Case Study on Organizational Conflict Essay

Case Study on Organizational Conflict Essay.

After reading “The New Career Development Program that Ruins Careers Case” on pages 330–332 of the textbook (Fundamentals of organizational communication: Knowledge, sensitivity, skills, values (seventh Ed. ) by Shockley-Zalabak, P. S. ) which will henceforth be referred to as the case study. I also reviewed chapter nine, Organizational Conflict, of the same textbook and have identified many examples of conflict preferences, strategies, tactics, and emotions displayed by all of the participants involved in the case study. All of which will be discussed forthcoming, as well as how Jane can resolve this conflict.

This case study displayed three of the five conflict preferences outlined in chapter nine to include avoidance, competition, and collaboration (Shockley-Zalabak, 2009, pg 303, 306-308. ) Both Jill and Roger provided a good example of avoidance when they decided to remove themselves from contention. They also collaborated to make it known that they are not yet ready for the new tasking. Both Denise and John demonstrated competition preferences while presenting their cases to be in charge of the new program by citing experiences and accomplishments.

John also pointed out Denise’s avoidance issues by stating, “You (Denise) just won’t confront things openly (Shockley-Zalabak, 2009, pg 331). ” Throughout this case study, one could make out all four conflict strategies and tactics (escalation, avoidance, maintenance, and reduction) that were displayed. Right in the beginning, John escalates the conflict by openly declaring his desire for the program lead position. Denise demonstrates avoidance tactics by trying to shut down the topic, shifting the decision back to Jane, and reminding others that she is the “senior member of this team (Shockley-Zalabak, 2009, pg 331).

” Jane tried to adopt the tactic of maintenance when she encouraged all parties to voice their opinions. However, Jane was ultimately forced to use reduction tactics as the meeting became too hot tempered by calling an end to the meeting, addressing the two primary aggressors independently, and reconvening the meeting the next day. The three main participants (Jane, Denise, and John) of this case study displayed a varying degree both cognitive and behavioral emotions that contributed to the outcome of each stage in this conflict. Denise’s opening words conveys her cognitive emotions.

These emotions are compounded by John’s own cognitive emotions that quickly turn into a behavioral emotional response demonstrated by his outburst towards the end that was directed at Denise. Jane’s cognitive emotions came out when she responded to Denise avoidance of John’s outburst and claim for the position by insisting for Denise to state her position of the lead role. Each of the three participants feeding off and escalating the conflict until Jane had to end the meeting. This gave Jane some time to evaluate and determine who is best suit for the lead position.

After this conflict, Jane has to be careful to find a mutually agreeable solution to who will have the lead position or run the risk creating a hostile working environment or even losing a valuable employee. Both Denise and John have a proven track record and expertise that demonstrates that they both could excel in the position. However, both displayed a lack of maturity and poise needed for a project of such magnitude. Therefore, I believe that Jane should initially take lead and have both Denise and John write a proposal on the ways to improve the Career Development Program.

Then compare and analyze each proposal. Afterwards, combined the best ideas of each proposal to form a comprise between them. Then assign Denise and John as Co-leads for the new Career Development Program. By forcing them to work together the program get the benefit from both well established experts and both Denise and John get the credit and acknowledgment they desire. Reference: Shockley-Zalabak, P. S. (2009). Fundamentals of organizational communication: Knowledge, sensitivity, skills, values (seventh Ed. ).

Case Study on Organizational Conflict Essay

Foreshadowing and irony in “Story of an Hour” Essay

Foreshadowing and irony in “Story of an Hour” Essay.

Throughout the story “Story of an Hour” there are a few subtle instances of foreshadowing and irony. These instances explain the some of the scenes throughout the story. The opening sentence foreshadows Mrs. Mallard’s death at the end of the story as it explains how serious Mrs. Mallard’s heart trouble really was, as great care was taken to break the news of her husband’s death.

The irony that is of Mrs. Mallard’s death upon finding out her husband did not die in the train wreck, and when she sees him the shock kills her.

Richards was so careful to break the news of Mr. Mallard’s death it’s ironic that Mrs. Mallard ended up dieing when she learned he was still alive and not of his supposed tragic death.

The detail where “her bosom rose and fell tumultuously” is more than just a feeling. That sentence leads the reader to a better understanding of why Mrs.

Mallard’s died so suddenly after she sets her eyes on her husband. The line explains how Mrs. Mallard is becoming more and more agitated with overwhelming feelings of sadness for her husband but at the same time freedom for herself. This, getting her troubled heart going, she feels the possibility of death approaching and tries to fight back with her will.

The Mood inside the her room is confusion, as Mrs. Mallard is both upset of the death of her husband but at the same time excited with the possibilities of being a widow finally being able to gain some control over her life. As Mrs. Mallard looks out the window she sees the tree tops, blue skies she hears the birds singing and the noise of the street below. All of these things open her eyes to the freedom her husband’s death has giver her. The confusion inside disappears as she looks out the window into a potentially happy life awaiting her.

Richness is added to the story by all the hints, clues and suggestions show how Mrs. Mallard spends an hour of rollercoaster emotions from sadness, happiness, freedom, relief and finally shock. Which in the end takes her life after feeling the highs and lows of her emotions in such a short period of time, her troubled heart just can’t take it.

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Foreshadowing and irony in “Story of an Hour” Essay

Music Genre Essay

Music Genre Essay.

We take sounds and create the music we hear every day. Our development on music is effected by people around us. We take the context of songs and relate it back to our own lives. People dislike certain types of music because they can’t relate or enjoy the sound. Although music affects us all differently, all melodies have a similar meaning. Everyone’s choice of music is greatly affected by influences. The genre we get into is all caused for the same reasons; family, friends, or social environments.

A child who has grown up in the country might be exposed to mostly country music, while a child in the city might be used to rock or new pop music on the radio. We all come to enjoy the music our parents played in our early life but as we grow up we add our own genre of music. The genre of music you choose mostly places you in a similar group of friends.

For example someone who listens to mostly all country probably won’t fit in as well with the kids who listen to metal. The friends who listen to metal judge that person who listens to country.

The influences will change a person to fit in with the crowd or cause someone to create their own group. The pressure puts labels on all people for the genres they listen to. If you listen to scremo, you might be considered gothic or country might be labeled as hicks. What people don’t realize is every song is composed of beats, and the instruments is what changes the sound of a song. Where we live and the people surrounding us, affects our influence on music. Every sound we hear creates different moods and emotions.

People can all relate music to a personal experience, but that experience is very diverse for each person. When we hear a song about love some can be excited and relate that song to their own relationship or someone can be upset and think about their past love. Music almost makes you feel like you can travel back in time. We all have a moment when we listen to a song, and that melody creates a mental image of where you were when you first listened to it. You can see that moment and feel the emotions you felt in the past.

Music creates memory, and each memory creates emotion in our life. We enjoy listening to music because it gives us a good vibe. That feel good moment is the reason why we appreciate music. Many listeners also enjoy a song because of the simple lyrics to follow. Everyone uses music for some type of therapy. We listen to songs so we can vent, relax, dance, or reminis. One song can have a great affect on each individual differently. We loathe on music just because it’s something we don’t like. Everyone has a different music preference, and we all like music for the same reason.

We all enjoy the way music makes us feel. Music is all around us and is a part of our life, but why do people continue to despise certain genres? Most people look at the basic parts of a song, only the lyrics; they don’t appreciate the sound behind the words. Without that sound we wouldn’t have a song to enjoy. All Sound is music, whether it’s listening to a clock tick or a fan spinning on the ceiling, we can create our own tunes. The song Too Close by Alec Clare is a perfect example of how listeners can have such disgust with one genre but will accept a song.

The song has a catchy raw beat that people love without even realizing the genres in the song. The song Too Close was a very popular song for all ages or genres because Alex Clare mixed alternative rock, electronic, and soul music. So many people who like rock can’t stand electronic music because it’s repetitive, has less lyrics, and it’s not “real” music. Yet rock and electronic is similar in many ways. They both have a repetitive chorus and verse and made up of different sounds. Rock can have long solos along with electronic.

So when Alex Clare created the song Too Close many people never realized he combined different genre types. Many people disagree with certain music because they dont recognize the connection all music has. Each genre has a comparable meaning, but holds a different impact on people. Our social environment molds us into the music we listen to. Music also allows us to feel every emotion. We can all listen to the same song but have a totally different outlook on the concept behind the song. Our different personalities cause individuals to dislike any type of song they cannot connect to.

Music Genre Essay

The Knight in Rusty Armor Essay

The Knight in Rusty Armor Essay. The Knight’s armor represents how he masks his emotions and hides from other people. He doesn’t express his feelings and the fact that he got his armor stuck meant he didn’t know how; after hiding his emotions for so long, he had forgotten what it meant to express them. “We’re all stuck in armor of a kind. Yours is merely easier to find. ” (The Knight in Rusty Armor, 9) The Knight’s armor also represents that he was afraid to be alone and he never really listened to anyone else.

The Knight in Rusty Armor Essay.

He never opened up. In some ways, I’m a lot like the Knight. I’m afraid to open up to people, and I need to feel the affirmation of others.

I don’t let people know how I’m really feeling because it’s easier to push your feelings aside than confront them. I experience feelings almost too much. I really care about everything, which leads me to have a very open heart.

I believe that others should care as much as I do, but that is hardly ever the case. It’s hard to differentiate between needing someone and loving someone sometimes. I love my mother, but I also need her. I’m still a high school student, I live at home, and it’s implied that my mother will be there at home to cook me dinner and pay the bills.

Of course I love my mother, but with everything that goes on outside of that love, it’s easy to take her for granted. I’m only sixteen so I can’t say I know any other love outside of my friendships and family relationships; it’s hard to be completely sincere in love a hundred percent of the time because there are so many outside factors. I’m always going to need people, but that doesn’t mean I have to need them more than I love them. I look to my parent’s relationship when I think of what love should be like. They have been married for 23 years this year, and they’re still very much in love.

My dad travels on the road frequently, so my parent’s only see each other a few times a month at the most. I wear an emotional armor for the same reason that most people do. I’m afraid of getting hurt. The idea of opening yourself up to other people is difficult to do because people don’t like not knowing the outcome of how things are going to go. That’s why we wear the emotional armor. We want to keep the bad things from getting in, but when we try to keep the bad things from getting in, we also prevent the good things from getting in, too.

The Knight kept trying to live up to the perception of how knights are supposed to act, and this interfered with is emotional growth because he never knew who he was. He spent so much time trying to be what other people wanted and expected him to be that he only focused on how others felt about him; he then based the opinion of himself off of other’s opinions of him. He never knew what made him truly happy or if anything at all made him sad. “If you really were good, kind, and loving, why did you have to prove it? ” (The Knight in Rusty Armor, 17) If you don’t know what you’re feeling, you can’t ever fix it or learn from it.

If you can’t learn from it, you can’t grow as a person. Suffering is very helpful because that is when you know what you are made of. When you have to suffer through something, you know that you can handle anything. You have to take life one day at a time, meaning the suffering doesn’t last forever. If you never suffered for any reason it would be so much worse, but because you have suffered, you know you can make it through. Suffering means you feel things; you really feel them. I’ve faced death, rejection, and injuries. They are all their own type of suffering.

Death is the only thing in life that we know is going to happen for sure, but that never makes it any easier. Losing someone is hard, and when I was in 9th grade, I lost my best friend’s dad. He was like a father to me because I was over at her house all the time, and I only saw my own father a few times every month. Losing someone hurts, but it’s something I think is necessary to experience. If you had never met that person, than you wouldn’t have to suffer through losing them; but you did meet them, and you did lose them, and because of that you’re a stronger person.

Rejection is difficult to face because nobody ever wants to hear that they’re not good enough. It’s hard to feel like you’re trying your hardest only to be told that your best isn’t good enough. Rejection is also a necessary thing to suffer through because you need to know that just because that person didn’t like you, just because you didn’t publish that book, it doesn’t mean that every person you meet is going to reject you. The third one I mentioned was injuries. Those are difficult to suffer through because as much as you wish you could do something about it, you can’t. You have to have patience and persistence to get through it.

I strained my IT band in the spring and it was so difficult to sit around and wait for it to get better. I wasn’t allowed to run because it would have put more strain on it. When Rebecca told the Knight, “When you learn to accept instead of expect, you’ll have fewer disappointments. ” She was trying to get the knight to understand that he wasn’t entitled anything. “Animals accept and humans expect. You’ll never hear a rabbit say, ‘I expect the sun to come out this morning so I can go down to the lake and play. ’ If the sun doesn’t come out, it won’t ruin the rabbit’s whole day. He’s happy just being a rabbit.

” (The Knight in Rusty Armor, 32) Whether good or bad things happened to him, the way he felt about the situation depended on his attitude concerning it, rather than the situation itself. You can’t go into situations expecting them to end a certain way, because you can never predict what another person will say, do, and feel. If you accept things the way they are, you’ll be happier because you’re not trying to make something it’s not. When Rebecca says that, I automatically think of holidays where you give gifts, including birthdays. I, among many others, tend to expect the things we ask for.

When we don’t get the things we ask for, we get disappointed. If we just woke up on Christmas morning and opened our presents, not expecting anything, but accepting everything because we’re lucky just to be receiving presents at all. I continue to mask my feelings by telling everyone that everything is fine, or that I’m just tired. When my friends ask me what’s wrong, it’s easier to tell them the short answers than it is to talk to them about all of your fears and insecurities. A few years ago, my neighbor got sick. We’ve lived in the same neighborhood for the last 20 years, so we were surrounded by a lot of elderly people.

Leo got sick around Halloween time. My mother took us up to the hospital so we could see how he was doing. I didn’t know what to think or feel when I saw him lying in the hospital bed, barely breathing. It scared me to the extent my eyes were watering, but I couldn’t cry. I couldn’t do anything but stare at the monitors that measured his breath. This past summer I went to Jamestown, New York to stay with my grandmother for a few weeks. After going out to a Mexican restaurant called the Taco Hut, my grandma started feeling sick. The next day she was hospitalized. I was staying at her house and on her couch at the time.

I was so afraid that I would lose my grandma just when I was finally starting to get close to her. Life works in funny ways. It came time for the Knight to go through the castle of silence, and he had to go alone. It wouldn’t have been helpful for him to go through the castle with another person, because you can’t let all of your walls down if you’re around other people. “I discovered that when I was with someone, I showed only by best image. ” (The Knight in Rusty Armor, 35) You’re always going to have some type of mask on if another person is around, even if it’s your best friend or significant other.

The Knight never would have been able to discover himself and the things about himself if he had gone with another person, because he never would have truly been alone. He never would have been able to take all of his masks off. I personally do not handle being out of control well. If things get too out of control, my control especially, I tend to shut down. I get so overwhelmed that I can’t deal with everything going on at once. This past week was homecoming, and it was immensely stressful for me. Things started to spin out of control in some aspects, especially when it came to the decorations of the doors and floats.

I didn’t know what to do and I didn’t like the fact I had lost control of the situation. I then was sent home and told to come back the next day. My student council advisor told me I needed to calm down and start over fresh tomorrow because it was a new day. Sam represents the Knight’s conscious. The Knight hadn’t known Sam before because he had never made the effort to get to know him on any level before. Only when he began to listen to himself did Sam finally show up. The Knight needed to learn that it’s okay to have ambition as long as it’s ambition from the heart. “Ambition from the heart is pure.

It competes with no one and harms no one. In fact, it serves one in such a way that it serves others at the same time. ” (The Knight in Rusty Armor, 59) Ambition is okay to have as long as it’s not to get ahead and be better than everyone else. He also had to learn that if you need people more than you love them, you can forget why you loved them in the first place. I am accountable to the promises I make and the things I say I’ll do. If I say I’ll do something, you know I’ll be accountable for it. I’ll follow through and do what is asked of me. I think the number one example would be my mother.

I need her because I’m still in high school. I need her to do my laundry, cook me dinner, take care of me, and just be a mom. She spends day in and day out working and doing miscellaneous things to be able to helps support my sisters and myself. I love my mom, but I think the fact I need her to be my mother and take care of me outweighs some of the love I have for her. She takes care of the responsibilities and does a lot for me; I just wish I could love her more than I needed her. I always have place I need to be or things I need to do, so I can’t ever enjoy the time I have with my mom.

It’s difficult to have a really good relationship with her while I still depend on her so much. We do give power to the things we fear. “If you believe the Dragon of Fear and Doubt is real, you give it the power to burn your behind—or anything else,” said Squirrel. ” (The Knight in Rusty Armor, 67) We let them dictate the decisions we do or do not make. I’m terrified of being alone, and I missed out on a great opportunity this past year. Last Christmas I was given the opportunity to study abroad in Italy; I was really excited when I was going through the interview process.

I started to fill out the forms for a passport and a visa when it started to hit me. I didn’t know how to speak their language, and I’m not good at being alone. I love my mom and I love being around my friends. Nine months is a really long time to spend overseas, and it’s a question you really have to ask yourself. You have to ask if you can handle it, because once you make the decision there’s no going back. Travelling abroad would have been a great opportunity for me, and I’m disappointed that I didn’t take it. “I learned that when you step out of your normal routine, and normal environment, it’s an amazing thing!

” (Rachel Sprague, The Knight in Rusty Armor discussion, 9 September 2013I let my fear of the unknown and my fear of being alone get in the way of one of the opportunities that will come along in my life. Opportunities like that don’t come around all the time, so it’s upsetting when I think about the reasons I didn’t go. It’s simple; I was afraid of changing, being alone, and not knowing anything about the culture and the way they lived in Italy. Instead of branching out I decided to stay home in my comfort zone. Though I regret that decision, it does me no good to dwell on it.

I made the decisions I made for a reason, and I can’t go back. All I can do is learn from it, and jump at the opportunity if it ever comes along again. In the castle of will and daring, the Knight is supposed to learn that fear and doubt are only as real as you make them out to be. Danger is real, yes, but you choose what you fear. It might take more than one try to get over your fears enough to face the things you need to face, but in the end it’s worth it because you come out of it as a stronger person. You know who you are and what you want.

You understand that just because you’re afraid of something, that doesn’t mean you need to let it hold you back from the things in life that are really important. One of my greatest fears is going through this life without positively impacting the people I meet. I want to be remembered for the things I do. I want to help people when they can’t help themselves, and maybe that’s not the best thing to fear, but it’s as real as any. I’m also very afraid of disappointing people. I have always wanted people to be proud of me; I want them to be proud to be my friend, be proud of me as a student, a daughter.

I’m afraid to do things that other people my age do, such as drinking or even just being in a relationship because I don’t want to disappoint the people around me. I need to feel the constant approval of people and I really think that holds me back from a lot of the things that I want to do in my life. When other people are disappointed in me, I get so disappointed in myself. To me, the quote from the book, “…for I cannot know the unknown, if to the known I cling. ” Means that you can’t ever learn anything new if you continue to do the things you’ve always done.

“His willingness to embrace the unknown had set him free. ” (The Knight in Rusty Armor, 73) If you only stay within your comfort zone, you’ll never be able to know certain things or get to know certain people. You can’t learn anything new if you’re so set in your routines that you refuse to deviate from them. “We all thought the book/movie clip suggested that we needed to step out of our comfort zone and try new things out. ” (Yasmine Solomon, The Knight in Rusty Armor discussion, 3 September 2013. ) The process of trusting someone or something can either be very complicated or very easy.

For me, I trust someone until they give me a reason not to. I don’t believe that you need to earn someone’s trust, as long as you can prove that you deserve his or her trust. Trust is something that should be given, and it’s also something that should not be received lightly. If someone trusts you, you should be able to hold yourself to a higher standard for that person. They trust you, and manipulating someone to betray that trust is cruel. People aren’t perfect, and they’re going to make mistakes. That’s a given. However, you don’t need to make it harder on them.

If you do lose the trust of a person, it should be earned back, but it needs to be realized that you may never have their full trust again. I believe you need to forgive people, but you shouldn’t forget. If you forget what someone did to you that leaves you vulnerable for the same thing happening again. Some of the “knowns” in my life are things such as my routine. I wake up, go to student council, school, and then I go home to do homework. I know that my mom is always going to be there for me, so that’s a known. I know that my dad works on the road a lot so I only get to see him once a month.

The Knight in Rusty Armor Essay

Darden case study Essay

Darden case study Essay.

1. Using the full spectrum of segmentation variables, describe how Darden segments and targets the sit-down dining market. The types of segmentation include geographic, demographic, psychographic, and behavioral segmentation. For geographic segmentation, Darden has all of its Longhorn Steakhouse restaurants in the eastern half of the United States but they are trying to expand to the west coast. This is a great idea because out west is an untapped market with great potential for lots of earnings.

Darden has a chance to redefine the image of steakhouses as is currently being done like the classiness that is being added to the brand.

The customer traffic is increasing and Longhorn Steakhouse could potentially even overtake Outback Steakhouse as the premier steakhouse type of restaurant. For demographic segmentation, Red Lobster represents the opportunity Darden has to fill the gap between the young fast food concept and the upscale white-tablecloth restaurants.

Red lobster is even making many changes to accommodate for the changing times around America which is causing sales to fall.

With innovative concepts such as wood fired grilling resulting in a “taste of wood-grilled seafood” and investments in equipment and training, Darden is putting itself back in the spotlight to becoming recognized and respected. You can also never go wrong with fried shrimp so Red Lobster will always have that marketing card to play.

The Psychographic segmentation is shown by how people want to feel positive emotions when they go out to restaurants such as the concept of a happy family and namely the mythical Italian family. Customers want to feel emotionally satisfied as much as they want to be physically satisfied by the food. Creating an authentic menu hits close to home because people get that warm and happy feeling when they see the authenticity. Even Olive Garden’s commercial “When you’re here, you’re family” and slogan show the feelings of connection that Americans want to feel and would be willing to come in for.

Behavioral segmentation is shown in how less frequently Americans want to sit down at restaurants to eat their meals. With all of our financial constraints we are choosing different and more cost effective ways to eat out and have a good time with the family. Darden needs to use more cost effective ways to lower the meal prices so that family’s will once again be willing to eat out at a sit down restaurant on a regular basis.

Darden case study Essay

NUR 403 Joy Travelbee Essay

NUR 403 Joy Travelbee Essay.

Introduction Joyce Travelbee was born in 1926 and is well known for her contribution and work as a nursing theorist. In 1956 earned her degree as a Bachelor in Nursing from Louisiana State University, later in 1959 received the degree of Master in Science at Yale University. During most of her carrier she dealt with psychiatric nursing and also education. Died tragically while trying to obtain her PhD degree in 1973. Key Points of her Theory There are some main or mayor concepts on this theory defined by Joyce Travelbee to assist nurse to understand the model nursing, hope, meaning, suffering, communication, and self-therapy.

Existentialism and Logotherapy are important in this theory, Existentialism states that humans remain constantly under the influence of choices that creates conflicts and are responsible for the results of those choices they made. Logotherapy is also a concept on this theory based on the assumption that emotional stability is best protected by meaningful fulfillment in life, it focuses on the future.

Health is another concept included in this theory is describe as an equilibrium of every person physically, emotionally and spiritually in relation with the environment where the loss of this equilibrium bring an uneasy feeling called suffering.

Historical Background The historical surrounding of this theorist was the calamities and human suffering during and after War World Two and the bases for her theory, philosophy and model are on Soren Kierkegaard’s philosophy of existentialism and Viktor Frankl’s Logotherapy. Existentialism stated that people are accountable for the choices they make in life and the repercussion on the people who make those choices. Logotherapy, was first proposed in Frankl’s book Man’s Searching for Meaning (1963), a type of psychotherapy that include the idea that fulfillment is the greatest protection against emotional instability.

This was part of idea proposed by a Jewish prisoner of the Auschwitz concentration camp who found meaning for his life in the midst of extreme suffering, this is described on his account of the experiences he had while working in the harsh conditions while in the concentration camp. Term Definition Applied to Nursing Practice Applied to Nursing Education Applied to Nursing Research Person Person is define as a Human being with physical, emotional and psychological component.

Both the patient and the nurse are consider as a human being with its own uniqueness that allow to take in consideration when we are developing the nursing process taking care of the mind and the body too. As a nurse is important to develop the rapport between nurse student, educator and patient as a person and share each one experiences. A human being as a unique individual, in constant evolution and change. Important to define this with the new changes related with genetics. Health The physical, mental or psychological and spiritual balance in a person.

By knowing the different components of health we can comprehend and target better factors that affect the individual and measure the health status by physical examination, laboratory test and assessment. The optimal equilibrium of the individual or person, state of well-being. Knowing the objective component of health give us the opportunity to research about diseases. Nursing Is a process establish between the nurse professional, the individual, family or community to assist with disease prevention, health promotion or coping

with the illness finding a meaning in this conditions. Establish a better understanding of the nursing process where no only the patient is important but also the family and the community. Assist to target in the education process no only the patient direct but also family and the community to better fulfill our roles as educators. As researchers investigation should include all the persons involve in the nursing process. Environment As experiences we encountered during our life and the response to it as sufferings, pain, hope, and illness.

Promotes nurses to get familiar with external factors that may impact the individual health stage that should be targeted during the nursing process. In the education process knowing the factor that may bring emotional instability will give us a proper tool to educate on how to deal with them. Nurse involvement in search how the external factors may affect the individual health References: Octaviano, E. F. & Balita, C. E. (2008). Theoretical Foundations of Nursing: The Philippine Perspective. Philippines: Ultimate Learning Series, 93-98. Tomey, A. M. & Alligood, M. R. (2002). Nursing Theorists and Their Work. 5th ed. Missouri: Mosby, 418-425.

NUR 403 Joy Travelbee Essay

Speech: Emotion and True Happiness Essay

Speech: Emotion and True Happiness Essay.

Riches beyond his use, fame beyond his country, power beyond his people. And yet, he left it all. Left it all, because he wanted to leave behind the thorns of life. Left it all, because he realized that what he sought for was not outside him, but inside. Ladies, and gentlemen, the story of the only man in history we believe has found true peace, Buddha, the enlightened one. Good evening ladies and gentlemen by the end of my speech, I am confident that you will agree with me that money cannot buy happiness.

The world today runs after money. Money, many believe, is the true source of happiness. But is that really true? Today I will be basing my speech on a few constructive arguments to convince you that money alone cannot buy happiness. Firstly, all that glitters is not gold, ladies and gentlemen. True happiness cannot be bought with money. True happiness, ladies and gentlemen, is felt. It is experienced when you feel compassion, it is experienced when you feel care, it is experienced when you feel love.

Parents spend thousands of dirhams buying their children fancy ipads and laptops thinking that the makes them happy, when a hug is all that he/she needs. When was the last time you have hugged your child? Experienced the glow on their face? Secondly, one of the most basic principles of life contradicts the motion. When you buy something, you own it. But happiness is an emotion, it is a feeling within the mind, that cannot be owned. Here my worthy opponents may say that they can control their emotions, but I beg to differ.

The happiness that you receive from money is only temporary. That is, money can only rent you happiness. Thirdly, an abundance of materialistic objects in no way guarantees happiness. The best example of this is that of an old age home. I have visited old age homes and believe me, in spite of having the best facilities and comforts, what they want more than anything, is the company of their loved ones. Fourthly, we must all realize the power of money. Money makes us believe that we can buy anything, even happiness.

But human beings are not just physical beings, we are mental and spiritual beings. While we wallow in the quicksand of materialistic ambitions, we fail to realize that the only way to achieve happiness is to fell it from within us. True happiness, according to Mahatma Gandhi brings more richness than all the money in the world. Finally, for all my opponents who still believe that money buys happiness, this final information should prove them wrong. Research states that an average American billionaire experiences the same amount of happiness as that of a simple massai tribal of Africa.

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Cultural Differences and Emotional Intelligence Essay

Cultural Differences and Emotional Intelligence Essay.

During an the assessment of several countries, values of open-mindedness, inclusion, respect and tolerance are more likely to be attained within a prospectus that encourages the increase of Emotional Intelligence (EI). In this research paper, the role of EI in determining leadership effectiveness was reviewed to explain emotional characteristics specific to five countries: Nigeria, Mexico, Russia, Argentina, and China. These countries were included in a study called Project Globe. GLOBE is the acronym for Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness.

In this study, four cultural clusters were utilized, and the role of emotional intelligence was evaluated in determining leadership effectiveness.

Emotional Intelligence was appraised more favorably than technical skills and cognitive skills, especially when referring to social skills, and transformational/charismatic leaderships were preferred across cultures. The intent of the collaborative effort of Team 4 was to explore the cultural values and practices in five different countries and to identify their impact on organizational practices and leadership attributes.

One way to explore cultural similarities in the world is to study cultural clusters which are a group of countries that share many similarities.

The countries in a cluster are more like each other than another country from outside the cluster (Javidan & House, 2002). A study conducted by the consulting firm KPMG (Project Globe) tested the proposition linking EI and cross-cultural leadership by surveying managers from four cultural clusters (Anglo, Latin European, Eastern European, and Southern Asian).

Project GLOBE was a multi-phase, multi-method research project in which some 170 investigators from over 60 cultures representing all major regions in the world joined forces to examine the interrelationships between societal culture, organizational culture, and organizational leadership. Clustering of nations was a real-world way to depict intercultural similarities as well as intercultural differences- 61 nations were categorized into 10 distinct clusters. Four clusters and their respective leadership styles and traits were evaluated: the Anglo cluster; the Latin Europe cluster; the Eastern European cluster; and the Southern Asia cluster.

The Anglo Cluster included Australia, Canada, England, Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa (Nigeria), and the United States of America. These countries are all developed nations, predominantly English speaking, and among the wealthiest countries in the world. Charismatic, team-oriented, and participative leadership styles were perceived to be the most effective in the Anglo Cluster. The charismatic leadership behaviors included being visionary, motivating, and appealing to the fundamental values of followers. Self-awareness of interactive skills may be a crucial component to manager effectiveness in high power Anglo cultures.

Each national culture carries definite leadership behaviors that are perceived to be applicable for that specific country. Being charismatic in Australia can sometimes conflict with the importance of impartiality for successful leadership-therefore, a leader must be visionary and inspirational but still be viewed as “one of the boys” (Ashkanasy, Trevor-Roberts, & Earnshaw, 2002). The barometer for measuring someone’s level of emotional intelligence is a function that is used though domains that have been emphasized by analysts.

Three tests that have been utilized are the ability model, the mixed-ability model, and the personality model. The ability model is measured with the Mayor-Salovey Emotional Intelligent Test using four types of abilities: perceiving emotions, using emotions, understanding emotions and managing emotions. The mixed ability model was used to test for emotional intelligence. The five main concepts of this measurement are self-awareness, social responsibility, adaptability, stress management and general mood. The personality model was used to measure a series of behavior test and is used more as a self-reporting test.

The use of the emotional intelligence concepts in the workplace has increased business performance. Higher levels of emotional intelligence has resulted in better performance in certain areas in the workplace such as better participative management, putting people at ease, self-awareness, balance between personal life and work, straight forwardness and composure, building and mending relationships, decisiveness, confronting problem employees and change management. Managers can also be toxic for the workplace based on their attitudes-this is where the concept of resonance plays a vital part.

The use of literature on emotional intelligence and its utilization is very minimal in Nigeria. There is no significant difference in occupational stress between secondary school teachers with low emotional difference and those with high emotional intelligence. The effect of emotional intelligence with work-family issues resulted in a conflict within the workplace. Emotional intelligence should be considered in employee selection and placement process for managerial effectiveness to be guaranteed-the managers with high emotional intelligence should be posted to highly challenging managerial positions and vice versa.

Leadership qualities in Nigeria are very poor and implementing emotional intelligence can improve their economy. Improvement includes more intelligent Nigerian leaders who can improve the professional performance in their organizations through emotional intelligence. The perceptions of Nigerians can be shaped and made as a result of training in emotional intelligence which will produce Nigerian leaders who will lead by example. The Latin European cluster consists of France, French Switzerland, Italy, Portugal, Mexico, and Spain.

In Latin Europe, charismatic/values-based, team oriented, and participative leadership were considered the most effective leadership attributes which included being visionary, inspirational, self-sacrificial, having integrity, decisiveness and performance orientation. Team-oriented leadership compromises collaboration, team integration, diplomacy, and administrative competence (Jesuino, 2002). Emotionally self-aware leaders can be candid and authentic, able to speak openly about their emotions or with conviction about their guiding vision (Goleman, Boyatzis, & McKee, 2002).

This statement is true and can be seen in Mexico’s business practices. For example, in Mexico, emotions are not suppressed in business situations and discussions can appear to be hostile to those from a culture which frowns upon the any visible shows of emotion during business dealings (“Doing Business”, n. d. ). A visionary leader can impact this process positively by honoring the feelings and beliefs of the people around him, while steadfastly demonstrating the benefit of moving toward the company goal (Goleman et al.

, 2002). This outward show of emotion is seen as a positive attribute and implies commitment and emphasis. Meetings are seen as opportunities for the free flow of ideas and information — although it is best to avoid very open disagreements with the most senior Mexican present as this could be construed as disrespectful and confrontational. Open signs of emotion, through the use of interruptions and speaking loudly, are seen as a sign of active engagement rather than an unnecessary loss of control.

When a Mexican becomes highly emotional during a meeting one should not assume that they have lost their sense of professionalism (“Doing Business”, n. d. ). Emotion is an important factor that contributes to Mexican business meetings. Creating organizations that are emotionally intelligent is ultimately the leader’s responsibility. It is up to the leaders to help the organization identify its reality and assist their members to uncover their own roles in that vision (Goleman et al. , 2002). Social awareness-particularly empathy-is crucial for the leader’s primal task of driving resonance.

By being attuned to how others feel in the moment, a leader is able to provide a sense of shared values and priorities that can guide the group. Empathy-which includes listening and taking other people’s perspective-allows leaders to tune into emotional channels between people that can create resonance (Goleman et al. , 2002). The Eastern European cluster encompassed Albania, Georgia, Greece, Hungary, Argentina, Kazakhstan, Poland, Russia, and Slovenia. In the Eastern European cluster, the key elements of successful leadership were compiled mostly of transformational-charismatic and team-oriented leadership.

Participation has some historical roots in the region, as large consultative bodies combined with authoritarian leadership style has been a prevailing pattern in status conscious eastern societies. Extensive research and several studies have been conducted over the last decade in regards to emotional intelligence and leadership styles in Russia. Van Gardner (2010) stated, “this recent focus on developing organizational leaders is largely a result of the recent changes in the political and economic environments in Russia, following the country’s recovery and stabilization from its financial crisis of 1998” (Van Genderen, 2010, p.

77). A Leadership Dimensions Questionnaire (LDQ) was used to assess prevailing leadership styles. Three distinct leadership styles were identified: engaging leadership (transformational), involving leadership (participative) and goal leadership (transactional). The leadership’s success is a result of a threshold of cognition (IQ) and high levels of Emotional Intelligence (EQ)-the three paradigms IQ, EQ and MQ (managerial competencies) were highly correlated. An interesting result of the investigation was that no significant differences were found between the Russian men and women participating in the research (Van Genderen, 2010, p.

86). Human resources has become an important factor within an organization-the only sustainable competitive advantage organizations of the future will possess is the value added by their employees. Designing effective leadership development programs to foster such executives has been described as ‘the biggest challenge that looms in the new millennium for HR managers” (Van Genderen, 2010, p. 88). This holds true for all organizations. Instituting confidence and reciprocal respect establishes smooth transitions when conducting business transactions in Argentina.

Serenity can guarantee accomplishment as it may take several visits to the country to finalize any business transactions. Dealing with organizational leaders is time-consuming due to the many levels of decision making combined with an enormous amount of bureaucracy. Generally, greetings among industry people is a handshake and a brief nod of the head. This is appropriate to both men and women. Once a connection has been made resulting in friendship, hugs and kisses become the standard form of greeting. Eye contact is encouraged and personal space is minimal; pulling back will create an atmosphere of untrustworthiness.

The glue that holds people together in a team, and that commits people to an organization, is the emotions they feel (Goldman, Boyatzis, & McKee, 2004). The Southern Asia cluster consisted of India, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, Philippines, China, and Thailand. Transformational–charismatic and team-oriented leadership are perceived as the most effective leadership styles (Gupta, Surie, Javidan, & Chokar, 2002). Leaders are expected to act as patriarchs who help subordinates point towards more aspiring and mutual goals by ensuring their actions and decisions develop and maintain the team and family orientation in their organizations.

The global leader needs to be open to arbitrations and viewpoints to make sure he/she does not alienate any group members. When it comes to China, four very different traditional Chinese leadership approaches are identified and discussed by Emotional Intelligence Expert Sebastien Henry. This discussion provides us a starting point for our analyses. The four historic leadership approaches Henry examines are: legalistic, strategic, naturalistic, and humanistic (Henry, 2009). It should be noted, according to Mr. Henry, “none of the four leadership styles give a

lot of room to emotions when it comes to leading people. ” (Henry, 2009) The legalistic approach (Han Fei Zi) was characterized as perhaps the most contradictory to the principals of emotional intelligence as there was the belief that man was “naturally evil and that strict rules and punishment were needed” (Henry, 2009. The strategic approach (Sun Tzu) is also not considered to be overly EQ aligned as, within this approach, thoughts on leadership were famously applied to the winning of battles with little focus on the use of emotions in other areas.

Interestingly, the very famous book The Art of War, a famous ancient Chinese military work was authored by the high ranking military general Sun Tzu. In the naturalistic approach (Lao Zi–Chuang Zi), also known as the Taoist approach, the emphasis is on the spiritual development of the leader. “The accomplished leader is the one that followers barely notice: almost invisible, unassuming, but nurturing and always present, just like the Tao” (Henry, 2009).

We find some of the concepts in the traditional naturalistic approach to perhaps represent a precursor to present day EI concepts, and although emotional intelligence expert Sebastien Henry concludes, “there is not a lot in the Dao De Jing (??? ) about the emotional side of leadership except that the leader has to aim at ultimately reaching within herself a place of deep inner peace that emotions won’t affect,” which is precisely what we see as perhaps the precursor to current EI concepts (Henry, 2009).

Lastly, the humanistic approach (Confucius, Mencius) is often believed to be the approach that is most closely aligned with emotions and the concepts being discussed by Goleman and other emotional intelligence experts. The concept of compassion, a concept many consider a fundamental principal of emotionally intelligent leadership, could be closely linked to the famous Confucian concept of benevolence which is fundamental to the humanistic, Confucian approach.

Going forward, while it may or may not appear that the Chinese were overly concerned with emotional intelligence in their traditional leadership methods, recent developments indicate there is little chance the Chinese will be left behind in the exploration, experimentation, and utilization of the promising, performance enhancing benefits of emotional intelligence in the immediate future . Very recently, a Chinese Communist Party publication, the Study Times, published a 3000-word article entitled the Emotional Quotient and its Three Major Components.

It seems clear this article was a response to Chinese President Xi Jinping’s public statement that “it isn’t one’s educational background, integrity, experience, or people you know that matters. What it takes to be a good communist leader President Xi said is Emotional intelligence” (Li, 2013) . Overall, any way you look at it, what seems clear is that in most Asian cultures-as well as in Latin America and some European countries-establishing a strong relationship is a prerequisite for doing business (Goldman, Boyatzis, & McKee, 2004, p. 64).

The countries that participated in Project GLOBE provide to managers a meticulous instrument to help recognize the similarities and differences among various cultures worldwide. The most valuable message managers in any culture can take from this study is to take a proactive and positive approach to resolving issues, especially those involving cross-cultural issues. The findings and insights from Project GLOBE can and should at the very least be utilized to enlighten managers on how to better manage the conveyance of information and knowledge across cultural borders. References

Ashkanasy, N. M. , Trevor-Roberts, E. & Earnshaw, L. (2002). “The Anglo Cluster: Legacy of the British Empire” Journal of World Business, Volume 37:1, 28-39. Doing Business in Mexico – Mexican Business Culture – Mexican Culture – World Business Culture. (n. d. ). World Business Culture: Key information on Business Culture in the World’s Leading 39 Economies. Retrieved Sept 5, 2013, from http://www. worldbusinessculture. com/Mexican-Business-Style. html. Goleman, D. , Boyatzis, R. , & Mckee, A. (2002). Primal leadership: Learning to lead with Emotional Intelligence. Boston, Mass.

: Harvard Business School Press. Goleman, D. , Boyatzis, R. , & Mckee, A. (2002). Primal leadership: Realizing the power of Emotional Intelligence. Boston, Mass. : Harvard Business School Press. Goleman, D. , Boyatzis, R. , & McKee, A. (2004). Primal Leadership. Resonant leadership, 20. University of Birmingham Intranet. Retrieved on 1 Sept 2013 from: https://intranet. birmingham. ac. uk/as/employability/careers/international/country- profiles/argentina/business. aspx. Gupta, V. , Gita, S. , Javidan, M. , & Jagdeep, C. (2002). “Southern Asia Cluster: Where the Old Meets the New?

” Journal of World Business, Volume 37:1, 16-27. Henry, S. (2009). Chinese Leadership and Emotional Intelligence. How Do Chinese Leaders Handle Emotions? Progress-U Limited. Retrieved on 8 Sept 2013 from: http://www. progressu. com/ezine-eq-for-leaders-2009-4. php Javidan, M. & House, R. (2002). “Leadership and Cultures around the World: Findings from GLOBE,” Journal of Business, Volume 37:1, 1-2. Jesuino, J. (2002). “Latin Europe Cluster; from South to North,” Journal of World Business, Volume 37:1, 81-89. Li, A (2013) South China Morning Post, Xi Jinping’s Emotional Intelligence Comments Spark Debate.

Retrieved on 8 Sept 2013 from: http://www. scmp. com/news/china/article/1242750/xi-jinpings-emotional-intelligence-comments-spark-debate Margavio, T. M. , Margavio, G. W. , Hignite, M. A. , & Moses, D. R. (2012). A Comparative Analysis of the Emotional Intelligence Levels of American and Chinese Business Students, College Student Journal, 46(4), 776-787. Van Genderen, E. (2010). An Investigation into the Relationship between the Leadership Competencies, Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Styles of Russian Managers Working for MNCs. Retrieved from http://www. scielo. gpeari. mctes. pt/pdf/egg/vi5ni.

Cultural Differences and Emotional Intelligence Essay

Beach Burial by Kenneth Slessor Essay

Beach Burial by Kenneth Slessor Essay.

Kenneth Slessor wrote the poem Beach Burial whilst he completed his occupation as the official Australian Correspondent in the Middle East. Due to Slessor’s observations of the war at close quarters he soon learnt about the horrific horrors of war. During Slessor’s stay in El Alamein which is a small village found on the Egypt Mediterranean coast he wrote the poem to describe the realities of war and what realistically happens after heroes are killed. Kenneth Slessor has used imagery and various poetic techniques to establish his purpose to the audience in his poem Beach Burial.

Slessor has successfully conveyed his purpose to create a high depth of sympathy and pity for the soldiers who have washed up to the shore after being killed in action or died during the voyage at sea.

Slessor has used rhyme in his poem to create an intense emotional reaction to the audience. He has done this by using the rhyme pattern of ABCB.

The use of Slessor’s rhyme creates a sense of flow to the audience. This particular statement works well with the beach scene featured in the poem and the amount of dead men continually sinuously into the beach. The line “the convoys of dead soldiers come” reinstates this idea. Slessor also proposes that war is inevitable and always continue just like the dead men.

Slessor’s purpose of half rhymes also creates a standstill in the poem, the audience stops for a moment to reflect on the realities of war and how dreadful and disrespectful the dead men are treated after they have fought and served for their country. We also meditate for what has happened to the men and what really happens after death at war. To reinforce Slessor’s purpose he uses the lines “wavers and fades, the purple drips, the breath of the wet season has washed their inscriptions as blue as drowned men’s lips.” This describes the way in which our men are forgotten and no longer required for the war effort. Slessor wants the responder to recognize this fact.

By using a somber tone Slessor has created a sympathetic feeling to arouse the audience. As the poem continues we build up pity causing us to think and even shed a tear. Slessor has used a powerful feel to create strong imagery in our minds. The mood expressed by Slessor has alluded to the memory of the men who have been buried unknowingly who they are and what they have done. The missing identity that Slessor has suggested is located in the quote”unknown seamen- the ghostly pencil wavers and fades, the purple drips.” This illustrates to the audience that men have died in vain and are being forgotten but Slessor is reuniting these circumstances with the audience. His influential language brings out our emotions and he attempts for us to relive the moments and memories of our loved ones who have passed away.

Through the living conditions and stress positioned upon Slessor his experiences have influenced his poetry to create this masterpiece. Slessor has successfully conveyed his purpose of displaying the realities of war and the realistic views on soldiers after they are no longer needed, through poetic techniques like rhyme and the mood and build up of tension and sympathy in his poetry.

Bibliography

old poetryhttp://oldpoetry.com/opoem/show/46383-Kenneth-Slessor-Beach-Burial, 7th July 2006Book Ragshttp://www.bookrags.com/essay-2005/9/6/844/07586, 7th July 2006

Beach Burial by Kenneth Slessor Essay

Cultural Influences On Emotional Expression and Perception Essay

Cultural Influences On Emotional Expression and Perception Essay.

Everyone is uniquely shaped, and should not be compared with others. Expressing ourselves can differentiate from other expressions since we are unique in each and every way. Some similarities may exist, but not necessarily every aspect of what we tend to express. As defined in the textbook, “emotional expression is the most important representation of our emotions, and may be similar to others” (Adler, Proctor, and Towne 137). Perception is part of the emotional expression because “it is the process of selecting, acquiring, interpreting, and organizing sensory information” (wikipedia.

org).

These two are important because we express what we express with the perception of our emotional expression. Different situations will result in different perception of emotional expression. For example, we may jump when we feel excitement or cry when we feel grief. Every expression we make is appropriate on what we feel in that particular event. We live in a country with a very diverse culture, and everyone is raise differently base on their culture.

This paper will talk about the cultural influences on emotional expression and perception. Examples, description, and explanation will also be given to further explain the topic.

Although many emotions and expressions of emotions are universal, some differences exist among many cultures. The comparison of both cultural similarity and difference has been very important in the area of emotional expression and perception (Matsumoto par. 2). It is very helpful to know the similarities and differences in emotion across cultures. It helps us understand the role of emotion in our lives and the importance of emotion to our thinking and behaving. People in different cultures categorize emotions differently. Some languages have classification for emotions that are not classified in other languages.

It is a belief that nonverbal expressions of emotion differ across cultures, due to the fact that different cultures have different display rules. Display rules are norms that tell people whether, which, how, and when emotions should be displayed (wikipedia.org). The power of cultural norm determines how and when to show emotions that is not actually felt. The comparison of emotions helps us understand the role of emotional expression and nonverbal behaviors in social interactions to improve interaction among people from different cultural backgrounds.

In addition, when comparing expressions, people of different cultures agree on which is more strongly expressed? Cross-cultural research indicates that the answer to this question is yes. Itziar and Fernandez compared these differences in paired expression of the same emotion (par. 5). According to the research, the result was that “ninety-two percent of the time, the ten cultures in their study agreed on which of two expressions was more intense” (Fernandez, Carrera, Sanchez, Paez, and Candia par. 5). For example, looking separately for each emotion, American and Japanese agreed on which photo were more intense in 24 out of 30 comparison. These findings are important because they suggest that people of different cultures use the same visual cues in judging others (Fernandez, Carrera, Sanchez, Paez, and Candia par. 8).

The role of culture in emotional control is shown most explicitly through the use of display rules. Display rules are learned, culturally determined norms that govern people’s display of emotions in different social situations (Matsumoto, 1990). Matsumoto (1972) found cultural differences in display rules when a group of Japanese and American students were shown stressful film stimuli in two conditions. In the alone condition, both the Japanese and American students displayed the same negative facial expressions of fear, disgust, and distress.

However, when the experimenter was present, the Japanese students smiled to mask their negative emotions while the Americans continued to exhibit their negative affects. Furthermore, a study by Matsumoto (1990) found that Americans rated disgust and sadness as more appropriate in in-groups than did the Japanese. In contrast, the Japanese rated anger as more appropriate in out-groups than did the Americans. The above findings suggest that the Japanese and American students utilized different sets of display rules which influenced either their expression or inhibition of their emotions (Matsumoto par. 2).

The different sets of display rules can be understood in terms of the American and Japanese emphasis on individualism versus collectivism respectively. Individualism and collectivism are dimensions of cultural variability that refer to the degree to which a culture encourages individual needs, wishes, desires, and values over that of the group (Matsumoto, 1990). For example, individualistic cultures emphasize individual goals and independence. Collectivist cultures, on the other hand, stress collective goals and dependence on the group (Matsumoto, 1989).

It could be understood in this context that the expression of negative emotions in an in-group setting is regarded as extremely negative in collectivist countries, since the manifestations of such emotions threatens the interdependent relationship of the group. In an individualist country, however, the expression of both positive and negative emotions may feel right and good since such expressions highlight both the separation of self from others and the individual’s private, internal attributes (Forgas and Bond, 1994). What may feel good then, in this case the inhibition or expression of emotions, is largely dependent on one’s culture and socialization. To take this idea a step further, the correlation between emotional inhibition and well-being, either negative or positive, may be dependent on one’s respective culture.

A past research on the relationship between emotional control and well-being has yielded conflicting findings. Where one line of research suggests that the active inhibition of emotions will lead to an increase in physiological arousal and a decrease in well-being, the other proposes that the inhibition of emotions will result in a higher level of well-being. The aim of the present study is to unravel parts of the conflict by examining the influence of gender and culture on the relationship between emotional control and well-being in two ethnic groups, Asians and Caucasians (Aeker and Williams par. 10).

Furthermore, seventy-nine participants were asked to fill out questionnaires assessingtheir level of emotional inhibition, subjective well-being, and identification with anindividualistic versus collectivist culture. Results found that Caucasians and Asians differed onthe individualism-collectivism scale, with Caucasians being more individualistic and Asiansmore collectivists. The effect of culture was found with Caucasians having a negative correlationbetween emotional inhibition and well-being while Asians having an almost zero correlation.

Influence of gender was also found in which increases in the level of emotional inhibition isnegatively correlated to well-being for the female sample, but for the male sample, there wasagain a zero correlation. An interactive effect of culture and gender was also found with Asianmales having the most positive correlation between emotional inhibition and well-being, andCaucasian females having the most negative correlation between emotional inhibition and well-being. Explanations of the findings in terms of gender and cultural norms are discussed(Matsumoto par. 5).

The interacting effects of cultural and gender norms were also demonstrated. Asian maleswho were high on emotional inhibition were highest on well-being and Caucasian females whowere high on emotional inhibition were lowest on well-being. The results could be understood inthe context that Asian males are socialized by both their gender and cultural norms to inhibit their emotions. The act of inhibition is then consistent with what they believe they should do. Caucasian females, on the other hand, are told by both their gender and cultural norms to express their emotions. The act of inhibition is then contradictory to these expectations. It makes sense then that when one’s actions are consistent with one’s perceived cultural and gender expectations, the result would be a higher level of well-being than when the actions are contradictory to the expectations.

Though the results demonstrate that both culture and gender influence the relationship between emotional control and well-being, the present study also has important limitations. First, the emotional inhibition scale measures the inhibition of both positive and negative emotions. It can be understood from a collectivist context why the inhibition of negative emotions is valued because the expression of such emotions is deemed threatening to the group. However, the expression of positive emotions is not only non-threatening but can actually facilitate group harmony. It can then be predicted that for negative emotions, inhibition will correlate positively with well-being. However, since the inhibition of positive emotions is contrary to the cultural norms, the inhibition of positive emotions will correlate negatively with well-being. Since the emotional inhibition scale combined both types of emotions, we can speculate that there might be a canceling effect, resulting in the zero correlation found for the Asian sample.

Furthermore, the Asian sample in the present study consists of students from U.C. Berkeley. It can be speculated that these students have to some extent acculturated into the American system and perhaps have embraced parts of the individualist culture, such as the value of expressiveness. Though the ICIAI depicts significant cultural difference between the Asians and Caucasian sample, the issue of acculturation can be reduced with cross-cultural research comparing the U.S. population with the Asian population.

To investigate further the meaning of differences, Matsumoto (1993) showed ratings from Japanese and Americans on smiling versus non-smiling faces with regard to intelligence,attractiveness, and sociability. Americans rated smiling faces as more intelligent than neutral faces; the Japanese, however, did not. Americans and Japanese both found smiling faces more sociable than neutral faces, but for the Americans the difference was greater. These differences suggest that cultural display rules cause of Japanese and Americans to attribute different meanings to the smile, and serve as a good explanation for perceived major differences in communication styles across cultures.

Evidently, the study has contributed to the understanding of the relationship between emotional expression and culture. Although results have shown that there are definitely effects of culture on emotional expression and perception, the future research is needed to extend the influence. For example, a study measuring the expression of positive and negative emotions separately will be easier to understand on how cultural norms affect the emotional expression and perception. The finding of cultural influence is a great step forward in understanding the role of emotional expression. However, it is just the beginning in investigating the complex between the control of emotions and our perception.

Summing up, this paper talked about the different expressions the people in different cultures gave. Everyone is brought up differently and taught differently. Therefore, we express our emotion differently because of the surroundings we grew up in, and the people that influenced us. Although people in certain parts of the world are different in terms of the background, tradition, and norm and so on, all of us are crossing that barrier on having friends by effective communication. We shouldn’t prejudice other persons before thoroughly knowing them because stereotyping is typically wrong. If people start to get to thoroughly understand differences of others, then this will become the beginning of making best friendships than ever.

Bibliography

Adler, Ronald B., Russell F. Proctor, and Neil Towne. Looking Out Looking In. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth, 2005.

Aeker, Jennifer L. and Patti Williams. “Empathy Versus Pride: The Influence of Emotional Appeals Across Cultures.” The Journal of Consumer Research 25.3 (1998): 241-61.

Fernandez, Itziar, Pilar Carrerra, Flor Sanchez, Dario Paez, and Luis Candia. “Differences Between Cultures in Emotional Verbal and Non-Verbal Reactions.” Psicothema 12 (2000): 83-92.

Forgas, Joseph P. and Michael H. Bond. “Cultural Influences on the Perception of InteractionEpisodes.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 11.1 (1985): 75-88.

Matsumoto, David. “American-Japanese Cultural Differences in Judgments of Emotional Expressions of Different Intensities.” Cognition and Emotion 16.6 (2002): 721-47.

Cultural Influences On Emotional Expression and Perception Essay