The Dubai City Essay

The Dubai City Essay.

Dubai is the most populous city in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and is one among the seven emirates. It is situated on the Arabian Peninsula along the southern coast of the Persian Gulf. To distinguish it from the emirate, Dubai city is sometimes referred to as the Dubai Municipality. This city has been estimated to have existed for more than one hundred and fifty years prior to the formation of UAE. Within the federal framework, Dubai shares economic, political, military and legal functions with its fellow emirates.

However, each country has its own jurisdiction over special functions such as upkeep of local facilities, provision of local facilities and civic law enforcement (Brown, 2006, p. 15). In this union, Dubai has the largest population and is the second largest after Abu Dhabi. In the country’s legislature, veto power is exercised on matters that are considered of national importance. In the early 19th century, Dubai was established and operated independently until 1833. With the British government, the country signed the general maritime peace treaty.

In 1892, the country came under the protection of the United Kingdom after an exclusive agreement. The country has a history of being an important port for foreign based traders, most of them coming in from India. Ultimately, many of the traders ended up settling in the nation because of the conducive investment and trading environment the nation had. The fame of the country started as early as 1820s and is still very much pronounced today. Today, the nation is mostly referred to as the City of Dubai (Omar, 2006, p. 11). During these times, Dubai was very well known for exporting pearl.

Unanticipatedly, the trade was dismissed by the events of the World War 1 in 1930s. The effects of the great depression in the late 1920s also devastated the growth and development of the city. In the realm of the economic challenges the city faced, it experienced massive migration of people to seek better living in parts of the Persian Gulf. The 1950s marks the time when the British moved its local administration offices to Dubai and thus airport, telephone and electricity services were established in the city. The town joined Qatar in 1966 to form a new monetary unit, Dubai/Qatar Riyal.

This move led to the devaluation of the Gulf Rupee that had previously lasted as the medium of exchange. Still in 1966, oil was discovered in Dubai and the town granted concessions towards international oil companies. When it was discovered, a large influx of foreign workers mainly Pakistanis and Indians was experienced by the city (Ciecko, 2006, p. 19). Through some estimates, the population of the town grew by more than 300% from 1968 to 1975. The Britain protectors left the Persian Gulf in 1971, leading the emirates to join and form the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Dubai joined fellow emirates in adopting a uniform currency, the UAE dirham.

Despite the influx of the Lebanese immigrants fleeing civil war in Lebanon in 1970, the city continued to grow rapidly because of the revenues collected from trade and oil. In 1979, Jebel Ali port was established, becoming the largest manmade port around the world. This port enabled the foreign companies to have an unrestricted importation of labor as well as export capital (Rugh, 1997, p. 23). In 1990, the effects of the Persian Gulf War had a large impact on the city. This war created uncertainty in the political fields within the whole region. As a result, the economy experienced a shock as Dubai banks withdrew their funds massively.

During the Persian Gulf War, Kuwait trading community moved their businesses to Dubai. During the Shia unrest, communities from Bahrain also moved their businesses to the city since it was felt as the best investment site in the region by then. During the Persian Gulf War, the city provided refueling services at Jebel Ali free zone to allied forces. The town provided the same services during the 2003 invasion of Iraq. After the Persian Gulf War ended, oil prices increased largely, encouraging the nation to highly focus on tourism and free trade. The model to develop clusters of new free zones was fueled by the success of the port.

The clusters included Dubai Maritime City, Dubai Media City and the Dubai Internet City. Dubai marketed its tourism sector through the construction of Burj Al Arab which up to now serves as the tallest freestanding hotel in the world, and also as the most developed residential holdings. In creating Dubai’s skyline, the country since 2002 has experienced increases in private real estate investments. This development was aided through engaging in projects such as Burj Dubai, The World Islands and The Palm Islands (Khalaf, 2000, p. 27). In the recent years, the city had robust economic growth, which has been accompanied by high inflation rates.

In 2007, the rate of inflation stood as 11. 2%, measured against consumer price index. The inflation rise is attributed to doubling trend of residential and commercial rental costs, which have caused substantial increase of living costs for the citizens. The city lies directly within the Arabian Desert. Its topography is however different from the ones within the emirates zone, making the city appear unique. A larger portion of Dubai’s landscape is highlighted by gravel deserts and sandy desert patterns. Gravel deserts dominate the southern part of the city. The sand is composed of coral and crushed shell and it is also white, clean and fine.

The eastern part of the city is made up of a north south running line of dunes formed with salt crushed coastal plains. Far to the east, the dunes are tinged red with iron oxide (Sultan, et al, 1999, p. 31). There is a flat sandy desert forming a paving path towards the Western Hajar Mountains that found to stretch along the Dubai’s border with Oman at Hatta. These mountains have a landscape that in shattered, jagged and arid, rising to a height of 1300 meters. The city does not have any natural water body or oases, but only a natural inlet called Dubai creek, dredged to make it deeper for use by large vessels.

The city has multiple waterholes and gorges, at the base of Western Al Hajar Mountains. The vast sea of sand dunes in the southern part forms a desert known as the Empty Quarter. The city is located in a very stable zone, bearing in mind that Zargos Fault which is the nearest seismic fault line is one hundred and twenty kilometers from the UAE territory, limiting the possibilities of seismic impacts on Dubai. Through expertise consultation, the region has minimum possibilities of experiencing tsunami because the waters of the Persian Gulf are not deep enough to trigger the disaster (Marios, 2007, p.

16). The sandy desert that surrounds the city nurtures occasional date palm trees and also supports wild grasses. In the east of the city, desert hyacinths grow as ghaf and acacia trees grow in the flat plains. Dubai’s natural parks are composed of both indigenous and imported trees. The indigenous trees include neem and date palm whereas the imported trees mainly include eucalyptus. The parks still have a variety of animals such as Arabian Oryx, falcon, desert fox, caracal, striped hyena and the houbara bustard.

This city lies in a migration path of birds towards and from Africa, Asia and Europe, through which about 320 migratory birds pass during autumn and winter. The waters of Dubai also harbor more than 300 species of fish, with hammour being the most popular. The city has a hot and humid climate with monthly recordings of over 40 degrees Celsius. The highest recorded temperature is usually 47. 3 degrees whereas the lowest recorded is seven degrees. The city receives light rains of about 150 millimeters annually, precipitations coming in March, February and January. Heavy rains usually come in winter months, recording 120mm.

High humidity levels are experienced in cooler winter periods and the mean humidity in the country is 60% (Daniela, 2002, p. 24). Dubai has a multicultural and diverse community. This was after the arrival of nationals and ethnic groups, first Iranians, Indians and Pakistanis. Only infrequent and minor episodes of ethnic tensions have ever been reported despite the diversity of the whole population. The common conflicts occur between expatriates who are recently and frequently visiting the city. In 1994, Muslim laborers and the Hindu clashed leading to deportation and detainment of Pakistani and Indian workers.

The cosmopolitan nature of the society is indicated by the diversity of cuisine. Arab food is readily available and very popular. The consumption and sale of pork is regulated though not illegal, being sold in designated areas and to non Muslims. To purchase alcohol within the city, a liquor permit is required, or else obtained from restaurants and bars within five and four star hotels. Bollyhood and holly wood movies have made the city fame through their popularity. The city attracts celebrities from international cinema and the Arab community because it is where annual Dubai international film festival is held.

The nation has an active musical scene, with musicians Phil Collins, Celine Dion, Shakira, pink, Elton John, Santana, Aerosmith, Tarkan, Diana Haddad and Amrdiab having frequent visits to the city and making musical performances (Martin, 1993, p. 67). It is globally recognized as the tourism and commercial capital which is the most sophisticated, cosmopolitan and futuristic. The city is being regarded as something of a unique phenomenon. It is the fastest growing in terms of foreign population in the world composed of Muslim society which has developed harmony successfully through ethnic diversity.

It is a city with architectural ambition and unrivalled levels of economic energy. It is a city where architectural and modern stunning skyscrapers stretch alongside beautiful structures of Arabic tradition. The attractions and experiences in the city are varied and numerous. They range from rich exotic, Arabian heritage to miles of immaculate beautiful white sandy beaches, from lively international nightclubs, restaurants and bars to awe inspiring majesty of the desert. Visitors to this city are always assured of an incredible experience which they can not forget in their lives.

In 2003, Conde Nast Traveler magazine conducted a survey in which Dubai emerged the safest holiday destination all over the world. Despite this argument, Dubai is even today recognized as one of the safest cities in the world (Luxner, 2001, p. 37). The environment of the city is crime free because the Dubai police ensure personal security and safety. Serious crimes are subjected to high degrees of severe punishment. Offences that are considered serious are usually related to drugs and alcohol. The economy of the city of Dubai is service driven.

This means that services ranging from banking to telecommunication are efficiently and abundantly offered. Industrialization and international trade are accelerated through specialist free trade zones, offshore status and provision of favorable taxation advantages. The city has involved itself in innovative projects such as Dubai Internet City and the foundation of Dubai Media City. These projects have brought the 21st century technological and innovative advancements in the world’s very first free zone which is committed to the adoption of E-business, the City of Dubai (Smith, 2000, p.

45). Having realized that there is large international influx to the city, many entrepreneurs have concentrated on accommodation issues, guaranteeing visitors comfortable accommodation facilities. The accommodation agents offer everything ranging from shared accommodation, luxury apartments to private villas. There is a lot of rationality in relocation of houses so as to fit lifestyle and budgetary requirements. The reason as to why the city is an international centre for companies and workers is that the citizens enjoy purchases at tax free prices.

Job opportunities in the country are plentiful and diversified, especially after the addition of internet and media cities. The city is therefore expanding its horizons at unrivalled rate. The night life within the city is quite excellent with typical Irish pubs, themed bars, wine bars and cocktail bars, all of which offer entertainment and food as well. In many restaurants, high standard international cuisine is provided. For lively evening entertainment, numerous night clubs are available with fair accommodation requirements. Some of the major clubs within the city attract international singers and DJs.

There are also Asian, Indian, and Middle Eastern nightclubs which offer entertainment. The city welcomes international entertainment and international touring acts, catering for all ages and tastes from opera to international rock and pop bands, from traditional theatre groups to ballet and from low to high status. The first indoor ski resort in the Middle East is found in this city and is referred to as Ski Dubai. By considering the above attributes of this city, it would be logical to argue that the factors that have made this town famous and prosperous are many and diversified.

Growth of any city is given a big push by its relative economic ability. This is because it serves as the gear or the source of power through financing not only economic activities but also political, social and cultural aspirations. The economy of this city is one of the rapidly growing and expanding economies around the globe. Many investors have moved their business premises to the nation because of the investment climate prevailing in the city. The industrial sector of this city is very competitive worldwide because it has emerged a great threat to the developed world.

The manufacturing and industrial sectors have recently captured the attention of a large population around the world. This is because many exports especially by the developing world are sourced from the city, showing its diversity. In the city, it is said that items are cheaper compared to the rest of the world, making it a popular market area for many nations. The technology of the city in economic activities such as e-business has promoted it in the world of competition. Technological advancement is highly associated with innovations concerning ideas, goods and services (Alean, Graham, 2003, p. 13).

Through the innovation, high quality services are produced at lower costs. Therefore, the city is a place of mass production, high quality products, low costs and high profits. In a way, it has therefore ascended to the present heights because of the strong financial stability. Tourism serves as a big push mechanism through which nations and economies derive the power to advance in all spheres of life. The city of Dubai is now experiencing influx of populations from all over the world, some willing to stay there permanently and others temporarily. The tourism sector has given an aiding hand towards the budget of the city of Dubai.

Being the safest city in the Middle East, many people have sought refuge in the country in fear of political tensions, civil wars and intercommunity clashes. The geographical appearance and position of the city attracts many tourists from all parts of the world. The nature of the city has made it to act as a centre for diversity of the people, culture and experiences. This diversity has lifted the city’s ladder of business, justifying the nick name of the city as the business hub of Africa (Thiel, 2008, p. 41). The geographical aspects are the ones contributing to the mix of communities in the city.

It has been reported that people wish to explore the city at very young ages. Kids who happen to visit the city enjoy themselves through sledding hill by the use of rubber tubes and toboggans, where they bundle up in pastel colored snow clothes. Tall buildings are accessed by the use of comfortable and safe ski lifts. The beaches of this city are described as ‘‘bring your own towel’’ types because signs are in English, Arabic and Russian designs. Dubai is perceived as a third world racing to overtake the first world. It is a city that is surviving in dusty, garbage strewn and hidden neighborhood which is undocumented.

Following the friendly environment, nomadic Durban’s live in shacks and shanties behind condos. They have been nicknamed as bidoun, implying a person without passports, without a country and without national identification. However, this cream of society contribute magnificently to the national building, as some of them serve as low level police officers, contributing to the welfare of the city economically and socially. Within the city, there is an area where it is believed possible to spot the old Dubai. This is the museum of the city, called the Dubai museum. The museum is housed in an old fortress.

This is a funny zone in which people interact to the highest levels possible. It is considered funny because it encompasses all styles of life with mannequins of tea hawkers, carpenters, spice workers and hookah smokers. It is a place that makes people to feel ancient. The food store within this area is composed of carnation condensed milk, Libby’s canned pineapple and tide detergents. The presence of this ancient foods and exhibits makes people feel that they were in the days before the discovery of oil, which was Dubai in the early 1960s. The future of this city is deemed bright and prosperous.

This assumption is based on the way the city is adopting innovative and inventive ideologies. The high manpower and quality of the man power promises a stable future. The size of the economy gives hope to investors not only now, but also in the years to come. The world is joining the country to shape its future through participation in economic pillars of the city. Grabbing large population to act as the city’s customers and clients means that the world is building the city. The population influx from the neighborhoods and other parts of the world indicates that the world can see hope in the city for the days to come (Amin, 1997, p.

26). Since the geographical configuration of a nation can hardly change, the city will remain an attraction center for many years. This implies that the tourism sector will keep on expanding and thus push the economy forward. The strategies used by the investors give a healthy promise of good performance of the economy and welfare of the city generally. Products from the city competes the rest of the world in both quality and quantity. It has therefore the learned principles of mass production at low costs, low profitability but large sales.

Trade can only be deterred or accelerated by the pricing of the commodities in question for it is related to chasing away customers. Buyers around the globe consider Dubai a fair dealer in business work because of the fair prices they brand their commodities. Through this spirit, the city ends up selling more, earning less profits. When the low profits are accumulated at a high frequency, excellence in the margin of profits is arrived at (Crabtree, 2007, p. 10). The above arguments about the trust in future of the city of Dubai are however not automatic. This is because the world is very dynamic and challenging in all horizons and fields.

As we witness the economy of the city flourish, it can also take very short duration to collapse. For one, the global economy is characterized by high competition. Entrepreneurs around the globe must be thinking day and night on how to contain the challenges posed in the market by Dubai. The city should therefore realize that the world is not only watching but also thinking on how to rise to the top of the competition ladder. As a centre of globalization, it should be realized that conflicts do arise because technology is increasing the terrorism attacks. The peace of the city therefore depends on several components as time goes by.

In general terms, it will be wise to say that according to the infrastructural structures existing in the city of Dubai, the future off the city is seemingly bright. The fame and development of the city may continue to flourish in the coming ages. It is also wise to point out that the city should not reduce its attention towards change in economic, political, social and cultural concerns. This is because the time it will close its eyes, competitors will take the advantage and weed the city out. This means that for the city to flourish, reinstatement of the existing structures towards modernism is required.

Reference: Alean Al-Krenawi & Graham John (2003) Principles of Social Work Practice in the Muslim Arab World. Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ), Vol. 25, pp. 13 Amin Badr (1997) The Offsets Program in the United Arab Emirates. Middle East Policy, Vol. 5, pp. 26 Brown Valerie (2006). Live from Dubai: A New Chemical Agreement. Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 114, pp. 15 Ciecko Anne (2006) Festival Focus on Asia. Afterimage, Vol. 33, pp. 19 Crabtree Sara (2007) Culture, Gender and the Influence of Social Change Amongst Emirati Families in the United Arab Emirates.

Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 38, pp. 10 Daniela Anthony (2002) Dubai, Havana & Choosing between Evils. New Criterion, Vol. 21, pp. 24 Khalaf Sulayman (2000) Poetics and Politics of Newly Invented Traditions in the Gulf: Camel Racing in the United Arab Emirates (1), Ethnology, Vol. 39, pp. 27 Luxner Larry (2001) Dubai Ports Authority Sells Its Management Expertise. The Middle East, April, pp. 37 Marios Katsioloudes (2007) Corporate Social Responsibility: An Exploratory Study in the United Arab Emirates. SAM Advanced Management Journal, Vol. 72, pp. 16

Martin Josh (1993) Welcome to Well-Regulated Dubai. The Middle East, Vol. 16, pp. 67 Omar Abdelsamad (2006) Ports and Politics: Sinking US-UAE Relations. Harvard International Review, Vol. 28, pp. 11 Rugh William (1997) The United Arab Emirates: What are the Sources of Stabillity? Middle East Policy, Vol. 5, pp. 23 Smith Pamela (2000) Dubai Gears Up to Shop. The Middle East, March, pp. 45 Sultan Fahim, et al (1999) A Century in Thirty Years: Sheikh Zayed and the United Arab Emirates. Middle East Policy, Vol. 6, pp. 31 Thiel Peter (2008) The Optimistic Thought Experiment. Policy Review, pp. 41

The Dubai City Essay

Dubai Palm Island Essay

Dubai Palm Island Essay.

United Arab Emirates(UAE) is a country located on the Eastern side of the Arabian Peninsula bordering Saudi Arabia on one side and Sultanate of Oman on the other side. The country has its major coastlines strategically placed on the Arabian Gulf and others on the Oman Gulf. The country consists of seven different emirates which include Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Fujairah, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm Al Quiwan and Ras Al Khaimah. Each emirate in UAE operates as an independent state having a different ruler and an independent constitution.

Among the seven emirates, Abu Dhabi which is the capital city of UAE is the largest emirate and it occupies more than 80 percent of the entire country. An overview of Dubai. Dubai is the second largest emirate and it serves as UAE’s commercial center. It is the most popularly emirate due to its modern and rapidly growing cosmopolitan city. History: The origin of Dubai dates back to the 6th century when it existed as a caravan station.

It was then transformed into a small fishing village in the 18th century which was mainly inhabited by a group of people known as the Bani Yas tribe.

The village later became a small port mainly dominated by many trading activities such as fishing, agriculture, handcrafting and so forth. The turn of the 19th century marked the beginning of real growth for the small village and in 1971, Dubai joined hands with the other six emirates named above to form the UAE federation. In the 20th century, immigrants from Iran, Baluchistan and India settled in the region for trade and other business activities. During this period, the city started benefiting from international trade contracts and this gave it a quick start to economic growth.

The discovery of oil deposits in the 1960s led to even faster growth as it enabled the emirate to exploit its industrial abilities for greater economic benefits. The transformation of Dubai to the modern cosmopolitan city it is today is as a result of rapid growth and intensive development which has been experienced in the region for the past 20 years or so (Yasser, 2008). Area: The Dubai emirate is located on a region of about 2, 428 square miles with a population of around 1, 321, 453 people according to the most recent census. Language:

Arabic is the ancient and official language spoken in Dubai and it is widely used in both spoken and written modes of communication. Dubai boasts a wide variety of multi-cultural populations with more than 80 percent of its total population being expatriates from various regions across the globe. For this reason, other languages such as Hindu, Persian, Urdu and English are also common in the region. Currency: The local currency unit used in Dubai is dirham (Dhs) also referred to as the Arab Emirate Dirham. Notes come in denominations ranging from Dhs.

5 to Dhs. 1000 and each dirham is divided into 100 coins or fils. Economy: The last two decades have seen an incredible rate of economic growth in Dubai with more than 16. 7 percent growth in GDP per year in the past one decade or so. The high economic growth has been attributed to various economic activities which include trade, tourism, real estate and manufacturing activities. Trade has formed a very important tradition in Dubai which gave it the recognition as the ‘city of merchants’ in the Middle East region.

Due to its strategic location in the middle of Europe and the Far East, Dubai is a favorite business destination for large multinational companies as well as smaller private companies which wish to penetrate the lucrative markets in Middle East and parts of Africa. Apart from trade, the tourism industry is highly developed in Dubai and the past few years have seen it transform into one of the world’s favorite tourist destination. This development can be attributed to the increased establishment of high-end tourist attraction sites and the intense marketing campaigns at home and abroad.

Dubai is well known for the generous and hospitable nature of its residents as well as its rich cultural heritage which thelps to attract more foreign tourists to the region. Trade and tourism industries have been a major source of economic growth in Dubai for the last ten years and more growth is expected in the near future once the multi billion palm island project and other future projects are completed. Dubai Palm Island. The Dubai palm island commonly known as ‘The Palms’ refers to the three largest artificial palm islands in the world which are being built on the coast of Dubai emirate of UAE.

The three islands are named as Palm Jumeirah, Jebel Ali and Deira and they are expected to attract even more tourists to the region upon completion. Two of the palm islands (Jumeirah and Jebel Ali) are identical in terms of the palm shape which comprises of a trunk, a crown consisting of 17 fronds which are surrounded by an island in a shape of a crescent to serve as a breakwater for protecting the island from being hit by strong ocean currents and winds emanating form the Arabian gulf. The Deira palm is a bit different in that it has 41 fronds and is far much larger than the rest.

All the islands will host several hotels, residential villas, water homes, marinas, dive sites, spas, shopping malls, sport facilities, apartments among other facilities. The Palm Jumeirah. This is the smallest of the three islands located on the Jumeirah coastal area which covers an area of 5 square kilometers. Its design and construction which began in 2001 and was completed in the year 2007 has been claimed to be a clear exhibit of marine construction and a properly engineered vision since it merges extra-ordinary geography with fantastic experiences.

The completion of the palm has created around 560 hectares of land and added about 78. 6 kilometers to the original 72 kilometers coastline. The initial stages of the Palm Jumeirah construction involved the creation of an 11. 5 km break water from rock to encourage the creation of a natural reef. The transport system in the island designed by the MVA features a wide road network connecting the island to the main land via three bridges and an under water tunnel. A monorail is also under construction and this will help to connect the gateway bridge on the palm’s trunk with the Atlantis station on the palm’s crescent.

The island is a retreat center as well as a residential area which is suited for both living and leisure activities. It consists of many luxurious hotels and restaurants, well designed villas, homes, shoreline apartments, cafes, marinas and various retail business outlets. Palm Jebel Ali. This is the second largest of the three Dubai palm islands located at the Jebel Ali coastal area of the Dubai emirate. Its construction started in 2002 and is expected to be fully complete by the end of 2008.

It is expected to cover around 80 cubic meters and is more of an entertainment spot for both locals and tourists due to its variety entertainment spots in every sense. It consists of six marinas, a water park, several water homes and a sea village all built on the area between the fronds and the waterbreak. Upon completion, the island is to be encircled by the Dubai waterfront, another land reclamation which is a half times larger than the island. The palm’s major transport facilities include 300m bridges and a monorail system. Palm Deira.

This is the largest of the three palm islands a fact which makes it the largest man-made island in the world. It is built on the Deira coastal area of the Dubai emirate and unlike the other two islands, its palm shape consists of a trunk and a crown which has 41 fronds. It also has a crescent which serves as a waterbreak. The construction process of the Deira palm commenced on October 2004 and is expected to continue up to the year 2015 when it will be fully complete. The palm is expected to cover around 14 km in length and a width of about 8. 5 km.

Upon completion, the total area covered by the palm is expected to be around 80 km2. In addition, the island is expected to add a whooping 400 km of land to the shoreline. The palm comprises of residential homes, shopping malls, sports facilities, marinas and clubs. The residential property is designed to hold 8, 000 town houses built in three different styles which will include vista homes, Grand and Premier villas. The project idea. The palm project vision was first revealed by UAE’s prime minister and Dubai ruler HH Sheik Mohamed in the early 1990s (Vanstone, 2004).

This idea was conceived as natural progression effort to maintain the high standards of tourism in Dubai and it was also part of a process for coming up with a solution to create more beach front on the emirate’s coast line. The project design is the palm shape which was chosen to symbolize the Dubai heritage where the palm is known as the ‘bride of the Orchard’ and water which has for long been believed to be a source of food, shelter and provide means of trade. The palm shape provided the best geometry meant to create the much needed additional beach front on the emirate’s coastline.

Therefore, it can be said that, the main idea behind this multi billion land was to improve tourism in the region and more importantly, reclaim land at the coastal areas. Project development. The project for the three palm islands took an overwhelming four years of intensive planning and extensive feasibility studies to ensure that the establishment of the islands would not negatively affect the surrounding environment. These four years involved research studies, trials, surveys and assessments to form a strong project backbone.

Surveys were mainly done by the Emirates Nortech company based in Dubai which checked the volume of water both above and below the coastal water lines. Another Dubai based company known as Sogreth Gulf came up with a three dimensional physical model for the construction of the waterbreak crescent with assistance from the WL Delft Hydraulics company. Once the research statistics were completed, models verified and designs adapted, the project was funded and the construction process commenced.

The initial stages of project development involved laying down the foundations for the islands which involved sand transfer and placement of rocks to form a firm foundation. The next stage involved building transport and communication infrastructure facilities including bridges linking the islands to the main land. The final stage of the project involves the construction of hotels, apartments, villas and other structures on the island. Materials used. The palm project has been and is still being constructed by Nakheel Properties a popular UAE property developer.

The major materials used in the project include rocks and sand mostly derived from around sixteen quarries in UAE which are used to create the land mass on which the islands are constructed. Sand is dredged from the Persian Gulf and is then sprayed onto the given construction site using dredging ships in a process known as rainbowing. Rocks are mainly used to form the foundation of the crescent water-break and this helps to create a more or less natural reef on the islands.

Other building materials are also employed in the construction of facilities present on the island such as homes, villas and so forth. This has especially led to massive import of cement into the emirate. The main advantage of the materials used in this project is that both sand and rocks are easily available from different quarries in the UAE and this makes it cheaper and easier to transport the materials unlike if they had to be ferried from other regions of the middle East or elsewhere in the world.

Moreover, the major materials deployed in the project which are sand and rocks are natural hence giving the islands a natural touch although they are man made. Importance of tourism. The tourism industry in Dubai has experienced some rapid growth in the past few years a fact which has been attributed to its numerous entertainment and shopping facilities, favorable weather conditions, its strategic location which makes it easily accessible from any region in the world and its rich cultural heritage which make it a famous cosmopolitan city.

Reports by the Dubai Development and Investment Authority indicate that the tourism industry is the highest and fastest growing sector in Dubai’s economy. This industry is very important to the emirate’s economy as it helps to maintain a steady flow of dollars and other foreign currency which increases the amount of revenue collected in the emirate. The palm island project is aimed at increasing the amount of revenue earned by the tourism industry and it will also help to maintain and improve the global perception of Dubai as the best holiday destination of choice.

The islands which are the largest in the world will not only improve tourism in Dubai but also in the UAE and the Middle East region as a whole. The effects of the Palm Island on the Economy. The Dubai government has invested billions of dollars into the palm island project but economists foresee that the returns which will be garnered ones the project is completed will be far much higher than what has been invested. The islands are believed to provide a stable source of revenue for the emirate now and in future (Yasser, 2008).

The tourism industry has had a very big impact on the economy of Dubai and in fact, research findings have shown that the amount of revenue collected from the tourism industry has in the past few years expended that collected from the oil exports. The palm project is expected to attract more tourists from both the domestic and the international fronts thus enhancing the amount of foreign income collected into the tax-free Dubai economy. The project has completely diversified Dubai’s business opportunities and reduced over dependence of emirate’s economy on oil exports.

This is very important especially now considering the fact that oil resources in the region are faced by a threat of depletion in the near future (Rogers, 2003). In addition, the palm project comes with several benefits for the real estate industry through the sale of the residential properties located in the island and the emirate is expecting some massive revenue from the sale of the island properties to settlers and vacationers from both the local and international markets. So far, almost all the homes and residential properties on all the islands have been sold even before their completion.

Effects of the palm island project on the environment. The palm island project is nearing completion and the whole world is anticipating to receive the eighth world wonder. As it has already been mentioned above, some extensive studies and environmental surveys were carried out prior to the project commencement to ensure that it would have minimal negative effects on the surrounding environment. The developers also took time to transfer all the fish and other marine animals which lived close to the construction site to more safer grounds.

However despite all this, the project is believed to have some very adverse effects on the marine life and the environment as a whole. The islands have left a significant scar on the marine life due to changes at the sea level and this is likely to lead to adverse changes in the ecosystem. First of all, the continuous dredging, deposition and redeposition of sand used for construction of the islands has led to clouding of the gulf waters with a lot of silt which is believed to be slowly choking the marine organisms thereby killing them (Werren, 2005).

The construction process is destroying the marine habitats, covering the coral reefs and the oyster beds and damaging the sea grasses. The oyster beds and the coral reefs provide food and shelter for the marine animals and therefore, their destruction has greatly threatened those marine species which depend on oysters and sea grasses for survival. In addition, the coastal beaches have become continuously eroded due to the disruption of natural currents by the waterbreaks built on the islands.

This destruction of the coastal beaches and silt deposition has greatly affected traditional activities in the region such as commercial fishing and some recreational activities such as scuba-diving and water sports. Moreover, the site where the palm Jebel Ali is located was originally a marine reserve and the island construction led to relocation of the marine wildlife while some of them were destroyed (Riegl, 2004). Although the developers argue that they will replace the marine biodiversity upon completion, ecologists argue that such artificial structures can not effectively replace the natural habitats.

In addition, the ecologists have expressed concerns that standardization of the marine habitats and environment will lead to the extinction of the native marine species and might result in the evolution of new species which are likely to be destructive in nature. Concerning this environmental concerns, the Nakheel developers concede that burying of the coral reefs has greatly changed the marine environment but they argue that they will try to reverse the detrimental effects once the project is complete.

This will include the establishment of some artificial coral reefs to compensate for the destroyed ones. However, environmentalists are not very optimistic about this since they doubt whether the artificial reefs will serve a similar purpose as that served by the natural reefs (Purkis, 2005). On a more positive note, the construction of Palm Jumeirah has provided an artificial diving park and a snorkler’s cove which has a composition of traditional marine life.

For the diving park, the developers intend to sink several wrecks to facilitate a more enticing experience for the divers and some optimistic project backers believe that the wrecks will lead to reef expansion which help to provide shelter for fish and other marine animals thus leading to community diversification. Another positive effect of the project is based on the fact that, the island provides a totally new kind of environment which is not available elsewhere and this is likely to encourage the emergence of some new species of flowers, shrubs and trees on the islands which will survive on sea water only.

This will not only add physical beauty to the island but will also spare the fresh water resources on the islands. In general it can be said that though the project has some negative effects on the environment, its overall effects are quite beneficial to the environment in terms of adding physical beauty and development of new species of flora and fauna which will lead to increased biodiversity. References. Purkis, R. (2005). Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Arabian Gulf Coral Assemblages. Marine Ecology Progress Series 287:99-113. Riegl, B. (2004). A New reef Marine Reserve in the Southern Arabian Gulf: Jebel Ali, Dubai.

Coral Reefs 17(4): 398. Rogers, T. (2003). Conferences and Conventions: A Global Industry. Heinmann: Butterworth. Werren, G. (2005). Supplemented Vegetation Report and Fauna Habitat Assessment of Sites Associated with the proposed water supply augmentation dam for the Palm Island Community. Consultant’s report. Townsville: Gutteridge Haskens and Davey. Vanstone, A. (2004). Army Project for Palm Island [online]. Available at <<http://guide. theemiratesnetwork. com/living/dubai/the_palm_islands. php>> Accessed on 2 October, 2008. Yasser, E. (2008). The Evolving Arab City: Tradition, Modernity and Urban Development.

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