Johnson & Johnson Diversity Plan Essay

Johnson & Johnson Diversity Plan Essay.

Johnson & Johnson was formed in 1885 in Brunswick, New Jersey, after two brothers, James Wood and Edward Mead Johnson saw a need to develop sterile supplies for surgical procedures. During that time, doctors operated without gloves, sterile equipment and used unclean cotton from textile mills to pack the wounds so the mortality rate for surgical patients was very high. One of the first products Johnson & Johnson developed was ready to use surgical dressings which to led to large reduction in surgical mortality rates.

Johnson & Johnson continued developing and expanding their product line and their company.

In 1919, Johnson & Johnson began their first international expansion. The brothers first expanded into Canada and after an around the world trip in 1923 began to develop business in many more countries. They expanded into Australia in 1931, Sweden in 1956 and Japan in 1961 (Johnson & Johnson, 1997-2007). Over the next 60 years, Johnson & Johnson had established companies in over 50 countries.

During their international expansion, Johnson & Johnson also diversified their product line.

They eventually organized their operations into three main divisions; pharmaceutical, medical devices and diagnostics, and consumer products (Answers Corporation, 2007). They became well known for the talcum powder, band-aids and the pain reliever, Tylenol. In 1932, Robert Wood Johnson II, known as General Johnson succeeded his uncle to take over running Johnson & Johnson. The General believed strongly in decentralization within the entire organization and all the divisions both in the United States and internationally were given authority to make their own decisions.

The General was also responsible for developing the Johnson & Johnson credo in 1943 and it is still in force today. The credo is defines the four primary responsibilities of the organization in their order of their importance. Johnson & Johnson’s first responsibility is to its customers, then to its employees, then to the community, and finally to its shareholders (Lukas, 2003). Believing and enforcing in this credo is what has made this organization what it is today and helped Johnson & Johnson overcome one of the most critical times in its history when it dealt with the Tylenol poisonings. The first priority of Johnson & Johnson was then and is still today the safety of its consumers.

Johnson & Johnson believes in diversity of its organization, its product line and its vendors. The organization has both an Office of Global Diversity as well as a supplier diversity program (Johnson & Johnson, 1997-2007). They believe encouraging diversity increases both their economic prosperity as well as benefiting each social community where they are located. By encouraging diversity throughout its entire organization, Johnson & Johnson has become one of the largest global health care leaders in the world.

William C. Weldon, Chairman, Board of Directors and Chief Executive Officer for Johnson and Johnson sets a clear course for the diversity action plan for the company. He states in his “Chairman’s Message” on the J&J website, how the company interacts with a diverse group of stakeholders daily and how both internal and external partnerships allow the company to more than it could on its own. With that in mind the company must create a Diversity Action Plan that allows employees to grow, develop and assume more responsibility, creating extraordinary leaders in the business sectors around the world (J&J.com).

Cultural NormsJ&J is committed to having its own operating companies purchase goods and services from a diverse supplier base that contributes to the economic vitality of the communities in which we live and work. To achieve this goal J&J has created a Supplier Diversity Program in 1998. The intent of this program is to provide value to the company and to enhance the company’s role as a health care leader throughout the world. The included in the program are:

•Certified minority-owned businesses, small and large

•Certified woman-owned businesses, small and large•Certified Small Disadvantaged Businesses•Small veteran-owned and service disabled veteran-owned businesses•Small, certified HUBZone businessesThe HUBZone Empowerment Contracting program provides federal contracting opportunities for qualified small businesses located in distressed areas. Fostering the growth of these federal contractors as viable businesses, for the long term, helps to empower communities, create jobs, and attract private investment (SBA.gov).

Another area the company attempts to enhance its image both in the US and around the world is through the development of Standards for Responsible External Manufacturing. These were developed to ensure the companies who do business with the company meet the same high standards of ethical behavior, product quality, and social responsibility practiced by J&J. There has to be common commitment to:•comply with applicable legal requirements,•behave ethically and with integrity,•integrate quality into business processes,•treat people with dignity and respect,•promote the safety, health and well-being of employees,•operate in an environmentally responsible manner, and•implement management systems to ensure ongoing performance and continual improvement (J&J, 2006)

These values and practices are determined through a vigorous benchmarking process for which any potential manufacturing partner must meet before becoming associated with the J&J Family of Companies. There is a two-fold advantage to this process. The first is it allows potential partners the opportunity to understand the values that drive the organization as well as providing them with a template for the sustainability the J&J Company has demonstrated. In addition, the high standards set by the company are not compromised by external manufacturing partners that could damage the J&J image.

To maximize their diverse workforce, the company has a vision statement in place that allows the company to maximize the benefits. The following is the company’s vision statement:The Johnson & Johnson Family of Companies will realize this vision by:•Fostering inclusive cultures that embrace our differences and drive innovation to accelerate growth;•Achieving skilled, high performance workforces that are reflective of the diverse global marketplace;•Working with business leaders to identify and establish targeted market opportunities for consumers across diverse demographic segments; and•Cultivating external relationships with professional, patient and civic groups to support business priorities.

The statement allows the diverse workforce by utilizing the vision statement by including the company’s belief (Credo). The credo, Latin for “I believe”, guides the company to the responsibilities as they relate to customers, employees, community and shareholders. The responsibilities are as follows:To our customers: we will embrace diversity in order to respect, understand and meet their varying health care needs.

To our employees: we will ensure a diverse and inclusive workplace, offer merit-based opportunities for employment and advancement and provide the necessary resources to develop our next generation of leaders.

To our communities: we will recognize opportunities to improve economic and human health care in the areas in which we live and work.

To our shareholders: we will oppose acts of intolerance and be mindful of the positive impact that diversity and inclusion have on our businesses.

J&J over the years has continuously looked toward technology to play key role in J&J’s strategic initiatives. The different approaches to productivity have varied throughout the years. Many factors contribute to the productivity and success of the J&J Company. Technology has played an important role in J&J’s ability to remain competitive and to continuously innovate. It is through technology that J&J’s management team is able to refine processes, collaborate, innovate, and increase the productivity of the organization in today’s dynamic business environment that is changing continuously.

The success of these companies is attributed to all the successful mergers and acquisitions that have taken place throughout J&J history. Many of these companies were opened due to successful mergers that allowed J&J to develop new products and offer them in different markets throughout the world. The successful organization of the products J&J offers allows J&J to successfully merge with other companies to gain additional control over the industry.

The result of this Credo is a healthy bottom line that is socially responsible. J&J history of philanthropy through partnering with other companies from around the world has created programs dedicated to providing needed services over the long term. J&J does not have a mission statement because the ethical principals listed in the Credo drive the company. The customer first philosophy insures the needs of the customer are met. Another principal outlined in the Credo is the dedication to producing a high quality product. Through this set of values the company has developed a trust with the consumers of their products. Trust develops into a reputation of integrity that in turn provides the company with a basis for business strategies. This ethical high road approach is a proven winner in this function.

Problem solving involves many departments and many steps. Technology plays an integral part in J&J’s ability to innovate, perform research and development, and manage the logistics associated with the distribution of a product during the products lifecycle.

J&J defines diversity “as a variety of similar and different characteristics among people, including age, gender, race, religion, national origin, physical ability, sexual orientation, thinking style, background and all other attributes that make each person unique.” Although some differences may not be obvious as others, Johnson & Johnson strives to understand and remove barriers that one may face due to these differences. Johnson & Johnson utilizes these differences to create a working environment where their employees can thrive. J&J believes that diversity helps the interaction between people as well as inspiring innovation.

J&J is committed to the practice of their global diversity vision which they use to identify their key, future objectives while guiding the fulfillment of their commitments to their customers, employees, the global community and their shareholders. Johnson & Johnson supports various educational opportunities such as Diversity University and Affinity Groups. J&J’s Diversity University provides an internal, full range of Diversity e-learning courses, diversity best practice information, and is a comprehensive diversity resource and database for employees. Affinity Groups are voluntary, employee-driven groups that are organized around a particular shared interest or dimension. These groups have been initiated by employees and usually focus on a shared interest or characteristic, such as race, ethnicity, gender or sexual orientation. Each group’s main intent is to create an open forum for idea exchange and to strengthen the linkage to and within diverse communities.

The successful leadership of the workers and the quick safety decisions that have had to be made, for example the recall of 264,000 bottles of Tylenol in 1982 and then a second recall in 1986, have made J&J a reputable name that many have grown to know and trust.

References

Answers Corporations. 2007. Johnson & Johnson. Retrieved June 27, 2007 from http://www.answers.com/topic/johnson-johnson?cat=biz-finJohnson & Johnson. Global Diversity – It’s All of Us. Retrieved June 30, 2007 fromhttp://www.jnj.com/our_company/diversity/index.htm;jsessionid=EGT3V0ZLGAFE0CQPCCFWU2YKB2IIWTT1Johnson & Johnson (2007). Supplier Diversity Program. Retrieved July 2, 2007 from http:www.jnj.comJohnson & Johnson (2006). Sustainability Report. Retrieved July 4, 2007 from http:www.jnj.comJohnson & Johnson. 1997-2007. Our Company. Retrieved June 26, 2007 fromhttp://www.jnj.com/our_company/index.htmLeading with Diversity – The New York Times. Retrieved June 29, 2007 fromwww.nytimes.com/marketing/jobmarket/diversity/jandj.htmlLukas, P. (2003, April). Johnson & Johnson. FSB: Fortune Small Business. Vol.13, Iss. 3; pg. 91. Retrieved June 26, 2007 from ProQuest database.

SBA.gov (2007). HUBZone Empowerment Contracting program. Retrieved July 5, 2007 from https://eweb1.sba.gov/hubzone/internet/general/whoweare.cfm#3The Diversity Vision Statement, Retrieved 06/29/07 fromhttp://www.jnj.com/our_company/diversity/diversity_vision/index.htmThe company Credo, Retrieved on 06/29/07 fromhttp://www.jnj.com/our_company/diversity/credo/index.htm

Johnson & Johnson Diversity Plan Essay

Teaching A Diverse Population Essay

Teaching A Diverse Population Essay.

Diversity within the American classroom makes the process of teaching and learning a growing challenge.  The faces of today’s students are becoming increasingly dissimilar. Schools are faced with the challenge of integrating the cultures and ethnicities of American based curriculum and students from a variety of cultures and ethnicities. Each of these students brings different culturally based rules, expectations, value systems, and educational needs to the learning environment. Facing the challenge of educating these increasingly culturally and ethnically diverse learners begins not only with a change in the management, pedagogy, and instructional delivery system, but also with a change in designers, trainers, or teachers.

Research indicates that most mainstream cultural educators automatically view the world exclusively from their own viewpoints, which serves as a reference against which all others should be evaluated. This process has been commonplace in the classroom.  This results in an unwarranted belief that one’s own way of doing things is “best” and that one’s own group is markedly superior to another.

“Generally speaking, this type of person is the one who neither understands nor accepts the culturally different learners’ values, their motives, the rewards that are meaningful to them, their locus of control, their linguistic systems, their learning styles, and their cognitive styles.” (Zhang, 2001)  This is a person who may, upon entering or creating a learning environment, do so with cultural orientations and expectations that reflect his/her own cultural values and expectations.  This can create an environment that perpetuates the predominant culture and shuts out others learners.

Zhang identified talking points to enable an educational system evaluate their ability to meet the needs of minority or diverse students.  These questions include:

(1) What form of educational system is most familiar to the students?

(2) What kind of learning environment is most customary to these students?  In some cultures, for example, teachers are revered individuals who teach sacred truth. The task of the students is to absorb knowledge, and they seldom disagree with the teacher. In the programs designed for these particular students, we can put more fundamental basic skills for them to memorize.

(3) How do the cultural backgrounds of the students influence their uses and views of time? Americans’ uses and views of time reflect cultural biases that alter their educational processes.  In contrast to the American clock-oriented value, some cultures are not conditioned to use every moment in a productive, task-oriented manner.  Classrooms may not be able to design curriculum in a strictly time-controlled system. Some students may need more time.

(4) What kind of relationship is most natural for these students to have with the teachers? The teacher-student relationship is culturally mandated.

(5) What rewards are attractive to these students? Rewards and reinforcement for learning differ in effectiveness across cultures. Some cultures teach their children different reward systems.  For instance, verbal praise, which is viewed by most teachers as a reward, is not perceived as such by children of some minority groups.

(6) How can the program use some slang? American classrooms are structured on standard English, but some minority students feel more comfortable learning in a rather informal setting. The use of some slang in the program may improve learning achievement.

(7) “What about the students’ cognitive styles?” American schools favor the abstract, conceptual style. Studies have shown that some cultural groups develop different cognitive styles.

Some theorists express the view that culturally different children are often judged as incompetent, whereas in reality, it is their individual performance, not their competence, which is deficient. The gap between competence and performance is attributed to inappropriate situation cues –inappropriate because they fail to stimulate the child into action. Mathematics requires more abstract, conceptual ability. Some minority students develop their cognitive style with concrete, objective base. Therefore “situated learning” environment supported by most of constructivism theorists is a good choice.  (Zhang, 2001)

            Zhang offers the following criteria to evaluate a good culturally balanced curriculum:

1)  Materials are respectful of cultural, ethnic, sexual, and/or religious diversity.

2) A balance of historical perspectives is represented that recognizes the complexity underlying historical events, especially wars, and politics.

3) Gender inclusiveness is evident.

4) A balanced perspective on the values and contributions of diverse cultures is represented.

5) Images and icons are sensitive to cultural taboos and customs.

6) An ethical perspective is presented that maintains that cultural practices should be respected unless they violate principles of basic humanity.

7) Ethnic groups are represented in ways that reflect the diversity within these groups.

8) A balance of different cultures and societies is represented in images or texts.

9) Ethnic groups are represented in ways that reflect accurately their overall contributions to society.

10) Ethnic pluralism based upon respect for differences are held forth as the ideal approach to societal development.

Teachers are well aware of the demographic trends in today’s schools indicating that the student population is becoming more ethnically, culturally, and racially diverse.  Curriculum development and teachers are challenged to provide meaningful, relevant, and motivating educational interventions to all learners. Instruction must be responsive to the needs of these new learners, who often have backgrounds different from our own.

This pluralistic focus, which requires us to accommodate diversity in the education process, must start with our own cultural  sensitivity.  This requires being able to view the world from the standpoint of a culture other than one’s own.  For educators, this means accepting as valid the culturally different learners’ values, their motives, rewards that are meaningful to them, their locus of control, their linguistic systems, their learning styles, and their cognitive styles. Incorporating these issues into program designs, valuing this diversity and seeing it as an asset to meaningful and effective instruction are key components for relevant instructional design.

Deep Teaching

                        Angela Rickford, while assessing the progress of reading skills among culturally diverse classrooms, found that there still exists inequities with the system and the instruction methods of teachers.  Rickford identified six sound principles, which formulate her theory on “deep teaching,” which is defined as “a teacher’s ability to communicate and impart stated concepts, curriculum content and lesson objectives to a class of students with enjoyment, clarity, understanding, and the permanent acquisition of new knowledge by those students even if they are academically challenged.”

The six principles identified in deep teaching are: 1) student engagement, 2) learner participation, 3) repetition and reinforcement, 4) high expectations, 5) sound pedagogy and 6) conceptual understanding.

Student engagement: In order to educate our children successfully, we should first seek to discover where their interests lie, and then teach to those interests.

Contemporary educators believe that a curriculum that incorporates real-world connections and applications will engage learners. Real-life work is meaningful to students, and effective as it allows the student to apply what they are learning.  Rickford promoted culturally relevant literature for teaching ethnically diverse students–literature containing themes, ideas, and issues that are consonant with their lived experiences, and with which they could readily identify.

Learner Participation:  The second element of learner participation forms a natural pairing with student engagement. In the classroom, the reading teacher must be a facilitator of knowledge, and a guide and coworker. The current educational emphasis is on learning strategies such as partner reading, shared reading, homogeneous and heterogeneous grouping, authentic assessment and interactive reading comprehension techniques (predicting, visualizing, questioning, and self-monitoring), and on communication and interaction. These techniques are designed to foster a participatory, pro-active, hands-on approach to student learning.

Repetition and Reinforcement:  Practice it until you can get it without thinking. It should be automatic.  It should become part of the individual.

Expectations:  The issue of low expectations continues limit the progress made by minorities in today’s classrooms in both direct and indirect ways. It has been well documented that low expectations are endemic in the mechanism of schooling that supports low-achieving students, and the trend is further manifested in fundamental measures of excellence such as teacher quality, teaching pedagogy, classroom management, and curricular selection.  The direct impact of low expectations on the part of classroom teachers has a cumulative effect on students.

One of social psychology’s most profound contributions to education has been the finding that teacher expectations can affect both children’s intellectual growth and their academic achievement.  High expectations should be the prevailing standard for all students.

Sound Teaching and Conceptual Understanding:  Sound teaching pedagogy is the principle upon which the successful transfer of knowledge from teacher to student depends, while conceptual understanding is what the student gains when that knowledge has been successfully transferred. Sound teaching pedagogy and conceptual understanding are the hallmarks of effective teachers. Research has shown further that teacher knowledge and expertise are directly and systematically related to student growth and achievement.

Multicultural Strategies

Coleman & Hamm identified multicultural strategies (integration, fusion, and alternation) that involve a desire to relate positively to individuals from multiple cultural groups, and are characterized by positive attitudes toward one’s own and other groups, a moderate to high degree of facility with the roles and values of multiple groups, and a belief that members of different cultures can successfully form positive relationships.

Although integration, fusion, and alternation strategies differ with respect to the specific knowledge, beliefs, and skills that guide them, each is based on a belief that cultural boundaries can and should be implemented successfully without compromise to either culture and are believed to motivate behavior to further integration.

A common experience in ethnically diverse schools is to collaborate in a group format on academic tasks with peers who are from one’s own, as well as from other ethnic groups.  Using a multicultural strategy, students would interact with all members of the learning group, taking steps to ensure that group members of all ethnic backgrounds are respected and are involved with the project.

Learning as a Social and Cultural Process

            Given that research has demonstrated the under-performing of minority students within the Western classroom, perhpas learning is primarily a social and cultural process.  This is not to diminish the role of the individual; however, individual thinking is strongly influenced by cultural assumptions and beliefs.  Because all communities do not think, believe, or learn in identical ways, there may still be much, that is confusing to or misunderstood by children with  language, culture, and socioeconomic differences. Teachers must be willing to learn not only who their students are but also who they, themselves, are as cultural beings and how that strongly affects their teaching.  (Pransky & Bailey, 2002)

            Pransky and Bailey identified a four step process for teachers to implement in the classroom to increase effectiveness:

Step 1. Awareness. A teacher notices a breakdown in communication or an inability (or unwillingness) of a student or group of students to perform adequately on an academic task.

Step 2. Inquiry. The teacher examines the nature of the lesson and begins to identify cultural assumptions that may negatively affect at-risk students.

Step 3. Reconceptualization. With this new information, the teacher reconceptualizes his or her perspective on the students, lesson, curriculum, or school culture.

Step 4. Lesson. A lesson is revisited, revised, or restructured, and one’s instructional decisions change based on that new conception.

What is learned through this process expands the awareness of the teacher, and effectively increases teaching skills.  As one develops more awareness, knowledge, and experience with a cultural perspective on learning, one is better able to reconceptualize and then redirect or refocus one’s teaching within the flow of the lesson. This might be termed “real-time inquiry.” In real-time inquiry, especially, it is important to engage in dialogue with students to try to discover the understandings they have of the lesson task or interaction. (Pransky & Bailey, 2002)

Teaching Science in a Diverse Classroom

Houtz & Watson evaluated teacher performance in the science classroom and identified the following needs in order to meet the needs of diverse students:

  1. They must recognize what is required in learning tasks such as vocabulary knowledge, the ability to make inferences, and the ability to work independently.
  2. They also should know their students’ strengths and weaknesses.
  3. Once these tasks are accomplished, the educator must determine the reason for the mismatch between a student’s abilities and the task requirements of the lesson

Culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students may be at risk of performing poorly in science if they lack the linguistic, the cognitive, the social, and the emotional behaviors required by science learning.  Because the behavior, culture, and language of CLD students may be different from those involved in the task requirements, these students may experience difficulty completing science projects.  Teachers need to identify the discrepancy between task demands and student ability and then modify to their lesson plans accordingly. By understanding the process of acquiring a second language and a second culture and the cognitive, linguistic, emotional, and social demands involved in the process, science teachers can incorporate instructional conditions that attend to the students’ needs.

Science teachers can use numerous instructional strategies to accommodate CLD learners without weakening the curriculum.  Contextualization allows students to draw from personal experiences and build on their prior knowledge to learn the new scientific concept. Teachers can “group individualize” the process by structuring questions that encourage students to think about their own personal experience as it relates to the topic or content to be learned.

The use of contextualized instruction provides CLD students the support they need for understanding the lesson by visually representing the information through experiments, pictures, graphic organizers, and charts. Contextualization allows teachers to (a) consider their students’ language proficiency levels of vocabulary control and (b) highlight specific text information.

Analogies and examples that are culturally relevant may also be used to help students understand scientific concepts.  Analogies show the similarities between a new concept and a familiar concept, making the new concept more meaningful to the student. Analogies can assist in diminishing the cognitive and linguistic requirements of the task.

Cognitive modeling and demonstration are especially beneficial for CLD students because these strategies increase understanding by providing concrete, step-by-step procedures that lessen the cognitive, linguistic, and social requirements of the task.  (Houtz & Watson, 2002)

A Learner Centered Approach

                        An essential factor for a learner-centered approach is placing the learning characteristics of all learners under close scrutiny with emphasis on low-performing learners.  The focus in a learner-centered approach is on individual learners’ heredity, experiences, perspectives, backgrounds, talents, interests, capacities, and needs.  A learner-centered approach is defined as clarifying what is needed to create positive learning contexts, in order to increase the likelihood that more students will experience success.  The culture of the learning context is as important to learning as the content and the methods used.  (Brown, 2003)

In the learner-centered environment, classroom teachers share narratives about students’ interaction with content and methodology. Teachers participate in professional development to learn how to differentiate instruction. Differentiation is a way of thinking about teaching and learning that is based on a set of beliefs that students who are the same age may differ in their readiness to learn, their interests, their styles of learning, their experiences, and their life circumstances.  The differences in students are significant enough to make a major impact on what students need to learn, the pace at which they need to learn it, and the support they need from teachers and others to learn it.

Differentiated instruction meets the needs of diverse student populations by combining  student needs with a focus on content, process, and learning profiles.  The learner-centered approach, focuses on content knowledge and design flexibility to allow learners to construct their learning. Learner needs and characteristics take precedence over knowledge of facts and skills; the emphasis is on engaging learners in learning for understanding and thinking, to help them build their own interpretations.

Creating Equitable Classroom Climates

Kelly outlines recommendations that include creating a mixed set of expectations for all

students in order to reduce the participation inequity altogether. These expectations focus on being able to identify each individual’s area or areas of strength and expertise. In order to create this new set of expectations,  teachers must convince students of three things: (a) the cooperative task requires many different intellectual abilities, (b) no one will have all of these abilities and, (c) everyone will have some of these abilities.  Kelly believes that teachers who teach and model equitable classroom culture will probably be more likely to convince students to behave more equitably to their peers.  (Kelly, 2002)

This method of implementing change by using a multiple-abilities approach and assigning competence to low-status groups, teachers will limit the impact of high expectations for high-status learners and low-expectations for low-status learners, and create a mixed set of expectations for everyone. This approach should reduce the differences in participation noted previously in high- and low-status students.  Kelly identifies the key factor to success in the latter intervention is recognition, a truthful evaluation by the teacher of the low-status student showing him/her as being strong in a specific, relevant area.

Conclusion

Diversity in the classroom and the challenges faced by teachers to meet the needs of minority students has been studied and debated for more than twenty years.  Progress in the identification of strategies has been made, but implementation is likely to be slow, as the revision of curriculum is a costly and time consuming project.

The strategies outlined in this paper are not dependent on the revision of curriculum however, and may provide for ease of implementation.  One focus of these strategies is to assess each student, understand who they are, based on their culture, and direct your teaching methods accordingly.  Further, teachers must identify their own cultural beliefs and how those may prejudice their teaching methods.  Including students in the process of learning, modifying the process, and outlining the challenges will be beneficial to the learning of all.

References

. L. (2003). From Teacher-Centered to Learner-Centered Curriculum: Improving Learning in Diverse Classrooms. Education, 124(1), 49+. Retrieved May 19, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002018664

Hamm, J. V., & Coleman, H. L. (2001). African American and White Adolescents’ Strategies for Managing Cultural Diversity in Predominantly White High Schools. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 30(3), 281. Retrieved May 19, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001037737

Kelly, C. A. (2002). Creating Equitable Classroom Climates: An Investigation of Classroom Strategies in Mathematics and Science Instruction for Developing Preservice Teachers’ Use of Democratic Social Values. Child Study Journal, 32(1), 39+. Retrieved May 19, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000659006

Mitchell, B. M., & Salsbury, R. E. (1996). Multicultural Education: An International Guide to Research, Policies, and Programs. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Retrieved May 19, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=26227378

O’Byrne, B. (2001). Needed: A Compass to Navigate the Multilingual English Classroom. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 44(5), 440. Retrieved May 19, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000100580

Pransky, K., & Bailey, F. (2002). To Meet Your Students Where They Are, First You Have to Find Them: Working with Culturally and Linguistically Diverse At-Risk Students Research Has Shown How Attention to Cultural Mismatch May Be a Key to Equitable School Achievement. This Article Presents a Series of Case Study Vignettes to Assist Practicing Teachers. The Reading Teacher, 56(4), 370+. Retrieved May 19, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000600644

Rickford, A. E. (2005). Everything I Needed to Know about Teaching I Learned from My Children: Six Deep Teaching Principles for Today’s Reading Teachers. Reading Improvement, 42(2), 112+. Retrieved May 19, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5010994248

Watson, S. M., & Houtz, L. E. (2002). Teaching Science: Meeting the Academic Needs of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students. Intervention in School & Clinic, 37(5), 267+. Retrieved May 19, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000755185

Zhang, J. X. (2001). Cultural Diversity in Instructional Design. International Journal of Instructional Media, 28(3), 299. Retrieved May 19, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001037930

 

Teaching A Diverse Population Essay