Four Frames of Organization Essay

Four Frames of Organization Essay.

Apollo 13: Scene 3 ( Mattingly – exposure to measles) and Scene 6 (Houston, we have a problem). What happens when an organizational structure changes – is it always a negative or can positive things occur? Do you see evidence of emerging leaders in Scene 6? Were they who you anticipated?Label this M1P2 and post no later than Monday.

“Major initiative to redesign structure and processes has often proved neither durable nor beneficial. Moving from designing a structure to putting all parts in place and satisfying every interested party is difficult and hazardous.

” (Bolman & Deal, 2008, p. 72) Change in Organizational Structure can be very challenging in process. Consume both time and resources yet no guarantee of success could cause resistant in some group of employee. Employee’s resistant causes a dominoes effect making change much harder. However if there is an obvious serious problem, nonetheless change will have to happen no matter. .In scene 3 – Mattlingly exposure to measles.

Change happened rapidly only within 72 hours before the mission.

Change are always more positive than a negative. But how to overcome change is difficult. When change happened, the good is.. Could make more money, work smarter, cutting cost, and reduce workload…more efficient. Reduce stress of employee in the long run… If decided change is going to happen, it will happen.. but it is harder and take longer when people resist. In this case everyone at the command room and in the vessel, both accept the change. The change move better. Ken also except. Freak out, expected something bad will happened. Not comfortable to work well together.

Did I see the leader emerge? Is it who you expect?

No not really, when they pull ken in to help…
I think it was more like Jack that was had more detail and better calculation. He was the one who alert Lovell that we need … Organization is confusing, eventhough majorily agree what is best decision, in the end it could turn out to be bad, but if the decision to change is made, then stick with it… …

Four Frames of Organization Essay

Truss Bridge Project Report Essay

Truss Bridge Project Report Essay.

In this project, I had to design build and test a 16 inch long truss bridge. The goal of this project was to teach you how bridges are designed and built, and show the process of how bridges are designed and made in the real world by professional engineers. Bridges are used all over the world and it is a very important skill to know and understand how the physics of bridges work and why bridges are made how they are made, and that’s what this project is for.

First, I had to come up with a possible design for the shape of the trusses for the bridge.

Then I created my bridge design on WestPoint Bridge Builder and tested its ability to hold a truck, and created the design on MD Solids to see the forces acting on the bridge. Next, I built a model of the bridge using popsicle sticks and glued all the pieces together. After the bridge was complete, I tested the bridges strength and ability to hold things and recorded the results.

The point of this project was to learn how to design, test, and build bridges sufficiently. Design Designs and ideas for possible designs are the first step of building a bridge.

First, Preliminary sketches were made in an engineer’s notebook of four possible designs for a truss bridge. This is a screenshot of those sketches: Then one of the preliminary sketches was selected to be the design for the final product. Next, the bridge design had to be made on WestPoint Bridge Designer. The design was then made on the program and the bridge was to be made as inexpensive as possible while still supporting a truck. The design was finished and screenshots were taken of the bridge. These are some screenshots from WestPoint Bridge Designer:

Last, the bridge design was made on MD Solids to show the forces that would be acting on the bridge. This is a screenshot from MD Solids: Construction Next, the bridge had to be made from popsicle sticks. First, the side outline of the bridge design was measured out and drawn on paper and the paper was glued to a square of cardboard. Then popsicle sticks were cut with shears to the length they needed to be to be glued together. The cut popsicle sticks were then glued together and taped down to the cardboard in place for the glue to dry.

Once all the glue was dry, the side was finished. The process for the side of the bridge was repeated to make the other side. Once both sides were completed, the two sides were glued to a wooden rectangle that would be the road of the bridge. Then, cross supports made out of popsicle sticks were glued along the top of the bridge. After all the glue was dry, the construction was complete. This is what the bridge looked like when it was completed: Measurement Once the bridge was complete, the bridge needed to be tested.

The bridge was measured to be 16 inches long and 2 inches tall. The bridge was also weighed out to be 85. 0 grams. Next, the bridge was to be tested on how much force it can take with the Structural Stress Analysis machine. First, the bridge was put into the machine and screwed in to the place it needed to be. The case was then closed on the machine and the test was started. The machine pulled down on the bridge until it broke, measuring how much force the bridge can withstand without breaking.

The machine recorded the data collected and made a graph to show how the bridge performed under stress. The bridge at it’s best held up 44 pounds of force. Here is a screenshot of the graph that the machine produced: Analysis Overall, I did very well on this project. I created a design for the truss bridge that allowed the bridge to be strong and hold a lot of force. On Westpoint Bridge Designer, I was very close to making my bridge design cost under 200,000 dollars and still holding up the truck.

My bridge on westpoint costed 204,389 dollars and it held up the weight of the truck. My bridge that I constructed out of popsicle sticks also was very good. It held up to 44 pounds of force, according to the Structural Stress Analyser, and my bridge was one of the strongest in the class. This project taught me what the process is to design bridges, What types of truss bridges are the strongest, and how real bridges are constructed and tested. This project was pretty fun for me and it taught me a lot about truss bridges.

Truss Bridge Project Report Essay

Research CSS (level 1) vs. CSS3 Essay

Research CSS (level 1) vs. CSS3 Essay.

The latest version of CSS is the CSS3 version which basically differs from CSS2 in the incorporation of Modules and other changes. Modules enable the designing to be done in a lesser time with more ease while updating individual features and specifications. The CSS3 version supports many more browsers than CSS2, but make sure it works on all operating systems and browsers. Other major changes include CSS Selectors which CSS2 had simple selectors and the new version calls the components as a sequence of simple selectors.

Pseudo elements because many Pseudo elements have been added that allow in-depth yet easy styling. Also a new convention of double colons ‘::’ has been introduced. Style properties let multiple background images be layered in the box using different elements like background image position and repeat.

Border style is the styling of borders that extended to images and rounded designs which includes creating image of the borders and then automatically apply image to the borders through CSS.

Additions in Properties include border-radius, image-source, image-slice, and the values for width outset and stretch have been added in CSS3. It also features properties for managing boxes like shadowing, wrapping and breaking have been added. The best part of CSS3 is that it has done away with complex structures for div tag and makes it easy for hassle free designing of multiple table-less columns. This can be simply done by putting in the number of columns in the browser that need to be added in the body element along with their width, color and height to make the text flow through the columns with ease.

Research CSS (level 1) vs. CSS3 Essay

Design and Analysis of a Laminated Composite Tube Essay

Design and Analysis of a Laminated Composite Tube Essay.

A composite material is a material made from two or more constituents with significantly different physical or chemical properties. There are two main categories of constituent materials, matrix and reinforcement. At least one material of each type is required. (Composite Material).

The phase distribution and geometry of the two materials have been ordered to optimise its properties, this has led to the increased use of composite materials due to their advantageous properties such as light weight, high strength to weight ratio and desirable stress-strain properties.

Common types such as polymer matrix composites (PMC) and Ceramic matrix composites (CMC) are used in a wide use of applications.


The tube will be designed to sustain the following loading conditions provided:

1) An internal pressure of 3 MPa before burst when both ends are closed but free to deform (not to be tested but calculated design is required as a part of the report), assuming no leakage takes place before burst.

2) Axial compression of 25 kN.

3) Tube designed to achieve an angle of twist in a specified direction under axial compression as demonstrated by the diagram below. Maximum angle of twist should be achieved before the onset of identifiable mechanisms of failure.



Orthotropic lamina

The composite is made up of multiple thin laminate layers like the one in Figure 3 above. For an orthotropic material; one which has varying mechanical properties in each axis, a coordinate system is stated as demonstrated in Figure 3 above. The assumption of lamina in a composite laminated structure is that it is under plane stress state, therefore σ3=τ23=τ13=0.


From theory for the lamina, the strain-stress relationship in plane stress state is {ε}=[R]{σ}. This leads to the stress-strain relationship; {σ}=[Q]{ε}.


In most composites the coordinate system of a structure e.g. Figure 4 (x,y,z) is orientated differently to that of the materials principle axis e.g. Figure 3 (1,2,3). Therefore a coordinate transformation matrix [T] is required, for plane stress state this can be simplified to:

Classic Laminate Theory

Classic laminate theory describes a three dimensional laminate problem via a two dimensional representation for the simplification of analysis. This is done by assuming a deformation pattern through the thickness of the laminate, the simplest assumption is known as the ‘Love-Kirchoff’ assumption leading to the classic laminate theory (CLT).

The Love-Kirchhoff hypothesis generalises the plane section assumption in beam theory; assuming the normal to the laminate remains normal to the deformed laminate and the normal undergoes no extension of shortening. Leading to:

Resultant displacements:


u0 and v0 are in plane displacements.

w is the deflection.

z=0 as reference surface.


. (3)

Due to the assumptions that it demonstrates a linear distribution for plane strains throughout the laminate thickness and that out of plane strains can therefore be ignored.

{ε0} is the in plane strain and {k} is the curvature of the reference surface.

From equation (1) and appropriate coordinate transformations the following relationship is obtained.


Though integration and manipulation of the elasticity equations with respect to the “z” the membrane forces can be found as:


Thus the bending moments are as follows:


{N} and {M} are the generalised stresses can can be expressed as membrane strains and curvatures by using the laminar stress-strain relationship and Love Kirchhoff hypothesis.

, (7)

As {κ} = 0

Also as there is no bending, this can be assumed to be equal to {ε}.

Where [A], [B] and [D] are integrated over the layer thickness of the laminate, Figure 5:

Loading conditions

Axial loading case

Load acts over outer circumference of on end of the cylinder, while the other end remains against a rigid immoveable object. Due to the axial load only only x direction stresses will be present:


Internal pressure loading case

Pressure is applied through internal surfaces and outwards of the closed ends. In this case the cylinder experiences stress in the x and y directions and thus:

, (9)


Twist Angle

The twist angle of the cylinder can be calculated from the following formula:

rads (10)

Where Y​xy is the angle the generator deforms by, L the distance point A moves and R is the radius of the cylinder.

Maximum stress criterion

This failure mechanism was developed for brittle solids; the maximum stress criterion assumes that a material fails when the maximum principal stress in a material exceeds the uniaxial tensile strength of the material. (Material failure theory).

The criterion is the simplest and most widely used when dealing with composites, however it does suffer in accuracy compared to more laborious techniques. It is advantageous as it provides an indication of the method of failure compared to that of other methods.

According to the maximum stress failure criterion for a given stress state the material will fail if the following conditions are void:

2D case:

This demonstrates that a ratio greater than 1 for either case will result in a failure in a given direction.


The following data was input into the MathCAD sofware, where P is the axial compression, q the internal pressure, E the Young’s moduli, ν the poisons ratio, G the shear modulus and L the length of the tube:

P:= -25000 N, q:=3×106 Pa, R:=0.0255 m , L:=0.300 m,

E1:=236×109 Pa, E2:=5×109 Pa, G:=2.6×109 Pa, ν:=0.25.

Calculate the stiffness matrix [Q], equation (1), for the material coordinate system. Calculated by substituting above values into equation 1.

Input the winding angles in vector form for lay-ups in the tube in the specific [α/β/α/β] layup desired. The process to determine the optimum angles is iterative, optimum winding angles need to be input to achieve the greatest angle of twist without resulting in failure.

Calculate the stiffness matrix [A]. To obtain [A] we initially determine the coordinate transformation matrix for the laminate; using estimated values of α and β. Substituting the obtained matrix into equation 7 provides a value for [A].

Calculate membrane forces {N} for the axial compression load case. Due to the load only being applied in the x-direction {N} is simply obtained by substituting equation 8 into equation 5.

The mid-plane strains ({ε0}) are obtained by using the generalised stress-strain relationship stated above in equation 7. Substituting the previously calculated values for {N} and [A] into equation 7 will provide {ε0}.

Calculate the twist angle of the tube. The angle of twist ‘ρ’ is calculated using equation 10 above.

Calculate the layer strains in the material principal direction. Achieved by multiplying the mid-plane strains {ε0} by the coordinate transformation matrix (equation 2), using the estimated value of α for the first lamina and β for the second lamina.

Calculate the layer stresses in their material principal direction. The stiffness matrix (equation 1), with an input of a 0 degree angle, is multiplied by the above calculated strain in their material principal direction.

Calculate the Maximum Stress Criterion as explained in equation 5. The values calculated are of a magnitude less than “one”, indicating that no failure is occurring with these parameters.

Calculate the load {N} for the internal pressure case. Here the relationships discussed in equation 9 are used. {Nx} is obtained by multiplying half of the axial load by the radius of the cylinder. {Ny} is obtained by multiplying the total load by the cylinder radius.

Mid-plain strains are again calculated by inverting the extensional stiffness matrix [A] and multiplying it by the newly obtained load matrix {N} above.

Steps 8 and 9 are now repeated to find the layer stresses and strains in the other principal directions.

Step 10 was repeated to determine the maximum stress failure criterion of the piece; its magnitude was checked to ensure the avoidance of any failures in the lamina (value less than one).

In order to determine the optimum winding angles it is now necessary to alter the winding angle values of α and β. The optimum being one that gives you the highest angle of twist while preventing failures according to the maximum stress failure criterion. From here steps 4-14 are repeated to check
the suitability of the values chosen. The angle iteration process is explained in more detail below.


From The figure 9 above we see that MathCad was used to produce a graph for the twist angles for combinations between [-90o, -90o] and [+90o, +90o]. The highest angle of twist in the positive and negative directions is depicted by the red and purple areas on the figure. The purple areas in figures 9 and 10 demonstrate the winding angles that yield the maximum amount of twist and provide the range of angles for which to test, additionally the angles are to be between [-75o, -45o] and [+75o, +45o] as set in the brief. The sections under observation can therefore be constricted.

From figure 2 we know the direction of twist is in the anti-clockwise direction; which according to the right hand rule, is opposite to the positive angle of twist due to compression, the maximum amount of twist according to the diagram is therefore in the negative direction. Therefore the area of interest is the bottom left portion of figure 9 (yellow box) as this is the only section that produces negative twist angles in the winding angle range.

Below are the tabulated results for the various angle combinations tested in the MathCad analyses, as previously discussed the angle must lie within the range [-75o, -45o] and [+75o, +45o]. Due to the symmetry of the graph either axis can represent both winding angles α and β.

Design and Analysis of a Laminated Composite Tube Essay

ICT Cambridge Tech AS – Unit 17 – P1 (Passed) Essay

ICT Cambridge Tech AS – Unit 17 – P1 (Passed) Essay.

?P1 – Summarise accurately the principles of interactive media authoring with some appropriate use of subject terminology. In this report there will be an overview explaining and talking about the tools used for interactive media authoring, the production process, the uses of interactive media authoring, the delivery formats of interactive media authoring products, the elements which will be included for creating the product and the interactivity and control methods which will be used.

Definition of tools used for interactive media authoring: Director Flash is a program and a multimedia application which can be used to create games and interactive products which allows the creator to be the director and the program can support both 2D and 3D projects.

The advantages of using director flash is that it can be easily integrated with other 3D programs such as Maya and True space, it also has free unlimited publishing of content whether that would be on a CD, USB or on the internet.

When it comes to disadvantages of this software the price is a big issue when it retails at ? 292.

74, it also requires some skill to use and is not so simple and straight forward as you have to learn the basics and then work your way up. Dreamweaver is web development application created and sold by Adobe systems, Websites are created by writing code and including flash elements such as video’s and animations.

One reason to use Dreamweaver is because it makes it easy for you to write clean code although writing a webpage in code is also not necessary as you can create a website without it, it is also ideal to use Dreamweaver because of its fluid grid layout in the included CSS designer tool, the grid layout makes it easier to create a more dynamic and visually interesting webpage. A let down for Dreamweaver is that although it is seen as a very good web design program it does come at a very expensive price, Dreamweaver is also considered useless and a waste of time if you are not using code as a lot of good features require it to be used.

Mediator is a multimedia authoring tool that allows you to create interactive CD-ROM presentations, dynamic HTML pages and Flash projects. Mediator is now the leading multimedia authoring software for creating very professional presentations, without the use of any coding or scripting. One advantage of using mediator is that no programming skills are required, most of the program involves a drag and drop style of use. It is also a very good

program as you can export with one click to many different formats such as Flash, CD-ROM and HTML. One down side to using mediator is the price, it does come at very heft price of around ? 375, it also can only be used on Windows and not on Mac OS meaning it is very restricted to one type of user. Expression builder is a tool used to create and build expressions using all inputs and list of available functions and objects, expressions are used in formulas to carry out specific functions which are required in Microsoft access.

An advantage of using expression builder is that it can help to do long and tedious calculations for you and all you have to do is enter a few values and text and the tool will do everything for you. Another advantage is that it comes free and built in with Microsoft Access so there are no extra or hidden costs. A disadvantage is that expression builder which comes with Microsoft Access can not be used on Apple Mac computers and Microsoft does not plan on expanding to their operating system.

The production process: Conceptualisation is the process of coming with ideas and new inventions which can lead to new concepts, it is a key part of the process as it is where all the ideas come together and sets out what needs to be done and when using deadlines. If you did not have conceptualisation/planning you would be struggling to find ideas and you would not have a plan to go by meaning it is more likely to make mistakes during the actual production because you can not refer to it.

Designing is where you get your ideas and start to build on them by designing and laying out what the product will look like with a goal or intent in mind, it is important in the production process because it is how you refine your concepts and ideas to design a finished product, if no design process was included in production then your product will more likely fail and become less successful due to it not being refined and simply just an idea or concept.

Creation is when the process of bringing something into existence using ideas and designs, it involves the actual making of the product. If the production process had no actual creation there would be no final product, so it is an important part of the process where the design of the product is put into making and become the final product for use and testing purposes. Implementation is including new

ideas and designs into projects and existing designs to help further them in all ways, implementation also means to put something into action, people use implementation to try and achieve targets and goals when something is failing for example, a cereal company such as “Kellogg’s” may be doing bad in the market in terms of sales of their cereal boxes so try and help this issue they could implement a toy which would come with the cereal, this would attract more people to buy the cereal, if there was no implementation into any projects or designs then there would be no new ideas to further the original idea.

Testing is when you check for faults, take measures to check quality, look at reliability and look at the performance of something before it is put into use or practice, a series of tests are taken to make sure that something is fit for its purpose and can carry out a specific function e. g. Adobe Photoshop has a function of editing and creating images and can do those tasks with ease.

If you didn’t test media products for faults and other things such as the safety to a computer then when it comes down to using the product in the real-world it could potentially fail because there was no tests to say whether it can be used without any problems eventually or suddenly occurring. Review and evaluating: reviewing is when you look at something, examine, study, and give an opinion through face to face conversations and writing documents such as reports, evaluating is to outline the fixes or highlights, judge carefully and appraise.

Reviewing something is important and if you did not do it to a media product such as a game you would not be able to see what goals need to be set next and you would not be able to look at the weaknesses and strengths. If you did not evaluate something even after reviewing it then you would not be able to highlight what needs to be fixed, how and when, you would also not be able to look for improvements because in reviewing you only look at the weaknesses but you do not know how to improve which is why you should evaluate.

Uses of interactive media authoring: Marketing, promotions and advertising is used in large companies and organisations such as McDonalds, McDonalds promote their products by advertising their food and products all over the world across all types of media such as television, magazines and even bus tickets, the aim of this is to improve their marketing strategies and increase market share. An

advantage of using media authoring to promote, market and advertise is that you can reach a large audience bys using all kinds of different media such as the internet which in most cases is free. A disadvantage however is that it can cost a lot of money to promote something especially through advertising, although it is free to advertise on a lot of websites they will not reach a large audience compared to advertising something on a website like face book or Google which would cost a large amount of money which most people can not afford unless you are a big company.

Media authoring can be used to entertain people in a number of ways such as through games or interactive websites and an example of this would be Nickelodeon who have their own website to entertain their audience though games they have built and videos they have made for solely entertaining purposes. The advantage of using media authoring to entertain is that you can keep them happy and enjoying themselves for a certain amount of time, however a disadvantage is that if the idea goes wrong then the audience could end up bored and tired of your media product.

Education, training and assessing can all be done through media authoring, schools such as Hanson Academy can use media authoring to educate their pupils through videos, PowerPoint presentations and using flash movies, the way they can be educated is by putting the information on digital format instead of using books and paper. In companies and organisations such as HSBC bank they can train their employees by showing them the steps and procedures on how to carry out their job through PowerPoint presentations, instructions of the training can be done in a slide by slide format.

Assessing can be done by organisations and companies such as Apple using media authoring, they can assess their electronic products such as the ‘I phone’ and outline the improvements which need to be made for the later models, they could set this information out also on a PowerPoint presentation or even use programs such as mediator.

The advantage of using media authoring to educate, train and assess people is that it can set out information much clearer rather than books and other written documents, another advantage is also that it can be used to entertain the audience while educating, training and assessing which means making looking at information and learning an entertaining process.

A disadvantage of using media authoring to educate, train and assess people is that it is very time consuming as you have to set up everything and is a lot longer in comparison to using books and written information, another disadvantage is that the software which is used to create the media products for education tend to be expensive so it is not always ideal in all types of environments especially if someone is on a budget.

Using media authoring for games, virtual reality and simulation is used in large businesses and organisations for entertaining purposes and for the simple fact to have fun, media authoring for games can also be used to educate at the same time making it very useful, the advantages of using media authoring tools to design games is that it can be very entertaining if it is done correctly, however a disadvantage is that the costs of the software which needs to be needed is very expensive in most cases.

Using media authoring for journalism and information is used in places such as news websites like Yahoo and BBC News, they use media authoring to collect information and put them into videos and presentations, an advantage of using media authoring for journalism is that it can set out information very clearly and can be entertaining. However it can be very time consuming because it takes a lot of effort and time to make a visually interesting piece for information.

Delivery Formats of interactive media authoring products: One of the delivery formats which is used to deliver media authoring is the internet or the web, the advantage of using the web as delivery format is that it is very easy to access from homes and even on Smartphone’s, another advantage of using the web is that media such as video’s and images can be shared through large and popular social media websites such as face book and twitter.

A disadvantage is that some media ideas can be can easily be copied when people are on the internet and find a good idea which may be yours, they can also easily download things such as images and videos and use them as their own and it is up to you to take action against copyrighted material.

Using CD’s and DVD ROMS as a delivery format is putting the media onto a disc which can be read by computers and if it’s a DVD then it can be placed not only in computer but into DVD players as well, another advantage is that the media can not be copied as you are the one who has the CD and the only way it can be copied if someone takes your CD meaning you can control who has the media product, it is also portable and you can take it anywhere whenever you need it. The disadvantage of using CD’s and DVD’s is

that they can scratch and become useless when the CD drive can not read the disc. Another disadvantage is that because it is portable and small it can be easily lost. Using interactive TV as a delivery format is putting the media on to a television where certain functions can be accessed by remote control. The advantages of using this delivery format is that it is very engaging and is tempting to try out, it can also be accessed from a remote meaning you don’t have to be very close the television set. The disadvantage of using interactive T.

V is that it needs to be looked after and costs a lot to repair and can be time consuming to get the media back up and running. Putting media onto mobile devices and in Applications on places such as the Android Market and the IOS App store is another way of delivering your media. Using media on mobile devices has it’s advantages in being able to get it to a lot of people as the number of Smartphone’s is increasing which means more people will be able to see your media product. However although the number of Smartphone’s is increasing, the media still will not be able to reach those who don’t have access to it.

Another disadvantage is that if you are putting the media in a form of application onto places like the Android market and IOS app store is that you will have to compete with hundreds of thousands other applications out there so your application must be at a very good quality to compete. Elements Included: The impact of having text included into a media product is that it makes it easier to understand as there is something to read and tell you what is going on, text is informative and is used to describe and explain certain things such as what is going in other elements such as pictures and video’s.

Images have an impact of giving a real image and can show and demonstrate things that text and other elements, images are also visually interesting and can cause the audience to be more engaged. They can also be used to get certain messages across such as instructions on how to set up a product like a table or wardrobe where instructions are better set out as images as they are easier to follow.

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ICT Cambridge Tech AS – Unit 17 – P1 (Passed) Essay