Mark Mathabane’s Kaffir Boy Essay

Mark Mathabane’s Kaffir Boy Essay.

Racial Discrimination, has already been a long term phenomenon, in existent in almost all societies in different eras and civilization. The idea of discrimination is inevitable. Considering that such discrimination creates social structure as regards what is expected of everybody in a society and what is due to them. However, sometimes this social structure is abused, beyond its limit. People who belong to a higher status quo would definitely do whatever it takes to keep it.

To illustrate, colonizers who had way better technology, combat powers and knowledge as compared to areas being colonized, would come to these new conquests are superiors.

They would then take the locals as slaves and ravish on the wealth that they have to offer. In their own place, these locals become discriminated and unwanted. In return, locals would do whatever it takes to associate themselves with the colonizers, by looking like them, being friends with them, working for them, or marrying people of their kind.

And it always seems that it is the right thing to do. When the British came to South Africa, this is exactly what happened. Mark Mathabane’s Kaffir Boy, tells a real story of a man who chose to fight a different battle to combat discrimination and inequality. While most of his relatives act as freedom fighters, he came to America to educate himself and to excel in a sport he loves. His success has given so much inspiration. His story as depicted in his book will take us with him as he reveals the horrors of his past.

Mark Mathabane lived in a country, wherein racial divide, for most of its early years seemed to be the only thing that defines them. South Africa, a country nestled in the continent of Africa, was once invaded by white colonizers too. And they have proven that they came there to stay. In a country such as South Africa, a nation so unique as compared to other nations in the African continent. South Africa can be considered as diverse in a special way, because it is the only African country that has Caucasians as locals.

Originally dominated by black Americans, South Africa is now a melting pot of two cultures. Analysis It had never occurred to me that though the two were different as night and day, as separate as east and -west, they had everything to do with each other; that one could not be without the other (94) This statement from Johannes best explains the struggles of Mathabane. In summary it explains how the two dominant races in South Africa has tried to isolate each group against each other, by means of creating physical division such as creating boundaries and naming certain places as black or white territory.

Whites are in a way regarded more superior because they are more literate as well. The government also used formal means to strengthen the divide by creating laws such as prohibiting mix marriages, and creating policies in the education system that seems to favor a specific race. Overall, it was almost the generally accepted norm, to- categorize, discriminate. Kaffir Boy, is a tale about Mark Mathabane’s life growing up in South Africa, just outside of Johannesburg. Mark Mathabane lives in the town of Alexandra during industrial colonialism period with his parents, five sisters and a brother.

He talks about how he experienced brutality and starvation from the Peri Urban, an Apartheid police group in South Africa. Growing up very poor, he dreamt of having a better life for him and his family. He often questioned the prejudices happening around him and has decided to take the course of his destiny in his own hands. As a young boy, he struggled with his identity. He wonders which religion he should practice, which country or class he should belong. There is so much craving for autonomy that at a young age he began resenting his parents’ religious and tribal heritage and eventually decided to leave Africa.

Believing that religion, specifically Christianity was used wrongfully by different groups and races, he eventually rejected it. He believes that government used it to claim that God had given whites the divine right to rule over blacks; the black churches misused it by demanding money from Africans who were already destitute; and black churches further misused it by resigning themselves to the idea that this was their “lot” in life, God’s will for black men and women (36). Mathabane also recalled how apartheid made use of tribalism as form of torture against Africans.

He believes that his father, allowed himself to be controlled by superstitions, Relatively mature for his age, he reiterates his independence by doing what he pleases with his life. For Mathabane, the Christian God is bias in favor of the whites and is oblivious to the African’s pain. Although he recognizes its legitimacy as sign of respect for her mother’s faith, he still rejects it the way he rejects tribalism and African superstition. For him, submitting to any specific belief or religion is synonymous with compromising his free will. In page 208 of the book he further on states African “superstition” and tribal culture were not for him.

His scorn for his father lay in the fact that his father clung to values which had “outlived” their “usefulness,” values which discriminated against him while he attempted to function within the white man’s world (208). “What Mathabane did accept, though it took some trial and error, was his mother’s understanding that education would lead him to a better life. Learning English, he decided, was the “crucial key” to unlocking the doors of the white world (193). The books that white people read led to the “power” they had over black people (254). Mathabane eventually decided that literacy was a necessary element in the liberation struggle.

How can the illiterate function, he wondered, in a world ruled by signs (201) Books had taught him about places where he could be “free to think and feel the way I want, instead of the way apartheid wants” (254). He then realizes that he needs to make important decisions in order to make his dreams come true. Thinking that South Africa has nothing much to offer, at least for a poor black African boy like him, he decided to try his luck with American Universities. As he begins to plot his future, his tennis abilities begin to progress faster and better.

Being an avid fan of Arthur Ashe, he takes his wins and losses as if his own. The achievements of his “idol” encourages him to do better every single day. From black state competitions, he started joining the more prestigious white state competitions. His participation in white state competitions led to his banning from joining black state competitions. At this point, he feels as if his progress in his craft takes him away from the things he loved the most. Luckily, Mark later on leaves for the United States as a university scholar, through the help of a famous American tennis player and other white donors.

Conclusion “Deep within me,I knew that I could never really leave South Africa or Alexandra. I was Alexandra, I was South Africa… ” (348). This goes to show that despite of all the successes, the author looks back in his roots. At first, his move out of Africa was just his way of “escaping” the endless circle of failed dreams and lack of opportunities. But his absence in his country makes him reaffirm his identity, and gives him the opportunity, to finally appreciate what his past has to offer for his present and for his future.

This book tells a very dark story filled with pain, sadness and loneliness on most of its chapters, but it also provides a strong foundation for the readers to further understand the plight of the narrator. The journey he took was not only of hope, but rather, a journey of rediscovery. How can the illiterate function, he wondered, in a world ruled by signs (201)? The books had taught him and transported him to places where he could be “free to think and feel the way I want, instead of the way apartheid wants” (254). Why burn the only thing that taught one to believe in the future, to fight for one’s right to live in freedom and dignity?

” (285). Here reaffirms his conclusion as we experiences Soweto riots, which was triggered by resentment over the government’s ruling that African education system be taught it Afrikaans instead of English. Upon witnessing the library burn down he inquired for enlightenment from one of his peers, who mentioned that the burning is for the destruction of all the traces of white oppression in the Bantu Education system. The struggles in his youth, leads him to think that literacy is the key to success. by learning English, he will be given better opportunities, the same as the whites.

According to the author, literacy has given the whites so much edge and power over the black Africans. Having an education will somehow even out the playing field. Literacy for Mathabane is so important, that for him this will eventually lead them to be liberated from all their struggles. In the end, we really have no control over our government, over the people around us, and over norms and traditions we grew up with. But we do have full control over our perspective, our feelings and destiny. And this is precisely what Mathabane did. He took charge of his own future.

This book inspires me to examine the choices I have made as a young person, at the same time, it makes me wonder whether the previous steps I have taken in life will take me closer to my aspirations or take me farther. But then, it makes me think deeper not just about my ambitions, but what I really want to contribute to my society in the end. This book serves as a wake up call. In a society wherein we are given so much opportunity, it seems as if we are left with no excuses not to excel. Reference: Mark Mathabane, 1998, Kaffir Boy, Simon & Schuster Adult Publishing Group

Mark Mathabane’s Kaffir Boy Essay

“In the Heat of the Night”; Movie or Book? Essay

“In the Heat of the Night”; Movie or Book? Essay.

“In The Heat of the Night” is a gripping murder mystery story that incorporates a major issue of the time it was written at; racism. The original novel (published in 1965), written by John Ball, is a story of Virgil Tibbs, a Negro homicide investigator. The death of orchestra-conductor Enrico Mantoli and a series of other events lead up to him in charge of a murder investigation in Wells, Carolina. This is much to the dismay of Bill Gillespie, the extremely prejudice police chief.

The movie version (released in 1967), also features Mr. Tibbs as the leader of a murder investigation. However, the setting is Sparta, Mississippi, and the victim is Philip Colbert, a man planning to build a factory in the town. The movie was very successful, and proceeded to win 5 Academy Awards. Despite this, I find the book is more appealing because the characters are easier to relate to, and have a chance to get well-rounded in a gradual sense.

In addition, the plot development steadily makes progress, and is overall less tense, therefore more enjoyable.

Both movie and book, however, are quite impressive in the incorporation of racial equality issues, and should equally be recognized as landmarks in American media for this reason. The most prominent change in characters is the personality of Virgil Tibbs. “Instead of being stretched out on the bench, he was wide awake and sitting up straight as though he were expecting something to happen. His coat was off and laid neatly beside him. He had been reading a paperback book up to the moment Sam entered…” (Pg. 15) This is almost identical to the scene where we are introduced to Virgil in the movie. However, the quick-thinking, cold and intense version to be seen later on in the movie was very surprising.

The humble, clever and cool homicide investigator from the novel is much preferred. His collected manners also make it all the more enjoyable when seeing Gillespie’s frustration at the Negro’s wits, and all the more heart warming as Sam Wood and Virgil Tibbs start to open up to one another. Also, the movie somewhat exaggerated on Mr. Endicott as being a “bad guy”. From being somewhat a pest, however definitely not on anyone’s ‘bad books’, too being a plantation owner who sends a group of thugs to beat up Virgil is just ludicrous. It seems he is used as an excuse to bring out another foe, another bit of action to make the movie more exciting. The subtle mystery of not knowing who is “bad” or “good” in the novel is a lot more satisfying, perhaps even more once you find out who the real murderer was.

The movie, at a full running time of 109 minutes, has quite an exciting plot, with slow parts and exciting action parts. It incorporates many essential things to the original story of ‘In the Heat of the Night’, (such as the association with Delores Purdy) however it differs quite a bit as well. As mentioned above, the setting is in Sparta, Mississippi, where Philip Colbert, planning to build a factory in this town, is murdered. This change of plot on its own removes something that could be considered essential to the plot; romance. The budding relationship between Duena, Enrico Mantoli’s daughter (who doesn’t show up what so ever, seeing as Enrico Mantoli was not the victim) and Officer Sam Wood adds a bit of ‘spice’ that is lacking in the movie. On the topic of Sam Wood, his character being a relatively minor one sets a rather different way of looking at his character.

In the book, the reader gets a closer glimpse on Sam Wood’s life, and gets to enjoy his personality and forgiving character more so then the movie. As a result of this, when Sam Wood is suspected of murder, we feel all the more protest and frustration for Gillespie to even dream of this possibility. The movie makes us feel bad for Sam, as it is pretty obvious he is not guilty if Virgil says he is not, but this emotion is lacking compared to the feelings the book inflicts. However, I do prefer the ending of the movie to the book. Instead of the gallant statements of how Bill Gillespie respects Virgil Tibbs as a human, are rather out-there, (if not heart-warming, I have to admit…) while the simple good-bye of the movie shows on its own how Gillespie has come to admire and respect Virgil.

‘In the Heat of the Night’, movie or book alike, is an inspiring tale of overcoming prejudice in the backward, racist town in the south- eastern United States. In both forms of media, we see from beginning to end the trials and prejudice thrown at Virgil Tibbs, solely because he is coloured. The inhuman way of dealing with racial hate is disgusting. Virgil Tibbs, however, is always cool and collected, and is an admirable character that will be remembered by everyone who reads or watches ‘In the Heat of the Night’. In being mocked for having a classy name such as ‘Virgil’, and asked what he’s called where he comes from, he responds with the famous line, “They call me Mister Tibbs.” (pg. 36) This line is present in both film and book, a demanding statement of racial equality that sticks in the reader’s mind.

By comparing and contrasting the similarities and differences, it shows that the characters were more subtle and realistic than the movie’s stereotypical good guys and bad guys. Also, the plot of the book was better thought-out, and had many other enjoyable subplots that were lacking in the movie. Through his short stay in Wells, Carolina (or Sparta, Mississippi) Tibbs may not have altered the town’s views on discrimination against blacks, but John Ball left a definite strong imprint about social equality, and in doing so left more questions about human and social behaviour for the reader than simple answers.

“In the Heat of the Night”; Movie or Book? Essay

Affirmative Action is Reverse Discrimination Essay

Affirmative Action is Reverse Discrimination Essay.

Racial discrimination has long been an issue especially in the United States which is considered as a melting pot of different people from different ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Black people have experienced extreme even radical form of discrimination for centuries, but now, the black people found an ally in the affirmative action policy. This policy, after some time of implementation sparked debate since some people, even the blacks themselves, say that giving racial preferences is never a good thing. The policy has affected admission aspects in schools and employment in jobs.

Two job applicants, a white male and a black male, even with the same qualifications, the black male will likely get the job because of racial preference provided by affirmative action. Black people are being given a definite advantage and white people would find this an unfair treatment. The same goes for school admission policies where minorities are being given a higher preference over white people in order to maintain a diverse student body.

Thesis Affirmative action laws were made to eliminate or reduce discriminatory acts but there are numerous claims that these laws have reversed the tide.

Affirmative actions laws may no longer be considered fair in this current setting since it only results in reverse discrimination and it is no longer an effective means of providing opportunities for minority groups. This reverse discrimination is constituted by racial preferences for blacks. This racial preference clouds the judgment of many educational institutions and employers since racial background is being analyzed instead of just the plain qualifications which some white people might find inappropriate.

Affirmative action was envisioned to put an end to racial discrimination especially against black people. Under this policy, black people were given higher preferences in job and in admission policies in universities. This is however not an answer to eliminating discrimination. Instead of giving higher preferences to those people who are being discriminated such as the black people, a better alternative solution to racial discrimination would be to find steps to eliminate discriminatory acts and leveling the field so that all people from different ethnic backgrounds will be presented with equal opportunities.

Since the black people are being given higher preferences, this may appear as a form of discrimination against white people. Affirmative action, instead of fulfilling its intention of eliminating discrimination, rather contributes to it. One of the major focuses of the affirmative action debate is its inclusion in university admission policies which show higher preferences for black applicants. Many people have been calling for the ban of the use of affirmative action in the public arena.

Voters in California, Washington and Michigan have already submitted amendments to their state constitutions that would prohibit the use of affirmative action in the public setting (Prince & Ryan, 2007). According to actor and columnist Joseph Phillips, affirmative action is not an issue of nondiscrimination, it is now about racial preferences. He emphasized on the point that racial preferences is not an effective way of fighting racism, instead, it brings about negative stereotypes especially in the educational sector wherein it pertains to a person’s intellectual capacity and academic capabilities (Prince & Ryan, 2007).

In a Supreme Court ruling in 2003 which involves the University of Michigan which makes use of racial preferences in its admission policies, the court highlighted the goal of having a diverse student body which is brought about by affirmative action but critics say that this decision by the court would only spark more law suits and that the critics of affirmative action would continue to put pressure on the Department of Education to discontinue the use of the policy (Marklein, 2003).

Evidences have been presented regarding the effects of affirmative action; however, these evidences always seem imperfect and ambiguous. A review of the policy during the Clinton administration indicated that active federal enforcement of the policy in the 1970s resulted in government contractors moderately increasing the hiring of minority workers. Studies have indicated that there is only a meager increase in the employment of black males. Employment share of black males in contractor firms in 1974 was 5. 8 percent and this figure only increased to 6. 7 percent in 1980.

On the other hand, the increase in non-contractor firms was from 5. 3 percent to 5. 9 percent. Also, a substantial number of black government employees got their jobs or promotion to managerial rank because of affirmative action even if qualifications are questionable (Galston). In the education sector, it was only during the height of the affirmative action policy that the enrollment of black people was on a steady rise. From only 4. 9 percent in 1955, black enrollment went up to 7. 8 percent in 1970. The figure further increased to 9. 1 percent in 1980 and 11. 3 percent in 1990.

On the other hand, according to a report from the Census Bureau, Hispanics holding bachelor’s degrees or other advanced degrees went up to 9 percent in 1994 from only 5 percent in 1970 while the rate for blacks is 12. 9 percent from 4. 5 percent (Galston). Another issue that rises with affirmative action is that minority groups may gain an image of inferiority since the whites may think that a black student was able to enter the university or a black person is able to get a job only because of affirmative action even if the black person has all the necessary qualifications (Hoffman).

Overall, the past 30 years has been fruitful for the black people as they generally lived better lives with better education and income all because of racial preferences. This has resulted into what Seymour Martin Lipset classifies as a “growing differentiation” within the community of black people from the growing black middle class to the ghetto poor. The affirmative action program would work better if it would remove barriers for those who have the credentials to succeed instead of giving them a definite advantage in admissions. Anti-Thesis

Supporters of affirmative action make use of the argument that it is necessary for the people compensate for years of discriminations against blacks. Many black people approve of affirmative action because it provides recompense against the discrimination that they have experienced and endured in the past but not all black people share this kind of insight. Steele said that, theoretically, affirmative action is in moral symmetry with fairness. She described the policy as reformist and corrective as well as repentant and redemptive.

The country is trying to make up for its sins and wants to correct it but black people will lose more than what they will gain from the policy (Steele). Some also argue that it is difficult to remove stereotyping and discrimination without the policy and that it is needed to maintain diversity. Another argument states that affirmative action should continue because racism still exists in this society. The argument that affirmative action is needed for the white people to compensate for the discrimination against blacks is shrouded in hatred and appears as a form of retaliation against the white people.

However, retaliation will not improve the situation. It might even spark more discrimination against black people if affirmative action policies continue to be implemented and this could lead to more hatred and discrimination against the minority groups. According to Kimberle Crenshaw, a professor of law at the University of California, affirmative actions removes the obstacles so that people from the minority groups can qualify and compete. With affirmative action, blacks, Hispanics and other minority group find it easier to get a job because of racial preferences geared toward these minorities (Prince & Ryan, 2007).

Affirmative action exists because there is discrimination, if there is no discriminations, affirmative action would not be needed in this society. The fact that affirmative action exists is because there is still discrimination and it is still needed in the current setting. Those who believe that affirmative action is in conflict with their interest must be made to see what benefits it provides to the society. Racism is still dominant in the United States which is why affirmative action must stay (Noguera, 1996).

According to Linda Chavez, founder and president of the Center for Equal Opportunity, the Michigan University case speaks of admission and scholarship programs for minority groups which make use of substantially different standards and must include the racial background. People against the policy said that they will take their case to the ballots but the court has already made it clear that it is the university’s prerogative to include race in the admission policy to ensure the diversity of the student body (Marklein, 2003).

The 2003 Supreme Court ruling allowed admission officials to consider race in the selection process. Colleges and universities have no obligation to use racial preferences but they may adopt such policies to meet a satisfactory level of student diversity. Arthur Coleman, a former official under the Department of Education said that adopting diversity is a choice and is not mandated by any law or policy. According to a survey by Public Agenda, 79 percent of Americans agreed that it is important for schools to have a diverse student body while only 54 percent approved of affirmative action programs.

In a separate poll conducted by Gallup before the court handed out its ruling, only 49 percent said that they are in favor of affirmative action while 43 percent said that they are not in favor (Marklein, 2003). Synthesis Affirmative action was made to eliminate discrimination but discrimination would not likely be eliminated if the method used to eliminate it is discriminating in itself since it results in a reverse discrimination. Instead of blacks being discriminated, the white people are now the ones being discriminated because of racial preferences given to black people in school admission policies and employment opportunities.

Arguing that affirmative action is fair because blacks were once discriminated to a great extent is not valid since it is only driven by hatred towards white people who were discriminating the blacks and other minorities (Steele). Also, continuing affirmative actions only causes white people to hate the blacks because of the racial preferences that they are being handed. White people who believe that they have the qualifications but are turned down while a black person gets in may think that affirmative action gave him a disadvantage and not because the black person is really qualified (Hoffman).

Affirmative action will not eliminate racial discrimination but it rather contributes to it. The policy may have its benefits every now and then, but generally, it is no longer applicable in the current setting as more and more white people are feeling the negative effects of the policy. It does remove barriers so that people from minorities can compete but it comes with a price. They gain an image of inferiority because people may think that it is only because of affirmative action that they have reached a certain level of success and not because they are really qualified (Hoffman).

The Supreme Court has handed out its decision in the Michigan University case and the decision maintained that the school may use the race as part of the admission policy to maintain the diversity of the student body. Even without affirmative action, colleges can use race as a basis of application to meet a desired rate of student diversity since having a diverse student body promotes a better learning environment (Marklein, 2003). Ultimately, data indicates that affirmative action is no longer effective which means that it is time to adopt an alternative policy (Galston).

A better way of embracing diversity would be to encourage minorities from a young age to work for their goals and get a good education. Assisting people from poor socio-economic backgrounds to gain resources and motivation should also be done so that they will also be competent when it comes to school admission and job-seeking. This is a lot better than giving them preferential treatment because they would not be treated as inferiors (Hoffman). Conclusion

To conclude, affirmative action may have been an effective way of reducing racial discrimination against minorities, but now, it is no longer applicable to be used in the current setting since it results in reverse discrimination. The white people are now put in a seat that was once held by other minorities. Affirmative action might trigger hate targeted towards the blacks and other minorities because of the reverse discrimination. The policy which gives racial preferences also connects inferiority with minority groups.

A better way of eliminating discrimination is by leveling the playing field not by racial preferences but by providing equal opportunities for whites and minority groups. References Prince, Andrew & Ryan, Erica. 21 November 2007. Is it Time to End Affirmative Action?. National Public Radio. Retrieved July 8, 2008 from http://www. npr. org/templates/story/story. php? storyId=16337441 Marklein, Mary Beth. 24 June 2003. Despite ruling, affirmative action debate is far fr

Affirmative Action is Reverse Discrimination Essay

Anti Discrimination Essay

Anti Discrimination Essay.

Anti-discrimination occurs when a person is treated less preferred than others because of their age, gender, ethnicity, disability or religion. Anti-discrimination also refers to the law on the right of people to be treated equally.

Three anti-discrimination laws include:
Racial Discrimination Act 1975
Anti-Discrimination Act 1977
Disability Discrimination Act 1992

The Anti-Discrimination Act 1977 is an Act relating to discrimination in employment, the public education system, delivery of goods and services, and other services such as banking, health care, property and night clubs. The Act helps unlawful racial, sexual and other types of discrimination in certain circumstances and promotes equality of opportunity for all people.

The Act was granted Royal Assent on 28 April 1977 and came into effect on 1 June 1977. It was the 48th Act of 1977. Since then the Act has been amended and reformed about 90 times Racial Discrimination happens when someone is treated less fairly than someone else in a similar situation because of their race, colour, descent or national or ethnic origin.

Racial discrimination can also happen when a policy or rule appears to treat everyone in the same way but actually has an unfair effect on more people of a particular race, colour, descent or national or ethnic origin than others.

Since the Act was passed in 1975, over 10,500 complaints have been received. The power of the national Parliament to pass this over-riding law arises under the “external affairs” power contained in the Australian Constitution. The power arose from the International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination to which Australia is a treaty. This use of the power in this manner was confirmed in the landmark High Court decision in 1982.

Disability Discrimination is when people with disabilities face huge social barriers at jobs, education and access to government. Disabilities also increase the chance of violence and other extreme forms of discrimination, as well as banished from family and institutionalization. In the 1960s and 1970s, young activists and scholars organized a disability rights movement to improve the quality of life for people with disabilities, modeled after other civil rights movements. In general, the legal rights and responsibilities of employees in relation with anti-discrimination may include that you have the same right to training, promotion and work benefits as other employees e.g. if you have a disability, employers must provide you with any special facilities or services you need to access training, promotion or work benefits, as long as this won’t cause them unjustifiable hardship. You generally have the right to stay on in your job if you have a disability, or you acquire a disability after you begin the job.

An employer can only dismiss you, medically retire you or make you redundant because of your disability. As when you apply for a job, your employer must provide any special facilities or services you need to continue to do your job, as long as this won’t cause them unjustifiable hardship. If there are non-essential parts of your job that you can’t do, your employer must make arrangements to cover these in some other way. As for Race Discrimination you have the right to report any incidents if a person has harassed/bullied you this might include: your race, color, nationality, descent, ethnic or ethno-religious background of any of your relatives, friends, associates or work colleagues. If this does occur these penalties can be brought up to court for a trial. Problems faced by people affected by Anti-Discrimination might include African Americans who are called names who are harshly abused and harassed because of their race and their skin colour.

All over the world, as a society we have been unable to accept being classified under one label. Our place as a racial state has changed throughout history, but still remains a mix of two ideas, racial dictatorship and racial hegemony, working to becoming a racial democracy. In the beginning, and for most of its history, from 1607 to 1865, most non-whites were firmly eliminated from politics. The racial dictatorship organized the “color line” rendering it the fundamental division in society. These “color lines” seem to be most prevalent in institutions where the color of your skin determined where you lived, what school you attended, and where you sat in restaurants and public transportation. It took real people from different cultures and grouped them into one generalized category.

Instead of being labeled as your country of origin or where you lived, like (Americans) or (Africans), they were simply labeled black, therefore making them seem inferior to the dominant race. By grouping them into one category of little meaning, it takes away from their individuality and culture. The dominant group, in this case the United States, survives by a mixture of forcing and giving permission. For instance, blacks were given the right to education, however the level of education received by blacks compared to whites is different. Far more white people attend higher education institutions as opposed to blacks. Of all the students enrolled in higher education institutions, 70 percent of them were white while the remaining 30 percent of students. There is a large disparity in these numbers, however compared to a couple of decades ago, minorities, especially blacks, weren’t even allowed to attend school. Minorities’ attendance is even on the increase while white attendance in higher education is decreasing. Between 1991 and 1995, while the white enrollment was decreasing the black enrollment was increased by 9 percent.

In the past the minority population made significantly less than the dominant race, and unfortunately it is still that way. While the gap is closing in disparity, there is still a huge jump in the earning of whites compared to those of blacks. Between 1980 and 1984, white men aged 18-64 made and hourly wage of $2.10 while there black counterparts only made an hourly wage of $1.86. (These men were performing similar jobs and yet the white male still made more earning than the black male. What also helped to close the gap was the black race was becoming educated and therefore more skilled. They were able to attend school now and become knowledgably in their skills and therefore make more money. These statistics should help to show that while racial disparity still exists, our dictatorship still exists but not as openly as in the past.

For instance, real estate agents are more likely to point a white couple in the direction of white neighborhoods and a black couple in the direction of a black neighborhood. While helping them both equally, they are dictating where the couple’s should end up. Until politics serves the people and not the politician’s motives, we will never reach a racial democracy. As long as people are still saying discrimination, we will never reach a racial democracy. These problems were resolved since the Act was passed in 1975; over 10,500 complaints have been received. The power of the national Parliament to pass this over-riding law arises under the “external affairs” power contained in the Australian Constitution. The power arose from the International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination to which Australia is a treaty. This use of the power in this manner was confirmed in the landmark High Court decision in 1982.

The Civil rights act 1964 was enacted to ensure that people in protected classes were not treated differently when it came to employment decisions, such as hiring, promotions and termination. Companies had policies that openly discriminated against employees for reasons, such as color or sex that were not related to the quality of job performance. In order to make the workplace equitable in its treatment of all employees, the government made it illegal to consider the protected classes in work-related decisions. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) received more than 93,000 complaints of discrimination in fiscal year 2009.

An employer may not intend to treat employees differently, but an employee behavior may have the impact of discrimination. For example, someone telling a sexually laced joke may not intend to harass an employee, but the impact of the conversation may have led to a hostile work environment. Employees who experience discrimination in the workplace may suffer from low morale, which directly impacts work performance. If employees do not feel valued for the work that they do, then they will not be motivated to continue to perform at a satisfactory or above satisfactory level. These employees may be more likely to seek jobs in other companies or to file discrimination complaints with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

Although the EEOC filled just over 300 lawsuits out of the 93,000 complaints it received in 2009, the time and money used to respond to complaints may impact the company’s profits. Also, a complainant may receive a “right to sue” letter from the EEOC. This gives the employee the ability to sue in court for discrimination, whether the charges are true or false. Again, the expense to a company may be greater than if it had implemented policies and workplace behavior expectations that would give everyone a clear mind on what to do and what not to do.

Having a policy that forbids harassing behaviors by employees shows that the company is proactive in protecting the rights of all employees. Disciplining or firing employees or members of management who have been proven to act in a discriminatory manner is a good defense against a claim of disparate treatment. This could help the company avoiding the expense and bad publicity which could be a great help at the end.

Anti-Discrimination helps a lot of people around the people not only from work; it helps people from schools, shows and movies. It gives everyone a equal fairness on how they should get treated, and this why I think anti-discrimination is a great solution to make a world a better place.


Anti Discrimination Essay

Statutory and Non-Statutory Public Services Essay

Statutory and Non-Statutory Public Services Essay.

A public service is a service that is funded by the government or by donations to help the government deliver its actions as effectively as possible. There are two types of public services they are statutory and non-statutory services. The difference between a statutory and a non-statutory service is that a statutory service is paid by tax payers, funded by the government and is set up by the law. They are usually uniformed and highly professional an example would be the Emergency Services and the Armed Forces.

A non-statutory service is a service that doesn’t receive a lot of government funding so they are paid by members or the public as they are registered as charities, they are set up by individuals and not parliament and unlike statutory services they have smaller employers and are run by volunteers an example is the RSPCA and St John’s Ambulance. Both public services are needed because statutory services help give the public a sense of national security and to keep order and non-statutory services are needed to ensure safety to victims of incidents and to help the statutory services concentrate on what they need to do to resolve the issue.

The public services value diversity as it brings with it the chance to understand the community not only in the UK but overseas as it provides the forces with additional skills and strengths like foreign languages, cultural and religious knowledge. Public services need to understand the different religions, ethnic groups, gender and age diversity as it can have a huge effect on their day to day operations. To do this certain acts have been put into place to keep the treating of all ethnic groups equal from the public services certain acts like the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 ensures that police officers don’t search the public based on their ethnic group or age but through their genuine suspicions of wrong doing, other acts have been put in place to assure that the recruiting of members of the public is not prejudiced an example is the Race Relations Act 1976 and amendment 2000 ensures that discrimination of race, colour, nationality or ethnic origin will not affect the position or the decision of the recruitment but in promotion and training. (Public Services level 3 book 1)

The armed forces are part of the main public services that assist the government in developing and defending the country. An example is the Royal Navy; they are responsible for humanitarian operations which involve restoring infrastructures, providing aid and support to lost children and the wounded. This service helps citizens not only in the UK when natural or man-made disasters occur but overseas in an example is in Asia when the tsunami hit in 2004 were the HMS Chatman carried out welcome relief work and humanitarian aid. Another example of armed forces is the British Army. They help out with natural disasters like flooding; they not only help during and after but they have been working with the Environmental Agency to access thousands of flood prevention places across England. The inspection work came about as part of Operation PITCHPOLE; a Military Aid to Civilian Authorities programme, which began after the flooding that hit many parts of the country earlier this year. (Army website news) Public services that work closer to home are the emergency services.

An example is the police force that helps citizens with everyday life; they have Police Community Support Officers who visibly patrol the streets as part of an effective crime warning system. They are also committed to involving communities in the prevention and reduction of crime and anti-social behaviour. The police service have also started a “citizen focus unit which is where the police engage with the residents of Wiltshire to establish the issues that matter to you and how we can adapt our service to meet your needs”. (Wiltshire police website) The police have an equality scheme “Wiltshire Police will eliminate unlawful discrimination and will ensure that no individual or group is directly or indirectly discriminated against for any reason.” (Wiltshire Police website) They feel equal right to all races and religions will give them the respect and understanding they need so they can cooperate with their community better to make them feel safer. Another example of an emergency service is the Fire and Rescue service. They work with the public in many ways; one way is to make house calls to the elderly to make sure that they have the necessary equipment like fire alarms to ensure safety in the home.

Another form of support that the fire service provides to the public is they have youth schemes an example of this the “Safe Drive Stay Alive” program that they run for secondary schools and colleges. These youth schemes also allow members of the fire service to go into schools and youth groups and talk to them about the dangers of fires and how they can be prevented. Non-statutory services may not be put there by law but they still play a vital role in helping the community and statutory public services. An example is Help for Heroes although they are for ex-service personal they help support the families of the wounded.

They provide individual support to soldiers and their families, recovery centres like Headley court (rehabilitation centre) and Fisher house (a home for wounded patients and their families), sports recovery which helps the service personal regain confidence and independence. They may not visibly help the community but they give the opportunity to get people of the public involved and help out the wounded. Another non-statutory service is the Salvation Army who is an international charity that helps communities in 126 different countries. They help the public by supplying individuals with the support that they need to deal with any problems like family breakdowns, unemployment, homelessness, and poverty; they also supply the communities with activities getting everyone involved through fundraising or volunteering.

Although they are a Christian based charity they care for all “people without discrimination, marginalisation or persecution.” (Salvation Army Here To Help Webpage) as well as being Christian based they employ all religious backgrounds and varying sexual orientation in their staff as it provides a high diversity to the public and makes it easier to understand a wider section of people needs. A charity that works closer with the statutory services is the Red Cross. They help the community by providing and teaching first aid, they also help out in emergency responses if it is in the UK or overseas they help out in floods, fires and even terrorist attacks they supply support to families, shelter to those who have lost their houses and they pass you on to other charities to help you move forward from your traumatic event. They work closely with the fire service by helping victims at the scene of the crime and after supporting them until they feel that they are ready to move on, on their own.

They feel that diversity brings strengths to the Red Cross; they have a e-newsletter that promotes diversity and equality within the Red Cross. “We also recognise that these differences can result in unfavourable treatment or discrimination. We are firmly committed to challenging discrimination and striving to achieve equal access for all.” (Red Cross about us Diversity Webpage) UNICEF is a charity in more than 190 countries that help families, communities and governments to protect and promote the rights of children.

They help communities in Africa build schools, train teachers and supply textbooks to give everyone in the community the right to an education. UNICEF also runs programmes in the UK in places like hospitals and local communities to show them what some children miss out on and how to help out. Equal rights at UNICEF are a vital part of everyday life they treat all ethnic groups, genders and religions with respect and sensitivity. Discrimination in the work place is intolerable and they will encourage diversity wherever possible. (UNICEF Webpage Competencies.pdf)

Public Services Level 3 Book 1 Debra Gray, Tracey Lilley and John Vause pages 84, 85, 95, 96 RESOURCE BOOK 2011
BTEC Level 2 Diploma in Public Services

Statutory and Non-Statutory Public Services Essay

Eliminating Prejudice and Discrimination Inside the Classroom Essay

Eliminating Prejudice and Discrimination Inside the Classroom Essay.

The rich and colorful diversity of today’s society is very evident to many classrooms in most parts of the world.

It is indeed that mere educating of the children is no longer enough nowadays as such the educational setting is even more revolutionized. Since the students of this generation are exemplified with different learning styles and habits, level of intelligence, cultural orientation and socio-economic background, there must be high observance on the implementation of multicultural education in every classroom of the world.

The schools and learning environments must work for all the aspects and must consider the diverse cultures of the communities they serve. Nevertheless, the observance of multicultural education to some countries remains a dilemma for many administrators and teachers as well as on the part of the students. The administrators and teachers encounter problems on the integration of the curriculum and other activities in order to suffice the various needs of the different orientation of the students.

The students, on the other hand, suffer dilemma on the equal treatment of the teacher and other students in terms of the curriculum and relationship among them which commonly leads to great prejudice and discrimination inside the classroom.

One of the great challenges of today’s classroom in terms of this multicultural education approach is the inclusive education for the special students in the community.

Many educators find difficulties on the inclusion of the special students together with the normal students since it is presumed that they have a significant difference in terms of learning styles and habits, level of intelligence and skills, and many others. Hence, it is very essential for the different educational institutions to have an in-depth understanding on the importance of multicultural approach in education as well as the inclusive education for the special students.

This paper tries to provide a thorough discussion of the paradigm of multicultural education, the inclusive education for special students and the strategies for the administrators and teacher to successfully observe and maintain multicultural education for the special students. Pros and Cons of Multicultural Education Over the past three decades, multicultural education has been recognized as one of the avenues for educational reform (Ramsey, et. al. 2003).

Multicultural education is defined as an educational reform movement which incorporates the idea that all students, regardless of gender, social class, and ethnic, racial, or cultural characteristics, should have an equal opportunity to acquire education in school (Banks & Banks 2009). It is through the concept of equal opportunities that learners find social democracy and fairness inside the classroom. Multicultural education is considered to be very advantageous since it provides various opportunities not only for the teachers and administrators but also for the learners (Mitchell & Salsbury 1996).

One of the advantages of observing multicultural education in the classroom is the elimination of racism and sexism among the students. Through teaching the culturally different approach, there will be an attempt to raise the academic achievement of the students of color through culturally relevant instruction (Sleeter 1996). It should be noted always that eventhough students have differences, there should be equal opportunities inside the classroom as such education is a right of everyone.

The aim of the schools should be to encourage the full development of the students regardless of the diverse racial, ethnic and gender groups of the students (Banks 1997). Educators, hence, must eliminate all structures of education that impede learning of the ethnic minorities and women. There should be equal opportunities between the man and woman or between the rich and poor so that there would be a sense of multi-culturally responsive classroom approach in the schools.

This is thus the reason why all countries must observe equal opportunities to all students regardless of gender and cultural orientation. For instance, the students whether boys or girls are given the opportunity to participate in all the activities of the classroom such as recitation, discussion, project making and the like. Multicultural education approach, moreover, promotes the idea of democracy in a pluralistic society. It is through this approach of education, students learn to value cultural knowledge and differences (Sleeter 1996).

This is a good value that the students might learn with the multicultural approach. As they understand the diversity of the educational setting, they are implicitly learning also the sense of democracy and fairness within themselves which will be very helpful to the students when they are ready to face the realities of the society. The teacher should encourage multicultural approach in the school since it does not only teach the students to respect each other but it also allows them to have better understanding on the concept of democracy and fairness which are considered to be good virtues.

Nevertheless, the practice of multicultural education is not that easy because there are a lot of considerations which need to be taken. In the multicultural classroom, there must be a culturally responsive curriculum to suffice the needs of the different students. The teacher should prepare a lesson which will consider the subject matter as well as the diverse culture of the students. For instance, the teacher may present a view of mathematical thinking that incorporates the ways in which culture and mathematics are related and intertwined (Nielson 1991).

In sciences, the study of environments can be done from the perspectives of the diversity of cultural understanding. Eventhough this would mean additional and laborious tasks on the part of the teachers, it is better as compared to mono-cultural approach as such there will be a high manifestation of learning not only in the subject matter but also in the culture of their respective orientations. While the students are learning the subject matter that they need to accomplish, they are likewise acquiring a sense of the understanding the different cultures that the different students posses in their classroom.

In this sense, the teacher avoids discrimination with respect to the cultural orientation of the students. In the teaching and learning process of the multicultural approach, likewise, there is a need for various teaching strategies to cater the various learning needs of the different learners inside the classroom. In this case, the teachers must consider that students are confined with the multiple intelligences and each type needs different teaching maxims (Armstrong 2000).

When teaching a particular subject, the teacher must not only use devices which are intended for the visual learners but also to the other types of learners such as auditory, tactile, and the like. For instance, the teacher may provide visual aid for the visual learners, recordings and sounds for the auditory and practical application for the tactile type of learners. Through this, there would be less discrimination in the different types of learners. The students find no discrimination as such all of them are being addressed with their different learning needs.

Along with the diversity of the curriculum and the teaching strategies to suffice the needs of the diverse culturally responsive learners are the diverse culturally oriented stakeholders of the education. The change in the school setting from mono-cultural to multicultural approach should be a hand in hand effort of all the stakeholders of the education which include, aside from the students, teachers, administrators, parents, community leaders and government.

The teachers should be the ones to observe multicultural approach of education inside the school through observance of the anti-discrimination acts not only in the school but as well as in the whole community. However, the teacher cannot alone do all the tasks to maintain fairness and justice inside the school. The other stakeholders of education should also take their parts in maintaining an education with an environment free from prejudice, racism and discrimination. Education of today’s generation should incorporate multitude of voices in multicultural society so that there would be effective observance of multiculturalism (Banks 1997).

This means that education should be treated as a thing tantamount to equality and fairness. And the country successfully achieved this goal through the collaborative efforts of the teachers, administrators and the other stakeholders of education in the community. Multicultural education is considered to be very advantageous to the educational system of the country since it provides and promotes an educational reform which is beneficial to every stakeholder of education.

But nonetheless, observance to this educational reform is not an easy task. The main problem, perhaps, that a teacher may encounter in observing and maintaining multicultural approach to education is the curriculum as well as the teaching strategies for this kind of classroom set up. To maintain multicultural education requires different curriculum to suffice the needs of both normal and special students. The same holds true with the teaching strategies that will be sued in order to execute the lesson everyday.

Careful planning of the teaching methodologies and strategies for each lesson is a prerequisite for the successful observance of multicultural education. Likewise, it is very difficult for the teacher to carry out multicultural education approach inside the classroom especially if the students are unresponsive. In order to successfully incorporate multicultural approach in the classroom, the students should have also participation during the class or session. And also, not only the students but the administrators are also needed to take their part in the reformation of the educational set up.

This entails that the success of the multicultural education lies on the collaborative effort of the students, teacher, administrators and the community. However, though it requires too much persistence and hard work not only on the part of the teachers but as well as on the part of the students, administrators, community leaders and government, multicultural education is a great revolution in the country as such it will not only develop and enhance the educational setting itself but it will also enlighten the perception of the world to justice, fairness and equality.

The Need for An Inclusive Multicultural Classroom for the Disabled Students Aside from a classroom with diverse gender, socio-economic standing, socio-cultural orientation and religion, multicultural approach in education is very much needed specifically in the classrooms with special and disabled students. It has been found out that special students like the disabled ones find a great dilemma inside a classroom that does not observe multicultural approach over years.

The problem is believed to be a result of the lack of equality and fairness among the disabled students. In most universities and colleges, special students find “academic fatigue” due to their inability to adapt to the academic requirements that the educational institutions are requiring them as well as the pressure that the environment brings them as disabled ones (Barnes 2007). In this case, the disabled students find dilemma in their respective educational institution because they are not given equal opportunities inside the classroom.

The teachers and administrators do not consider the various aspects of the students such as their socio-cultural orientations, social classes, levels of cognition, and many others. In order to resolve this problem, there must be a total reformation in every classroom of the country. Teachers and administrators should practice multicultural approach in an inclusive education for the disabled students. Hence, an inclusive education that observes multicultural education must be strictly observed in order to solve the said problem and revolutionize the old concept of education for the betterment of the disabled students.

Inclusive education is built on the premise that all students should be valued for their unique abilities and included as essential members of a school community (Causton-Theoharis & Theoharis 2008). Inclusion, in addition, is considered to be an active process which entails an unabashed announcement that leads to a public and political declaration and celebration of difference. Inclusion requires continuous proactive response in order to maintain inclusive educational culture.

This educational idea is typically found in multicultural urban schools where cultural and linguistics barriers serves as a daily challenge inside the classroom (Corbett 2001). Through the inclusive education that permits multicultural education for the disabled ones, students will not suffer from the burden of “academic fatigue” brought about by the negligence to the different and unique abilities of the disabled students compared to the normal students. To be able to successfully carry out inclusive multicultural education inside the classroom, power and voice are particularly important aspects in this educational reformation (Slee 2008).

The relationships between the disabled, the typical students and the professionals in the educational institution are considered to be central considerations to the development of multicultural education. There should be a hand on hand cooperation between these elements so that the educational reformation will become smooth-sailing. Hence, it is very difficult to observe and maintain multicultural education approach in the classroom since there are a lot of considerations that need proper and careful attention. Nonetheless, multicultural education would be very beneficial to all stakeholders of education when successfully carried out.

Among the advantages that an inclusive multicultural education brings to a classroom is the sense of belongingness of the disabled students which is considered to be a basic need for each person. Disabled children begin with the commonalities they have with the other children and typically show the urge that they can and they want to belong in different ways. One of which is their desire to become part and to belong in the school context. They really want to have the same opportunities and experiences just like the non-disabled peers.

In this context, it would very be helpful if the students with disabilities are mingled and mixed with other pupils whom they feel they have more in common since through them they find comfort and belongingness. Through the interaction of the disabled students with the normal ones, they will definitely experience the sense of belongingness and peer support which are very essential for developing social skills and self-esteem. It is indeed beneficial on the part of the students since the sense of belongingness is one of the important aspects under Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (Pride, et.

al. 2009). If this need is satisfied properly, there would be greater chance for the students to learn and explore more about their talents and skills. Sociological researches and surveys, however, have shown that education nowadays is much more likely to confirm existing inequality and discrimination than to help in eliminating and eradicating them (Larskaia-Smirnova & Loshakova 2004). It is found out that the ability of the handicapped children to obtain a good and quality education is intervened by various structural limitations linked to social inequality.

Teachers in most schools pay more attention to the best and most capable students while the handicapped ones are placed on the bottom of the school hierarchy. Disabled students are frequently ignored and the focus of attention is given to the more capable students. This results to unintentional discrimination within the context of the school system. And this practice is indeed very disadvantageous to the part of the disabled students. Limitations of the Multicultural Education for Special Students

Some criticized that the success of the multicultural education among the disabled students does not materialize because of the limitations from the teachers. Some teachers do not perceive special education as a means in order to help the students with disabilities. In some cases, the teachers are the ones who serve as the source of prejudice and discrimination inside the classroom. If a teacher, for instance, responds to a disabled student in a manner that the said student will be perceived as different from the typical ones, the other students would also perceive them as different among the others.

In this manner, the disabled students are unintentionally discriminated by the teacher and the students inside the classroom. Because of the modeling seen by the students from the teacher, the typical students might used to discriminate the disabled ones and think that the disabled students are really different from them. This would lead the students to the sense of inequality, discrimination and prejudice among themselves. In this case, the teacher serves as a model to the students. The typical students learn their behavior through observation and imitation of peers as well as through reference to authority figures.

This is called social referencing theory which suggests that an individual gains information about social setting from a familiar or trusted person (De Schauwer 2009). The teachers, nevertheless, should be the ones to promote equality inside the classroom in order to make multicultural education successful. Since they are the most authoritative figures inside the classroom, the teachers should serve as an example to the students so that the latter will develop sense of equality among themselves.

To be able to contribute to the success of the multicultural education, the teacher should have the in-depth understanding of the paradigm of multicultural education. This would eliminate the chance of unintentional discrimination inside the classroom. Studies revealed that teachers with special education coursework and teachers who had received training in special education had more positive attitudes towards inclusive multicultural education as compared to the teachers who lacked in-service training in special education (Drowning, et. al. 2007).

Eliminating Prejudice and Discrimination Inside the Classroom Essay

Legislations that affect school work Essay

Legislations that affect school work Essay.

Identify and summarise five pieces of legislation (to include codes of practice) which schools have to follow. Explain how each of these affect work in schools.

Legislation refers to the actual law enacted by a governing or legislative body at national or local level. There are legislations for more or less all aspects of life but we are particularly going to discuss the ones that affect schools. These laws are produced and implemented in order to protect children and the people who work with children.

Legislations ensure their safety and make sure their rights are respected. Code of practice is a practical guide that provides ways on how to effectively work under legislation. The Code of Practice is not a legislation itself that is why schools are not legally bound to follow them. Examples include: •Special Educational Needs Code of Practice for Wales.

•Safeguarding Children: Working Together Under the Children Act 2004. Let us now look at five different legislations and how they affect work in schools. 1. The Data Protection Act 1998:

The Data Protection Act means that schools need to make sure that all the information they hold is kept securely on site. If its paper storage it should be locked in filing cabinets. If the information is electronic it should be on password-protected computers. This legislation bounds schools to use this information only for the purpose it was collected and not share it with unauthorised people. It affects schools and staff in many ways as a teaching assistant it puts a responsibility on us to make sure that pupil information is confidential and if it needs to be shared with adults working with a particular pupil (like a speech therapist), we have the parental consent to do it.

2. The UN Convention on Rights of Child 1989:

The UN Convention on Rights of Child 1989 was ratified in the UK in 1991 and adopted by the Welsh Government in 2004. It is made up of 54 articles covering rights to survival, protection, and development of children. It can be summarized by saying it protects children from any form of discrimination. Children have a right to know and access the relevant information about themselves. They have the freedom to practice their own beliefs and come together and enjoy as groups. It states that all children have an equal right to education and a right to privacy. They have the right to express their views and feelings. Children with disabilities have a right to lead full and independent lives and they have a say in the decisions that affect them. This legislation has a major impact on schools as it bounds the staff and teachers to listen to what the child has to say.

E.g. a teacher cannot just make a decision about a child on their own just because he/she is an adult. They have to respect the wishes of the child. This law gives children a voice and control over their lives. It empowers children and brings in confidence but at the same time it can be used by a child in a negative way and teachers may find it hard to discipline a child and to deal with a behaviour problem. That is where the Code of Practice comes in as a useful tool and tells what to do in a particular situation.

3. The Education and Inspections Act 2006:

The Education and Inspections Act 2006 is intended to represent a major step in ensuring that all children in all schools get the education they need to enable them to fulfil their potential. The Act provides greater freedoms to schools, including the possibility of owning their own assets, employing their own staff, setting their own admissions arrangements etc. This gives local authorities more responsibility for managing schools. This law gives staff a clear statutory right to discipline students. By law, all state (not private) schools must have a behaviour policy in place that includes measures to prevent all forms of bullying among pupils. This policy is decided by the school. All teachers, pupils and parents must be told what it is. School staff needs to be well aware of the policy. Although these legislations must be followed but the Children Act overrides all other laws when it comes to safeguarding children.

4. Children Act 2004:

Children Act 2004 is an updated version of the Children Act 1989. The Children Act 1989 allocated duties to local authorities, courts, parents and other agencies to ensure children are safeguarded and their welfare is promoted. ( ‘Children Act 1989’). It centres on the idea that a child’s welfare is paramount and comes before everything else. Wherever possible, children must be cared for by their own families and that adequate support is available for parents and children in need.

The law suggests that professionals should work in partnerships with parents at every stage. The Children Act 2004 introduces multi agency approach to safeguarding children. Detailed information is available for people in the ‘Working Together Document’. The idea behind the Act is to promote co-ordination between multiple official entities to improve the overall well-being of children. The 2004 Act also specifically provided for including and affecting disabled children. This Act promotes the achievement of the five outcomes of ‘Every Child Matters’ framework, that are:

•Stay safe.
•Be healthy.
•Enjoy and achieve.
•Make a positive contribution.
•Achieve economic well-being.

This legislation has a huge impact on schools and on the way they address issues of care, welfare and discipline. Teachers and the support staff’s work has been affected directly by the act and they need to have training or guidance in its implementation.

5. The Equality Act 2010.

On 1 October 2010, the Equality Act 2010 replaced all existing equality legislation such as the Race Relations Act, Disability Discrimination Act and Sex Discrimination Act. It protects the children and staff from being discriminated. It also extends protection to pupil who are pregnant, have recently given birth or who are undergoing gender reassignment. In Wales the Act applies to all maintained and independent schools, including Academies, and special schools.

The Act makes it unlawful for the responsible body of a school to discriminate against, harass or victimise a pupil in relation to admissions, in the way it provides education, in the way it provides pupils access to any benefit, facility or service, or by excluding a pupil or subjecting them to any other detriment. Teachers now have to make sure that children with disabilities or additional needs are also included in and have access to all activities so there is no form of discrimination. ( ‘Equality Act 2010’)

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Legislations that affect school work Essay

Untouchability Practice Essay

Untouchability Practice Essay.

Untouchability is a form of discrimination, the social-religious practice of ostracizing a minority group by segregating them from the mainstream by social custom or legal mandate. It is a menace and social evil associated with traditional Hindu society. The term is used in India to talk about the public treatment of especially the Dalit communities, who face work and descent-based discrimination at the hands of the dominant Hindu castes. . It is being practiced since times immemorial and despite various efforts made by social reformers such as Dr.

B. R. Ambedkar; and despite there being provision on abolition of untouchability in our Constitution under Article 17, the evil is still in practice in our country.

Although untouchability has been made illegal in post-independence India, prejudice against them are seen in the society, especially in rural areas.

Definition of Untouchability

Untouchablity in simple terms can be understood as a practice whereby a particular class or caste of persons are discriminated with on the ground of their being born in that particular caste or on the ground of their being members of those social groups involved in menial jobs.

The discrimination can be in the form of physical or social boycott from the society. For instance: the members of so-called higher castes such as Brahmin, Kshatriyas etc would not dine or sit with a person of Bhangi class. It was believed that people of higher castes could become impure even if a shadow of an untouchable person touches him and to re-gain his purity he had to take a dip into holy waters of the Ganga.

Who Are Untouchables?

According to traditional Hindu ‘Varna System’, a person is born into one of the four castes based on karma and ‘purity’. Those born as Brahmans are priests and teachers; Kshatriyas are rulers and soldiers; Vaisyas are merchants and traders; and Sudras are laborers. Untouchables are literally outcastes. They do not directly figure into any of the traditional ‘Varna System’ of Hindus. According to Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, untouchables form an entirely new class i.e. the fifth varna apart from the existing four varnas.

Thus, untouchables are not even recognized under the caste system of Hindus. However, historically persons born in lowest castes and classes of persons doing menial jobs, criminals, persons suffering from contagious diseases and tribals living outside the so-called civilized world were considered as unto uchables. Their exclusion from the mainstream society was based on the belief that they are impure and harmful and it was necessary to ostracized them for the overall benefit of the society. Untouchability was also practiced as a form of punishment to the law-breakers and criminals; they were socially boycotted for their misdeeds.

Who Are Dalits?

Untouchables are also known as depressed classes, harijans etc; but today they are more frequently referred to as ‘Dalits’. In modern times, ‘Dalit’ refers to one’s caste rather than class; it applies to members of those so-called menial castes which are born with the stigma of “untouchability” because of the extreme impurity and pollution connected with their traditional occupations. They are considered impure and polluting and are therefore physically and socially excluded and isolated from the rest of society.

Today members of Schedule Castes and Schedule Tribes (SC/ST) are considered as ‘Dalits’ and they are subjected to various forms of discrimination in the society. Especially, Schedule Castes such as Chamars, Passi, Bhangis and Doms etc are known as ‘Dalits’; these people are generally associated with menial jobs such as tanning, skinning of hides, works on leather goods, sweeping, scavenging etc.

Forms of Discrimination against Untochables or Dalits

According to National Campaign on Dalit Human Rights (NCDHR), there are various forms of discriminations being practiced against Dalits in India, these are: Prohibited from eating with other caste members,

Prohibited from marrying with other caste members,
Separate glasses for Dalits in village tea stalls,
Discriminatory seating arrangements and separate utensils in restaurants, Segregation in seating and food arrangements in village functions and festivals, Prohibited from entering into village temples,

Prohibited from wearing sandals or holding umbrellas in front of dominant caste members, Prohibited from using common village pat,
Separate burial grounds,
No access to village’s common/public properties and resources (wells, ponds, temples, etc.), Segregation (separate seating area) of Dalit children in schools, Bonded Labor,
Face social boycotts by dominant castes for refusing to perform their “duties” Abolition of Untochability under Indian Constitution

India got Independence on 15th of August, 1947 after long and painful struggle of more than one hundred years. The struggle was not only against the foreign rule of British but it was also against the social evils such as untouchability prevailing from centuries. After Independence when great leaders of freedom struggle agreed to make our own Constitution, it was decided that there must be provisions under the Constitution regarding the abolition of social evils and upliftment of down-trodden castes and social groups etc. In view of this objective Article 17 was added to the Constitution; Article 17 reads as follows: “Untouchability is abolished and its practice in any form is forbidden. The enforcement of any disability arising out of “Untouchability” shall be an offence punishable in accordance with law.”

Thus, Article 17 abolishes and forbids untouchability in any form. At the same time, it also makes it an offence punishable as per the law made by the Parliament. In order to fulfill the mandate of Article 17 of the Constitution, the Parliament enacted the Untouchability (Offences) Act, 1955. It made several discriminatioray practices punishable as offences, although the punishment provided were rather mild and in their actual application even milder. Several lacunae and loopholes were found in the working of the Untouchability (Offences) Act, 1955 which compelled the Government to bring about a drastic amendment in the Act in 1976.

The Act was revamped as the Protection of Civil Rights Act. However, the menace of untouchability continued and ‘dalits’ were still being treated in a discriminatory way, their socio-economic conditions remained vulnerable, they are denied a number of civil rights and were subjected to various offences, indignities and humiliations. Therefore, to counter theses atrocities meted out to so-called ‘Dalits’ section of society, the Parliament passed ‘Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Attrocities) Act, 1989.

The Act provided more comprehensive and punitive measures to deal with and to prevent discrimination and atrocities against ‘dalits’. The ultimate objective of the Act was to help the social inclusion of Untouchables/Dalits into the mainstream Indian society. These above mentioned Acts were made with good intention and with positive objective of removing discriminatory practices against untouchables/dalits but in actual practice, these Acts have failed to live upto their expectations.

Untouchability: Present Scenario

In our society there still exist feeling of superiority of caste and birth. We can experience the practice of untouchability in everyday life around us, especially in rural and semi-urban areas of the country. Also, in big metro cities, the inhuman practice of manual scavenging is still there. According to a news report of Press Trust of India (PTI), on January 3, 2014, four tea shop vendors were arrested by the Police in Karnataka for practicing untouchability while selling tea- they were serving tea in different types of cups to caste Hindus and SC/STs. The incidence shows that the evil practice is so deep rooted in Hindu society that even after 67 years of Independence is continuing in one form or other.

However, it can be said that things are slowly changing; the mind set of modern generation is also changing. Today’s youth with modern education and globalized outlook are viewing the social order from different perspective of equality and impartiality and not from the religious or traditional point of view. Hopefully, the wicked practice of untouchability would be removed from the society sooner rather than later and our country would usher into a new era of social equality and brotherhood which will be the true India of Gandhi and Ambedkar.

What is “Untouchability”?

India’s Constitution abolished “untouchability,” meaning that the dominant castes could no longer legally force Dalits to perform any “polluting” occupation. Yet sweeping, scavenging, and leatherwork are still the monopoly of the scheduled castes, whose members are threatened with physical abuse and social boycotts for refusing to perform demeaning tasks. Migration and the anonymity of the urban environment have in some cases resulted in upward occupational mobility among Dalits, but the majority continue to perform their traditional functions. A lack of training and education, as well as discrimination in seeking other forms of employment, has kept these traditions and their hereditary nature alive.

Prevalence of Untouchability Practices & Discrimination

These statistics are taken from a survey of practices of untouchability undertaken in 565 villages in 11 major states of India. They clearly demonstrate that the inhumane and illegal practice of untouchability is still commonplace in contemporary India: In as many as 38% of government schools, Dalit children are made to sit separately while eating. In 20 percent schools, Dalits children are not even permitted to drink water from the same source. A shocking 27.6% of Dalits were prevented from entering police stations and 25.7% from entering ration shops. 33% of public health workers refused to visit Dalit homes, and 23.5% of Dalits still do not get letters delivered in their homes. Segregated seating for Dalits was found in 30.8% of self-help groups and cooperatives, and 29.6% of panchayat offices.

In 14.4% of villages, Dalits were not permitted even to enter the panchayat building. In 12% of villages surveyed, Dalits were denied access to polling booths, or forced to form a separate line. In 48.4% of surveyed villages, Dalits were denied access to common water sources. In 35.8%, Dalits were denied entry into village shops. They had to wait at some distance from the shop, the shopkeepers kept the goods they bought on the ground, and accepted their money similarly without direct contact. In teashops, again in about one-third of the villages, Dalits were denied seating and had to use separate cups. In as many as 73% of the villages, Dalits were not permitted to enter non-Dalit homes, and in 70% of villages non-Dalits would not eat together with Dalits.

In more than 47% villages, bans operated on wedding processions on public (arrogated as upper-caste) roads. In 10 to 20% of villages, Dalits were not allowed even to wear clean, bright or fashionable clothes or sunglasses. They could not ride their bicycles, unfurl their umbrellas, wear sandals on public roads, smoke or even stand without head bowed. Restrictions on temple entry by Dalits average as high as 64%, ranging from 47 % in UP to 94% in Karnataka. In 48.9% of the surveyed villages, Dalits were barred from access to cremation grounds. In 25% of the villages, Dalits were paid lower wages than other workers.

They were also subjected to much longer working hours, delayed wages, verbal and even physical abuse, not just in ‘feudal’ states like Bihar but also notably in Punjab. In 37% of the villages, Dalit workers were paid wages from a distance, to avoid physical contact. In 35% of villages, Dalit producers were barred from selling their produce in local markets. Instead they were forced to sell in the anonymity of distant urban markets where caste identities blur, imposing additional burdens of costs and time, and reducing their profit margin and competitiveness.

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The implications of the P-O-L-C framework Essay

The implications of the P-O-L-C framework Essay.

1. How might the implications of the P-O-L-C framework differ for an organization like Goodwill Industries versus a firm like Starbucks?

2. What are Goodwill’s competitive advantages?
It is engaged in a quasi-public service i.e job training, employment placement services are non-rival but exclusive, so Goodwill stands to make lots of profits in countries were there is a high unemployment rate while keeping even in countries with low unemployment.

3. Goodwill has found success in the social services. What problems might result from hiring and training the diverse populations that Goodwill is involved with? Persons who face employment challenge usually lack basic skills for the workplace.

Goodwill has to invest lots of money in training these to first understand the needs of the corporate environment and what it means to maximize profit rather than utility since most of these are used to spending time at home. The disabled are always a discriminated lot and their contribution to marginal revenue for a firm will be expected to be low, so Goodwill will face lots of challenges finding a company that is ready to make a loss on employee compensation for a disabled employee.

4. Have you ever experienced problems with discrimination in a work or school setting? My ethnicity is Hispanic. My parents were not born in the U.S. When I began Elementary school, it was in a relatively “white school”. My first language was Spanish, so when I began school I spoke English because my parents taught me but the school felt I should be put in ESOL class. The ESOL class was to fully teach me the English language. I was made fun of because I didn’t go to recess with the other students but rather go to a class and learn English. At six years old, I never thought I would feel discrimination but I did. Discrimination is everywhere and it would never end because people are all different and view life and people differently as well.

5. Why do you think Goodwill believes it necessary to continually innovate? It’s not only possible to innovate, it’s necessary if we want to remain a leader in our market. At Goodwill, we don’t think of innovation as the creation of the next iPhone, but rather as the next idea that allows us to serve the communities we’re a part of in the most meaningful and impactful way. For example, at the Goodwill Industries of South Florida (Miami), they innovate every day and put thousands of people with disabilities back to work.

People with disabilities enrolled in their programs learn apparel manufacturing, flag manufacturing, document destruction, and janitorial services. The Goodwill offers a broad range of flexible business solutions to private and public companies, while helping their employees achieve their independence. And it doesn’t stop there. We are committed to customizing the assistance workers need to achieve their peak performance, and we encourage them to continue to advance in their careers.

The Goodwill brand is a household name and fortunately still leads efforts in social entrepreneurism, community collaborations and innovation. By staying ahead of the curve, we don’t fall behind. Goodwills are relentless in their desire to understand and meet the needs of the diverse local communities in which they operate. Goodwills challenge themselves to remain relevant and meaningful to the three million people we collectively serve each year. Goodwills across the United States and Canada have found the sweet spot of uniting enterprise with caring, ensuring that our social enterprise model is optimized in a way that empowers people and builds communities that work

The implications of the P-O-L-C framework Essay

Principles of diversity Essay

Principles of diversity Essay.

Assignment overview

In this assignment you will consider best practice in promoting diversity, equality and inclusion which does not discriminate against others. You will look at relevant legislation, codes of practice and regulations governing adult social care and consider the consequences for a variety of people if these are not followed. You are asked to consider your own attitudes and beliefs and how these may impact on how you treat people and to reflect on your own practice.

There are three tasks to this assignment.

A Short answer questions
B Leaflet
C Reflective account

This is a summary of the evidence required for the unit.
Task Evidence Learning outcomes covered
A Short answer questions 1.1, 1.2, 3.1
B Leaflet 1.3, 2.1, 2.2, 3.2, 3.3
C Reflective account 2.3, 2.4, 2.5

Task A Short answer questions

Ai Explain in your own words what each term means. Give one example from care practice to illustrate your explanations. SHC 33

1.1) Diversity

Diversity means variety, an example of this is society, where people very in a multitude of ways, including sex, age, sexual orientation, physical characteristics such as height, weight and skin colour, personal experiences and attributes, such as beliefs, values and preferences.

Care settings reflect the diversity of the population, an example of which is diet, some people have specific dietary needs, some may need food that is pureed due to swallowing difficulties, others may follow a vegetarian or vegan diet, people from different cultural and religious backgrounds have specific dietary needs. Equality

Equality is treating people fairly regardless of their differences, ensuring that they have access to the same life opportunities. An example of this in the care setting is Ability, a lack of understanding about the needs of people with physical or mental disabilities results in them finding it difficult to make the most of life’s opportunities, an example of this in the care setting is persons not taking part in activities as they may not be suitable to their needs, this can lead to them being socially excluded, we need to ensure that there are a range of activities to suit all needs.


Inclusion is accepting everyone, regardless of difference, it is about getting rid of intolerance of difference and providing help and support where appropriate. The act of inclusion brings about a feeling of wellbeing and builds on a person’s confidence, ensuring that everyone can meet their full potential. Within a care home setting each individual has differing needs that have to be continually monitored and assessed to ensure that they are getting the most out of life for example a person’s mobility needs changing should not exclude them, they need to be given the correct level of support to take part and feel included in the day to day living that they enjoyed previously.


Discrimination is a form of prejudice, it is an attitude or way of thinking based on unfounded, unreasonable pre judgement of a person or situation, not one based on factual assessment, and it can cause a barrier that makes it difficult for a person to make progress or to achieve goals. An example of this in the care setting is not giving choice to a resident with things such as what they wish to eat if there’s only one choice for those that are in need of a pureed diet but three different meals available to other resident’s.

Aii For each of the following people/groups of people, describe two different possible effects of discrimination. (SHC 33 1.1) An Individual

The effects of discrimination on an individual;
1) Short term effects on an individual can include intimidation, humiliation, resentment and anger. 2) Long term effects can bring about feelings of inferiority, loss of self-worth and confidence a distrust and fear of others, leading to social exclusion.

Their Families
The effects on a person’s family;
1) The injustice of discrimination not only has an effect on the individual but also their family, by denying people opportunities such as education they cannot find employment or live in decent housing, this in turn leads to victims and their family’s being in deprivation, without a good standard of living. 2) Discrimination can cause the breakup of a family, this is due to the stress that is caused.

Wider society
The effects of discrimination on wider society;
1) Discrimination in the long term results in deprivation for whole groups in society, such as the elderly. 2) Discrimination has brought about a postcode lottery with unequal availability of services in different parts of the country. Those who discriminate

The effects on those who discriminate;
1) They would be in breach of the equality act 2010 and as such in contravention of the law this can lead to both fines and imprisonment. 2) Those who discriminate show a lack of concern for others, their beliefs, culture and preferences showing a lack of concern, this in turn brings into doubt the person’s ability to care, Health and social care workers have a responsibility to provide a high level of care, anything else would be neglect. Aiii Identify three ways of challenging discrimination, and describe how each will promote change. 1) Work place discrimination can be challenged by analysing why the person behaves in a discriminatory manor, an example may be they were brought up in an environment where labelling, stereotyping and negative prejudice were normal behaviour and so not questioned.

This needs to be explored privately, for example during an appraisal where behaviour can be questioned and required changes can be agreed and recorded with their success being measured. 2) Informal discussions provide opportunity to reflect on the dire effects of discrimination, talking through these issues and imagining how it must feel to experience unfair, unjust treatment, can have powerful effects on thinking and behaviour, hence bringing about change in mind set. 3) Education is a way of challenging discrimination, ensuring that persons abide by work place policies and procedures and codes of practice including those that relate to anti-discrimination policies. Good communication skills enable discrimination to be challenged in an assertive yet encouraging way to bring about behaviour change.

Task B Leaflet
Bi Your work setting is running an induction course for new social care workers in an adult social care setting. Create a leaflet, which can be used to support this course.
The leaflet must include the following:
a) A description of the legislation and codes of practice relating to diversity, equality, inclusion and discrimination. b) An explanation of the possible consequences for individuals, social care workers and others if the legislation and codes of practice are not followed. c) A description of how inclusive practice can promote equality and support diversity. d) An explanation of how to support others to promote diversity, equality and inclusion.

Leaflet enclosed.

Bii Give two examples of how you could raise awareness of diversity, equality and inclusion. (SHC 33 1.1)

1) Training and discussion;
Training and discussion in one to one meetings or groups of staff, raise awareness of equality, diversity and inclusion. The more they will engage in discussion and obtain training about this issue the more they will learn and be aware of it and also put it in to their everyday practice.

2) Through providing leaflet, information and policies and procedures; Providing leaflets and sufficient information regarding diversity and equality will raise awareness to a social care worker by having knowledge about it. It also helps them to know about the consequences if agreed ways of working are not followed.

Task C Reflective account (SHC 33 2.2)

Ci Write a reflective account describing:
• How your personal preferences, attitudes, heritage and beliefs might impact on working practice. • How to ensure that your own practice is inclusive and respects the beliefs, culture, values and preferences of individuals. Suggested word count: 500 – 700 words

(Enclosed as separate document)

Cii Write a brief account that describes examples of inclusive practice.

Inclusive practice, is about attitudes, approaches and strategies taken to ensure that people are not excluded or isolated. An examples of this would be; show respect, regardless of a person’s age, sex, sexual orientation race and ability, with regard to their believes, culture , values and preferences. It is good to model care on Principles of care that promote inclusive work practice, letting personal preferences shape the way you work, supporting individuals in retaining their cultural dignity, such as how they choose to dress and maintain their personal hygiene. Respect the need to maintain confidentiality of personal and sensitive information, ensure that persons are not disadvantaged but can access equal opportunities for example by making sure they receive help and support that is appropriate for their needs.

(SHC 33 3.1, 3.2)
Ciii Write a brief account that describes practice, which excludes the individual and is discriminatory.

Taking away a person’s personal preferences can excluded the individual and the care worker would not be demonstrating ‘inclusive practice’, examples of this would be denying someone the opportunity to worship in the way their religion dictates this would be excluding them, a person not being given the chance to choose what to wear takes away from their right to equality and may impact on their cultural dignity. Not allowing for a person’s dietary requirements an example of this might be a vegetarian not being able to have the same amount of choices as a person who eats meat. A person who needs to use a wheelchair could be excluded from taking part in an activity due to problems with access this would cause them to be disadvantaged and discriminated against. By not using the person cantered approach within health and social care you would not be following best practice leading to people being denied their freedom and this is a form of neglect and may be seen as abuse.

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Principles of diversity Essay