Criticism – Ecocriticism Essay

Criticism – Ecocriticism Essay.

Ecocriticism is the study of literature and environment from an interdisciplinary point of view where all sciences come together to analyze the environment and brainstorm possible solutions for the correction of the contemporary environmental situation. Ecocriticism was officially heralded by the publication of two seminal works,[citation needed] both published in the mid-1990s: The Ecocriticism Reader, edited by Cheryll Glotfelty and Harold Fromm, and The Environmental Imagination, by Lawrence Buell.

In the United States, ecocriticism is often associated with the Association for the Study of Literature and Environment (ASLE),[citation needed] which hosts biennial meetings for scholars who deal with environmental matters in literature.

ASLE publishes a journal—Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment (ISLE)—in which current American scholarship can be found. Ecocriticism is an intentionally broad approach that is known by a number of other designations, including “green (cultural) studies”, “ecopoetics”, and “environmental literary criticism”.

Contents [hide] * 1 Evolution of ecocriticism in literary studies * 2 Definition * 3 See also * 4 Sources * 5 References * 6 External links ————————————————- Evolution of ecocriticism in literary studies[edit] Ecocritics investigate such things as the underlying ecological values, what, precisely, is meant by the word nature, and whether the examination of “place” should be a distinctive category, much like class, gender or race.

Ecocritics examine human perception of wilderness, and how it has changed throughout history and whether or not current environmental issues are accurately represented or even mentioned in popular culture and modern literature. Other disciplines, such as history, philosophy, ethics, and psychology, are also considered by ecocritics to be possible contributors to ecocriticism. William Rueckert may have been the first person to use the term ecocriticism (Barry 240). In 1978, Rueckert published an essay titled Literature and Ecology: An Experiment in Ecocriticism.

His intent was to focus on “the application of ecology and ecological concepts to the study of literature. ” (Reprinted in The Ecocritism Reader on p. 107) Ecologically minded individuals and scholars have been publishing progressive works of ecotheory and criticism since the explosion of environmentalism in the late 1960s and 1970s. However, because there was no organized movement to study the ecological/environmental side of literature, these important works were scattered and categorized under a litany of different subject headings: pastoralism, human ecology, regionalism, American Studies etc.

British Marxist critic Raymond Williams, for example, wrote a seminal critique of pastoral literature in 1973, The Country and the City, which spawned two decades of leftist suspicion of the ideological evasions of the genre and its habit of making the work of rural labour disappear even though Williams himself observed that the losses lamented in pastoral might be genuine ones, and went on to profess a decidedly green socialism.

Another early ecocritical text, Joseph Meeker’s The Comedy of Survival (1974), proposed a version of an argument that was later to dominate ecocriticism and environmental philosophy; that environmental crisis is caused primarily by a cultural tradition in the West of separation of culture from nature, and elevation of the former to moral predominance.

Such anthropocentrism is identified in the tragic conception of a hero whose moral struggles are more important than mere biological survival, whereas the science of animal ethology, Meeker asserts, shows that a “comic mode” of muddling through and “making love not war” has superior ecological value.

In the later, “second wave” ecocriticism, Meeker’s adoption of an ecophilosophical position with apparent scientific sanction as a measure of literary value tended to prevail over Williams’s ideological and historical critique of the shifts in a literary genre’s representation of nature. As Glotfelty noted in The Ecocriticism Reader,[page needed] “One indication of the disunity of the early efforts is that these critics rarely cited one another’s work; they didn’t know that it existed…Each was a single voice howling in the wilderness.

” Nevertheless, ecocriticism—unlike feminist and Marxist criticisms—failed to crystallize into a coherent movement in the late 1970s, and indeed only did so in the USA in the 1990s. [citation needed] In the mid-1980s, scholars began to work collectively to establish ecocritism as a genre, primarily through the work of the Western Literature Association in which the revaluation of nature writing as a non-fictional literary genre could function.

In 1990, at the University of Nevada, Reno, Glotfelty became the first person to hold an academic position as a professor of Literature and the Environment, and UNR has retained the position it established at that time as the intellectual home of ecocriticism even as ASLE has burgeoned into an organization with thousands of members in the US alone. From the late 1990s, new branches of ASLE and affiliated organizations were started in the UK, Japan, Korea, Australia and New Zealand (ASLEC-ANZ), India (OSLE-India}, Taiwan, Canada and Europe.

————————————————- Definition[edit] In comparison with other ‘political’ forms of criticism, there has been relatively little dispute about the moral and philosophical aims of ecocriticism, although its scope has broadened rapidly from nature writing, Romantic poetry, and canonical literature to take in film, television, theatre, animal stories, architectures, scientific narratives and an extraordinary range of literary texts.

At the same time, ecocriticism has borrowed methodologies and theoretically informed approaches liberally from other fields of literary, social and scientific study. Glotfelty’s working definition in The Ecocriticism Reader is that “ecocriticism is the study of the relationship between literature and the physical environment” (xviii), and one of the implicit goals of the approach is to recoup professional dignity for what Glotfelty calls the “undervalued genre of nature writing” (xxxi).

Lawrence Buell defines “‘ecocriticism’ … as [a] study of the relationship between literature and the environment conducted in a spirit of commitment to environmentalist praxis” (430, n. 20). Simon Estok noted in 2001 that “ecocriticism has distinguished itself, debates notwithstanding, firstly by the ethical stand it takes, its commitment to the natural world as an important thing rather than simply as an object of thematic study, and, secondly, by its commitment to making connections” (“A Report Card on Ecocriticism” 220).

More recently, in an article that extends ecocriticism to Shakespearean studies, Estok argues that ecocriticism is more than “simply the study of Nature or natural things in literature; rather, it is any theory that is committed to effecting change by analyzing the function–thematic, artistic, social, historical, ideological, theoretical, or otherwise–of the natural environment, or aspects of it, represented in documents (literary or other) that contribute to material practices in material worlds” (“Shakespeare and Ecocriticism” 16-17).

This echoes the functional approach of the cultural ecology branch of ecocriticism, which analyzes the analogies between ecosystems and imaginative texts and posits that such texts potentially have an ecological (regenerative, revitalizing) function in the cultural system (Zapf, “Literary Ecology”). As Michael P. Cohen has observed, “if you want to be an ecocritic, be prepared to explain what you do and be criticized, if not satirized. ” Certainly, Cohen adds his voice to such critique, noting that one of the problems of ecocriticism has been what he calls its “praise-song school” of criticism.

All ecocritics share an environmentalist motivation of some sort, but whereas the majority are ‘nature endorsing’ (as Kate Soper puts it in “What is Nature? ” (1998)), some are ‘nature sceptical’. In part this entails a shared sense of the ways in which ‘nature’ has been used to legitimise gender, sexual and racial norms (so homosexuality has been seen as ‘unnatural’, for example), but it also involves scepticism about the uses to which ‘ecological’ language is put in ecocriticism; it can also involve a critique of the ways cultural norms of nature and the environment contribute to environmental degradation.

Greg Garrard has dubbed ‘pastoral ecology’ the notion that nature undisturbed is balanced and harmonious (“Ecocriticism” 56-58), while Dana Phillips has criticised the literary quality and scientific accuracy of nature writing in “The Truth of Ecology”. Similarly, there has been a call to recognize the place of the Environmental Justice movement in redefining ecocritical discourse (see Buell, “Toxic Discourse”).

In response to the question of what ecocriticism is or should be, Camilo Gomides has offered an operational definition that is both broad and discriminating: “The field of enquiry that analyzes and promotes works of art which raise moral questions about human interactions with nature, while also motivating audiences to live within a limit that will be binding over generations” (16).

He tests it for a film (mal)adaptation about Amazonian deforestation. Implementing the Gomides definition, Joseph Henry Vogel makes the case that ecocriticism constitutes an “economic school of thought” as it engages audiences to debate issues of resource allocation that have no technical solution. ————————————————- See also

Criticism – Ecocriticism Essay

“Farmhand” by James K. Baxter Essay

“Farmhand” by James K. Baxter Essay.

Question: Comment on the way the relationship between individuals and the natural world is presented in Farmhand.

The relationship between individuals and the natural world is presented quite extravagantly in the poem Farmhand composed by James K. Baxter. Using various speech and sound devices Baxter has made the point how a natural environment can be vital to a person and be a relief to solitude and isolation. The natural world creates a place of comfort and security for the farmhand in comparison to his clumsiness and fear to the opposite sex.

The farmhand in Baxters poem is very closely related to nature and the hard work on the farm displays the characters masculinity.

The farmhand at first glance seems a self-conscious young man with a placid attitude. He will stand leaning his back against the wall, smoking a cigarette or telling some new joke to a (male) friend. However at closer examination the reader can imagine the complexity of the characters feelings.

He has unremitting desire for a girl-friend to run her fingers through his sandy hair but is too afraid to . His envy is depicted as he always will turn his eyes to the dance floor and watch the girls drifting like flowers. The farmhand thinks about them though, as he has awkward hopes and envious dreams that he likes to dwell upon, but he erroneously believes it is very embarrassing and so he keeps it a secret. Throughout the poem images are created using words from his natural environment. This makes a statement about how close the farmhand feels to nature.

The farmhand is described by using metaphors linking to his environment; Crops slow-growing as his mind. He feels most comfortable while working on the farm, effortless and strong. Here he finds peace and relief from the old wound which probably is an event in the past which makes him feel sad. Farming is everything to the farmhand, while listening like a lover to the song clear, without fault, of a new tractor engine, which to most people would be rather loud and disturbing. The secret night represents his hidden feelings buried deep beneath the surface of this cool young man.

Links between nature and the farmhand are eminent throughout the poem. Many aspects of the farmhands life are comparable with features of nature. The natural world is his relief, security, comfort and love.


University of Cambridge IGCSE 2007-2009Anthology of potry in english

“Farmhand” by James K. Baxter Essay

He-y Come on Ou-t analysis Essay

He-y Come on Ou-t analysis Essay.

In the short story “He-y Come on Ou-t” the hole symbolizes an easy solution for a big problem. People used this hole to dump their waste, and fears into it. They used it to dispose unwanted materials, and at the same time to bring money into the city by charging others to dump their waste into it. The hole also symbolizes the people’s ignorance as well, people do not fully understand what this big dark gaping space is, and that it could harm the Earth in many possible ways, yet they still use it for their own good.

The hole is a positive thing, because people learn from experience, and that hole taught the people that every action has a consequence and that everything comes around again in some way. This hole also shows how people won’t always get away with something bad they have done. The hole swallows all the sin people have done, and gives them some peace of mind.

I would sure like to use one of these phenomenon’s, but if I do many other people will, and later on the world will lack a lot of things.

This hole is sure useful at times, but it will reflect on the world and the environment, because everything has its bad and it’s good. Almost everything we use is recycled or some parts of it are taken to do and produce something else. Some things do not naturally occur, so when people start getting rid of materials and things that they think are useless, we will be short on a lot of things in the upcoming centuries. Not all people are geniuses or aware of what the things they are using is made out of.

Even if this hole will be used for a good cause, and to save our environment instead of burning garbage, dead animal bodies, etc. there are still many other ways to do such things in a safer way without risking our environment. We live in an uncontrolled world; if such thing existed some people will manage to find a way to use it to harm our environment. We shouldn’t take the easy way out in everything, but think and solve the problem once and for all.

He-y Come on Ou-t analysis Essay

Malaysia Tioman Island’s project Analysis Essay

Malaysia Tioman Island’s project Analysis Essay.


Tioman Island is a small island, 39 km long and 12 km wide, located off the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia, densely forested island is still be sparsely inhabited, but is surrounded by numerous white coral, making its scuba divers from around the region. The beaches of Tioman Island were depicting in the 1958 movie, south pacific as Bali Hai. In the 1970s, Time magazine selected Tioman as one of the world’s most beautiful islands.

In 2004 Kampung Tekek, a little village on Timon was earmarked for development as part of a RM 40 million marina project.

The project covers 127,000sq meters. It will include a yacht marina and a cargo jetty which will extend 175 meters into the sea.

The following analysis is based on the project that includes SWOT report, opinion on why the project is rejected by the local residents and WWF-Malaysia and some recommendations

1. Conduct SWOT Analysis onto Pulau Tioman.

From the research and information reading about Pulau Tioman Island, the below is a SWOT analysis that concluded.


Fantastic natural resources and environments

Less polluted


Transportation Weakness

Less Promote

Land limitation

Resources Limitation


World traveler

The environmental protection consciousness improves of people.

Natural resources and environment destination become lesser in the world. Threat

Shifting of economic



Fantastic Natural resources and Environments

As many magazine and information said, Tioman Island has rare and precious natural resources elsewhere in Malaysia even around the world and it is one of the top 10 most beautiful island in the world. At the mountains area, Pulau Tioman is a haven for birds, bates, lizard and mouse deer. At the under water area, the huge size (over 15m high) combination of patches of coral gardens and huge granite boulders are commonly see in the Pulau Tioman Island. Beside the precious corals and sea fans, the rare kings of angle fish also can commonly see in Pulau Tioman Island.

Less polluted environment

The Pulau Tioman has mountains and beaches, and all of those natural resources and environments are undestroyed and less polluted. Whatever visitors on land or at sea side, they will be enchanted by the wonder of nature. Nowadays, in the highly speed economic developing time, fresh air, azure sky and pure ocean it is hardly to find. Such pure and natural environment makes Tioman Island become one of the best tourism destinations.


For the restless and adventurous, Pulau Tioman Island has provided many kinds of activities for the tourist, such as skiing, wind surfing, boating or a ride in a glass bottom boat around the island. Beside those water activities, the Island also has Table tennis, tennis and golf sports on land. Tourists can be enjoy the good natural environment and have a look of the natural resources in Island during the sport activities playing, they can have the opportunity to see the fascinating underwater life by Glass bottom boat and diving. Those bring benefit for the local people and it does not have seriously negative impact to the environment.


Convenient transportation system has provided to help the visitors easy to access and departure Tioman Island. From Mersing or Tanjung Gemuk, Tioman Island is just a 3 to 4 hour boat ride away. If visitor prefer a shorter comfortable ride, air-conditioned fast ferries which depart daily can make the trip in approximately 2 hours.

Visitors who don not like to enjoy sea travel can make the trip to Tioman by air from either Kuala Lumpur or Kuantan via Pelangi Air. Flights from Kuala Lumpur depart daily, while the Kuantan flight departs daily (except Wednesday), both trips take approximately 1 hour.

All of those transportation systems have made the Tioman Island has more and more visitors and become more famous around the world.


Less promote

The promotion and advertising by state and country government doing for the Tioman Island is still need to improve. Maybe Tioman Island is well knows by some of the specific countries’ people. But as a world class tourism departure, the state and country government should promote the island to worldwide in order to get more attractions and bring more benefit.

Land Limitation

As we know, Tioman Island is just 39 km long and 12 km wide. It is a very small island. With its more popular and fantastic natural resources, more and more tourists will interest and visit to here. Overload of people may stay and visit in this small place. This will affect and destroy the social culture and environment of Tioman Island. As a Government, should develop Tioman Island by proper plan in order to fully use and encourage the land limitation.

Resources Limitation

The main tourist attraction in Tioman Island is its natural environment and resources. But if government does not protect properly, those will degrade and destroyed soon later. Without the protection and carrier from government, Tioman Island will just make short-term benefit to the country and will loss its strengths, at the same times, it is a loss in the world too.


World travel

Tourism has become an integral part of the move away form economies based on heavy engineering and manufacturing to a rapidly expanding service sector. The growth in international and domestic tourism since the 1950s has been nothing short of dramatic, with international tourism arrivals climbing from 25 million in 1950 to a record 592 million in 1996 ( World Tourism Organization, 1997). Tioman Island has its fantastic resources and environment as a main attraction of tourist, the increase of world travel will bring lots opportunities to the island.

The environmental protection consciousness improves of people

Nowadays, people’s education level have been improved, and they are more attention and conscious of environmental protection. That will help Tioman Island to keep its strength and get more supporting from them.

Natural resources and environment destination become lesser in the world

Tourism industry become more and more famous in the world, at the same times, it also affects the quality of departure’s environment and degrade the natural resource. According to this, provides natural resources and environment as its attraction to tourist types of tourism departure become lesser and lesser. Tioman Island is one of the few Islands that has good natural resource, it will be a opportunity provided to this island.


Shifting of economic

As we knows that the economic is plays very important roles in tourism industry. Tourism industry mainly depends on the economic, this referring to people’s income, country’s income and the input for tourism develop and so on. Sometimes the economic situation in the world is difficult to forecast and analysis. Example: when the Asian economic crisis happened in 1997, it is not only affect the Asian country’s economic, but tourist industry got heavy hit also around Asian area.


The disasters belong to tourism industry are disease, weather, the flood, the terrorism, the earthquake and so on. All of those will affect and influence the tourism industry with heavy hitting. For example, the USA 9.11 terrorisms bombing in year 2001 was not only hit it economic, but the tourism industry in USA also was hit and affected very much. Beside this, the disease such as SARS, birds’ flu also affects the develop of tourism industry.

2. Based on the two articles above, in your opinion why the project is rejected by the local residents and WWF – Malaysia?

The Marina project in Timon is covering 12.7ha, would have yacht-docking facilities for 36 yachts, a waste oil reception facility, an administration building, ship lots and a public cargo jetty jutting 175m into the sea.

“This is a practice of all the beautiful island in the world. Even in the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, they have a marina there to regulate yachting activities and it has not destroyed the marine life there.”

“Everywhere else in the world, there are typhoons and hurricanes which make it unsafe for yachts. We are disaster free, which makes the country the destination for international yachts” said Transport Minister Datuk Seri Chan Kong Choy.

Although the project can benefit the local economic and make the destination becomes more international, but it still reject by the local resident s and WWF-Malaysia. The factors that may affect the government to reject the project are analysis as following:

Environmental Impact:

Tourism and the environment, whether natural or man-made, are inextricably linked. Indeed, without an attractive environment, tourism will not flourish and remain sustainable in the long-term. Marina project is based on Tioman Island which will bring a lot of negative impacts to the island. The negative impacts on environment are show as below:

Damage to the marine life: The marina project covers 127,000sq meters. It will include a yacht marina and also a cargo jetty which will extend 175 meters into the sea. But according to the research, the corals are just two meters from the surface of the water and only about five meters form the beach line which means if the project will run it will damage the corals which is 300 years old.

Water pollution: The marina project include a cargo jetty which would have yacht-docking facilities for 36 yachts, so in the further more and more yacht and cargo will be park in the cargo jetty but at the same time it will also make the water polluted by the engines. In Tioman Island, the multitude of beautiful angelfish includes the Blue-ring Angelfish and the larger Six-banded Angelfish; both are quite common here but rare elsewhere in Malaysia. Imaging, if the water has polluted hardly, it will make those fish difficult to survive.

Socio-cultural Impact:

The marina project have using huge number of capitals and the manpower required for this subject will be the professional workers. Among Tioman Island this small island, it may have few or even do not have this required types of skills. Many local people will loss their job, for example: the fish man may have no place for him fishing and some other sellers may hardly to sell their local product due to the lesser tourist. Beside this, the noise will be create if the marina project have carried out, natural environmental defiantly will be polluted and destroyed, the local people’s life style and their income will be affected by marina project – the project just for few number of rich people in the world, compare with so many negative impacts, is this worth?

As people knows that the mission and purpose of the WWF society is to protect those endangered species and those wild places that are so vital to human planet’s health and survival. After conclude the research and analysis from the impacts in Tioman Island of Marina project, WWF-Malaysia fears and realize that if the marina project goes ahead, it would not only defy Tioman’s status as a nationally protected marine park, but would also be taken as a sign that marine park protection in Malaysia is not to be taken seriously.

“It would be an absolute travesty to destroy the very corals that the government has pledged to protect,” said WWF-Malaysia’s Executive Director Dato’ Dr Mikaail Kavanagh. “It would wipe out the natural treasures that are of huge value to Tioman’s tourism industry and would be bad for conservation and the local economy.”

So many negative impacts to Tioman Island’s Environment and Social cultures bring by Marina project, after and comparison with the benefit that marina project may made, the Government has stopped this project and due to the resources and environment distortions and degraded, WWF has reject this marina project strictly too.

3. If you are the construction company handling the marina project, what area of surveys should be done first before the actual construction? Justify your answer.

The survey stage of the planning process involves collecting data, both quantitative and qualitative, on all relevant aspects of the tourism considerations. This survey activity needs to be carefully organized to be efficiently conducted and will include field surveys of tourism attractions, activities and services, and transportation and other infrastructure; discussions with the relevant government officials, private sector representatives, and community spokesmen, review of existing documents, maps and data, and any other means to obtain the information required. Often, an aerial overview survey of the country or region is an excellent way of becoming geographically oriented and observing environmental relationships that is not always obvious on the ground.

For the marina project, the surveys from local people and Malaysia tourism development department should be done first before any actions. Construction is show as following:

As a construction company handling the Marina project, those three areas must done stage by stage before the actual construction.

1. Survey for Natural Environment

The Natural Environment referring to natural resource like climate, topography, coastal and marine areas, wildlife and vegetation and so on. Let’s look at those natural environment in Tioman Island:

Climate. Climatic patterns include rainfall, temperatures, humidity, extent of sunshine, fog, wind speeds and directions, and the seasonal variations of these factors. Climatic seasonality can be particularly important considerations of intensity and frequency of climatic hazards such as high winds and rainfall resulting of loss of life and property damage should be recorded. Pulau Tioman is a diver’s heaven, it is very necessary to know which period is the best time for the diver to dive into the sea during a year.

Topography. Topography refers to the surface features of the land, particularly the land configuration and slope, such as flat, hilly and mountainous areas, and the hydrograph of lacks, rivers and wetlands.

Wildlife and Vegetation: Wildlife is indicated by type, extent, and general location. For most wildlife, their habitat range must be considered, not only their present location. In this case, Pulau Tioman is a haven for birds, bats, lizard and Mouse Deer. So it is very necessary to know that will they bring any serious negative impacts after the project was done. For example: after the cargo jetty was build, there will have a lot of cargo park in and out in the jetty. But will the noise form the cargo’s hooter will serious disturb the birds that living in that island?

Coastal and Marina Areas: Coastal and marine characteristics to be surveyed include types of coastline with the location and characteristics of beaches, reef, offshore islands identified and also underwater sea life of coral formations, fishes, and so forth

Consideration Tioman Island is one of the most beautiful island around whole world, the mainly and most important factor should be the natural environment and environment attraction in Tioman Island. Base on those, the impact from Marina project for Environment of Tioman Island is very important. Before the actual constrictions, State government must think about: Is there any pollutions, distortions and degrade made by the project and is it worth compare to the benefit that may made.

2. Survey for Social culture and Economic

Secondly, is the marina project acceptable by the local people? Will marina project bring any profit to the locals? Marina project should be bring positive impact more than the negatives affects to the social culture and at the same times, carry out marina project should helps and promotes the economic develop of the Tioman Island.


All in all, the surveys of natural environment, social culture and economic area should and must be done before the actual construction for Marina project. After the survey, country and state government should think and analysis it, get conclusion or action plan base on the survey, weights and compare the negative and positive impacts, loss and benefit, come out with the honest and correct decision with strong support reason.

Malaysia Tioman Island’s project Analysis Essay

My environment MY responsibility Essay

My environment MY responsibility Essay.

Good morning to Mr. Principal,teachers and students. Thank you for Mr. Principal for giving me a chance to present our speach on My environment MY responsibility. we come up with three categories of environment, where it includes the natural environment, built environment which involving the act of vandalism and social environment along with some suggestion on how we can improve these situations.

As we talking about natural environment nowadays, we have to reflect ourselves on what we have done before this to the natural environment itself.

Being such an irresponsible person or students who like to throw the rubbish everywhere, practice open burning and step on the grass that has been prohibited, it makes the environment become worst day by day. As we reflect back, this is all because our attitude itself. If we can change our attitude, I absolutely believe that we can also make a difference.

Furthermore, what we have to bear in our mind is that, being a student is not just learning things in the class, but we also have to learn on how to manage our nature or our respective land or in other words our environment itself because we live in this world as a community and we are not alone.

Thus, we should consider certain things to make sure that all the people can live in peace without being disturb by the others or by our attitude that can gives an impact to the society itself. In order to preserve and conserve the environment, we as a student should practice an environmental – friendly lifestyle. In this situation, if we practice this, we can avoid ourselves from doing things

It is the responsibility of every person in checking the causes that affect the environmental disaster and play a positive role in improving it and these things have also got to be mentioned. One must realize the importance of a healthy environment and that it is for his/her own benefit to protect it and to take measures to make the world clean and green because as the proverb says “We won’t have a society if we destroy the environment”.

My environment MY responsibility Essay

Population Growth in Mexico City Essay

Population Growth in Mexico City Essay.

Over the last century, the population of Mexico City has been increasing rapidly. The population has almost double in size every ten years in the last few decades. There are about ten thousand people per square kilometre and there are over three million registered vehicles in Mexico City.

During the war years, there was an economic boom in Mexico City, and the population went up, following those years, the population still rocketed upwards. Around two thousand people immigrant into Mexico City everyday and many of them are homeless.

1. Reasons for this growth.

There are numerous reasons for this growth in Mexico City which include push factors, why people are moving away from the rural areas, and pull factors, why people are attracted to Mexico City.

Pull factors from the rural areas include:

– Very little work in the rural areas

– Few schools therefore minimizing the education for the youth

– Few roads therefore resulting in more difficult to have transportations

– Eighty percent of the people in rural area do not have running water

– Land is not being fertiled properly and being overused, the land that would have been fertile if used properly is now wasted

Pull factors from Mexico City include

– Things that people in the rural areas are hoping to get including

o Employment

o Schools

o Health care

o All kinds of entertainment including dances, cinemas, theatres and other major social events

Many poor citizens in the rural areas know that the conditions in Mexico City will not be the perfect place, but they know that it would be better off than where they came from or at least willing to take the chance that the city will be better.

They were desperately needing shelter, cleaner water and better health care. Many people “step migrants”, meaning to go from a small rural town to a bigger area such as a big rural town and to a bigger area such as a small city then to Mexico City.

The technological and medical advances in the city also attracted many people, and since death rates have significantly dropped within the last couple of decades, the populations shot up because birth rates were still going up until around 1960.

2. Results of urbanization

There are many different results from the vast amount of immigration into Mexico City. One of the most important results is the pollution and the effort it has to the environment. The physical landscape of Mexico City limits pollutants released everyday within the city. Cold air flowing down from the mountains pushes and traps the pollution into a bowl shaped area formed by mountain ridges around the city. Although the elevation of the city is averaged at 2240m above sea level, the two mountains surrounding the Mexico City exceed 5000m in height. When combined with the forty-five thousand factories the city has, the air is so poisonous that 98% of the people suffer from inflammation of the nasal passage. Seventeen thousand tons of pollution is produced everyday. The amount of smoke when breathing the air in Mexico City in one day is equivalent to smoking sixty cigarettes. The leaded fuel is giving Mexico City citizens high lead blood level.

The cost of living in Mexico is around the cost of living in the U.S. On the other hand, even with the parent working sixteen hours a day, the income for the family is nowhere near what is needed. Children are forced to work because there is not enough income in the family to support everyone. By leaving their education to go to work, the children will lose their future. Often, the female will get pregnant as young as fourteen and fifteen and then their children will go through the same process; it has turned into a cycle.

Forty percent of the cities’ population are migrants. As poorer people migrant into the city, and the rich and the higher-class get wealthier, the gap increases and the elite must have security to keep the beggars and thieves out. The unemployed often goes to the rich to try to beg for some money.

Unless the new migrants are lucky and have a place to live in, most of the new migrants do not have a place to live in, they will build more houses to start new housing for themselves. In doing so, the size and shape of Mexico City increases more and more, making transportation harder and also creating more pollution. Also, in this case, many houses and building are not properly made and residents lack safe drinking water, underground sewers, or utilities. Sixty percent of the population is living in illegal settlement areas.

Resources of Mexico City is only diminishing, it is not increasing. Therefore, with the massive amount of immigrants, more are more resources are needed, but there isn’t any. Everyone in Mexico City now have to share the resources meaning that everyone that is poor will get a lesser amount to eat.

Also, of the 11000 tonnes of garbage is produced everyday, only 75% gets picked up and properly disposed of.

3. Efforts to address the problems/issues and an evaluation of these efforts.

There are a number of ways already suggested and being used to help Mexico City become a better environment. For the natural environment, the government has placed a law for the family owned cars to be driven for three days and then stop for one. In this case, the richer families bought more cars so they can drive it any day of the week. By doing this, those families create an even worst environment because of the cars that need to be built and manufactured. Another approach to a cleaner environment is to have new buses that are cleaner and more efficient. In recent years, the government is making stricter rules to reinforce the importance of the problems of the pollution.

New skills can be taught to the unemployed so that they can create work for themselves by making useful objects and helping others.

The governments of the more economically developed and the lesser economically developed are trying to work together to create a better work force. Right now, the government cannot control the migration going into the city and the government must have a better system. More economically developed countries will need to help not only by donating to the city, but also help by building houses and develop Mexico’s economy.

Population Growth in Mexico City Essay