Case Study: System Development Essay

Case Study: System Development Essay.

System development is a process in which programmers with organization contribution write codes to solve a problem that face the organization system or automate a procedure. There are three major systems development techniques that been used to solve systems’ problems. The system development techniques are SDLC (Systems Development Life Cycle), JAD (Joint Application Development), and RAD (Rapid Application Development). SDLC provides tools for controlling details within large development projects that solve structured problems. JAD enables the identification, definition, and implementation of information infrastructures.

RAD supports the iteration and flexibility necessary for building robust business process support(Osborn, 1995). In this case study, the manager been asked to design, develop, and install a Patient Management Information System for a medical clinic in which three physicians practice general medicine.

This system has to be operational in 6 months. There is one individual in the clinic staff who is reasonably well informed about information technology. Thus, the manager needs to determine which system development methodologies will use to solve this problem.

To choose the appropriate development system, the manager need to use a process which consists of s (1) defining requirements, (2) designing an information system to fit those requirements, (3) building the code to deliver that system, and (4) testing to see whether the code works and the system does the job it was intended to do(Osborn, 1995). The requirement for this case study is to design and develop and install a Management Information System for a medical clinic that has three physicians within 6 months.

Based on that, this process will take longer if we use the SDLC which is the traditional method that need narrative descriptions, data definitions, and sample screens. Moreover, producing a thorough, often multi-volume description of system requirements can become such a time-consuming task that it begins to extend the expected life of a development project. On the other hand, JAD tends to rely on data models to provide requirements definition and prototypes to capture final design details. The data modeling can produce thorough system specifications more quickly than SDLC narratives, especially through the use of computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools.

The RAD relies on a series of iterative prototypes to specify and document requirements. The technique reverses the scheduling emphasis normally found in SDLC projects by setting a rolling series of release dates and dynamically adjusting system features to fit. Iterating prototypes gives requirements the opportunity to evolve and the flexibility to change if needed(Osborn, 1995). Since the project is for small clinic, which mean that the budget is limited. SDLC to the use of expensive mainframes to understand transactions, JAD to the need for managing data distribution following the advent of minicomputers, and RAD to the development of business process support based on networked client/server workstations. SDLC provides tools for controlling details within large development projects that solve structured problems.

JAD enables the identification, definition, and implementation of information infrastructures. RAD supports the iteration and flexibility necessary to building robust business process support. Thus, based on the information that discussed earlier, I recommend using the RAD method because the clinic is small one which needs inexpensive system and the system will need support especially that there is only one person who informed about using information technology. In addition, the time limits that clinic has will fit also the RAD method. Literature showed that RAD proves most useful for systems support of unstructured business processes. This not means that this system will limit the business because when the business grows up the system can move for more structure system(Osborn, 1995).

Glandon, G., Smaltz, D. & Slovensky, D. (2012). Information Systems for Healthcare Management. Chicago, IL: Health Administration Press. Osborn, C. (1995). SDLC, JAD, and RAD: Finding the Right Hammer. Center for Information Management Studies, Working Paper 95-07.

Case Study: System Development Essay

Theories of Cognitive Development by Piaget and Vygotsky Essay

Theories of Cognitive Development by Piaget and Vygotsky Essay.

Jean Piaget’s and Lev Semionovich Vygotsky’s theories on cognitive development both play a significant role in addressing the intellectual growth of children (Lain, 2006). Psychologists and educators alike, rely on these theories in constructing the standards by which children are being brought up and taught today. Essentially, cognitive development is the process by which our intellectual ability grows and progresses. Slavin (2003), maintains that cognitive development, “is the gradual and orderly changes that occur making ones mental process more complex and sophisticated” (as cited in Lain, 2006, Cognitive Development section, para.

1). As the children’s learning process is crucial to the development of their learning ability and critical thought process, educators must have a good grasp of these theories to fully address the children’s individual learning needs. Jean Piaget’s theory is marked by several developmental stages that define the child’s corresponding cognitive level. On the other hand, Lev Vygotsky developed the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) based on the assumption that children learn more quickly under the guidance of a more experienced adult (Maccarelli, 2006).

Considered as constructivists, both renowned theorists believed that children learn by formulating new ideas by combining old ones. The Hawai’i Department of Education E-School also claims that, “constructivists believe that learning is affected by the context in which an idea is taught as well as by students’ beliefs and attitudes” (as cited in Davison, 2006, Piaget vs Vygotsky: The Cognitive Development Theory section, para. 1). As society determines the amount of knowledge a child gains, it also sets the limit to the students’ cognitive development.

However, the principal ideas between the two theorists vary greatly. Piaget strongly believed that learning occurs after development. He indicated that a child will start the learning process after the child has reached a certain developmental stage. Contrarily, Vygotsky claimed that the child develops as a result of learning. Furthermore, Vygotsky placed a large amount of emphasis on the importance of outside influence to the child’s overall cognitive development, where as Piaget barely acknowledged the significance of outside influence on the child’s development in his theorems.

Moreover, while Piaget’s theory has four distinct and set standards of development, Vygotsky’s theory does not support predetermined stages at all. Instead, he stressed the importance of private speech and ZPD on the child’s development. Living in a society that is an integration of multiple cultures, classified by age, race, gender, ethnicity, religion, and economic status, each of us is a product of our social interactions to these various cultures.

If we examine Vygotsky’s theory, a large part of a child’s development is placed on the input of others, it is therefore reasonable to assume that a multicultural society places a great deal of input on the child’s development. However, since a child’s development is limited to his or her surroundings, and his thoughts and ideas mainly influenced by that of his early caregivers, sometimes the child is not exposed to different cultures other than his own. This gives rise to multicultural issues that we see nowadays.

And as the study of multicultural psychology is greatly concerned with exploring, understanding, and appreciating the differences in culture, based on Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s theory, these multicultural issues could be avoided if children are exposed or introduced to diverse cultures early in life. References Davison, B. (2006). Piaget vs Vygotsky: The Cognitive Development Theory. Associated Content. Retrieved on January 01, 2009, from http://www. associatedcontent. com/article/94974/piaget_vs_vygotsky_the_cognitive_development. html? cat=4 Lain, (2006). Cognitive Development: A Comparison Between the Work of Piaget, Bruner, and Vygotsky.

Associated Content. Retrieved on January 01, 2009, from http://www. associatedcontent. com/article/41531/cognitive_development. html? cat=4 Maccarelli, S. (2006). Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development: The Socio-Cultural Perspective. Associated Content. Retrieved on January 01, 2009, from http://www. associatedcontent. com/article/29997/vygotskys_theory_of_cognitive_development. html? cat=4 Uncgrad, (2006). Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development. Associated Content. Retrieved on January 01, 2009, from http://www. associatedcontent. com/article/452881/piagets_stages_of_cognitive_development. html? cat=4

Theories of Cognitive Development by Piaget and Vygotsky Essay

The New Nepal: Path to Development and Success Essay

The New Nepal: Path to Development and Success Essay.

Nepal was declared Federal Democratic Republic country on 15th Jestha, 2065 B. S. After the mass movement II, the autocratic monarchy has been removed from Nepal. The new concept of new Nepal is to divide the country into different autonomous states with their own power and to be controlled by the central government. Everyone believes that this system will lead Nepal towards the path of development and success. This division of state will encourage decentralization of power and facility. The power will be equally divided to the state government.

By this, a state government can conduct needed development activities by using the local resources and the budget distributed by the central government. In the federal system, the local development activities will be more efficient. There will be equal and proportionate development, there will be equal and proportionate development, there will be healthy competition between the states, decentralization of power will be practiced, and people will be more engaged and enthusiastic to participate in development activities if the country is divided in to several states.

People believe that New Nepal will run according to mandate of the mass movement II. All the wants demanded in the revolution will be fulfilled in New Nepal. Free education, free primary health services and many other helps will be provided by the government. Right to security of life, right to freedom, right towards own identity will be guaranteed in New Nepal. In New Nepal, people expect that all social evils will be abolished. There would be no discrimination on the basis of sex, caste, religion, class, etc.

All people would equal rights and facilities. But, it has been 4 years that Nepal has been declared federal democratic republic country, and, till now the main objective of the mass movement II to make the constitution, has not been fulfilled. Recently, the constitutional council has been dismissed. Due to various reasons, Nepal has not been able to establish federal system. Nepal has been undergoing a very critical political crisis. Leaders don’t seem to be devoted for the nation.

They are led by party carders and they speak only for their own favor. Corruptions, unstable government, monopoly for power, different ideologies of different political parties are some of the causes for the failure to establish federal system. In order to solve these problems, we the citizen should take steps as soon as possible. More organizations like CIAA (Commission for Investigation for Abuse of Authority) should be established to abolish corruption.

Election should be held and we should choose the right leaders for the smooth running of government. This will solve the problem of unstable government and monopoly for power. Development of New Nepal is only possible if there is establishment of federal system and political stability in the country. The government should run according to the mandate of the Jana Andolan II. We, the citizen, should pressurize the government to function properly. The problems like corruption, unstable government, etc. must be solved as soon as possible.

The New Nepal: Path to Development and Success Essay

Development of Nude Photography Essay

Development of Nude Photography Essay.

The paper attempts to critically examine, albeit briefly, the impacts of socio-cultural structures in the development of nude photography as an art form. It highlights the broad comparison of Asian and Western nude photography by showcasing some leading photographers specializing in nudist photographs. The workings of the social norms and societal structures, including conservative state apparatuses in some cultures, will also be briefly illustrated as far as they affect the form and content of works of the respective artist-photographers. A. Development of nude photography across cultural divide and time

Nude photography is a distinct branch of art photography using humans in still position as subjects.

Majority of art critics hold the dominant view that nude photography studies the human body and not the person. The latter pertains to portrait photography, which is a significantly different form. As will be illustrated later, this dominant view is being continually challenged, notably Araki Nobuyoshi, a controversial and highly prolific Japanese photographer. Nude photography is dissimilar from erotic photography, which is actually suggestive of erotic and sexual contents.

Although there are established criteria in differentiating one from the other, an evaluation of whether a photograph is a valid nudist photo or a pornographic material remains largely with the viewer. More liberal and aggressive photo styles and techniques blur further the already thin dividing line between art and pornography. Nude photography did not develop as one single movement. It began as separate changes in individual preferences of various notable photographers, particularly in the early 20th century.

Nudity, however, has been a favorite subject of paintings and sculpture, famously beginning with classical Greek sculptures and Renaissance paintings. Admittedly, artist-photographers in Western countries were the first to explore the use of nude women as subject, owing largely to more liberal atmosphere compared to their Asian counterparts. Some of the leading initiators of the new photography art form were Felix-Jacques Moulin, Edward Weston, Ruth Bernhard and Jerry Avenaim. Asian nude photography developed albeit later than its Western counterparts did.

Conservative mores and restrictive culture impeded smoother and faster evolution of nudity as both an art form and content. Societies that were largely dictated by highly formal familial structure did not provide the ideal environment for the rapid development of nude photography. Such situation can be viewed differently, however. On the one hand, the restrictive atmosphere discouraged many promising professional photographers in exploring the use of nude subjects, fearful of being rejected by the society and ostracized in the art community.

Since most of the photos were featured in local photo exhibits, they took the limited form of publication, allowing the government to exercise prior restraint measures, such as censorship. The case of Nobuyoshi is particularly interesting, because no less than the literal physical might of the Japanese government, supposedly as a repository of public interest and welfare, prohibited the exhibition and publication of some of his relatively controversial art works.

On the other hand, the earlier social restrictions on nudist art photography unwittingly provided also a good breeding ground for defiance, with varying outcomes. Nobuyoshi, aside from being a highly prolific photographer, emerged as a controversial public figure because of his experimentation of nudist photos, sometimes including sado-masochistic contents and strong visual imagery of the human genitalia. Extending the limits of the society is still a powerful weapon of the oppressed. Economic development also came much later among countries in Asia.

Most of these countries experienced socio-political upheavals as they strived to free themselves from colonial bondage. They also struggled in eventually demolishing whatever remaining post-colonial structures controlled by local elites who replaced their previous colonial masters. Art, in general, was just one of the tools used by those who wanted to reform their societies. Photography, along with other visual arts, is a powerful medium that could effectively increase the potency of the message reformists want to embed in the public psyche.

One study conducted by Willem van Schendel of the University of Amsterdam and International Institute of Social History is particularly enlightening. The study involved a minority indigenous group in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, a district in Bangladesh. The study reveals how photography was utilized as a potent tool against the localized colonial onslaught by more economically dominant Bangladeshi districts and cities—a grim reminder of the country’s colonial history. It also showcases the adverse impacts of what Schendel calls as “enforced nudity”.

B. Edward Weston and other leading Western nude photographers Edward Weston was an American photographer born towards the end of the 19th century. He was born at the time when the artist community started reviving the Renaissance cultural legacy and reached the zenith of his career as an artist-photographer at the time when the so-called “Sexual Revolution” was slowly beginning to invade the United States. Weston started exploring photography as an adolescent using a camera given to him by his father.

Although born of a family with a relatively strong intellectual tradition, he dismissed the virtue of completing formal education and began concentrating on photography and exploring various techniques that eventually led him to fame. When Weston was already embarking on his photography career, the prevailing art genre was pictorialism. Pictorialist photography is characterized by the suppression of finer details through photo manipulation. Some people called it as the abstract painting version of photography.

Photography then was not considered strictly as an art form, unlike the typical paintings and sculptures. Pioneering artist-photographers wanted to emulate the painting as a legitimate art form, hence the manipulation of the photo outputs to mimic abstract paintings. Pictorialism was essentially used as a critical vehicle in the eventual acceptance of photography as a valid art. The leading figure in the said art movement was Alfred Stieglitz, notably starting with his Camera Work publication from 1913-1917. Weston eventually abandoned Pictorialism in favor of straight photography.

Together with other notable colleagues, such as Ansel Adams and William Van Dyke, Weston founded the Group f/64, then initially composed of seven 20th century-photographers based in San Francisco, US. The group wanted to offer an alternative paradigm, employing unadulterated and purist version of photos, with subjects usually confined to those naturally existing objects. Western nude photographers were relatively not adversely affected by socio-political upheavals experienced then in less developed societies around the world.

They enjoyed more liberal atmosphere, allowing them wider breadth to explore unusual and more controversial subjects. One specific issue, however, hounded Weston, in particular. At the time when he was slowly building his budding career, he was relatively located apart from his fellow photographers, mostly living and exhibiting in New York and other areas in the east coast. At that time, Weston was living in California. Photo reproduction was then still a developing technology, mostly relying on photo templates that required greater task in reproducing them.

The state of technology and his physical location provided the fertile ground for the development of his unique ideas on photography. To a certain extent, Weston is considered by art historians as the primary precursor of purist nude photography in the United States. C. Araki Nobuyoshi briefly showcased Nobuyoshi is a leading and highly controversial Japanese photographer born in 1940 in Tokyo. He started his passion in photography when he was employed by Dentsu, Inc. , an advertising company.

Soon, he embarked on a more independent career path, submitting majority of his works to leading magazines and other publications in Japan. Nobuyoshi is a seemingly interesting case. Despite living in a much-developed country compared to Japan’s neighboring countries in Asia, he was not exempted from the restrictive government regulating arms, largely influenced by the dominant socio-cultural and moral tenets. In fact, as recent as 1992, police officers raided a photo gallery where his famous book by Nobuyoshi, entitled “Erotos”, was being sold.

Police personnel arrested various people behind the event on obscenity grounds. A year earlier, he was slapped with a 300,000-yen fine because of erotic photos in a photo exhibit titled “Photo-maniac Diary”. In stark contrast to the repressive state censorship of his works in Japan, “Erotos” was widely acclaimed in Western countries, with the book’s Austrian publisher expressing shock and utter disappointment. Weston and Nobuyoshi share one specific photo style.

Unlike most other nude photographers who remain focused on the body shape and not the person as the dominant subject, Weston and Nobuyoshi took many photos depicting even clearly showing the human face. It was a substantial departure from the prevalent and more careful technique that gives lesser emphasis on the human face, cognizant of the blurry line dividing nude photography and pornography. Nobuyoshi went even further by taking countless photos of the human genitalia, explaining largely why he is both loved and hated by art critics in his own country.

Conclusion As elucidated earlier, the evolution of nude photography as another legitimate art form did not come about as a sudden explosion of defiance against the dominant genre in photography. The state of technology in photo reproduction and existing socio-cultural tenets dictated the pace of development of nude photography as an alternative art form. Western countries, with better equipment and more liberal atmosphere, were responsible in the initial appearance of nudist photos as distinctly different from erotic and pornographic materials.

Photos of nude women gained wider and smoother acceptance among the literati in these countries. Asian nude photographers have an entirely different experience. As indicated in the case of Nobuyoshi, they were struggling against repressive social structures that were consequently translated into literal censorship of their works by government authorities. Despite the economic boon Japan was experiencing as late as the 1990s, oppressive and conservative structures and mindset had then yet to be demolished and replaced.

Bibliography Hirsch, Robert, “Seizing the Light: A History of Photography. ” NY: McGraw-Hill, 2000 “Nude Photography. ” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Nude_photography “Pictorialism. ” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Pictorialism van Schendel, William. “A Politics of Nudity: Photography of the ‘Naked Mru’ of Bangladesh. ” Cambridge Journals. http://journals. cambridge. org/action/displayAbstract? fromPage=online&aid=100313

Development of Nude Photography Essay

Dependency Theory Essay

Dependency Theory Essay.

Modernization theory is a theory used to explain the process of Modernization within societies. The theory looks at the internal factors of a country while assuming that with assistance “traditional countries can be brought to development in the same manner more developed countries have. This theory of modernization however failed because it can be argued that it was too Eurocentric in its methodologies. That is to say its centered focus was on Europe or European peoples. The theory never considered the Caribbean region or other third world when explaining its concepts.

This resulted in a paradigm shift from Modernization to Dependency.

The Dependency theory was established to provide the scholarly community with a different way of understanding the circumstances of the non-industrial countries of the world. According to Osvaldo Sunkel, dependency theory can be sociologically defined as an explanation of the economic development of a state in terms of the external influences, political, economic and cultural on national development policies. Therefore this essay would take seek to explain the advantages and limitations of the central new insight that is provided about development by the Dependency theory.

One advantage of the Dependency theory is that the theory arose around 1960 as a reaction to some earlier theories of development which held that all societies progress through similar stages of development, that today’s underdeveloped areas are thus in a similar situation to that of today’s developed areas at some time in the past, and that therefore the task in helping the underdeveloped areas out of poverty is to accelerate them along this supposed common path of development, by various means such as investment, technology transfers, and closer integration into the world market. Dependency theory rejected this view, arguing that underdeveloped countries are not merely primitive versions of developed countries, but have unique features and structures of their own; and, importantly, are in the situation of being the weaker members in a world market economy, whereas the developed nations were never in an analogous position; they never had to exist in relation to a bloc of more powerful countries than themselves.

Dependency theorists argued, in opposition to free market economists, that underdeveloped countries needed to reduce their connectedness with the world market so that they can pursue a path more in keeping with their own needs, less dictated by external pressures. Prebisch, an Argentine economist at the United Nations Commission for Latin America (UNCLA), went on to conclude that the underdeveloped nations must employ some degree of protectionism in trade if they were to enter a self-sustaining development path.

Another advantage the Dependency theory provided about development is that it explains the reasons why the lesser developed countries are the way they are. The lack of development within the third world rest within the first world. Advocates of the Dependency theory agree that only substantial reform of the world capitalist system and a distribution of assets will free third world countries from poverty cycles and enable development to occur. Measures that the third countries could take would include the elimination of world debt and the introduction of global taxes such as the Tobin Tax. This tax on foreign exchange transactions, named after its proponent, the American Economist, James Tobin, would generate large revenues that could be used to pay off debt or fund development projects.

Also these third world countries could try to eliminate themselves from world debt by trying to stop depending on the financial institutions for loans. These third world countries believe that they are benefiting the country by taking loans from these institutions to support themselves economically. However, what these third world countries don’t realise is that these institutions are developed to make them take loans and go into more debt where they would have no other alternative but to depend on the first world for assistance, thus, leading to dependency and by extension further underdevelopment. For instance, Dominant first world countries have such a technological and industrial advantage that they can ensure the global economic system works in their own self-interest. Organisations such as the World Bank, the IMF and the WTO have agendas that benefit the firms, and consumers of primarily the first world.

Freeing up world trade, one of the main aims of the WTO, benefits the wealthy nations that are most involved in world trade. Creating a level playing field for all countries assumes that all countries have the necessary equipment to be able to play. For the world’s poor this is often not the case. The third-world debt crisis of the 1980s and continued stagnation in Africa and Latin America in the 1990s caused some doubt as to the feasibility or desirability of “dependent development”.

Vernengo (2004) has suggested that the sine qua non of the dependency relationship is not the difference in technological sophistication, as traditional dependency theorists believe, but rather the difference in financial strength between core and peripheral countries – particularly the inability of peripheral countries to borrow in their own currency. He believes that the hegemonic position of the United States is very strong because of the importance of its financial markets and because it controls the international reserve currency – the US dollar. He believes that the end of the Bretton Woods international financial agreements in the early 1970s considerably strengthened the United States’ position because it removed some constraints on their financial actions.

Although there are various advantages of the new central insight that is provided for the explanation of development, there are also some limitations. One of these limitations is that, the Dependency theory is a way of explaining economic underdevelopment outside of such industrially advanced parts of the world as North America and Europe. According to dependency theory, the politico-economic advantages of more technologically advanced countries are based on the disadvantages to countries that are and remain less developed. Critics of the theory claim that such an outlook is fatalistic, historically inaccurate, and simplistic. For example, parts of Africa, Asia, and South America are considered disadvantaged and underdeveloped. Yet all three areas previously were the locations of ancient civilizations of great cultural, economic, philosophical, political and social achievements. Dependency theory doesn’t come up with convincing arguments to account for how these areas fell by the wayside, and why areas in Europe and North America took the lead.

The Dependency theory explains how the countries are the way they are but they did not explain why and how they got that way. The theory just labelled these three countries as less developed because of their relationship with the more developed countries, it did not explain why is it that Europe and North America was able to develop and why is it Africa, Asia and South America wasn’t able to develop and how they lost their cultural, economic, philosophical, political and social achievements while North America was able to keep theirs and be considered first world countries. Another disadvantage of the Dependency theory is that doesn’t have all of its convincing points in order to relate to the theory’s implied invulnerability of development and simultaneous vulnerability of underdevelopment.

In other words, it emphasizes the importance of external forces on underdeveloped countries and minimizes the role of internal motivations within those very same countries. In most instances it is because of these third world countries internal forces they are underdeveloped. The reason for this because of the country’s small size it causes them to be vulnerable towards the first world dependence. Along with this, it can also be seen that most third world countries contain a high level of corruption which causes them to be in the situation that they are presently in. Advanced democracies like the UK, USA, Canada and Australia have virile electorates, media and criminal justice systems to combat corruption.

But Third World political and civil institutions are weaker, and in effect license corruption with impunity, thus allowing corruption within these countries to become effortlessly available. Along with this the Dependency theory likewise locks countries into a hierarchy of world leaders in which once an underdeveloped country, always an underdeveloped country. And the previous faults quickly become glaring when the dependency theorist tries to account for politico-economic changes within the Russian Federation, certain Middle Eastern countries, India, and China, to name a few.

In the final analysis, it can be seen that there was a paradigm shift from the Modernisation theory to the Dependency theory in explaining development. The Development theory provided the scholarly community with a different way of understanding the circumstances of the non-industrial countries of the world. Dependency Theory is in large part a theory of development in the third world, it seek to provide explanations for third world development and explanations that the Modernisation theory failed to give.

Like any other theory, the Dependency theory has its advantages and limitations. One of its strengths is its recognition that from the beginning, capitalism developed as a multinational system. Dependency Theory therefore spends its time on the question, “how can we have a development in the periphery that more resembles that at the core?” Or a more charitable account, if the core-periphery link is broken, can we have development in the periphery that has some or all of the elements that we identified as desirable in the core?


Amin, S. “Accumulation and Development: a Theoretical Model” Review of African Political Economy HC501 R46.

Gunder Frank, A. Capitalism and Underdevelopment in Latin America. HC165 F828 C1 1969.

The Latin American Periphery in the Global System of Capitalism”, 1981, UNCLA Review

Prebisch, R. Change and Development. 1976 t. HC125 P922 C4.

R. H. Chilcote Development Theory and Practice: Latin American Perspectives, Lanham, Rowman and Littlefield, 2003

Sunkel O. (1966), ‘The Structural Background of Development Problems in Latin America’ Weltwirtschaftliches.

Vernengo M. “Technology, Finance and Dependency: Latin American Radical Political Economy in Retrospect”, Working Paper No: 2004-06, University of Utah Dept. of Economics, 2004, p 5; retrieved July 2009.

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Dependency Theory Essay

The Arguments Against Foreign Aid Essay

The Arguments Against Foreign Aid Essay.

This essay will discuss about foreign aid to the developing world countries. Nowadays, there are still many countries at different continent in this world still need some help from the other countries that already developed. For example, most of the countries in Africa really need assistance while they are still developing. But, is it really help? Or is it just makes the developing country be worst? These two questions are what we are going to discuss.

A lot of people arguing about foreign aid to the developing countries, and most of them are disagrees with the help that gotten by foreign country.

Some resources saying that Foreign Aid is not give any positive effect; it is just give some of negative effects. For example, a country name Zambia at Africa has been a recipient of considerable foreign aid over the years. As aid to this country grown, this country is actually become poorer than before. From this example, there are many arguments come from different philosophical to against this foreign aid that give to developing world countries (Riddell 2007).

The political right agrees with statement that say foreign aid just give a number of negative effects. There are several points to discuss about the negative effects from the foreign aid. Firstly, most of the time, foreign aid is not successful because of corrupt that affect this project. Secondly, Aid money is often misspent, even there is no corrupt there.

By looking solutions from the outside, the money may be use for a bigger project that makes the government get an advantage. For example, government use the money for generates large number of jobs that providing few long term benefits for the government. The third one is transfers of low interest concessionary finance will interfere in the market of interest rates and exchange rates. Not just the statement above, the political right also says that foreign aid will create problems. They say that flow of aid is sometimes not dependable, because the government is manipulates it with political reasons. The other problem is aid make the people at a less developed countries not discipline, this is one of the reason why people in Africa are disagree with aid because partly they feel like their silence or support just been bought with aid money.

Not all of people disagree with foreign aid for a developing country, because if we thinking positively, there are some benefits from aid and there are three reasons why they want accept the aid from the foreign country, the reasons are economic reason, political reason, and moral reason. Firstly, economic reason, simply it is the most important reason why a country want to be helped by another country. For example a country called Zambia accept the aid because a economic reason which have 3 purposes, improve the investment, enable payment on foreign doubt, and enable the infrastructure such as roads. Secondly is political reason, in some developing country politic is very important in order to maintain power. This type of aid is different with the most of aid, this aid is mean to be help a country that less power which mean the aid is helps for the military that provides more power to a developing country.

For example Israel, it was a recipient of the Official Development Assistance in 2003, they accept the ODA for a political reason, for build more power for their government. And know Israel is one of the most powerful army in the world. The last reason is moral reason, many people think that developed country have a moral responsibility to helping the poorer countries or the less developed countries. This reason may be because of humanitarian reasons to redistribute the poorer countries. For example, Zambia was occupied by UK several years ago, and now UK feel like they have a responsibility to rebuild Zambia. These are the three reasons are the main reason that why sometimes a developing country need a help from a more developed country (Bized 2001).

For the last section, this essay will discuss about the conclusion for all the statements above, Does the aid make a developing country to be poorer and worst, or does the aid make the developing country to be a more develop country? Actually, all the foreign aid is trying to make a developing country to be a better country and all the foreign who want to help always have a good purpose. But why most of foreign aid is useless?

It is be useless because the almost all the government in the developing country do some corrupt or if it is not, usually the aid is fail to help because the people at the country itself do not want to be helped. They want to be discipline and make some money by themselves. There are a lot of developing countries that not accept the aid from foreign countries, because the reason above. They want to develop by themselves, and even the developing is not work so well, they say that they still get a pride because they are not helped by anyone (Carol 2007).


Bized, 2001. The Benefits of Receiving Aid
Bized, 2001. The Arguments Against Foreign Aid
Riddell, Roger C. 2007. “Does Foreign Aid Really Work?” New York: Oxford University Press Inc. Lancaster, Carol. 2007. “Foreign Aid Diplomacy, Development, Domestic Politics” Chicago: The University of Chicago.

The Arguments Against Foreign Aid Essay

Social Emotional Development Essay

Social Emotional Development Essay.

Further is known now than ever before about how young children acquire, reflect and develop. All children are born enthusiastic to discover their world and master their development. From formation to a child’s first day of kindergarten, development continues at a pace exceeding that of any stage of life. Infants, toddlers and preschoolers rapidly develop capabilities in emotional regulation, relationships, cognition, motor development and language. These proficiencies form the footing from which all future development builds. Whether that foundation is sturdy or fragile depends to a great degree on the quality of the young child’s early environments and relationships.

Human relationships are the building blocks for healthy development. Positive early relationships greatly sway a child’s ability to achieve later success in school and in life.

Relationships enable young children to care about people by establishing the human connection between self and others. As a magnitude of early relationships, young children seek to understand the feelings, thoughts and expectations of others, as well as the importance of cooperation and sharing.

The young child’s identity is shaped by the interactions that they have with others who are significant in their lives, parents, childcare providers, and other family members.

I strongly believe that, a young child’s social and emotional development is largely dependent on the emotional well-being of every parent. Parents who have had positive life experiences are better equipped to be emotionally available and responsive to a young child than are the parents who have not. When parents and young children are emotionally tuned in to each other, we can more easily read the child’s emotional cues and respond appropriately to his or her needs. This responsive relationship between the young child and parents supports healthy development in communication, cognition, social-emotional competence, and moral understanding.

Knowledge about child development specifically the social emotional development, although a necessary ‘skill’ for parents, is one that doesn’t have to be taken as literally as the books tell us. Much of parenting, including the child reaching milestones, is something that can be guided by instinct as well as common sense. Most parents get a funny feeling in their gut if they feel that the child isn’t doing as well as they could be. In fact, with the assortment of books available and the scary and too-informative internet at our fingertips, parents can get frightened into believing their child is behind, when in fact they are doing just fine.

For parents or soon to be parent, let’s ensure that the child has the basics in the early stages to be able to reach the later ones as a healthy adult. Boosting the child’s development especially social emotional development is easier than everybody thinks. Thus, special toys or games, even though they are pretty awesome are not necessary. What every child need is more than anything is love and attention. Babies develop into happier children when they receive lots of positive physical attention such as hugging and cuddling. Interact with your children by talking, singing, playing and especially reading, because children whose parents read to them develop a larger vocabulary as well as new perspectives about the world. It is more well, if every parent will treat everyday tasks like cooking and laundry as fun activities in order to teach children that chores aren’t torture or punishment.

Learning more about social emotional development in early childhood will enable us to better serve the families we encounter in our work, and enrich the relationships with young children in the family. We are child’s hero. With consistency, love and attention, we will stay that way for his or her entire life.

“What lies behind us and what lies before us are tiny matters compared to what lies within us”.

Social Emotional Development Essay

Preschool Observation Essay

Preschool Observation Essay.

On November 13, 2014 at Grossmont College’s Child Development Center, I observed Konnor who was born on March 11, 2011. At the center, there are roughly around 15 children between the ages of three and five; there is one adult for every six or so kids. The preschool center’s indoor environment is safely secured with a locked gate that separates the outside door which leads to the younger children centers and parking lot with the hallway to the learning and play area. There are two separate rooms, but they both have screen doors that lead to the same play area outside.

The room on the left, which Konnor is placed in, was smaller than the room on the right but they both had similar types of equipment and activities that children could join in on together. Both rooms were decorated with the colorful artwork of the preschool children, several tables and chairs were surrounding the indoor area, and there was an activity awaiting for kids in every corner; not one child was left with nothing to do.

The outdoor environment is secured with a tall fence surrounding the outside area, along with a locked gate. The outdoors have many activities that encourage the kids to interact with one another. There are bicycles, a painting station, a mini-garden, a playground equipped with slides, a playhouse, large plastic blocks, and even a small stage for children to perform in dramatic play. The indoor and outdoor environment is secure for the children and encourages the children to interact with each other and play as well as learn.

Tantrums were thrown, children disobeyed orders, but, the adults handled every situation presented with a calm voice and they let the children know why their action was wrong and what they can do to fix it. For example, Konnor threw a fit because there was no bicycle available for him to use, a teacher came by his side and leaned down to his level, allowing eye-to-eye contact, and talked to him about it. Konnor explained the situation through sobs, but the teacher showed no look of frustration and stood with Konnor until a bicycle was available again. The center was decorated with photos of diverse kids in ethnicity and culture which is a eye-appealing way to teach kids about the diversity amongst each other.

The Child Observed:

Konnor is a 3 year and 8 month old male preschooler born on March 11, 2011. Konnor is lean with a fair complexion, blue eyes, a button nose and short blonde hair. He was wearing army pants, a gray t-shirt with a red and blue jacket, and gray sneakers. Konnor is of average height for a 3.9 year old at around 38 inches and weighs roughly around 30 pounds. Towards the beginning, Konnor interacted with many of his peers, he threw a tantrum, and even began to suck his thumb. Observing Konnor from the beginning, he reminded me of almost every topic discussed in class for his age group which made me choose him for the preschool observation.

Biosocial Domain:

Konnor jumps on the wooden stage in front of his peers and teacher and throws his hands above his head and into the air. With his legs in a straight position and slightly parted, Konnor leans down and places his hands onto the platform beside his feet. Keeping a firm, balanced position, he bends his elbows, places his head down, and tumbles his body over, creating a somersault. Konnor shows a growth pattern and according to Kathleen Berger, growth patterns are obvious with a comparison between a toddler and a preschooler, “The center of gravity moves from the breast to the belly, enabling cartwheels, somersaults, and many other motor skills” (225). Konnor shows a growth pattern because he was balanced when he leaned his body over in preparation for the somersault, and his hands and feet were placed firmly on the ground; he did not tumble over or stumble once. At 3 years and 8 months old, Konnor is within the norm for this growth pattern since it appears at 2 years old (Ch. 8 PowerPoint).

Konnor begins to unstack the colorfully large, plastic Lego blocks. He grabs one blue block and places it to one side, and begins to do that with every other color presented to him. Konnor begins to stack up the Lego blocks separately according to the color; all the blue blocks were stacked neatly in a separate stack, as well as the red blocks and so on. Konnor shows maturation and according to Berger, maturation of the prefrontal cortex can be identified through observing children play certain games such as Simon Says, and “the color game,” which was found that children were able to sort the cards out by their color. (234) Konnor shows maturation because he was able to unstack the uncoordinated colored blocks to color coordinate them, unlike a few children surrounding him who profusely stacked the blocks, regardless of the color order. At 3 years and 8 months old, Konnor is within the norm for this development since it appears at 3 years old (Berger, 234).

Konnor picks up a tree branch that has fallen beside a tree, he stares at it and looks up at the tree and back at the branch. With the branch still gripped firmly in his hand, Konnor begins to lift his body to wrap his arms and legs around the tree. Hugging the tree with his body, Konnor begins to ease his way up the tree by pushing his legs up first to scoot the lower half of his body up, and then lifting his arms up further to scoot up his upper body as well. Konnor shows gross motor skills and according to Berger, gross motor skills are defined as, “physical abilities involving large body movements, such as walking and jumping” (145).

Konnor shows gross motor skills as he lifts his body to meet the tree as well as scooting his legs and arms up the tree to move up further which requires the use of his large muscles in both his lower and upper body. At 3 years and 8 months old, Konnor is within the norm for gross motor skills as it appears 8 to 10 months after birth (Berger, 145), but, Konnor is not within the norm for an activity, such as climbing a tree, since it appears at 5 years old (Berger, 238). Cognitive Development:

Konnor picks up a tree branch that sits beside a tree and he begins to feel the leaves hanging from the branch and curves his lips upwards. Konnor takes a deep breath and says, “Hi, plant! How was your day?” as he begins to shake the plant for a response, Konnor responds to the tree branch that he, too, is having a good day. He sets the branch down back where he found it and says his goodbyes to the branch as he walks away. Konnor shows animism, which Kathleen Berger defines as, “the belief that natural objects and phenomena are alive” (259). Konnor showed animism because he began to have a minimal conversation with the tree branch and asking it how its day was as if it were animate. At 3 years and 8 months old, Konnor is within the norm for this development as it appears at 2 years old (Berger, 257).

The teacher gives Konnor a cup and spoon like hers and asks Konnor to wait for further instructions. Konnor begins to stir the brown sugar that the teacher placed in his cup until it is well mixed like her mixture. The teacher pours some vanilla extract into her cup and then hands over the vanilla to Konnor and asks him to pour it into his cup full of brown sugar. Konnor does what he is told and waits for the rest of his teacher’s instructions; the teacher tells Konnor to stir the mixture once again just as she does hers until the caramel is formed. Konnor shows guided participation, which Berger defines as, “the process by which people learn from others who guide their experiences and explorations” (262). Konnor was able to make the caramel by watching his teacher do every step in making the dip along with her explaining to him verbally as to what to do in each step. At 3 years and 8 months old, Konnor is within the norm for this development since it appears at 3 years old (Berger, 262).

Konnor holds the tree branch in front of his face while two of his peers surround him. He keeps a grasp onto the stem until the leaves on the branch begin to rustle against each other and Konnor opens his mouth in a form of an ‘O’ and raises his eyebrows up. Konnor turns to his friends and says, “Did you see the leaves move?! That means the plant is dancing and is happy to see me.” Konnor shows theory-theory, which Berger defines as, “the idea that children attempt to explain everything they see and hear by constructing theories” (266). Konnor must have seen leaves rustle in the trees previously and waited with his peers for something to occur with his branch. Konnor believes that when the leaves on a tree or a plant begin to move along with the wind, it means that the tree/plant is dancing because it is happy. At 3 years and 8 months old, Konnor is within the norm for this development since it appears at 3 years old (Berger, 267).


Konnor stands across his peer on the wooden play stage and lifts his arms up and roars like an animal. His peer proceeds to do the same, but Konnor stops and says to his peer, “you have to be louder; throw your hands up and roar!” His peer does what Konnor suggests and Konnor nods his head at him. “Now get on the floor and roar!” Konnor says as he shifts his body down on the wooden platform so his knees and hands are placed on the floor. Konnor continues to roar along with his peer on the play stage and tells his peer to follow him just as he begins to circle his body around the stage. Konnor shows social mediation, which Berger defines as, “human interaction that expands and advances understanding, often though words that one person uses to explain something to another” (264). Konnor had to stop to explain and show his peer how to roar loudly like him by telling him how through a minimal conversation as well as demonstration. Konnor then instructs him what to do next such as to get on the floor and to follow him and continue to roar. At 3 years and 8 months old, Konnor is within the norm for this development since it appears at age 3 (Berger, 264).

Konnor picks up a tree branch that sits beside a tree and he begins to feel the leaves hanging from the branch and curves his lips upwards. Konnor takes a deep breath and says, “Hi, plant! How was your day?” Konnor waits for a response while the branch is held in front of his face, then continues to talk to the branch by saying “I’m having a good day too, plant!” Konnor shows fast-mapping, which Berger defines as, “the speedy and sometimes imprecise way in which children learn new words by tentatively placing them in mental categories according to their perceived meaning” (270). When talking to the tree branch, Konnor kept referring the branch to a “plant” because he believes that anything with wood and leaves is considered a plant. At 3 years and 8 months old, Konnor is within the norm for this development since it appears at around 12 to 18 months (Berger, 270).

Konnor stacks the plastic Lego blocks on top of one another with a peer until their desired height. His peer grabs a blue plastic Lego block and throws the plastic block at the stack which causes Konnor to gasp and raise his voice at his peer. A teacher comes over to the two boys to see what the problem was and Konnor says, “teacher, he throwed the block and ruined this.” while referring to the now tumbled over stack. Konnor shows overregulation which Berger defines as, “the application of rules of grammar even when expectations occur, making the language seem more “regular” than it actually is” (272). Konnor shows overregulation by saying “throwed” instead of the proper past tense term “threw”. He believes it is the proper term because he shows that he knows that the letters “-ed” create a past tense word. At 3 years and 8 months old, Konnor is within the norm for this development since it appears at 3 years old (Berger, 272).

Psychosocial Domain:

Konnor stacks the plastic Lego blocks on top of one another with a peer until their desired height. His peer grabs a blue plastic Lego block and throws the plastic block at the stack which causes Konnor to gasp and raise his voice at his peer, asking him why he did that. A teacher comes over to the two boys to see what the problem and Konnor explains. Konnor shows emotional regulation which Berger defines as, “the ability to control when and how emotions are expressed” (289). Konnor shows this behavior because even when he expressed his feelings toward his peer by raising his voice, he knew not to overreact verbally or physically and asked his peer why he did what he did instead. At 3 years and 8 months old, Konnor is within the norm for this development since it appears between the ages 2 and 6 (Berger, 289).

As Konnor finishes stirring his brown sugar and vanilla extract in the cup, he looks around the round table where a few of his peers surround them; he sees that they are still stirring their ingredients in their cups. Konnor curves his lips upwards, and raises his cup to his teacher and says, “look, teacher! I’m done!” the teacher responds with, “well done, Konnor! Wait for everyone else to finish their dip.” Konnor continues to curve his lips upwards and sits back in his chair while his peers finish mixing. Konnor shows pride which a very positive high concept and self esteem (Ch. 10 PowerPoint). Konnor shows pride once he realizes that he was the first to finish mixing the ingredients together and shows his teacher that he was already finished. At 3 years and 8 months old, Konnor is within the norm for this development since it appears at age 3 (Berger, 290).

Konnor stacks the plastic Lego blocks on top of one another with a peer until their desired height. His peer grabs a blue plastic Lego block and throws the plastic block at the stack which causes the stack to tumble over and the blocks scattering around the floor. Konnor gasps and furrows his brow at his peer and says, “You are mean! I don’t like you!” Konnor shows antipathy which Berger defines as, “feelings of dislike or even hatred for another person” (305). Konnor shows antipathy toward his peer right after his peer knocked over their stack of Lego blocks, which required much of their time, by furrowing his brow and raising his voice at his peer. At 3 years and 8 months old, Konnor is not within the norm for this behavior since it appears at age 4 (Berger, 306).

Konnor stands beside the tree and watches his peers ride on the tricycles. Konnor furrows his brow and raises his voice saying, “I want to ride on one!” A teacher walks to Konnor, asking what’s wrong, and Konnor says, “I want to ride on a tricycle!” Konnor’s teacher explains to Konnor that they are all taken by his peers and that he would have to wait until one is available. Konnor stomps his foot on the ground, continuing to furrow his brow and says, “No, now!” Konnor walks over to one of his peers who is sitting on his parked tricycle and demands him to get off so he could ride it. His peer tells Konnor that he is riding it, which makes Konnor grasp onto one of the handles and pull it towards his body, causing his peer to raise his voice and call for a teacher’s help.

Konnor shows instrumental aggression which Berger defines, “behavior that hurts someone else because the aggressor wants to get or keep a possession or a privilege” (306). Konnor shows this behavior because he kept raising his voice at his teacher and his peer in order to get what he wanted, which was to ride one of the occupied tricycles, as well as pulling a tricycle towards him from a peer who was already using it. At 3 years and 8 months old, Konnor is within the norm for this behavior since it appears at age 2 (Berger, 306).


Konnor and his peer get on their hands and knees in the sand and begin to shift their bodies to move around the play area. Konnor raises one hand in the air and sways it back and forth as he says, “roar!” His peer waits until Konnor finishes his ‘roar’ then proceeds to do the same and then continue to crawl around in the sand and raise their voices to, “roar” together. Konnor shows cooperative play which Berger defines as, “children play together, creating dramas or taking turns” (296). Konnor shows this behavior since he played with another individual in the act of being an animal and taking turns in roaring and swaying their arms around. At 3 years and 8 months old, Konnor is within the norm for this behavior since it appears at 3 years old (Berger, 296).

Konnor stands across from his peer and throws his hands in the air over his head, furrows his brow and says “roar! I’m a tiger and I’m going to eat you!” his peer jumps, turns around, and proceeds to run around the play area while his mouth is open and his lips are curved upwards, he says “you can’t get me!” Konnor runs right behind him, his arms still rose above his head and continues to say, “Roar!” Konnor shows rough-and-tumble play which Berger defines as, “play that mimics aggression through wrestling, chasing, or hitting, but in which there is no intent to harm” (296). Konnor shows this behavior by acting like a preying tiger and telling his peer that he will eat him while roaring and then chasing him around the play area. At 3 years and 8 months old, Konnor is within the norm for this behavior since it appears at 3 years old (Berger, 297).

Konnor stands across his peer on the wooden play stage and lifts his arms up and roars like an animal with his peer. Konnor throws his hands up above his head and lifts his knees up then stomps his feet across the platform and continues to roar and growl. Konnor stands across his peer and furrows his brow at him, which makes his peer do the same; Konnor then shakes his head from side to side, his arms still above his head and he roars once again.

Konnor shows sociodramatic play which Berger defines as, “pretend play in which children act out various roles and themes in stories that they create” (297). Konnor shows this behavior since he and his peer began to pretend that they were animals on the wooden stage. He and his peer were roaring just as they have probably heard an animal do and also stomp their feet which mimics an animal pouncing. At 3 years and 8 months old, Konnor is within the norm for this behavior since it appears at 2 years old (Berger, 297).

Though there was a painting station that gave children the opportunity to sit down and paint whatever they wanted to, Konnor did not take part in the activity during the time I observed him; thus, not showing the behavior of artistic expression. Artistic expression is defined as young children being imaginative and creative and loving to show it in drawing, dancing and building without being self-critics (Berger, 242). Berger states that the norm for this behavior is 2 years old (242). Reflection: Significance and Application

While observing Konnor, I had noticed that there were times that he was much like his peers in many behaviors, and also different than his peers in other behaviors. I believe the preschool has been a major influence on Konnor’s development because when there are acts of good behavior, he is praised and when there are acts of wrongdoing, he is informed of why that is and given time to reflect on his behavior.

From the observation and from this assignment, what I’ve learned about child development is that no matter how any child is raised in their own home and environment, they all share many similar attributes behavior wise. Towards the beginning, I was overwhelmed when I saw all of the children running around freely; I didn’t think I could choose just one child, and if I did, I didn’t think that their behaviors and acts of play would suffice. Surprisingly, when observing Konnor and his peers that he would play with, I noticed that they are all much alike even if they show it just a little bit differently than another child. Kids will be kids, as they say.

You may also be interested in the following: preschool observation essay, preschool child observation essay

Preschool Observation Essay

Directions for “Cognitive Development” Essay

Directions for “Cognitive Development” Essay.

1. Access the textbook website:

2. Click on the PsychSim Tutorials link
3. In the left column, find Chapter 04

“Psychsim5: Cognitive Development” and click on this link.

Click on “Cognitive Development” and begin the tutorial. Answer the questions and attach to the email in IT’S LEARNING. This is due no later than midnight Tuesday, September 22. Late submissions will be deducted 20 pts per school day late.


Name: Faye Simshauser

This activity describes Piaget’s theory of the growth of intelligence and simulates the performance of three children of different ages on some of Piaget’s tasks.


1. What are schemas?
-A schema is the way we make sense of the world by organizing what we know into a mental framework.

2. Explain the difference between assimilation and accommodation. -Assimilation means incorporating new experiences into our existing framework or understanding. When we encounter a new situation, we first try to apply your existing schemas, and then we see what happens.

If it fits well into our old schemas, we are satisfied. But if the new experience doesn’t fit, we need to modify our schemas. This process of adjusting our old frameworks is called accommodation. Sometimes we only need to make slight modifications in our schemas. In other situations we may need to make major changes, or even create new schemas.

3. Suppose that a 15-month-old toddler has learned to call the four-legged house pet a “doggie.” What do you think would happen if the child sees a horse for the first time? Is the child likely to call the horse a “horsie” or a “doggie” or a “doggie-horse” or some other term? Write your best guess in the space below, and add a sentence explaining why you think the child would use that term to refer to the horse. -The child after seeing a horse for the first time will call it a “doggie” because of its existing schema with associating four-legged animals with dogs.

Stages of Development

4. What are some characteristics of a child in the sensorimotor stage of development? -In the sensorimotor stage of development, the child’s intelligence is consumed with mostly sensations and motor skills. The child’s thoughts are limited to the sensations being experience and the objects being acted upon that moment.

5. What is object permanence?

-Object permanence is the awareness that things continue to exist even when out of sight.

6. What are some cognitive limitations of preschoolers?

-Although able to think symbolically and gain memory and language developments, preschoolers still lack certain mental operations that form the basis of adult logic. The children make errors on problems that involve changes in the appearance of objects.

7. What is egocentrism?

-Egocentrism is the inability to take another’s perspective or point of view into account. Egocentrism is the reason why children stand in front of the television sometimes when others are watching behind them; they think that everyone can see what they see.

Directions for “Cognitive Development” Essay

Rights based Approach Essay

Rights based Approach Essay.

Explain what international development organisations usually mean when they speak of ‘the rights-based approach’. What is specific about the processes, outcomes and ways of thinking that distinguishes such an approach from a conventional ‘needs-based approach? Is the difference sufficient to be considered significant? Use examples to illustrate your answer.


Traditional meaning of the development was mainly about the economic growth. Many development organizations and actors focused primarily on the particular measures to bring the economic growth to the underdeveloped countries.

With these measures and approaches, they saw the poverty and underdevelopment as the consequences of the lack of capital, goods, and knowledge. So the donor states or international development organizations approached the development problems by providing required capital and goods to the developing countries, which is understood as needs-based approach (NBA).

Even though, billion dollars and many resources were put into the development industries for many years, except in some areas, there were no significant development and progress. Billions of people are still living under the poverty and without access to the basic services, and the gap between the rich and the poor became worse both globally and nationally throughout these years.

So they reevaluated their policies and approaches , and in recent years, the focus of development shifted more to the human rights and equality, which is called rights-based approach (RBA).

Human Rights, Equality, and Development

Fukuda-Parr(2009) describes that development is not only about the economic growth but also about the redistribution of this wealth equally to the people to meet and realize the rights. Unlike the other form of development practices, RBA sees the lack of rights such as rights to education or health, and the inequality are the sources of poverty that is different from the economic perspective on poverty. The increased wealth should be distributed fairly to the poor and marginalized people mainly to increase their capabilities, help them to access the basic services and to fulfill their rights. Economic, social, cultural, civil and political rights are linked and reinforcing each other. Denial of one right can lead to the negative impacts on the other rights, and it can create a vicious cycle ( Fukuda-Parr, 2009). So, development must target to meet these rights, and all development programs should be designed within the framework of human rights. With this point of view, development and human rights are the two sides of the coin and indivisible. Oesterich (2014) describes the linkage between the human rights and development as follow:

“On the other hand, development is expected to promote the human rights; rather than the economic growth or other such metrics; for example development should be taken into consideration women’s rights…[..]…On the other hand, rights are assumed to promote the development: people will be more economically productive if they are not discriminated against, if they feel secure in their person, can speak freely …….”( Oesterich, 2014)

The World Bank (1991) also describes that:

“ Development in a broader sense is understood to include other important and related attributes as well, notably more equality of opportunity and political and civil liberties. The overall goal of development is therefore to increase the economic, political, and civil rights of all people across gender, ethnic groups, religions, races, regions and countries” (World Bank 1991)

As described above, human rights, equality and development are totally related and reinforcing each other. Many development actors adopt the normative frameworks of rights and started to apply these international standards in practical fields. Rights are the international agreed set of norms, backed by the international law. Rights are defined as the entitlements that every human possess regardless of age, gender, race or ethnicity. So, every human beings are the right holders and their governments are the main duty bearers for them to fulfill their rights. Genugten (1997) describes “ Human rights are the expression of a specific social goals: creating legal, economic and social conditions in which persons all over the world can live a life worthy of a human being”. He takes “ live a life worthy of a human being” as a starting point and says that living under (extreme) poverty is a violation of human rights. Poverty can make people struggle to earn some basic income or food to survive, leaving no space for political, social or cultural rights or participation. Then lack of these rights can also affect on their daily lives again.

For example, lack of political rights or participation lead to biased policy making or unequal distribution of resources, and it, in turn, can cause negative impacts on who do not have power, leading to another cycle of poverty. Rights are indivisible and should be taken in holistic ways. From rights perspective, it is very important to make sure that every person in the world should have a life worthy of a human being. To have that kind of life, everyone must have at least necessities such as food, clothes, shelter and basic services of health, education and so on. In one hand, having access to these necessities is the right for everyone, and, on the other hand, there must be someone or group to fulfill these necessities.

Article 2 of the 1986 Declaration of the Right to Development describes “States have the right and duty to formulate appropriate national development policies that aim at the constant improvement of the well-being of the entire population and of all individuals, on the basis of their active, free and meaningful participation in development and in the fair distribution of the benefits resulting therefrom.” Therefore, it is clear that states are the most responsible for the development. But the government of the underdeveloped or developing countries are sometimes incapable or lack of rescuers to be effective duty bearers.

So it calls for the international development organizations to help and support the governments who are lack of such resources or capacity. So, non-state actors come in and fill the gap that is supposed to be done by the governments. There are two key groups in RBA; right holders who do not have or experience the full rights, and the duty bearers who have the duty to fulfill the holders’ rights. In RBA, the two main principles are to make the holders get the full rights by informing, educating and empowering them, and to strengthen and improve the capacities of the duty-bearers to fulfill their duties effectively.

Process and Outcomes of Rights-based Approach

The dilemma of RBA is difficulty to measure the impact as RBA focuses on the law and regulations (Plipat, 2006). Gready(2008) mentions “ RBAs are about rendering the law real in political and social processes, as well as within the legal mainstream and through the adherence to legal obligations”. He also describes that RBA is based on the international standards and norms of human rights and applied them into the principles and process of development ( participation, accountability, nondiscrimination, transparency, and empowerment). All of these principles and process requirements are shaping the translation of laws into every political and social process where RBA development actors work(Gready, 2008). There are action and reaction in this process. Applying of the international norms into the legal process of RBA is action but the results and outcomes will shoot back the question or redefine the norms and standards as sometimes applying these norms directly into local context may be impossible or very difficult; reaction.

For example, while child’s rights in Western countries are very well established and they already have the practical and applicable laws in daily context but apply these child’s rights directly in Eastern countries may not be the simple process or sometimes may not be possible. Swift (cited in Plipat, 2006) argues that human rights are not universal yet and many legal tools have to be redefined, and one main thing is all the human rights are still the Northern-biased. Gready(2008) also describes that applying the international norms into local context needs to negotiate between the cultural relativism and universalism which in turn will generate the new rights or new understandings of the rights. For example, CARE recognizes the right to solidarity with communities and the promotion of social justice (Jones, CARE Rwanda) (in Gready 2008).

Different Policies and Practices of Rights-Based Approach to Development

Human rights became a major focus for nearly every development organizations and actor, and they imply the rights as their tools, instruments or framework for their programs or projects. It is not easy to say what exactly is RBA as different organizations and actors have different approaches, methods and practices with RBA. Cornwall and Nyamu-Musembi (2004) describes “ within as well as across agencies the term ‘right-based approach’ to development is open to an enormous range of interpretations and is associated with a range of different methodologies and practices”. So it is difficult to make generalization about the RBA within the development discourse but based on their practices and intentions concerned with the rights, it can be said that RBA is not about the words or name, it is about the practices and performances. For example, Cornawall and Nyamu-Musebi(2004) describes the different practices of RBA in their works and these are as follow (1)

Sida does not use the term RBA but its poverty reduction program is based on a multidimensional approach to poverty that is strongly concerned with human rights. Its focus is on the power structures and relationship such as discrimination that affect on the poor people in analyzing the poverty. (2) For World Bank, even though it labels its programs as right-based, they get strong criticism from civil societies and UN committee on economic, social and cultural rights for its lack of accountability on negative impacts on the rights e.g., privatization of water services, labelled as rights-based water sharing. (3) For CARE, RBA is about the empowering the poor people to claim and use their rights and develop the capacities required for those responsible to fulfill their duties. CARE has developed ‘benefits-harms’ analysis to evaluate the negative impacts of their works and how their works affect on the different people by same intervention or policy. (4) UNDP has the clear explanation of their perspective on RBA as follows:

the central goal of development has and will be the promotion of human well-being. Given the human rights define and defend human well-being, a rights-based approach to development provides the conceptual and practical framework for the realization of the human rights through the development process. (UNDP, cited in Cornwall & Nyamu-Musebi, 2004)

Different actors have different types of strategies and policies, but there are some common features among these. The two main features of RBA that can be generalized are that (1) it tries to strengthen the capacities of the responsible actors (state and non-state) to fulfill their duties and (2) to empower the citizens or people to claim and exercise their rights by providing opportunities or working along with them (Cornwall & Nyamu-Musembi, 2004). So, RBA gives new practices to the development actors by making them see the poor as the potential ones to develop on their own. Offenheiser and Holcombe (2003) describes “The rights-based approach envisions the poor as actors with the potential to shape their own destiny and defines poverty as social exclusion that prevents such action”.

In this view, it is assumed that the poor have the potential, but their initiatives and strengths are blocked by the structural barriers or systemic challenges such as religious or ethnic discrimination, apartheid and lack of access to basic services (Offenheiser and Holcombe, 2003). So, the rights-based approach is about helping the poor by making them sure to access to the basic services, improving their capabilities, and preventing from social or political exclusion, by standing on the doctrine of the human rights and socio- economic rights.

Needs-Based Approach and Rights-Based Approach

RBA and NBA pursue the different policies and pathways to development. In NBA, the focus is paid only to the superficial problems and needs, not the root causes which create these needs. The needs are identified, which may be capital or foods or medicine, and are delivered by the donors. Even though it allows the beneficiaries (receivers) to participate in identifying the needs, the development organizations and NGOs never interfere with the governance or the domestic politics of one country. They tried to solve the poverty by more focusing on the poor people, less dealing with the policy makers or politicians. Before 1990s, the development projects were mainly influenced by the welfarist model or NBA. But it was found out that NBA could not bring the actual development and it worked only for the short-run as the poverty problems could not be solved even though billions of dollars were poured into the development industries year after year.

With the rights-based approach, the development organizations and actors address the lack of rights or failure to fulfill the rights as the root causes of poverty, different from the welfarist or needs-based approaches. For example, RBA focus on the underlying causes of poverty rather than focusing on the poverty reduction or alleviation. While poor are seen as victims in NBA searching for helps or assistances, RBA helps to transform the poor into the capable ones who can participate in decision making, demand their rights. Again, one important aspect of RBA is the identifying the power relation and structures, it helps to redress the unequal distribution of power by empowering the people while NBA has no action concerned with power or distributional systems.

While NBA deals the development problems only by technical supports or assistances, in addition to these supports RBA helps the poor to claim their rights to their governments or duty bearers. While NBA sees the problems as needs, RBA sees them as the lack of rights. For example, with the NBA it sees that the children need the good classroom while the children have the right to have a good classroom. Again, in the area where the girls are discriminated not to have the education, NBA will claim that the girls need the education while RBA says the girls have the right to education. There are still many differences between RBA and NBA, like accountability, participation and so on.


Most of the development actors, INGOs and NGOs adopt RBA as the new development platform and but there is no generalization about what is RBA or what RBA should be.Again even RBA is different from NBA in above ways, there is no significant evidence that RBA is better than NBA. There is no concrete study to show that RBS is more effective or sustainable than the traditional approach of development (Pilpat,2006).

Theoretically, RBA contributes many changes in development discourse but in practical, RBA still has so many weaknesses as there is not enough effective legal framework to support RBA, and Johnson(UNICEF) (cited in Gready, 2008) argues that human rights standards are not precise enough to be used in development practice. So, even though RBA contributes values added to development discourse, so many works still have to to be done to apply and integrate human rights into the development successfully.


Cornwall, A., & Nyamu‐Musembi, C. (2004). Putting the ‘rights‐based approach’to development into perspective. Third World Quarterly, 25(8), 1415-1437.

Fukuda-Parr, S ,2009, Human Rights and Politics in development, Goodhart,M (edn), Human Rights: Politics and Practice, Oxford: Oxford University Press

Genugten, W. V. (1997). the use of Human Rights instruments in the struggle against (extreme) poverty.

Gready, P. (2008). Rights-based approaches to development: what is the value-added?. Development in practice, 18(6), 735-747.

Oestreich, J. E. (2014). The United Nations and the Rights-based Approach to Development in India. Global Governance, 20(1), 77-94.

Offenheiser, R. C., & Holcombe, S. H. (2003). Challenges and opportunities in implementing a rights-based approach to development: an Oxfam America perspective. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 32(2), 268-301.

Plipat, S. (2006). Developmentizing human rights: how development NGOs interpret and implement a human rights-based approach to development policy (Doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh).

World Bank. 1991. World Development Report 1991 : The Challenge of Development. New York: Oxford University Press. © World Bank. License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.

Rights based Approach Essay