Forensic Toxicology Essay

Forensic Toxicology Essay.

1. What are the three areas covered by forensic toxicology?
Toxicology covers post-mortem drug testing, workplace drug testing and investigations into contraband materials.

2. Name six specimen types that are often tested in forensic toxicology. Under what circumstances is each specimen preferred? Blood – When testing for DUI’s, and two samples for every death case. Urine – Preemployment drug testing and is preferred over blood as its eacsy to collect large amounts. Bile and liver fluid – Useful for identifying certain types of drugs Hair – Preemployment testing and is advantageous for looking further back in time Oral fluid – Provides the same benefits of urine without invasion of privacy Breath – Used for preliminary test on highways

3. Name the NIDA 5. Draw a table showing the following characteristics of each drug: structure of a representative molecule, drug group, symptoms of overdose and drug source. National Institute on Drug Abuse 5 cites the following drugs 4. Name several groups of medicinal drugs often involved in fatalities. What characteristics render a drug most likely to be associated with overdose deaths? Sedative hynotics, cardioactive agents, antipsychotic agents, antiepileptic drugs and antidepressants.

Miss use, or organ damage leading to failure of metabolism.

5. A 210-pound male consumes three highballs each of which was made with 2 ounces of 80 proof whiskey. What is the expected peak in his blood alcohol concentration? His blood alcohol concentration would raise by less than 0.06% as he is larger than an average male.

6. Name three methods for drug screening describe the advantages and disadvantages of each.

Name
Advantages
Disadvantages
Immunoassays
High sensitivity
Not 100% specific
Thin Layer Chromatography
Can identify hundreds of compounds in one run and is inexpensive
Labour intensive and highly technical
Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometry
Reliable compound recognition
Cannot identify less specific features

7. Contrast gas chromatography with and without a mass spectrometer detector. Describe the advantages of the latter technology. Gas chromatography without a mass spectrometer detector relies solely on retention time however the use of a mass spectrometer detector allows for all components of a mixture to be separated. The advantages of mass spectrometer detectors are that it’s often highly unique and provides a fingerprint of the molecule and therefore one can use both the retention time and unique mass spectrum in order to identify substances.

8. What are three methods of metal analysis? Which is the optimal method and why? Three of the methods of metal analysis are colormetric assays, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry and neutron activation analysis however inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry is the optimal method as it is the most modern and of very high quality.

9. Describe the process of interpreting drug results in the context of preeemployment drug testing. Why is drug testing for employed individuals more difficult? Preemployment drugs test usually use the person in question’s urine, results are interpreted by comparing the level measured to an acceptable baseline. These baselines are not set at 0 because even second hand exposure can lead to trace amounts being metabolised and shown in the urine. Drug testing employed individuals is more difficult as it is usually in the context of confirming that drug abuse was the cause for erratic behaviour, this involves a blood test rather than urine, and further to this there is no agreed level of drug in a system that can be classed as a “cause” for behaviour.

10. In a published case, an elderly woman with cancer dies. Three fentanyl patches are found on her body. Discuss the investigation of her death with respect to factors that would be significant to the forensic toxicologist in arriving at the cause and manner of death. The patches would be collected as evidence and tested for how much of the active ingredience was still present in the patches and two post mortem blood tests would be taken, one from the heart and one from an extremity, potentially the sites that the patches were applied to would be examined or swabbed also. The main factor in establishing the cause of death would be blood test results.

Forensic Toxicology Essay

Code of the Streets Essay

Code of the Streets Essay.

Code of the Streets is a book set in an inner city neighborhood in Philadelphia written by Elijah Anderson. The “code of the streets” combined with respect, loyalty, and honor is a system used to regulate social interactions within the city. The people within the inner city are pressured into living by the code of the street as a survival mechanism. The book describes the issues that are present within the city like teen pregnancy and the absence of economic opportunity.

Anderson used ethnography research methods to obtain his information on the African American’s in certain parts of the city in the 1990’s. His research accounted for street violence and the disadvantaged African American in the communities.

The drug industry is one of the underlying issues associated with the code of the street. Economically these communities are deprived and are covered with drugs and crimes resulting in joblessness, oddly enough the people turn to violence and drugs for economic gain.

The drug trade creates economic trade within the communities, and even though being a drug dealer is risky they enjoy the rewards that come with job. Some people see drug dealing as a legitimate way to get goods like clothes or food. Being able to get such goods further strengthens their status within the streets. As more and more kids are being brought up on the streets they need role models and someone there for them to keep them on a straight path.

In the book Anderson talks about the difference between “decent families” and “street families”. A decent family is middle class and hardworking they had mainstream values and attempt to include them in their children’s lives. Decent parents are more willing to use schools and churches to help their children. They also teach their children to be polite and use manners as well as how to defend themselves when it comes to violence and not being another victim to the streets. Street families on the other hand do not identify with society they have a lack of concern and do not really establish a since of family and community. Street parents use the code of the streets as a way to coerce their children into violent behaviors.

Family members usually resort in self destructive behaviors like drugs and alcohol. For the children in decent homes it is important for them to grow up street smart and to recognize the street codes, and for the children growing up in street homes it was important for them to know the preparations for drug trades and even sometimes murder. The children in these neighborhoods are brought up on what the family believes to be most valuable to them.

In the streets your nothing without respect and people will do anything to get it. They do many things to get respect like fighting, jumping someone, or even shooting someone. If you live in the streets and you did not have respect people would try every day to get at you or you would be tested by people who saw you as vulnerable. Without a reputation in the streets a person’s credibility would be questionable.

In Anderson’s thesis he argues that the code of the streets is the result of cultural adaption is socially and economically poor communities. He even states that by abiding by the code a person can reduce their risk of being victimized. The high violence rates among young African American’s males have led to some concerns and more research based on Anderson’s findings.

Code of the Streets Essay

Does boredom lead to trouble? Essay

Does boredom lead to trouble? Essay.

Boredom sometimes does lead to trouble. In most cases in young ages, sometimes people would actually start to think of things to do that they would know are wrong and just do it because it is something to do. I have been in example in this type of situation and got in trouble multiple times. It is as if when boredom strikes, trouble crosses my mind. When you do not feel stimulated through activity you’ll end up looking for some sort of stimulation, which could be trouble.

In my personal experience, I had gotten in trouble because of being bored and finding something stupid to do. In example, when I was in SASA the summer program for Coppin, my friends Shawan, Dominique and I were always getting into trouble because we were bored, one time we threw a party in an unauthorized place at 2am because we were bored, got caught by Ms. Perrish (the head Peer Leader) and she almost sent us home and we would not have been able to attend Coppin State University instead she took our visitation for our first semester.

It was not only us three in there it was about 20 girls in the room and we all would have been sent home but that would not have looked good on Ms. Perrish part if she would have sent us all home.

But a lot of teens are this way, they tend to get bored and do stupid things. In example, I read this essay on blogspot.com and this girl said she tends to get in trouble as well. In her third paragraph she states, “For me, boredom can lead to trouble. Why? Because when we get bored, it is possible that we try to find something more exciting. Here are some activities we usually do when we get bored.” She makes the point that this is not uncommon and that other teens go through this.

However, my friend Dominique learned her lesson, keeps herself occupied, and stays out of trouble. On the other hand, Shawan and I, do dumb things as if we have a death wish or wish to not continue going to Coppin. We came back in the freshman year, and within a week we had a floor meeting discussing how we’re not supposed to drink and smoke on campus, I feel as if there statements about drinking on campus went in one ear and out of the other because as soon as the meeting was over, our friend Justin had kickback in his room with drinks. And it wasn’t just regular drinks it was a big cooler mixed with multiple drinks and then bottles surrounding the cooler.

Shawan and I were bored so we stayed because it was something to do. I even introduced them to the drinking game that Shawan and I made up, I swear while we were in the room something was telling me to grab Shawan and roll out but as soon as we could get ourselves up, Mr. Davis and Mr. Vital came in and raided the entire room from top to bottom. Mr. Davis took our Ids for the night and we had to get them the next day. They could have kicked us off campus but instead we have to get up at 9am on Saturdays and Sundays to clean the residence halls, we have to take alcoholic classes and our visitation is token away until 2016.

In some cases trouble can mean drugs, “Boredom and a wad of cash can lead young Americans to substance abuse, according to a Columbia University survey released Tuesday” stated by Francie Grace from cbs news. Young people ages 12 to 17 who are frequently bored are 50 percent likelier than those not often bored to smoke, drink, get drunk and use illegal drugs, said the study by the university’s National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse. Those with $25 or more a week in spending money are nearly twice as likely as those with less to smoke, drink and use illegal drugs, and more than twice as likely to get drunk, the study said.

Some people may argue that boredom does not lead to trouble but I think it would be best to argue that boredom does not lead to trouble in certain people because it clearly leads to trouble with me and my friends. Some teens have that mentality whereas though they won’t let their boredom lead into trouble. However, according to debate.org 67% of their bloggers say yes boredom leads to trouble and 33% say no. One of the bloggers on debate.org made a point stating that, “it also really depends on the person’s life situation, because typically if they’re from a broken home stress would come along with boredom and that could cause trouble trying to find some sort of comfort.”

Boredom leads to trouble because when you do not feel stimulated through activity you’ll end up looking for some sort of stimulation; however the outlets in which we stumble upon may not be legal, safe, or logical. There are a lot of stupid things I do because I am bored, but I also believe it is because I am young and I do not care but I guess I will learn one day.

Works Cited
“Does Boredom Lead to Trouble?” http://www.debate.org/opinions/does-teenage-boredom-lead-to-trouble “Teen Boredom Breeds Drug Use.” Cbsnews.org. Francie Grace, Sept. 4, 2002 “Does Boredom Lead to Trouble?” Blogspot.com. Crapkymz_012, Sept. 22, 2011

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Does boredom lead to trouble? Essay