period, we made efforts to hire seven over-qualified candidates, half of them went through the whole process, which is much better than before. Job Description Development Beyond my expectations, I had a chance to develop several job descriptions during my internship due to organization transformation and expansion. Brannick and Levine (2002) mentioned that the structure of the job description should include identifiers, a summary section, duties and tasks, and other information.

They suggest using a KSA modeling approach and critical incident technique to structure the job description. Due to the limited time I was given, I was not able to analyze these KSAs and critical incidents. However, I followed their format, which made the job description easier to read. Since the organization had their own format for job descriptions, which didn’t include a summary section, I discussed with my manager the benefit of adding a summary section for each position and edited all of our job descriptions.

The summary section gave applicants and mployees a clear idea of what their responsibilities were and linked with tasks and skill sets required. I believe the summary gave employees a better idea of what their daily functions looked like. During my internship, I developed job description for utility manager, staff development specialist, and executive assistant. Also, my coworkers and I revised all of our job descriptions in the database by adding a summary section. After the format was decided, I planned to start to draft the job description. Part of the job description was minimum qualifications.

Levine, Maye, Ulm, and Gordon (1997) provided a step-by-step account of the methodology and described the means by which validated minimum qualifications (MQ) were obtained. The authors indicated that MQs were created for education, experience, and closely related personalities needed to perform a job satisfactorily. In our organization, a closely related personality for nurse would be Agreeableness. We looked for people who would follow the policy and work with others. MQs are often used as screening devices in personnel selection. Our organization used MQs to screen out applicants as well.

Levine, et al (1997) mentioned that in order to determine minimum qualifications, a job analysis needed to be conducted. Its descriptors or components were both behavioral and cognitive in nature. Tasks, the behavioral aspects and KSAs, and the cognitive aspects were determined. Scales were developed to evaluate tasks and KSAs for their impact and relevance in establishing MQs. The authors indicated that this job analysis established a basis for the development of MQs, and defined domains against which to evaluate the MQs for content validity.

Preliminary research and observation by human resources specialists, including review of the dictionary of occupational titles, also helped to lead to the preparation of draft lists of tasks and KSAs. Interviews with current employees should be conducted to review relevant tasks and responsibilities required at their job. The authors also suggested a meeting with SMEs to determine the final task and KSA list. Using the list, people should be able to prepare a set of MQ profiles. According to the study, this methodology proved to have high inter- rater reliability.

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Human Resources Internship Essay

Employee Handbook Essay

Employee Handbook Essay.

When employers are putting together the employee handbook, they need to include some legal issues that may apply when there are any disputes or how go along with some procedures. The handbook is used to familiarize the employees with the policies and procedures that are to be followed in the organization. Employers may include certain provisions that dictate how the employees may carry out certain activities without putting the employer’s business in jeopardy.

The employers should ensure that they use the right language that will be later be interpreted by the employees in the right manner and that may not be violating employee organizational rights.

Most employers ensure that the employee handbook has certain restrictions that prevent employees from sharing the employer’s confidential information with outsiders. Such information is not usually available to the public and if it happens that it is leaked out, it would cause some damages to their business.

However, it is under the National Labor Relations act (NLRA) that the employees are free to discuss details about their compensation or conditions against which they have been employed with other people who are not part of the organization.

The NLRB prohibits employers from giving policies of this nature. One of the Sections in the NLRA states that employees have a right to join or form unions or even be engaged in concerted activities.

However another section states that there are unfair labor practices that may be faced by an employer if employees join or form these unions or engage in other concerted activities. There may be problematic employee organizational rights that are under the NRLA but the employers can draft them in such a way that they are lawful according to the Act. The employers may include some anti-union statements that may be used when employees engage in unfair labor practices.

Whatever provisions are included in the handbook about legal considerations such as how the employer may violate the rights of the employees and generally how each party should conduct its activities without hurting each other. ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS With many and different types of employees from different parts of a nation or even region, there is always a need for the employers to have certain considerations concerning the ethical culture of the organization. The ethical culture of an organization defines how the employees are to carry out all the operations in the organization.

Employees are supposed to treat customers with much respect since they are the major source of profits for the organization. They are supposed to take care of the interests of the employers and at the same time take care of their own interests. These interests should not be in conflict since they depend on the employer and the employer also depends on their efforts. The ethical considerations may also involve how to pass information to their core workers or the line managers or even to the top management.

They are supposed to use a certain communication channel that has been specified in the employee handbook. Communication is one of the important aspects in a business and therefore employers may consider this as one of the elements that determine the public image that they depict to the general public. Privacy is also a matter of ethical consideration whereby the employees are obligated to keep information about their employer to themselves and not discuss their terms and conditions of their employment.

Each organization and employer will have their own considerations to include in the employee handbooks but they should conform to the Acts of the National Labor Relations Act. Roger K. G. , Bankovich, C. & Browning,J. (2005). What’s in Your Employee Handbook? Some Provisions May Be Harmful Rather Than Helpful Under the National Labor Relations Act. ASHHRA/IRI 24th Labor Activity Report. Papademetriou, L. (2003). Employee Handbook: We Scare Because We Care. London: Random House Publishers.

Employee Handbook Essay

McDonald’s Code of Ethics for Employees Essay

McDonald’s Code of Ethics for Employees Essay.

The code of ethics that McDonald’s employees are expected to abide by is covered in the corporation’s Standards of Business Conduct document. Each year, all employees must sign a document certifying that they’ve read the document and will follow its precepts. Employees also attend training related to the ethical standards. The document is 40-plus pages and covers six themes.

1. Obligations to Customers

McDonald’s fosters an ethical obligation to provide clean, hygienic restaurants; child-friendly toys; and a safe atmosphere for all customers.

This means that safety standards for food and toys should match or exceed government standards. The obligation includes ensuring that all advertising is honest and tasteful, and that confidential information is not shared.

2. Obligations to Employees

McDonald’s standards booklet includes a section on providing a positive experience for its employees. For example, employees are encouraged to report misconduct without fear of retaliation. The work environment should be positive and fair, free of harassment and violence.

Harassment can include sexual harassment, racial jokes and offensive comments. The corporation believes in diversity and treating all employees equally, according to the ethics code.

3. Corporate System

McDonald’s believes that its corporations and employees have an ethical obligation to act in the best interest of McDonald’s itself — and not for personal gain. Owners and operators of McDonald’s restaurants should act independently but with integrity, following all relevant laws and safety guidelines. Suppliers should also be treated fairly.

4. Ethical Guidelines

The corporate standards book includes a section on ethical guidelines for dealing with McDonald’s assets. These obligations include protecting the intellectual property of McDonald’s and its assets. For example, employees shouldn’t use company computers to transmit illegal information or use the McDonald’s logo for personal gain. Any conflicts of interest should be immediately shared with the company’s Global Compliance Office. This includes working with family and friends. Bribery is strictly prohibited.

5. Helping Out Communities

One of the cornerstones of McDonald’s employees’ ethical obligations is giving back to the community. Employees donate millions in money and hours of service every year, the company says. However, political donations made by the company must be approved by the government relations department. An employee who wants to donate time or money to a political candidate is free to do so, but only on his personal time and at his own expense. McDonald’s also focuses on environmental health, such as investing in climate change innovations and conservation efforts.

6. Seeking Profit and Improvement

While seeking profit and growth is of utmost importance to McDonald’s, its corporate standards book stipulates that no employee should engage in such actions if it violates antitrust or fair competition laws. Competitive advantages shouldn’t be gained through unfair or illegal trade, but through research, marketing and quality service. An independent Board of Directors provides monitoring and communication to the shareholders and internal investigations will be ordered to look into any potential employee misconduct.

Starbucks Code of Ethics
Our Starbucks Mission
To inspire and nurture the human spirit—one person, one cup, and one neighbourhood at a time. Here are the principles of how we live that every day:
Our Coffee
It has always been, and will always be, about quality. We’re passionate about ethically sourcing the finest coffee beans, roasting them with great care, and improving the lives of people who grow them. We care deeply about all of this; our work is never done.

Our Partners

We’re called partners, because it’s not just a job, it’s our passion. Together, we embrace diversity to create a place where each of us can be ourselves. We always treat each other with respect and dignity. And we hold each other to that standard.

Our Customers

When we are fully engaged, we connect with, laugh with, and uplift the lives of our customers—even if just for a few moments. Sure, it starts with the promise of a perfectly made beverage, but our work goes far beyond that. It’s really about human connection.

Our Stores

When our customers feel this sense of belonging, our stores become a haven, a break from the worries outside, a place where you can meet with friends. It’s about enjoyment at the speed of life— sometimes slow and savoured, sometimes faster. Always full of humanity.

Our Neighborhood

Every store is part of a community, and we take our responsibility to be good neighbors seriously. We want to be invited in wherever we do business. We can be a force for positive action— bringing together our partners, customers, and the community to contribute every day. Now we see that our responsibility—and our potential for good—is even larger. The world is looking to Starbucks to set the new standard, yet again. We will lead.

Our Shareholders

We know that as we deliver in each of these areas, we enjoy the kind of success that rewards our shareholders. We are fully accountable to get each of these elements right so that Starbucks—and everyone it touches—can endure and thrive.

Code of Ethics of Pizza Hut

There are specific rules and principles, which are being involved in the code of conduct at pizza hut. Each employee which is working at pizza hut has to sign the code of conduct documentation which ensures that he/ she will observe all the rules.

Raw material ethics

According to the given percentage the head office located in Karachi provides 90% of the raw materials that are being used at pizza hut. The raw material, which is being provided, is tested for quality and hygienic measures and then it is provided to the end users. For the rest 10% raw material pizza hut is using the JIT (just in time) concept. It is done on the basis of fair transactions with vendor and suppliers. The transactions are credit based. The issue regarding the raw material is some time payments get late according to the fixed schedule.

Opportunity and growth ethics

Opportunity and growth are the basics, which an organization must follow to earn the future success. At pizza hut opportunity and growth is considered as the basic right of the employee. The employees are given the opportunity in the form on training courses, which help them to enhance their speaking, managing, cooking, maintenance and dealing capabilities. I.e. the manager has done 6 courses in time period of 6weeks all being sponsored by pizza hut to enhance his managing skills.

Security ethics

The security ethics are being observed in many ways. There are 4 guards, which are performing their duties at pizza hut. One guard is at the entrance making sure the no body is carrying a prohibited thing with him and its also being aided by a metaldetector installed at the entrance door. Others are in the parking area to keep the vehicles safe. Pizza hut have also installed cameras in the sitting areas, everyone is being monitored for the sake of the security. All these arrangements have made pizza hut a safe place to dine-in.

Recruitment ethics

The recruitment which is being done at pizza hut is under the HRM department .the employee are recruited on the basis of their education, personality, speaking style, and facial expressions because they have given a very strong importance level to their customers so employee are selected on the basis with whom the customer feels comfortable to talk and deal with. The manger level recruitment is done by the headoffice n lower employee recruitment is done on the third party basis.

McDonald’s Code of Ethics for Employees Essay

Supporting Good Practice in Managing Essay

Supporting Good Practice in Managing Essay.

1. The impact of employment law at the start of the employment relationship

A. Internal and 2 external factors that impact on the employment relationship

The best and most productive organizations have a very content workforce that all pull in the same direction. Therefore it is essential that a business identifies any issues that can impact on employee relations as soon as possible. There are a number of factors both internal and external that can influence these relationships; here are a few of them:

Internal factors include:

i. Pay and Rewards – pay and rewards attract, motivate and retain staff. The employment contract which lists rewards, whether it be pay, bonus or benefits can remove animosity amongst employees and employers. However, recent research reveals that employees are no longer motivated by a financial reward alone, but react positively to training and development to enhance their career progression.

ii. Organization Culture – this concentrates on the behavior and morals of employees within a company. The culture can have a huge effect on the employment relationship.

For example, if there is the ethos of flexible working hours and employee involvement, then it stands to reason that the employees will be more likely to accede to any changes in the terms and conditions of their employment.

External factors include:

i. Pay and Rewards – the competition for better rewards can result in employees demanding extra pay and benefits. However, a decline in the current economic growth has diminished demands resulting in less conflict. In times of slow economic growth, many employees are simply grateful to have a job, although the need to still earn a certain level of income remains the same.

ii. Technology – new, and improvements to existing technology can result in redundancies and reduced hours. This can affect the remainder of the employees who may feel demotivated and left wondering if they will be next. However, employees can use this to their advantage by training and developing new skills in different areas meaning they can demand extra pay.

B. Different types of employment status and three reasons why it is important to clearly determine an individual’s employment status are:

i. A self-employed person is not an employee of the organization and therefore employment legislation does not generally cover them. However, they are legally entitled to certain rights such as health and safety protection, fair treatment and breaks. Someone who is self-employed contracts for his/her service. He/she will set the hours of work and has no right to expect work. They are responsible for their invoices and PAYE. Their contract is by service and not time. Unlike a permanent employee, a self-employed person is not subject to disciplinary procedures.

ii. Agency workers are now entitled to similar terms and conditions as those given to permanent staff. Under these regulations, agency workers can benefit from holiday pay, rest breaks and time of for ante-natal appointments (if the worker is pregnant). However, the agency worker needs to have worked in the same job with the same company for a qualifying period of 12 weeks for these regulations to apply. Some benefits are not covered by the regulations such as additional maternity/paternity leave.

iii. The Final employment status is an ’employee’. This is the most common status, and applies to the largest group of people in the workplace. The difference between workers and employees are that as an employee you have a wider range of employment rights and responsibilities to and from your employer, such as Statutory Sick Pay, and Statutory Redundancy Pay.

All of the above types of employment status will have certain mutual agreements with the employer. These could be verbal or written agreements with expressed and implied terms. All will have assumed rules of work so it is important that HR, line managers and employees are aware of their status as not all rules apply to each.

2. The employee rights during the employee relationship

A. The importance of work life balance and related legislation concerning holidays, rest periods, working hours and night working

Work-life balance is achieved when an individual’s right to a fulfilled life inside and outside paid work is accepted and respected as the norm, to the mutual benefit of the individual, business and society. It is important for employees to be able to balance their life at work and at home, as having an equal balance can lead to a motivated and retained workforce. Legalization plays a vital role on how work-life balance can be implemented. By implementing a positive work/life balance, companies are successful, secure a good reputation and promote positive employee relations. The Working Time Regulations 1998 stipulates that employers should provide employees with the following basic rights:

28 days holiday (paid) for full time employees (part-time employees would receive this on a pro rata basis)
a rest period of 20 minutes every 6 hours worked
11 hours rest every 24 hours
a maximum of a 48 hour working week
a maximum of 8 hours’ work in 24 hours for night workers

B. Family/parent-related legal support, including maternity leave, paternity leave, adoption leave and dependent’s leave

The Maternity and Parental Leave (Amendment) Regulations 2001, The Employments Right Act 1996 and the Employment Act 2002 promote family/parent related support and work/life balance and include:

Maternity leave – right to be paid for ante-natal appointments; maintain benefits; return back to same job (after OML) and receive 39 weeks’ statutory maternity pay (if she has 26 weeks continuous service with her employer by the 15th week before the baby is due). She is entitled to 52 weeks leave in total.

Paternity leave – ordinary paternity leave is 2 weeks (if he has 26 weeks continuous service as above); and an additional 2-26 weeks leave once the partner has returned to work from maternity leave.

Adoption leave – employees with qualifying service (26 weeks continuous employment) have the right to take 52 weeks of statutory adoptions leave (26 weeks ordinary and 26 weeks additional). If both parents work for the same company, the other employee can take 26 weeks APL. This can be taken between 20 and 52 weeks after the adoption has taken place.

Dependent’s leave – employees have the right to unpaid time off to deal with emergencies involving a ‘dependent’. This could be a husband, wife, partner, child, parent, or anyone living in the same household as a member of the family. A dependent may also be anyone who reasonably relies on help in an emergency, for example an elderly neighbor.

In addition, qualifying employees may take a total of 13 weeks’ unpaid leave during the first 5 years of their child’s life (or 18 if the child is disabled or adopted). This should be taken in blocks on 1 week or more and is limited to 4 weeks per year. Same sex partnerships are also entitled to paternity and adoption leave rights.

C. Reasons why employees should be treated fairly in relation to pay

The right to fair treatment by the employer includes the right that employees are treated fairly in relation to pay. The purpose of the Equal Pay Act 1970 is to eliminate discrimination between men and women in terms of pay. One reason that justifies treating employees fairly in relation to pay is that lower earnings make it harder for women to take care of their families. A report from the Institute for Women’s Policy Research found that if women were paid fairly, single women’s income would rise by 13.4%, single mothers would earn 17% more.

“This would greatly increase the ability of women from all economic backgrounds to provide basic support to their families” – (Smith 2009). If salaries are particularly lower for women this would reflect in their benefits package, and these benefits should be based on the annual salary, and salaries should be in sync to the levels which are assigned to the job. This ensures salaries are fair for the job being performed, regardless of gender, race, or age, to ensure there is no discrimination among employees.

D. The main points of equalities legislation including the concepts of direct and indirect discrimination, harassment and victimization

According to Naires (1999) to discriminate is “to single someone out for a special favor or disfavor’

i. Direct Discrimination
ii. Indirect Discrimination
iii. Victimization
iv. Harassment

i. Direct discrimination is whereby an employer directly discriminates on the grounds of the person’s age, race, sex, disability, religion or sexual orientation. For example: A shop owner who refuses to hire suitably qualified people simply because they are of a certain race or ethnic origin, or an employer who specifies in a job advert that only young people should apply even though the job in question could be done perfectly well by an older person.

ii. Indirect discrimination occurs where the effect of certain requirements, conditions or practices imposed by an employer has an adverse impact disproportionately on one group or other. For Example, A translation company insists that all those applying for jobs as translators have driving licenses because there is an occasional need to deliver or collect work from clients. Since this prevents some people with disabilities from applying and as driving is not a core requirement for doing the job, the company is effectively discriminating against this particular group of people, unless it can demonstrate that there is an objective reason to justify this measure.

Another Example, A department store prohibits its employees from wearing hats when serving customers. This rule means that people whose religious beliefs require them to cover their heads, such as Muslim women, are prevented from working in the shop. The store is indirectly discriminating against this group of people unless it can demonstrate that there is an objective reason to justify the policy.

iii. Victimization is where an employer treats an employee less favorably for one reason or another. It can occur when an employee is singled out for using their workplace complaints procedures or exercising their legal rights. For example: Bringing a complaint of discrimination or giving evidence or information on behalf of another employee who has brought proceedings for discrimination. An employee will not be protected if they have maliciously made or supported a complaint that is false.

iv. Harassment is where an employer or an employee violates another person’s dignity or creates an uncomfortable or offensive environment for them. Harassment may be against one or more people and involves an inappropriate abuse of power. It may involve single or repeated incidents ranging from extremes forms of intimidating behavior, such as physical violence, to more subtle forms such as ignoring someone. It can often occur without witnesses. Examples include:

unwanted physical contact
unwelcome remarks about a person’s age, dress, appearance, race or marital status posters, graffiti, obscene gestures, flags, bunting and emblems isolation or non-cooperation and exclusion from social activities coercion for sexual favors

pressure to participate in political/religious groups
personal intrusion from pestering, spying and stalking
failure to safeguard confidential information
shouting and bawling
setting impossible deadlines
persistent unwarranted criticism
Personal insults.

E. The concept of the ‘psychological contract’ and examples of policies and procedures which can underpin this

The psychological contract includes the perceptions of employer and employee of what their mutual obligations are towards each other and can be distinguished from the legal contract of employment which may offer only a limited and uncertain representation of the reality of the employment relationship. The employee may have contributed little to its terms beyond accepting them.

The psychological contract on the other hand looks at the reality of the situation as perceived by the parties, and may be more influential than the formal contract in affecting how employees behave from day to day. It is the psychological contract that effectively tells employees what they are required to do in order to meet their side of the bargain and what they can expect from their job. It may not – indeed in general it will not – be strictly enforceable, though courts may be influenced by a view of the underlying relationship between employer and employee, for example in interpreting the common law duty to show mutual trust and confidence.

Many organizations articulate their psychological contracts indirectly through their websites and recruitment literature etc. which describe what they expect from an employee, and what the employee can expect from them. For example a well-known food chain company website suggests that the company expects its people to be reasonably hard working, have a good sense of humor, enjoy delicious food and start and leave work early. Employees for their part get paid as much as the company can afford, join a cosmopolitan atmosphere, and receive training and development, and internal promotion opportunities.

3. Issues to be addressed at the termination of the employment relationship

A. The difference between fair and unfair dismissal

There must be a fair reason for an employee to be dismissed and in order to achieve this, the employer must take reasonable steps to prove that the dismissal is justified (that is, there was negative impact on the company – for example a breach of health and safety) and act accordingly in arriving at the decision to dismiss. Some examples of a “fair” dismissal are redundancy – where the work for which an employee was employed has ceased; capability – where the employee is no longer able to perform the type of work for which he/she was employed, i.e. health reasons; and conduct – where the employee has failed to meet reasonable expectations/instructions and legal restrictions – this could be if a coach driver loses his PSV license and there is no other position for him in the company. Employers must show that they act (or have acted) reasonably and have followed procedure.

Examples of a company taking reasonable steps are informing the employee of their rights, taking into considering the employee’s past record and explore (in cases of misconduct) whether the company has provided adequate training. Employers should consult the ACAS Code of Practice to ensure that all steps are taken.

If the ACAS Code of Practice is not followed, employers can face claims of unfair dismissal. The basis of being dismissed unfairly is that all employees have the right to be treated fairly. If the employee is to make a claim, he/she must demonstrate that the dismissal was without reason. Investigations into an unfair dismissal may prove that the employer did not follow the correct policy and process, that it failed to conduct a full investigation and that the employee was not informed of their right to appeal.

If a company follows the correct procedure for dismissals, they will maintain a positive working relationship with their existing employees. Companies also maintain their “employee brand” as there will be no bad press.

B. The importance of exit interviews to both parties

The exit interview provides an opportunity to allow the employer and employee to discuss their reasons for leaving. Exit interviews can sometimes prove difficult to collect information, as some employees prefer, or are not willing to disclose their reasons for leaving or any problems they have had.

The importance of an exit interview to employers is that, if conducted well they provide an excellent opportunity to gain insight into employees’ perceptions of the organization overall, underlying workplace issues and managerial leadership. They may even be able to change the person’s mind. The importance of an exit interview for the employee is to voice their views and give honest feedback on their working experience during their time at the Company. This also gives them a chance to suggest improvements to their role and to draw a line under their employment relationship.

C. The key stages to be followed in managing redundancies

Redundancy can occur when the employer’s business (or part of the business) ceases to trade; the company relocates or, there is a downturn in the current economic climate. If a redundancy situation should occur, it is good practice for employers to meet with all staff, involve them in finding solutions and identify alternatives (such as flexible or reduced working hours). By involving staff, employees are made to feel important and that their views and ideas are also important. This creates a good atmosphere in a somewhat bad situation. However, if no solution can be found, employers should adhere to the following key stages when managing redundancies:

Identify the financial aspects
Appoint representatives (if no trade union)
Consult with staff on the situation and process
Provide the opportunity for “voluntary” redundancy or a sabbatical
Keep staff informed of the numbers
Provide interview and CV tips
Meet with key staff and provide a notice period
Allow reasonable time off for interviews/job hunting
Exit interview
Right to appeal against the decision

By following these simple steps, the employer and employee can maintain a positive relationship which can be mutually beneficial to both parties in situations where redundancies have occurred due to a decline in the economy. This is because, when the market grows again, and a positive relationship has been maintained, there is a greater chance of the employee being re-employed.

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Supporting Good Practice in Managing Essay

Disadvantages and Alternatives to Public Sector Strikes Essay

Disadvantages and Alternatives to Public Sector Strikes Essay.

Strike replacement occurs when employers hire or use individual to perform the work of employees on strike. In the United States, it is not unfair labor practice for employers to replace the striking workers with others in effort to carry on the company’s business. Most other industrialized nations, however, do not allow permanent strike replacement. The United States is already unique among its trading partners in allowing permanent strike replacements and ban on permanent strike replacement would probably raise labor costs and harm international competiveness.

For decades, employers have been permitted to hire permanent replacements for striking employees, Congressional action may change this situation, and however, any legislative changes on this issue will most likely become a political hot potatoes for most member of congress or face a probable presidential veto. (Budd, J.W)

“But to maintain a balance of power between employees and employers, hiring permanent replacements is not allowed” and The United States Congress should outlaw the use of permanent replacement workers during strikes and I would argue the followings: workers investments, minimize strategic behavior, encouragement of collective bargaining, voice, Mackay doctrine, role of the law, employer has no real incentive to negotiate, Striker replacements, mandatory or permissive issue, What if negotiations fail and Italian model and Advantages, Disadvantages and Alternatives to Public Sector Strikes.

I assert that the key distinction that should be made in the law of striker replacements is one based on the degree of firm­ specific investments made by the workers involved in the strike. By focusing on that feature, the law could prevent the use of a strike or the hiring of permanent replacements as an opportunistic behavior weapon designed to expropriate the other party’s rents. Although several proxies could potentially be available to the courts or the NLRB, there are no clear guidelines or definitions that facilitate such distinctions.

Banning of replacement workers during strike would further the argument that if Congress make the decision of whether to hire striker replacements a mandatory issue of bargaining, unions and employers could make the distinction between firm-specific and general investments made by workers and thus enforce the contract so as to minimize strategic behavior.

Outlawing strike replacement workers would support among the goals of the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) which was the promotion and encouragement of collective bargaining. The sponsors of this Act viewed collective bargaining as the means to promote a new labor policy without having to directly regulate the terms of the employment relationship. In enacting the NLRA, Congress rejected a more interventionist approach and opted instead for a system that emphasized the distinct roles of labor and management in which outcomes were to be determined by the ability of the parties to impose economic pressure on each other through the negotiation process.

Furthermore, it is somewhat ironic that among the several alternatives that have been progressive to deal with the striker replacements issue, in cases where replacement workers were used, there has been no attempt to use the collective bargaining process as a possible solution. But by incorporating the striker replacement decision into the bargaining process a non-zero-sum situation can be created which makes both parties better off, while at the same time advancing the NLRA’s objectives of industrial peace and collective bargaining by protecting the exercise by workers of full freedom of association, self-organization, and designation of representatives of their own choosing, for the purpose of negotiating the terms and conditions of their employment or other mutual aid or protection which is voice, and I contend that bargaining over the striker replacements issue creates a cooperative solution because in the cooperative game theory of bargaining, the parties can both benefit by cooperating with each other.

Banning Strike Replacement would further support Mackay doctrine to distinguish between “opportunistic behavior” by either the union or the employer, and behavior that is “no opportunistic.” Therefore, whatever modification proposal is introduced should be measured by its ability to redress this problem of strike replacement. The United States Congress need to ban strike replacement because I would argue here that the law if passed is based on the assumption that through the negotiation process the parties themselves will be best able to resolve disputes concerning the hiring of striker replacements by making the necessary trade-offs and establishing rules that commit them to mutually enforce the contract. In the law and economics parlance, if someone values an asset more than its owner, then there is scope for mutual gain by exchange. Though, under the Mackay approach to striker replacements, the decision to hire striker replacements is not amenable to resolution through the collective bargaining process because the rule makes bargaining over this decision too costly for a union and makes it easy for an employer to behave opportunistically.

Strike Replacement Ban by United States Congress if enacted should then focus on providing the proper framework in which negotiations or mutual exchange should take place. In this sense, the role of the law is threefold. First, the legal framework should allocate the initial rights or entitlements in a way that increases the likelihood of successful bargaining. Second, the law should seek to minimize the transaction costs associated with bargaining. Finally, the legal framework should provide adequate enforcement mechanisms for cases in which bargaining fails. However, bargaining situations characterized by zero transaction costs are rare. If there are no obstacles to exchanging legal entitlements, they will be allocated efficiently by private agreement, so the initial allocation by the courts does not influence the efficiency of the final allocation; and the assignment of property rights does not matter when the transaction costs are zero.

By negotiating to an impasse and then hiring permanent replacements. The employer has no real incentive to negotiate over the striker replacement issue because any negotiation will by definition make the employer worse off. Even if the union places a high value on protecting at least those employees that are subject to opportunistic behavior, and even if the union is willing to compromise on the protection of other (less-skilled) employees or on any other issue, no bargaining is likely to ever take place under the Mackay rule. In this sense, and using the language of bargaining theory, the Mackay doctrine makes it less likely that bargaining will take place and in that sense it is inefficient. It is necessary, therefore, that any reform pro­posal start by changing the initial allocation of rights, by granting union protection against the hiring of permanent striker replacements. On the other hand, giving unions protection against the hiring of permanent replacements, without anything more, will also result, as developed above, in the likelihood of opportunistic behavior by the union.

Thus, if unions are allowed to strike, knowing that their members cannot be permanently replaced, they will be free to engage in strikes and in that way negotiate more freely. Ban on Strike Replacement would more likely if making the striker replacement issue a mandatory subject of bargaining, therefore, providing this protection, will make it more costly for employers to force a strike in the hope of getting rid of the union. The employer will only be able to accomplish this by paying a fairly high price. Even though another means of union bursting is closing operations. By making it a mandatory subject of bargaining, will minimize transaction costs by giving the union, the party which probably values this right the most, the opportunity to exchange the protection against permanent replacements for other bargaining demands they might value more highly. In this sense, the proposal facilitates bargaining by making more explicit the types of exchanges the union has to make.

Striker replacements: mandatory or permissive Issue? The NLRA imposes on the employer and the union a duty to bargain in good faith. This duty requires the parties to bargain to impasse over mandatory issues. Permissive issues can be brought to the bargaining table, but neither party is required to bargain over them. But a question that is likely be raised by the proposal of banning strike replacement workers would be, is whether the duty to bargain over the decision to hire permanent. The rationale for arguing that unions will, as opposed to the employer, be more likely to bargain over the striker replacement issue if given the initial legal entitlement, is based on the realities of the industrial relations process. First, the protection against striker replacement does not make the strike a “risk free” venture for the union. The adversity of doing without a paycheck and health insurance puts enormous pressure on the strikers to settle a dispute as soon as possible.

Most American workers have no cushion, no money socked away to make house payments and car payments, to buy food or to pay doctors’ bills. Second, unreasonable pressures or unwillingness to bargain over this issue could represent a matter of survival for the union. Workers have no incentive to make demands that will throw their employers into bankruptcy or otherwise cause permanent economic harm to their employers. The worker, after all, is dependent on the employer’s long-term economic health. Workers realize this, and this realization significantly moderates worker demands. What is the scope of this duty: For the purposes of my argument, to bargain collectively is the performance of the mutual obligation of the employer and the representative of the employees to meet at reasonable times and confer in good faith with respect to wages, hours, and other terms and conditions of employment. The Supreme Court classified subjects of bargaining as mandatory, permissive, or illegal.

Mandatory subjects are defined as those that regulate wages, hours, and other conditions of the relationship between employer and employees. Permissive issues are those dealing with subjects other than wages, hours, and working conditions. Replacements can be characterized as a mandatory issue of bargaining. I would contend that bargaining during contract negotiations over the utilization of striker replacements in the case of a strike should clearly be considered a mandatory topic. Although there do not appear to be any cases directly on point, the striker replacement issue could be considered a mandatory subject based on several grounds.

First, like a no-strike provision, bargaining over the use of striker replacements involves a critical aspect of the relationship between the employer and the union, and should on these grounds be seen as a mandatory bargaining subject. Second, similar to work rules such as attendance and absenteeism policies, the striker replacements decision deals with the obligation of the employees to report to work under the employment contract. As such, they regulate an issue central to the day-to-day employer-employee relationship, and finally, making the striker replacements provision a mandatory issue of bargaining could be sup­ ported as a means of advancing the objectives of the NLRA in evading industrial conflict and what happens if all out negotiations fail.

What if negotiations fail, it could be argued that if Congress by banning Strike Replacement will not, in practice, produce results any different than could be accomplished by merely overruling the Mackay doctrine. Thus my contention could arguably say that bargain to impasse over the striker replacement issue, call a strike, and then behave opportunistically, because employers will not be allowed to replace economic strikers. I argue from both a practical and theoretical perspective that a contrary dynamic will likely prevail. As discussed above, the bargaining process by distributing the initial allocation of rights in a way that is conducive to mutual gain exchange. Bargaining over the striker replacement issue is not likely to occur under current law because employers are given the right to permanently replace strikers and the general issue is not clearly defined as a mandatory topic of bargaining. Thus, under the current scheme of things, there is almost no incentive for employers to bargain with respect to this issue.

By overruling Mackay, while at the same time making the striker replacement issue a mandatory topic of bargaining, it increases the likelihood that the two parties will reach an agreement. The collective bargaining agreement between the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers and the Olin Corporation, for example, provides: The employees as well as the Union shall cross all picket lines for the performance of work which is essential to the maintenance of the Company’s plant and equipment for standby operations.”189 Similarly, the agreement between the Steelworkers and Harbison-Walker Refractories, provides that: No strike or lockout shall occur at the establishment covered by this Agreement during the life of this Agreement, and continuous kilns shall be maintained at all times at a temperature which will result in no loss of ware or damage to the kilns, and periodic kilns under fire shall be burned off.

Pumping operations shall also be continued during any strike or work stoppage that may occur. These two labor contracts clearly indicate the ability of unions and employers to, through the collective negotiations process, devise rules governing behavior in the event of, and during, strikes. An instructive example can also be found in recent labor legislation enacted in Italy which regulates strike activity involving essential public services. Act 146 of the Italian Labor Code, enacted in 1990 follows the recent trend in Italian labor law towards consensual regulation. It relies in part on collective bargaining as the means of regulating the impact of strikes on the provision of essential services.

Indeed, collective bargaining agreements have proven to be the main source of strike regulation under the new Italian law. Agreements have been negotiated with respect to most of the so-called essential services covered under the Act. Bargaining has occurred at both the national and local levels, with local agreements being used as a means of tailoring the rules to the specific needs of the participants. For example, the national agreement covering urban and suburban transportation establishes the principle that during a strike, service must be guaranteed for six hours a day at “peak times.” The local agreements then specify the definition of peak times and indicate the number of employees required to guarantee the service, as well as the way of selecting those employees.

The Italian experience demonstrates, albeit in a different setting, that bargaining is likely to occur on the issue of the regulation of strike activity when and if the proper legal framework and structure is provided to the parties. Although I am not advocating the adoption of the Italian model in the United States, I believe that it provides some hope that a negotiations approach to the striker replacement issue of the kind we have here could bring positive net results to unions, employees, employers, and the general public.

In sum, the striker replacement issue and the outlawing or legislative over­ ruling of the Mackay doctrine are highly controversial and command considerable attention. The issue is, as exemplified in the strike during the fall of 1993 at American Airlines, fraught with emotion, with one side decrying the “union-busting hiring of scabs” and the other pronouncing the right to hire permanent striker replacements as essential to the preservation of free enterprise and a free society. Though, economic efficiency of the Mackay doctrine as it currently operates, I would however, dispute the debate that the Mackay doctrine promotes “economic efficiency.”

In particular, I content that employees that have made firm-specific investments are “inefficiently” vulnerable to an employer’s opportunistic behavior given the ability of employers to permanently replace such workers during a strike. To reform this situation I advocate: (1) the repeal of the Mackay doctrine, thereby granting unions protection against the hiring of permanent replacements; and (2) requiring that the issue of striker replacements be explicitly made a ”mandatory” bargaining subject under the NLRA, with any agreements regarding this issue clearly surviving contract expiration.

With the 1990 Italian strike regulation statute serving as a general model, the idea is that the resolution of this controversial issue can be most efficiently accomplished through negotiations between the parties themselves. I highly recommend these proposed statutory reforms to Congress and others currently studying reforms of the NLRA. There are however, differences, advantages and disadvantages between private and public sector strikes.

(Budd, 2013) “Prohibiting public sector strikes is rooted in several traditional beliefs: that striking against the government is an unacceptable threat to the supreme authority of the government, that public sector employee bargaining power is too high there are no markets-based checks on their demand, and that government services are too critical to be interrupted”.

Advantages and Disadvantages to Public Sector Bargaining

From the perspective of the public sector union and the workers they represent there can be seen a number of advantages and disadvantages to bargaining in an environment like the public sector.

Advantages: A few of the advantages available to union bargaining representatives seem simplistic in nature, but there is a definite advantage present. First of all, public sector employers do not have the option of relocating.

One very important bargaining advantage possessed by public sector unions concerns the mopolistic nature of public services. Public sector labor can exert more pressure than can their private sector counterparts because there are generally few good substitutes available for public services, and any withholding of these services will immediately be felt by those depending upon the service. This increases the incentive for public employers and managers to settle with the union and avoid any action by the union which might result in their having to face an angry public.

In case of impasse and strikes occurs: Advantages available to public sector unions and employees as a bargaining tool is the potential that a strike can have as a bargaining weapon in some ways the strike has the potential for being more formidable tactic for the public worker than for private sector unions. For many government services there are few good substitutes available for the service. When the service is denied by a public worker job action, then the public has few available alternatives to turn to in place of the service.

The greater the inconveniences to the public brought about by the strike, the greater is the pressure up on the public employer to make concessions and end the work stoppage. Unions can also strikes in the public sector so that they occur when they are the most politically effective. This also increase the incentive for an early settlement. In short, the effectiveness of the public sector strike depends upon public opinion and consequent political pressure that would coerce management in the public sector to concede to the demands of labor.

Disadvantages: So far it may seem that labor has controlling advantages in terms of the public sector bargaining relationship, but some very definite disadvantages also face unions in the public sector. The political process and decision approval in the levels of benefits to public workers go through political process. Public managers have far less authority and flexibility in their decision making than do their private sector partners, and the decision making process may take place far away from the actual agency. Strikes in the public sector, labor relations, and the issue which is most controversial and elicits the most attention is the strike issue. In the past, public sector workers have frequently resorted to the work stoppage in an attempt to exert pressure on public sector management. These workers actions have net with varying degrees of disfavor from public sector management, and have had mixed results as to being successful.

There is an important economic implication of denying public employees the right to engage in a work stoppage. In order for the rights of public workers under collective bargaining to be upheld there must be some sort of cost or incentive for managers to bargain seriously. The public sector strike, however, has a few disadvantages which can keep it from being effective. While strikes in the private sector impose costs upon management by preventing the organization’s operation, strikes in the public sector exert no economic pressure.

However, there are alternatives to the strike, the strike has significant potential as a bargaining tool in the public sector, but the problems involved with the strike make it a very risky and unpredictable tool to use. There are a number of alternatives to the strike that perform the same basic function as the strike weapon does, namely, that of protecting the right of public workers to bargain effectively. These alternatives also have the added advantage of protecting the rights of public sector employers as well as the general public. Such alternatives are not equal in effectiveness, however, and each possesses its own unique advantages and disadvantages over other types of dispute resolution.

Fact Finding: finding is used, the two parties to a dispute select a neutral third party to act to investigate the dispute and to submit recommendations as to the proper course of action. It is not the job of the fact finder to reach an agreement on the dispute. It is important to note that the fact finder’s report is advisory and not binding in nature. One or both of the parties to the dispute may reject the recommendations of the fact finder. The fact finder’s report, however, will become a part of the public record, and if one party has taken an unreasonable stance in bargaining this will soon become apparent to all. In public service industries sensitive to public opinion, the threat of publication is particularly effective as an incentive to bargain in good faith. Another alternative is the mediator who acts as an advisor in bargaining to both parties, and uses his own persuasive influence and other techniques available to him to bring the parties to an agreement

Disadvantages and Alternatives to Public Sector Strikes Essay

Case Study: Employee Retention Essay

Case Study: Employee Retention Essay.

This is a critique is based on two articles, in which addresses the issues of employee retention and suggestions for the motivation and engagement of employees in the hospitality industry. The first article is titled “Targeted employee retention: Performance-based and job-related differences in reported reasons for staying” by Hausknecht, Rodda, and Howard (2009), in which addresses the major theories to help in explaining the reason that employees stay or leave their organization, and ways to retain them. The second is titled “Terms of engagement” written by David MacLeod (2010) that presents suggest ways for motivating and engaging employees so they will want to stay.

ANALYSIS OF KEY POINTS IN “TARGETED EMPLOYEE RETENTION”

_Reasons employees want to stay with their company_

According to this article, the primary reason that employees stay with their employer are job satisfaction; they enjoy the work involved in serving customers. For many employees, the reasons for staying are for the extrinsic rewards such as pay, benefits and advancement opportunities.

Employees want to receive fair rewards for their efforts. If these rewards are not presently found, employees may leave for other opportunities that offer greater rewards. Another factor is “constituent attachments, in the form of effective supervision and positive peer group relations,” (Hausknecht et tal, 2009, p. 3).

Other incentives to retaining employees are organizational commitment and prestige. The secondary reasons are compensation, competitive wages, health benefits, retirement contributions, and incentive plans. Additional reasons for staying are “constituent attachments, organizational commitment, organizational prestige, lack of alternatives, investments, advancement opportunities, location, organizational justice, flexible work arrangements, and non-work influences” (p.10). Companies must find ways to keep their employees satisfied so they will not want to leave.

_Retention_

Retention is the most important part of a company’s approach to talent management. When organizations cannot retain high performers, its core leadership base will eventually erode as a result of losses in performance, high replacement costs, and potential talent shortages. Because of this, employers are seeking “to retain high performers and replace low performers with workers who bring greater skills and abilities to the organization” (p. 5). More important than understanding the reasons why people stay is in understanding how retention factors are different between high performers and others at different levels within the company, (p. 2). The authors suggest that organizations should adopt specific strategies retention of their most valued employees rather than those that are considered average or low performers, (p. 2).

ANALYSIS OF KEY POINTS IN “TERMS OF ENGAGEMENT”

_Benefits of better engagement_

The hospitality industry places certain pressures on its employees such as long hours, in which can interfere with their social life, and oftentimes having seasonal nature make it more difficult to retain good people. Engaged employees are far more likely to stay with the company than those who are disengaged. In such a highly-pressured environment as the hospitality industry, it is more difficult to more effectively assess and engage employees. According to the author, there are steps that employers can follow to help ensure employees are committed to delivering great customer experiences along with delivering longer-term growth and success, (MacLeod, 2010).

_Define a clear and compelling goal_

Oftentimes employees feel that management does not clearly communicate business objectives to them, in which may give the impression that senior managers do not have a clear vision for the future of the business. That is the reason the author states the importance of communication, and having a clear vision concerning the direction of the company, the goals to achieve, and how the employee fits in to that vision, (MacLeod, 2010). On a personal level, employees want to know what those plans are and how it will affect, (MacLeod, 2010).

_Involve employees_

One of the important factors to effective engagement is to involve the employees in sharing their insights into how particular issues can be addressed, such as relating to customer service issues, or how the business is promoted. It is also important to provide feedback on the points they do bring up because employees that are involved in sharing their insights tend to be more engaged in the day-to-day operations of the business, (MacLeod, 2010).

_Commit to regular communication_

Whether the economic climate is strong or weak, it is important that management commit regularly to open communication by sharing information with employees throughout the year concerning the performance of the business along with any issues or challenges that they may have. By having open communications with the employees is the key to an effective employer/ employee relationship, in which builds and maintains trust, (MacLeod, 2010).

SUMMARY AND OPINION

Employee turnover in the hospitality industry is an issue that most business owners face. Hospitality businesses can reduce the turnover rate significantly by paying more attention to the needs of their staff because happy employees make happy customers. The analysis of the key points in the first article; by Hausknecht, Rodda, and Howard (2009) is more about how to retain employees rather then that the reasons they quit. A primary concern for many organizations is that of retaining top talent. If organizations fail to retain their employees, it will hinder their ability to remain competitive because of a less qualified workforce.

The author’s goal for this study was to generate a foundation relating to employees’ reported reasons for staying and to review “the major theories that have been advanced in the literature over the past 50 years that help explain why employees stay or quit,” (p. 2). After the hospitality industry has faced a serious challenge of retaining employees, MacLeod (2010), in his article “Terms of engagement” presents a research on the management teams of the hospitality industry. The analysis of the key points in this article was that the research presents suggestions for the motivation of employees and for employee engagement, including a clear goal, involvement of employees and analysis of behavior. The author states the importance of communicating this vision so the employees will know how this vision will personally affect them.

As I read these articles, what comes to my mind is the concept of fusion; between retention high performance employees with the motivation of employees and employee engagement. If this cannot be achieved, it will continue to lead to labor turnover, which is very costly. The most important thing to remember in the hospitality industry is that the customer is number one; always. But this cannot be achieved without valuable employees who believe the same thing. Before the customer can be treated as number one, the employees must be first because happy employees lead to happy customers.

References

Hausknecht, J. P., Rodda, J., & Howard, M. J. (2009). Targeted employee retention: Performance-based and job-related differences in reported reasons for staying. Human Resource Management, 48(2), 269-288.

MacLeod, D. (2010). _Terms of engagement_. Caterer & Hotelkeeper, 200(4618), 56-58.

Case Study: Employee Retention Essay

Conflict Resolution Essay

Conflict Resolution Essay.

A new director decides to reorganize the department you work in. This reorganization comes about without input from the employees and many of the nurses that you oversee are feeling resentful of the change. As a nurse leader, identify factors that may lead to conflict and ways you can manage them.

Wherever there are people the ability for conflict exits. Conflict is a disagreement, opposition or clash. It can affect the person emotionally, physically and specially. It can result in a fight, discord and division.

Conflict can be used to motivate; however it can be destructive and should be dealt with. According to McElhaney (n.d) nurses experience six major areas of conflict. This scenario depicts one of those areas.

1. People who have experience in an area, want to feel that their opinion is considered and valued. So, when changes are made to an area or department, in which they work, have experience and are the expert; employees want to have input.

In the absence of employee participation there may be apathy, anarchy and malicious compliance. Oftentimes it leads to lack of respect within the profession and feelings of anger, diminished self-worth, and conflict.

However; as a nurse manager oftentimes, changes are made without any input from the employee and I have to manage this situation. In this case, during a staff meeting, I would discuss the changes, reasons they were made, and ask for input as to how we can implement these changes such that they work more effectively in our department. By using collaboration, my goal would be to incorporate employee feedback in areas/processes under my control. This would allow the employees to feel that they have some control over their work area, their input is valued and contribute to problem solving (Cardillo, 2011).

Other areas are:

2. People have varying opinions, come from different backgrounds and culture and have different values. When conflict arises over differing in values and cultures, then these conflicts must be dealt with. They must be discussed and a compromise reached that works for each party as well as the department (McElhaney,n.d).

3. Communication may be misunderstood and body language misconstrued (Cardillo, 2011). To confront this type of conflict, someone must be willing to speak out. Once during my 360 degree review, I received feedback that my team members felt devalued and that they were not being listened to because often times I continued typing when they came into the office; even though I coherently responded to the questions. After receiving this feedback, anytime someone comes into my office, I would sit on my hands to ensure that I pay attention and not type. When verbal communication and body language is misunderstood, the conflict must be confronted, discussed and a change must be made or an explanation given. Accommodating to meet the needs of promotes harmony and gains credits that can be used at a later date.

4. A nurse’s personal space is often invaded by other staff members, physicians, and patients. Crowded conditions and constant interruption can lead to conflict.

In this situation, I would use a combination strategy of face-to-face meeting, collaboration and benchmarking. I would start with a face to face meeting with the individual to get his/her input as to how to better design/arrange the work area to reduce stress and interruptions. I would also research what other hospitals have done in this situation and implement best practice. Then I would follow-up with the employee to ensure the implemented changes solved the problem.

5. Other causes of conflict involve organizational climate, leadership style, off-the-job problems, age pressures, job standards, and personal prejudice.

These conflicts affect each individual differently. Therefore, I would recommend the employee experiencing these conflicts or exhibiting behavior that is indicative of these stressors to the Employee Assistance Program; which consists of professionals especially skilled to assist the employee in dealing with these stresses.

6. Coping with technology changes and procedures.

To provide our patients with the best care, we have to continuously improve this mean that change is inevitable. So, during staff meetings, I cover latest techniques, updated procedures and discuss how these add value to patient care and make our job easier. Once a month a different member of the staff discusses medical article or book they have read concerning a procedure or technique that can improve our process. After their presentation, we discuss if this is something we can implement easier or should put on our wish list. Lastly, each nurse is required to obtain six hours of training a year in which the hospital pays for. Training in new technology and procedures that are introduced is required and may be used for this purpose.

There are many strategies to deal with conflict; avoidance is one. Some types of conflict if left alone, will work themselves out. However; because of the potential devastating nature of conflict; it should confronted; confront the situation and not the person. One should listen with empathy and the goal to understand the other person’s point of view and negotiate to a win-win or at the very least a win-lose solution. Even if one side has to lose, position the lost as something positive that can be built upon or negotiated later (Nursing Strategies: Countering Workplace Conflict with Positive Communication Strategies, 2011).

References
Cardillo, D. (November 28, 2011). Seven strategies for managing conflict Retrieved from http://news.nurse.com/article/20111128/DD01/311290003#.VJom714AKA

McElhaney R. (n.d). Conflict Management. Retrieved from
http://www.nursingcenter.com/CareerCenter/articles_preview.asp?page=confman.htm

Nursing Strategies: Countering Workplace Conflict with Positive Communication

Conflict Resolution Essay

Legal and Ethical Issues at Workplace Essay

Legal and Ethical Issues at Workplace Essay.

Introduction

In this paper, legal and ethical issues will be discussed in connection with the current, previous and potential future habitability of the “health and safety of employees,” which is currently an important issue was the state of each and every country. Estimated mortality, along with the injury shows that a number of companies in past and present encountered several problems as well as in the near future, they will also continue in the direction facing the types of ethical and legal issues.

All kinds of approximations and expenses related to workers’ health, along with safety and security that occurred in an organization depicts that safety issues were not a priority of the company; due to this the number of legal issues relating to costs and penalties can be experienced by companies (Granger 2010).

Understanding of Employee Health & Safety Issues

In the current competitive culture to the smooth performance of the company, it is necessary to ensure the safety and security of its employees.

Health and safety includes an important part of work culture. Safety pertains towards act of defending physical well being of the employee (Clarke and White 2002). Additionally, it also involves risk of accidents involved due to the machinery, fire and diseases. Security issues towards defending facilities along with equipments from the unauthorized approach and also guarding employees at time if they have been on work. Generally responsibility of the employee health along with safety falls on supervisors or Human Resource managers of the company (Swanton 2005).

All these laws and plans for health and safety have been made by the government. These rules and regulations made ​​by the government shows that the director of personnel, organizations can help in the coordination of safety programs, resulting in employees aware of health and safety plans and policies of the company and to conduct a formal safety training, etc. In addition to supervisors and departmental heads are responsible for providing a safe working environment (Employees’ health and safety responsibilities, 2013). Subsequently some peculiar responsibilities have been decided by the government and organizations on the part of managers and supervisors which are as follows:

Responsibilities of Managers:

Observe health and safety of employees

Instruct employees to be safety alert

Look into accidents

Clearly communicate regarding safety policy to employees (Lefkowitz 2003)

Responsibilities of supervisors/departmental heads:

Offer technical training concerning to obviation of accidents

Align health and safety programs

Train employees on treating facilities and equipments

Formulation of safety reporting systems

Assertion of safe working conditions (Hooker 2002)

Within the framework of the organizations present different approaches to ensure the health and safety of its employees, but all of the approaches do not focus on the contribution of each of the design work and employee behavior to safety. Focus on both of these approaches is necessary to make this regulatory approach towards the safety and efficacy (Cahn and Markie 1998). Many organizational and individual issues are in the management of workers’ health and safety, which are as follows and should be managed ethically otherwise it can guide the organization in relation to the various legal issues.

Workplace Issues: Ethical and Legal

Physical Work Settings

The physical position of the individual affects the performance of employees, and some of the factors that include temperature, noise, lighting, the size of the working area and the type of materials that make an impact on staff working with these factors (Granger 2010).

Sick Building Syndrome

This is a situation in which employees are acute health problems and anxiety because of the time spent in the workplace. Some factors that can guide sick building recognize poor air quality, inadequate ventilation, inappropriate cleanliness, food smell and Adhesives, etc (Clarke and White 2002).

Ergonomics

Ergonomics is the analysis of the physiological, psychological, and engineering design work prospects, letting factors such as fatigue, lighting, tools, equipment layout and placement of checks. This is the boundary between humans and machines. In such a situation, problems like back pain, eye strain and headaches appear because of the long working hours are spent (Clarke and White 2002).

Engineering of Work Equipments and Materials

Accidents happen used in the organization can be excluded in this way, by the right placement of unsafe vehicles. Besides the construction of machinery and equipment also operates a key role in the safety of employees, as offering security guards and hide in the equipment, emergency stop pushing and other materials can help reduce accidents significantly (Clarke and White 2002).

Cumulative Trauma and Repetitive Stress

Cumulative trauma disorders fall, when the muscles are constantly used to perform some tasks. This in turn causes damage to musculoskeletal and nervous system. Employees need to meet the high level of mental and physical stress and due to this kind of stress and trauma (Clarke and White 2002).

Accident Rates and Individuals

Individual access to a secure environment also helps to dive accidents. It’s generally more of a nuisance as stimulated due to careless approach staff than on the machines or the employer’s negligence. The positive attitude of organizations and employers to the work environment and other practices can contribute to safety of employees, and not some other issues (Clarke and White 2002).

Ethical Responsibility

Individual access to a secure environment also helps to dive accidents. It’s generally more of a nuisance as stimulated due to careless approach staff than on the machines or the employer’s negligence. The positive attitude of organizations and employers to the work environment and other practices can contribute to safety of employees, and not some other issues (Employee Health and Safety, 2013).

Ethical Theories

Consequentialist theory suggests that an act is morally wrong if it leads to the consequences of false or considered harmful by the vast majority of people in the community. Consequentialist theory requires evaluation of the actual effects of the law, which include the effects of direct and indirect alike. It also requires the use of some type of rules and evaluation criteria for determining whether the result is beneficial or harmful (Audi 1997).

The theory is prescriptive because it is the use of evaluative criteria to guide whether individuals should lead or avoid the act. For the application of this theory, there should be a general agreement in society to the nature of the evaluation criteria. This theory also suggests that the ethics of each case must be determined according to the specific circumstances without reference to the legal or moral standard is absolute (Cahn and Markie 1998).

Consequentialist approach and one that is utilitarian, which deals with the work on the basis of good winning or damage with the well-being or happiness as a result of the relevant assessment criteria. Consequentialist theory, however, suggests that the evaluative norms may be relevant to social or cultural factors.

When the consequentialist theory is applied to this situation (employee health and safety) it suggests that the actions of the managers and employers can be unethical if they do not care about employees’ health and safety. From the consequentialist perspective, the negative consequences of the managers’ actions far outweighed the positive consequences of increasing their personal wealth (Hooker 2002).

Deontological theories of ethics to determine the acts that constitutes or may not be based on the relationship which led to the duty. On the other hand, deontological theories do not examine the outcomes of acts. Deontological ethics also postulates that adherence to the Duty set by the social relations is a moral obligation (Audi 1997). In the approach to ethics is imperative developed by Kant, one of the maxims is to treat others as an end and never as a means.

Pluralistic intuitive approach to deontological ethics adopted by Ross suggests the existence of prima facie duties apply to all individuals regardless of the specific nature of the relationship. These duties include fidelity, and compensation after causing damage, and non-injury to others. These general duties, however, do not preclude the creation of specific duties in a relationship by explicit or implicit agreement (Cahn and Markie 1998). In addition, the deontological theories do not clearly describe the hierarchy of duties when a conflict arises between obligations, although there is general agreement that the duty not to harm others takes priority over other duties.

Applying deontological theories to this situation (employee health and safety) requires assessing the general and specific duties of the managers and employers arising from their relationships to the firm and its stakeholders. The mangers have general duties for workers’ safety, accidental harms, and other health issues and to make reparations in the event if they are harmed because of the lack of safety measures (Hooker 2002).

Virtue ethics postulates the existence of a fixed set of moral rules that an individual can use to determine the rightness of an action. A virtue is a disposition to respond in a good or appropriate way to a situation or event. From this perspective, virtue is character trait. At the same time, virtue ethics has a normative dimension in which it describes the types of responses to situations that are moral or appropriate for all people (Audi 1997). In this theoretical approach, an action is right only if it is the action that an individual with a virtuous character would perform in the same situation.

Applying virtue ethics to this situation leads to the conclusion that the managers of a firm may be unethical because they did not behave in a manner expected of a virtuous person in the situation if any of the employees got hurt, injured etc. Although consequentialist theory, deontological theory, and virtue ethics have different approaches to assessing ethical behavior in an organization they arrive at the same conclusions (Cahn and Markie 1998).

The consequentialist theories view the outcome of the harm caused to employees as the critical factor determining the ethics of the behavior. The deontological theories examine the breach of laws under OSHA and implicit duties as the controlling factor determining the ethics of any accidental events in an organization. Virtue ethics propose that virtuous people would not have performed the acts of irresponsibility and carelessness. The behavior of the managers and employers is said to be unethical regardless of the ethical framework used for evaluating the events leading to the collapse of the firm (Employee Health and Safety 2013).

Legal Responsibility

Numerous laws are contrived to defend workers from illness and injury. Most prominent act in this regard is the “Occupational Safety and Health Administration” that was created in 1970 within the “U.S. department of Labor” (Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 2013). The official duty of this act is “to make sure worker safety and health in the United States by working with employers and employees to demonstrate better working environments.” (Employee Health and Safety 2013)

The implementation of this act had helped in cutting workplace deaths by “more than 60 percent and occupational injury and illness rates by 40 percent”. This act had explicated number of responsibilities for employers along with numerous rights of employees that can be used by an employee if he does not found organization concerned about his own health and safety (Occupational Safety and Health Administration 2013). From the time of this acts implementation various organization and employers are charged for not asserting with their determined responsibilities.

Employer Responsibilities under OSHA:

Under this act following are the duties and responsibilities of employer towards their employees’ health and safety:

Meet with general duty obligation to offer a workplace free from documented hazards that are inducing or are potential to induce death or serious physical harm to employees and follow with standards, rules and regulations issued under the act.

Define yourself and your staff with mandatory OSHA standards and make copies available to staff for reconsideration upon request.

Continuous assessment of workplace conditions to ensure that they meet with appropriate standards.

Minimize and reduce safety and health endangerments.

Ensure that employees have and use safe tools and equipments.

Offer medical examinations’ whenever required by OSHA standards.

These are some peculiar responsibilities of employers along with number of other responsibilities. (Employee Health and Safety 2013)

Employee Rights under OSHA:

Under OSHA rules, employees have a right to know about the hazards to which they may be exposed at work. In addition to this employees have a right to seek a safe workplace without fear of punishment. The right is spelled out in section 11(c) of the act and all employees are covered except workers who are self employed and public employees in state and local government. This law also delineates that employers should not punish or discriminate against workers for exercising complaining and filing safety and health grievances. This detailed discussion of employee health and safety concerned act OSHA depicts that it is necessary to organize and employers to adhere to their responsibilities and only they can be charged and directed in a number of other issues that would cause damage to its image as well (Occupational Safety and Health Administration 2013).

In addition to OSHA other acts efforts in this regard are “Worker’s Compensation Law” (Occupational Safety and Health Administration 2013). The law deals with all accidental injuries and occupational diseases and during the growing and compass work. This involves a disease or injury resulting from such injuries. In general, this law does not offer compensation for any of the following conditions:

Mental or nervous injury due to stress

There is a work-related condition that causes the employee to have a fear or dislike of another individual race, color or national origin, religion, sex and age.

Pain and suffering from the condition (Employee Health and Safety 2013).

Under this law, the employer can be injured worker litigation to bring about the incident cannot be injured worker litigation employer to injury. This trade-off of this law makes it possible to injured workers to receive immediate medical care, at no cost to the injured worker, without any thinking about who was at fault, the employer or the employee. In the civil law is the perception that the negligence must be demonstrated through litigation before any compensation is awarded (Occupational Safety and Health Administration 2013).

Recommendations

Organizations should work to improve the welfare of employees and, therefore, should be trouble-free. Terms of health, safety, and security are closely related to each other. Health was the general state of well being. This not only allows for the physical well being selected, however, also along with his healthy mind and body. It is believed that every organization should take care of the physical parameters of the work in which its employees work otherwise it can lead to a number of ethical and legal issues. Due to the legal act one can confer that each and every organization should follow with their ethical responsibility towards employees’ health and safety as they are also a vital part of the country and society from which it also belongs.

Conclusion

In the end, of the detailed discussion of ethical and legal issues in regard to employee health and safety we can conclude that organizations can avoid all these issues if they manage it with all-inclusive efforts from the time to employee hiring to his performance at workplace. If an organization abides with the established rules and regulations it will achieve immense success in the maintenance of employee health and safety. Adoption of appropriate laws and acts along with appropriate implementation of essential programs can furnish an organization with effective approach to manage and handle employees’ health and safety.

References

Audi, R. (1997). Moral knowledge and ethical character. New York: Oxford University Press.

Cahn, S. & Markie, P. (1998). Ethics: History, theory, and contemporary issues. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hooker, B. (2002). Ideal code, real world: A rule-consequentialist theory of morality. New York: Oxford University Press.

Lefkowitz, J. (2003). Ethics and values in industrial organization psychology. Mahwah NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Swanton, C. (2005). Virtue ethics: A pluralistic view. Oxford: Oxford
University Press.

Hughes, Phil and Ferrett, Ed (2009) Introduction to Health and Safety at Work. taylor & francis; 4 edition

Jane Clarke; Alex White; (2002) A guide to good employment practice in the community & voluntary sector. Dublin: Combat Poverty Agency.

Granger, Lisa (2010) Best Practices in Occupational Health, Safety, Workers Compensation and Claims Management for Employers: Assisting Employers in Navigating “The Road to Zero”. Universal Publishers

Employee Health and Safety. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.wbcsdcement.org: http://www.wbcsdcement.org/index.php/key-issues/health-and-safety

Occupational Safety and Health Administration. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.osha.gov: http://www.osha.gov/

Legal and Ethical Issues at Workplace Essay