Absolutism Pros And Cons Essay

Absolutism Pros And Cons Essay.

The history of Absolutism began during the seventeen century during the transition from Feudalism to Capitalism in England and was known as “The Divine Right of Kings” England was experiencing a complete overthrow of their monarchy and its replacement was first by a Republic and then by a new and weakened monarchy. For England, at the end of the seventeen century they would see the erosion of the monarch’s powers in the “Glorious Revolution”. Absolutism was a form of government where the ruling monarchs were responsible for God and sovereignty was embodied in the King only.

Despite the attempts by the Kings in England their idea of Absolutism didn’t hit its full power like it did when King Louis XIV of France took the throne. I believe I share the same opinion of the majority of people throughout this country and even worldwide that there are more cons and weaknesses of Absolutism than there are pros and strengths.

I will start out with the cons and weaknesses.

In all reality the notion that one man, a single “leader” could have all this power invested into him with a single view on the entire country’s personal choices, religious beliefs, lifestyle choices, culture and moral values is beyond insane and a form of slavery if you ask me. His views are not shared with the entire country and for a single person to be in control of them all is disturbing beyond belief. These monarchs were recognized as France’s supreme legislators, executors, judicators and ruler of the entire country. In other words, the judge, lawyers and jury! I would say that is a major “con” right there! Absolutism doesn’t take into account and even refuted any historical developments during the scientific revolution during the Enlightenment era. It also debunks science theories, new ideas on creation, morals theories, personal family values, individual lifestyles and evolutionary nature of humanity in general.

It also lacks cultural differences and many of the monarchs seemed intolerant to any cultural diversity. Another weakness is that Absolutism basically ignores the circumstances in which ethical judgments are made and in today’s world in the 20th and 21st centuries those are the very freedoms and liberties we have as Americans. It’s a nightmare looking back in history and learning about these wealthy, selfish and greedy unruly men being the kings and rulers of an entire country. Really one “mind” and “theory” for all? Thank goodness for the Enlightenment era when the intelligent, educated and morally sound men rose to the occasion to change the world in which they lived in from the dark ages into the “light” known as the Enlightenment period! The last “con” of Absolutism that is probably the most dangerous to their society was the fact that there was no Democratic legitimacy because the leader was not elected by the people he inherited the position by either a family passing away or given to them by a retiring king. So any liability and accountability is lacking when it comes to a bad ruling by an inefficient tyrant of a ruler.

Some examples include religion beliefs and castration to the non-believers and followers, a rush to judgment for a crime the accused might not have committed with their “eye for an eye” outlook of cruel punishments because remember there was no trials, jurors and their “government” lacked that liberty to defend yourself and speak your mind in that era. It was a great moment in history when Absolutism hit its shelf life with the age of the Enlightenment on the rise with a more modernized way of thinking. The pros and strengths were hard to gather but taking my biased hat off for a moment I can open my mind to other people’s opinions and different views on Absolutism….I guess. Absolutism can provide a fixed ethical code which gives clear moral judgments in situations where there is a need for ethical guidance.

Their ideas are that morality isn’t based on individual or group preferences but rather on absolute and universal values. Some people feel it’s better to follow then to lead and it allows different societies to share common values. It could bring stability and a more civil society when everyone follows the same ruler, whether they agree with it or not, the ruler sets clear and simple rules which would any avoid conflicts, disagreements and any personal biases because options and consequences are not taken into account.

This would be somewhat beneficial when it comes to decisions on war because decisions are reached and implemented quickly, as there is a no debate and bureaucracy involved. There is a sense of equality within the government because the same rules apply to everyone in every situation. In conclusion, it is common sense that having an Absolute monarchy government over a Democracy is absolutely insane. We have come a long way from the dark ages into the era of the Enlightenment, the Scientific and American revolutions, along with the end result of a strong U.S. Constitution and Bills of Rights that is now the foundation to our country’s civil liberties and freedoms we pride ourselves on and are very thankful to have.

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Absolutism Pros And Cons Essay

A Rejoinder to the Ethnic Democracy Essay

A Rejoinder to the Ethnic Democracy Essay.

This paper aims to prepare four separated short summary and response papers for four different articles on Culturally Responsive Teaching. 2. Analysis and Discussion The following are the short summary and response to each of the given articles: 2. 1. Preparing For Culturally Responsive Teaching by Gay (2002) The article discusses how to improve the success of ethically diverse students via culturally responsive teaching. The article tells also about the success of same kind of students by preparing teachers in preservice programs with the needed knowledge attitudes and skills.

The article also examines the five essential elements of cultural responsive teaching which include developing knowledge based about cultural diversity that includes ethnic and cultural diversity content curriculum, demonstration of caring, building learning communities, communicating with ethically diverse students and responding to diversity in the delivery of instruction. The article has further defined culturally responsive teaching to be using what are already possessed by ethnically diverse students (ETS) as conduits for them to learn more effectively.

These possessions may include the experiences, characteristics and perspectives.

The author has assumed that the lived experiences of students may sit well as frames of references. This would therefore make the learning more meaningful, would create more appeal in terms of higher interest and students could learn more easily and thoroughly. The author has also previous researches to prove the result of higher academic achievements of ETS if there previous experiences are used in teaching them. This concept of learning is consistent with principle in learning – that starting from what is known would more easily to learning what is unknown.

Rather than starting from the unknown by using the experiences of other cultures, the use of the previous experiences has its basis in common sense. There is basis to agree with the author in discussing how to improve the success of ethically diverse students via culturally responsive teaching by her exposing the needed elements of the program. As in any other program there are criteria to evaluate it success. By exposing the needed five essential elements of cultural responsive teaching, there would be good bases for evaluation the eventual success or failure of the program in terms of compliance of the criteria.

In terms of internal consistency among the five elements, there is no valid reason to disagree with author on the obvious simplicity and applicability of presentation. To illustrate one element this paper uses developing knowledge based about cultural diversity and ethnic and cultural diversity content curriculum. Knowledge on cultural diversity is a requirement since it would amount to knowing the premises in the syllogism by viewing the same under the principles of logic. The idea of teaching under multicultural program is the promotion of integration.

How would it be possible to know what needs to be integration without knowing the differences of diversity of cultures among students under the program? Doing the same acquisition of knowledge from diversity as part of the premises is also with the definition of the author on what is culturally responsive teaching which is using what are already possessed by ethnically diverse students as ways s for them to learn more successfully. Surely it would be easier to extract from students with their experiences, characteristics and perspectives which would be used as frames for reference.

The author may have assumed rightly that doing so would give more meaning to student and could be more motivated to undergo the program. There is also basis to agree with author’s conclusion that culture has great influence on attitudes, values and behaviors that participants will bring in the process. It is the use of frame of reference that would also afford solution to problems in the future in the same way that will help them understand that what will eventually happen is a function what has happened already.

2. 2 Spirituality, Cultural identity, and Epistemology in Culturally Responsive Teaching in Higher Education, Multicultural Perspective, 8(3), pp 19-25 by Tisdell (2006) The article gives it focus in the connection of spirituality and cultural identity in relation to culturally responsive teachers under the higher education. It looks at the philosophical theory of knowledge which takes the position that research and teaching partakes of the natures of both intellectual and spiritual realms.

Transforming the students is the aim under the multicultural teaching and to accomplish the same it should allow learners to explore and reclaim their own cultural identities. To reach this end, spirituality is appropriate in unlocking the cultural imagination and creativity of the students under the program. The profession or process of teaching for multicultural awareness described by author is to be for social justice and one that involves a complex process. It is also described as controversial, rewarding and intellectually stimulating.

For a big number of teachers under the program including the author, teaching the student is a “work of passion” which forms part of life’s reason in creating greater social equity that would remind the teachers about being true to themselves who are also wrestling with their very own cultural identity in the same way that other authors taking part of the teaching under the program consists in making students grapple also with their cultural identity. It is therefore the act of reclaiming which involves a choice that makes the process of teaching considered both intellectually and spiritually.

The author found that there is indeed connection of spirituality and cultural identity if the learners are assisted to engage on different levels of human experience. These levels of experience of course include the personal level, the cultural level, structural level, political level and the artistic levels done by cultural imagination. By so doing the chance that the education process will bring in the need transformative change is greater not only for learners but even for educators.

Diversity in cultures could explain how groups of people differ in their behaviour and their values and hence many conflicts could actually be arising from diversity of cultures. To attempt therefore to bring commonality in diversity is a serious job that would require too much creativity and patience. Fortunately, human beings are thinking beings whose lives had with them spiritual dimensions which allow them to go beyond that legal or what is readily to be in conflict. No wonder teachers are actually also grappling with the cultural identify along the process of their teaching.

What must be needed to reconcile things is deep sense of spirituality or an attitude of looking beyond what seems to irreconcilable. By injecting spiritual dimensions in the teaching of diversity of culture, there is strong basis to agree with the author that it could be transformative for the participants not only to the students but also the teacher. The teachers must be persons with deep sense of love for seeing beauty in diversity. Detach spirituality from man and his capacity to reconcile difficult issues is detached.

Applying and taking advantage therefore of the power of spirituality to reconcile conflicting issues is a power within the capacity of man to reach and benefit from. The issue of diversity of culture has been accepted by many people and the effects of living together has produced many conceived possibilities which are worth learning and educators may amply make use of their capacity of spirituality to reach great heights. . 2. 3. Preparing Culturally Responsive Teachers, Rethinking The Curriculum, Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 53, No.

1, January/February, 20-32 by Villegas and Lucas (2002), The article emphasizes the need to for teachers in articulating a vision of the reality of teaching and learning in a diverse society if the field of teacher education is to become successful. With that vision, the teachers would have to be guided in injecting multicultural issues while for the duration of the preservice curriculum. The vision of culturally responsive teachers will be socio-culturally conscious and will be affirming students’ different perspective from various backgrounds.

Under the same vision, the teacher will take responsible and enabled to bring change for purpose of making schools more equitable and they also understand how knowledge are constructed with the view of further promoting knowledge construction. In addition the vision must allow the teachers to know about the lives of their students and that these teachers could continue designing instruction that edifies and improves from what the students already known or have built upon.

The authors took the position that the preparation of teachers in a multicultural, the people who are given the tasks of helping these teachers must first set the direction by articulating a vision of diverse society where there is teaching and learning that are happening in the process. This vision is believed to make it conceptually coherent if these teachers are to be prepared for diversity. The author had in effect articulated a proposed vision which is characterized by six salient features as explained earlier.

This vision will serve as framework to infuse and call attention to diversity while the teachers are involved in the educational curriculum prepared for the purpose. The elements of the vision will feed into the minds of the pre service teachers while undergoing the learning experiences. Together in fieldwork as well as in coursework the teachers will collectively cultivate the sublime characteristic of culturally responsive teachers. The authors of this article do not want their proposal be prescriptive. They proposed a need for dialogue to develop a group vision of teaching and learning in a multicultural society.

They proposed a need to look at and evaluate and revise if necessary the present curriculum in a consonance with the collective vision that may be agreed upon. They also admit to the requirement to invest time in making coordination for the envisioned responsive teaching qualities to what can be found in the courses that they teach and field experiences that they offer. They admit the need to have professional development that will help them to model the responsive teaching qualities as would be found in the revised curriculum.

They are in a sense saying the vision articulation which they propose to be collectively done will just constitute the start of the process in the long journey of educating under the multicultural program where students belong to diverse cultural backgrounds. . The first step if successful will therefore lead into integrating the vision in the education curriculum of the teachers and improving the capabilities to implement the said revised curriculum. This will also lead to more collaboration among teachers and administrators of the multicultural program.

The authors are in effect making suggestions that would simplify the rather difficult task into manageable ones formidable task. However the suggested cannot be considered to be very easy as viewed by the authors since the framework that they are proposing will still require negotiation with present social and political structures and contexts. 2. 4. Learning Who We (and They) Are: Popular Culture as Pedagogy by Guy (2007) The article aims to discuss the popular culture becoming a major educational project, or the means through which people learn.

The author also recommended that population culture is capable of being used in learning race, class or gender issues. He asserted that population culture can power shape people and be used to challenge structured inequalities and social injustices. He also argued that those educating the adults via pop culture can be an effective way of educational strategies by asserting critical position toward population culture. Population culture or pop culture is defined as “culture of the masses” as distinguished from higher culture.

The author started his article by reflecting on the meaning of education as forwarded by Benjamin Mays, a well known teacher and college president in Atlanta. He particularly used May’s statement about man’s having to live his dreams, his ideals and what he aspires to be. In other words, according to Mays, living not by bread alone or taking inspiration from one’s spiritual life is very much important. It is therefore in the attainment of self knowledge and understanding one’s life purpose where one discovers the vital goal of education.

Yet, the high-technology world has answered critical or important questions of using population culture as a means via the mass media. The author has seen how population culture was used in advertising and the fact that it is used is uncontrollable already in the lives of many people, has recommended therefore the use of the same in learning culture or issues of race, class or gender. He cited authors arguing that media has shaped people’s ideas about race through cultural production of meaning. He cited abundant pieces evidence of how social cultures are made again using media.

He therefore cited other author’s work producing evidence of cultural meanings delivered through cinema, music, video, TV, radio and Video. It could be therefore easy to agree with the points raised by the author considering that the issue of population culture is easily accessible to many. There is such a thing what is desired by great number of people or what is popular has an effect of influencing attitudes. The author therefore emphasized the important role player of population culture in teaching students.

He however warned of multiple interpretations of meanings that producers, consumers, educators of adult and adult learners take. To accomplish the goals of teaching, he recommended the employing activities and strategies as used in this article. As an example, when confronted with multiple interpretations of meanings conveyed by pop culture in race, gender and class, he advocates an attitude of developing a critical analysis and awareness of the ways that attitudes or behaviours may be constrained, controlled or on the other hand, liberated, created and expanded

In whatever ways the population culture may be taken a strategy to teach issues on gender, class and race, the author emphasized about the importance of the goal which should establish imaginative and nourishing relationships with other people while encouraging them to live harmoniously and cooperatively. It is by this context that the author drives May’s statement that human has to live in accordance with ideas and unattainable goals.

On the principle that the world has become a great nations of democracies which gives the power to the influence of many, it will not be hard to agree as well with the author that the use of pop culture to effect changes in attitudes and values of people through education is an ideal that is easy to accept as what the authors argues about in this paper. References: Gay (2002), Preparing For Culturally Responsive Teaching, Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 53, No. 2, March/April, pp.

106-116 Guy (2007), Learning Who We (and They) Are: Popular Culture as Pedagogy, New Direc1ions For Adult and Continuing Education, no. 115 Tisdell (2006), Spirituality, Cultural identity, and Epistemology in Culturally Responsive Teaching in Higher Education, Multicultural Perspective, 8(3), pp 19-25 Villegas and Lucas (2002), Preparing Culturally Responsive Teachers Rethinking The Curriculum, Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 53, No. 1, January/February, 20-32

A Rejoinder to the Ethnic Democracy Essay

Elections and democracy Essay

Elections and democracy Essay.


1. Do you think elections can be a good measure of democracy? Discuss this statement in relation to elections recently held in African countries you are familiar with.


The year 2011 experienced serious levels of political activities in Africa such as political upheavals, middle-east uprisings and elections in many countries. Most Islamic nations rose against their long-ruling leaders, hence saw the ousted of Egyptian Hosni Mubarak and the killing of Muamar Gaddafi after a six-month war between the Gaddafi loyalists and the anti-Gadhafi fighters assisted by NATO.

However, while this was taking place, other countries like Zambia, Congo DR, Nigeria, Liberia were also exercising their obligation of having other leaders not by violence but by the ballot.

The countries which fought hard to remove long-rule-leaders wanted to just as other countries have the freedom to choose their leaders in an election, a move considered to be a democratic activity of the citizen. Elections are being considered to the most important way of showing how democratic a nation is.

However, in reality there is surely more to democracy than just holding an election, thus, this essay will analyse as to whether elections only are the sufficient measure of democracy.


Democracy’ is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as ‘a form of government in which people have a voice in the exercise of power, typically through elected representatives’. Democracy is most obviously manifest through elections which enable people to choose representatives. However ‘democracy’ is not an absolute category, whereby if a country has an election it can be regarded as ‘democratic’. Instead, a state’s democratic credentials involve assessing many, if not all, aspects of governance and the political system. There is much debate over what constitutes democracy both in theory and in actuality. In one classic definition, by Robert Dahl, democracy requires ‘not only free, fair, and competitive elections, but also the freedoms that make them truly meaningful (such as freedom of organization and freedom of expression), alternative sources of information, and institutions to ensure that government policies depend on the votes and preferences of citizens’ (Dahl 1971).

Thus democracy is not just about majority rule, but requires political freedoms so there can be debate and independent decision making. Commonly recognized essential components of democracy include: multi-party electoral competition, freedom of association, freedom of movement, independent media, and the rule of law. Achieving such freedoms may be a staggered process in which there are different patterns of democracy. It is widely suggested that democracy enables people to fulfil a basic human interest and need to participate in civil and political life. The Inter-Parliamentary Union comment in their Declaration on Criteria for Free and fair Elections ‘Recognising the right of everyone to take part in the government of his or her country is a crucial factor in the effective enjoyment by all of human rights and fundamental freedoms.

Democracy is argued to benefit the society as a whole, as dialogue enables relevant issues to be addressed and the best solutions to be found based on informed and considered choices, and those in governance are kept responsible and accountable and under a limited mandate.’ It is argued that democracy increases the chances of peace within a state and with other states. Democracy is also thought to reduce the likelihood of political repression and to increase the chances of stability and economic growth.

Amartya Sen points out one dramatic example of this indivisibility of civil-political and socio-economic rights in identifying that ‘no substantial famine has ever occurred in any independent democratic country with a relatively free press’ (Sen 1999). The American non-governmental organization, Freedom House, in its 2002 global survey concluded ‘the GDP of Free countries stood at $26.8 trillion, while the GDP of Not Free countries was $1.7 trillion’.


From the understanding of liberty and freedoms, the government must be erected by the participation of very free people not under coercion. It implies that the citizens must have a free will to choose leaders of their choice and be able to have freedom of expression within the given framework. Thus, elections become a very important voice for citizens to select their leaders as that is how they participate in the process of making decisions .However, there is more to democracy than just holding elections and electioneering. There are many other factors to consider to complete democracy than just holding an election Elections today, which signify democracy, must be judged by the conformity to standard norms that constitute free and fair elections. A free election is based on the presumption that fundamental human rights and freedoms are respected.

These would include freedom of assembly, association, expression, and information. In addition, freedom would include freedom from violence, intimidation and coercion, freedom to access the polling stations by both voters and monitors, and freedom to make choices without fear of repercussions.But in Zambia,prior to elections,there was a lot of intimidation by the ruling MMD by brutalising the opposition,corrupting the youths with beer to cause confusion in a way of campaigning.So there was coecion before election as opponents were not ready to frely make their own decisions over who to vote for. In another example,Congo DR November elections were marred with extreme violence prior to and during the election.

The Joseph Kabila’s party had no respect for the peoples rights,hence brutality and willfull killing took place and spread to other places especially were the opposition members were concentrated. In Nigeria, during the 2011 elections there was a serious witnessing of electoral and ethnic violence where more than 1000 people died. This was attributed to the government’s inability to be transparent in election procedures so much that elections were postponed three times and this gave worse suspicion and more violence. So it’s clear that even though the elections are being held, but then they are far from showing any sort of democracy. African News and Current Affairs(2011) reports that other divisive elements of this year’s ballot include an initial delay to the polls; a result of the implementation of a new voter system.

The polls were actually in progress in several states when Nigeria’s Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) chair affirmed the postponement necessary to ‘maintain the integrity of the elections and retain effective overall control of the process’.This move was met with protest and interpreted variously as; a ploy to rig results, a broad move to block such attempts, pure incompetence or a mixture of all three, theories which undermined the transparency of proceedings before they had properly begun. Additionally election are fair when all the participant be it in ruling or opposition political parties have on a level footing in order to produce the legitimate results acceptable to all the characters. This means no intimidation, equality in accessing the campaign resources, media and other amenities However, the 2011 tripartite election showed how the Zambian government could control the “independent ECZ” by easily breaking the election rules.

The then ruling MMD were actually distributing gifts to electorates when it was clear that it was against the law. Further, the ruling party had started campaigning far before the campaign period or election date was even announced.ECZ was well aware of such malpractices but could not control the “big guy “in the electoral game. In fact how can a body be independent if the Directors and others in ECZ are directly appointed by the president? The independence of the electoral institutions is undermined by a number of factors, resulting in multiplicity of controversies in virtually every aspect of the elections, such as voter registration, polling stations, duration of polls, demarcation of constituencies, verification and announcement of results and access to the media.

In addition, during election campaign, the campaign ground wasn’t level as the ruling party had all the resources to propel a smooth and prosperous campaign which gave the ruling party a strong upper hand in the game. They could use any resources ranging from public vehicles, money and power to curtail other parties’ ability to campaign properly. The ruling party could easily buy anyone to fake defection and pay up the chiefs or headmen in order to belong to the their side, but at the same time demonising opposition parties and preventing them from accessing funds for campaigns.


Finally, much as elections is cardinal for the erection of democracy, but then it is surely not the sufficient measure for democracy. A country can hold the election but then if these elections are not free and fair, there is unequal distribution of resources, there is no transparency in all the dealings of the government, there is no respect for human rights and freedoms by the constitutional holders and no freedom of expression and no free media, democracy can’t prevail in the country.


Banda, F. (2003) Community Radio Broadcasting in Zambia: A Policy Perspective, Doctoral Dissertation, and University of South Africa (UNISA)

Barnett, C & Murray, L (2004) Spaces of democracy: Geographical Perspectives on Citizenship, Participation and Representation. London: Sage Publications

Barnett, C. (1999) The Limits of media democratization in South Africa: politics, privatization and regulation. London: Sage Publications

Brown, Michael E. (ed.), Debating the Democratic Peace. Boston, MIT Press, 1996.

Dahl, Robert, Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1971).

Sen, Amartya, ‘Democracy as a Universal Value’. Journal of Democracy, vol. 10, no, 3, July 1999.

Elections and democracy Essay

Politics In India Essay

Politics In India Essay.

Democracy is defined as ‘The Government of the people, for the people, and by the people’, but there are many challenges facing democracy in many countries across the world. India is a perfect example of a nation that is ‘fully democratic’ even as it develops and faces several challenges. This paper is divided into two different parts showing the problems facing Indian Democracy. The first part briefly talks about the Inequality among peoples in India. Inequality is also divided into three main categories such as Geographic, Social and Demographic.

The second part is an approach to identify the problem of corruption among political leaders and discussing the development of criminalization of politics.

One of the major issues facing Indian democracy today is Inequality among the citizens of India, weather it is Geographic Inequality, Social Inequality, or Demographic Inequality. First of all, Geographic inequality occurs when a government and citizens of different regions have unequal parliament representation. Geographic inequality is a big issue India is facing today because of its uneven density of representatives per population (D.

Joshi, 2012,402). Geographic inequality also occurs when the party they are choosing does not represent voters in a district. In statistics it showed that, in 2009, India’s 543 LS constituencies averaged 14.9 candidates, but only one representative was elected by each district (D.Joshi, 2012, 402). The statistics showed that it was only half of the voters in every constituency with no representation at district level.

Another big issue Indian democracy is facing is Demographic Inequality, this type of inequality occurs when the government of the nation fails to reflect the class, gender, age, ethnic, religious and ethnic makeup of its population. One of the things that D.Joshi points out (2012) is that elderly people in India are over – represented and young people are twice as under- represented in India. However, the greatest inequality a country could have is less female representatives. Increasing female representatives in India could help them reduce gender inequality. India is a nation where discrimination against women is widely spread across the country, whereas men are considered a source of income and prosperity. With lack of women education and power, the nation is facing a devastating challenge’s towards its democracy. In some areas of India, women are not allowed to participate in any voting elections.

Moreover, the third type of Inequality that Indian democracy is facing is social inequality. Although, every person or citizen in a democratic society has the right to vote or fight elections, but in some nation’s like India, only rich upper class citizens have the chance to win the elections. Also, upper class people are usually elected as representatives who make the law and frame policies that only favor’s them. Furthermore, another challenge Indian Democracy facing today is the caste system among the people.

In India, upper class Hindus make promises using voters as a tool to gain power in an election. However, low caste majority are usually forced to participate in an electoral process. Unfortunately, the ‘social class system in India is based on the notion of purity and pollution in which upper class does not interact with [equal rights] with the low castes’ (Anwar, 2012). It neglects the rights of citizens for having freedom of expression, right to elect their own representatives, freedom of religious practices and other rights in a democratic state.

Moreover, because Indian population is so large and it is a diversely mixed society, people in India have wide identity available to them. Manor (1996) stated that, ‘there are [various] types of caste identities, religious identities and identification with clans and linages’ (463). As a result of having various types of identities, tensions among these groups become strikingly high and could tear a democratic institution apart. An example will illustrate how this could have an impact in Democracy. In an election in India in 1971, conflict and anger widely spread, after the state government made an unjust treatment. A party representing swept winning ten seats in the parliament but political leaders started to bargaining the movement and after few years, people shifted their concerns to other member’s identities such as caste and class. Keeping in mind their identities, the congress party won every seat in the parliament

Despite the wide identity available to the citizens, there is also another issue that follows this problem’s; this includes the discrimination on minorities, undermining order and development. Discrimination against minority groups can trigger the demand for justice. However, evidence in recent studies has showed that there is a declining influence on caste system in Indian politics.

Political corruption and inefficiency is another severe problem Indian democracy is facing today. In a study that showed, 20- 33 percent of middle class citizens had to pay ‘ a bribe for getting a service or getting out of problem with a government agency’ (Jefferlot, C., 2002, 77). Former Indian prime minister, Rajiv Gandhi has admitted that only 15 percent of isolated area reached their potential beneficiaries.

India’s political leaders are responsible of the corruption that is on going for a long time in Indian Democracy. In fact, the congress party in India conducted corrupt practices when they formed ministries in 1937. Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of India, was known as the ‘cleanest political leader of India’ but for instance, some political leaders today say that it was because of him that Indian political corruption has turned into an epidemic.

One of the reasons why Nehru is known for spreading the corruption among political leaders is because he kept protecting his congress leaders who were indulged in corrupt practices. There have been events that took place during his ruling party. Krishna Menno, the Indian high commissioner in London, 1948 was asked to buy 4,000 jeeps for Indian army who were fighting the Pakistanis at that time, only 155 jeeps reached in India (Jefferlot, C., 2002, 79). Nehru’s government rejected the incident that took place and declared that case was closed. This is a good example of a politician in Indian democracy; who are dishonest and can get away with it because of their other political colleagues.

Corruption among political leaders has affected Indian democracy in two different ways. One, for supplying and making black money from businessmen’s, especially after foreign companies started emerging into Indian market. Secondly, Politicians made money, which they were suppose to spend on their campaigns, which Indian businessmen’s and foreign investors have raised. As Jefferlot (2002) stated that ‘ Indian political leaders took bribe from arm dealers who were important foreign players in the political and economic game’ which then increasingly took advantage of multinationals entering India (89). Another example of corrupt politician is, Prabhakar Rao, who was involved in scandals of importing sugar and urea. He took bribe from foreigner manufacturer, to obtain import of newsprints and paper pulp.

Democracy can become negated when it assumes such proportions of corruption. Another issue in Indian politics is development of criminalization of politics, which is severely alarming in recent years. The link between crime industry and politicians in Indian are long standing. Gangs need protection from politicians for their activities, these activities involve trafficking of drugs, arms and other illegal trade business. Politicians protect gang members in various situations such as from police investigation.

An example of politician involved with gang member was The Chief Minister, who not only granted to builders land reserved for civic purposes but also protected gangsters in the building businesses (Jefferlot, C., 2002, 92). Politicians also seek for protection from gang members. For example, a losing candidate may for instance, ask the gangsters for the most common fraud known as ‘booth capturing’. This activity involves gangs to seize the ballot boxes during an election.

Many other election- related Incident’s have taken place in India. Most common type of Incidents involves clashes between political parties. Violence can also take place during elections, when a politician fears losing vote against his opponent candidates. Politicians also use gangs during riots. This often involves conflict between social groups such as Hindus and Muslims. While politicians protect crime industry, there has been growing numbers of criminals entering politics in India. Jefferlot (2002) stated that ‘ convicted criminals who are not systematically disqualified can stand for elections, even if they are accused for important crime’ (95).

Corruption and criminalization of politics is a direct threat to Indian democratic society. Corruption in Indian democracy arose from socioeconomic and political conditions. India is facing corruption in its politics, the criminalization of state has become a serious chronic disease over the decades (Jefferlot, C., 2002, 113). Former Prime Ministers of India are considered to have prepared the foundation of corruption during their time period. As a result of this, citizens of India do no take interest in elections and have no faith in government officials. Media also has significant impact on exposing corruption in the Indian establishment. Another worrying factor here is the problem for bribing journalists for covering election campaigns. The change in Indian democracy may be possible but the pressure against corruption needs to come from collective groups rather than individual enterprises.

To summarize, Indian democracy is facing severe problems to its democratic society over the years. Some of the problems include inequality among social groups. However, Indian government faces three major kinds of Inequality. First, it deals with unequal parliament representation, whereas, the demographic inequality deals with negligence of class, gender, age, ethnic and religious ethnicities that makeup the population. Finally, the third major Inequality is social inequality, even as today, minority groups or poor people in India do not get to vote in elections. Whereas, upper class citizens make the laws and policies which only favor’s them. Lastly, corruption is significantly a major issue India is facing today in its democratic government.

Corruption in a democratic government can scare divert resources from poor and disadvantage the citizens. However, corruption continues unchecked because people in India turn away from involvement on how the country is being governed and put little interest in elections, because of their trust in politicians is damaged. Along with corruption, criminalization of politics has major concerns over the years. Politics in India has become lucrative and beneficial business, criminals can invest money and power to win elections with the support of other politicians and can enjoy unfettered power and respect among the society. Thus, criminalization of politics cannot be prevented as long as criminals are present in politics in India and, it has become a direct threat to India democracy.


Manor, James. 1996. “`Ethnicity’ and politics in India.”

_International Affairs_ 72, no. 3: 459.

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Joshi, Devin. “Who gets unequal parliamentary representation? A comparison of India and Sri Lanka.”

_Contemporary South Asia_ 20, no. 3 (September 2012): 401-406.

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(Accessed February 20, 2014)

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Politics In India Essay

Democrats vs. Republicans Essay

Democrats vs. Republicans Essay.

Every American citizen has the right to vote. In the United States, you get to choose the next president and its congressional party. On Guam, you vote for the Governor, the Lieutenant Governor, and the senators. Most young adults do not really know the difference of political parties or care to know the difference between who is who. Many people still do not really truly understand the difference of being a republican or democrat. It is much more than the difference between the Democrat donkey logo and the Republican elephant logo.

The biggest distinction of the two parties is that Republicans are known as conservatives and the Democrats are known as the liberals (Democrat vs. Republican). All though they have some views and policies Democrats and Republicans both agree on, there are many differences that distinguish the two political parties such as taxes, government spending, social programs and issues.

Anti-slavery expansion activists and modernizers founded the Republican Party in 1854 (Diamond & Gunther, 5).

It rose to prominence with the election of Abraham Lincoln, the first Republican president. The party presided over the American Civil War and Reconstruction and was harried by internal factions and scandals towards the end of the 19th century (Diamond & Gunther, 5). Today, the Republican Party supports a pro-business platform, with further foundations in economic libertarianism and a brand of social conservatism increasingly based on the viewpoints of the Religious Right (“Our Party”).

Since the division of the Republican Party in the election of 1912, the Democratic Party has consistently positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party in economic as well as social matters (Han & Han, 32). The economically left-leaning activist philosophy of Franklin D. Roosevelt, which has strongly influenced American liberalism, has shaped much of the party’s economic agenda since 1932 (Han & Han, 30). Roosevelt’s New Deal coalition usually controlled the national government until 1964 (Han & Han, 30).

Republicans believe that each person is responsible for his or her own place in society (“Republican National Committee| GOP”). Government should enable each person the ability to secure the benefits of society for themselves, their families and for those who are unable to care for themselves. The Republican philosophy is based on limiting the intervention of government as a catalyst of individual prosperity (“Democrats vs. Republicans”). Government should only intervene in specific cases where society cannot effectively act at the individual level. With the core belief that individual destiny should be in the individual’s hands, governmental power and resources should be kept close to the people, through their state and community leaders, and not centralized in distant federal government agencies (Diamond & Gunther, 7).

Democrats believe it is the responsibility of government to care for all individuals, even if it means giving up some individual rights and/or subordinating enterprise and initiative (“Democrats & Republicans”). Democrat Party administrations have pushed for the centralization of power in Washington D.C., with only secondary consideration for the rights of both individuals and communities. Democrats have favored federal-level interventions that replace community-based solutions to community problems. These tactics have created several federal regulations and controls that are often in the hands of unelected bureaucrats, causing a severe erosion of local authority.

The first issue where both parties disagree is about taxes. The Democrats have three key points when it comes to taxes. They want to cut taxes for every working family, but not millionaires, cut taxes for middle class, not the wealthy and cut taxes for working families, not the richest 1% (Barton). President Obama and Democrats in Congress cut taxes for every working family, putting more money in the pockets of Americans who need it most (Barton). A typical family has saved $3,600 during his first term. Now he’s fighting to stop middle class families and those aspiring to join the middle class from seeing their taxes go up and to extend key tax relief for working families and those paying for college, while asking the wealthiest and corporations to pay their fair share (Barton).

That is why Democrats will always vigorously oppose the type of tax reform supported by Mitt Romney, which independent experts have found would require raising taxes on typical families with children by at least $2,000 if it were paid for (“Mitt Romney on Tax Reform”). At the same time, Mitt Romney’s plan would cut taxes for those making over $3 million by an average of $250,000 and would create incentives that will lead to hundreds of thousands of jobs going overseas at the expense of American workers. Democrats support cutting taxes for middle class Americans (Barton). Today, for most families, the federal tax burden is the lowest it has been in twenty years (Barton).

Republican views on taxes include the belief that tax reduction is important, but must be done the right way (“Republican National Committee | GOP”). The party believes that budget surpluses have caused Americans to be overtaxed-a condition that is not only threatening their financial prosperity, but is also hindering, and possibly even reversing, growth to the country’s economy (“Democrats vs Republican”). They also want to limit the top marginal rate, believing it punishes those who have worked hard and invested well.

Republicans also wish to make the Research and Development tax credit permanent (Barton). These three tax reforms combined, Republicans believe, will encourage and promote entrepreneurship (“Republican National Committee”). They also believe in encouraging saving and investments by implementing a tax credit for investments. However, despite their support for lowering taxes, Republicans do believe that tax cuts or tax incentives without any balancing spending cuts are detrimental to the economy (Barton).

Another difference in political parties is the way both parties feel the government should be spending money. Republicans believe government should tax only to raise money for its essential functions (Diamond & Gunther, 23). That is, Republicans believe government should spend money only to enforce contracts, maintain basic infrastructure and national security, and protect citizens against criminals (“Republican National Committee | GOP”). The literature of the House Republican Conference goes on to illuminate the role of the government and how tax policies affect individuals: The money the government spends does not belong to the government; it belongs to the taxpayers who earned it (Democrats vs. Republicans).

Republicans believe Americans deserve to keep more of their own money to save and invest for the future, and low tax policies help drive a strong and healthy economy (“Republican National Committee | GOP”). Tax relief is the Republican route to growing the economy (Barton). A Republican government would reduce taxes for businesses to allow businesses to grow and thus hire more employees (Barton). Republicans also seek to limit income taxes for individuals so that people can hold on to more disposable income, which they can then spend, save or invest (Barton).

Like the Republicans, Democrats believe the government should subsidize vital services that keep cities, states and the country running: infrastructure such as road and bridge maintenance and repairs for schools (Barton). Democrats also call for tax cuts for the middle class. But who benefits most under each platform? The conventional wisdom is that corporations and the wealthy will benefit more with a Republican tax policy while small businesses and middle-class households will benefit from a Democratic tax policy (“Our Party”).

The next topic is about social issues such as abortion and same-sex marriages. Democrats are generally for abortion (Our Party). The party strongly and unequivocally supports Roe v. Wade and the investment in stem cell and other medical research. They want to pursue embryonic stem cell research. Democrats support right to choose even if mother cannot pay. They strongly believe that choice is a fundamental and constitutional right. Democrats support the right of all families to have equal respect, responsibilities, and protections under the law. The party supports marriage equality and support the movement to secure equal treatment under law for same-sex couples. They also support the freedom of churches and religious entities to decide how to administer marriage as a religious sacrament without government interference.

The Democratic Party opposes discriminatory federal and state constitutional amendments and other attempts to deny equal protection of the laws to committed same-sex couples who seek the same respect and responsibilities as other married couples.

Republicans support the human life amendment. They strongly oppose abortion funding.

Republicans promote adoption & abstinence, not abortion clinic referrals. They ban abortion with Constitutional amendment and suggest alternatives like adoption, instead of punitive action. The Republican Party platform is clear. Republicans believe marriage is the legal union of one man and one woman (“Republican National Committee | GOP”). Americans want to see changes in our tax code, changes in our schools, and changes in our health care system, but there is no public clamor to change the definition of marriage as being between one man and one woman. In fact, polls consistently show that 2 out of every 3 Americans oppose recognizing same-sex marriage.

Both political parties have a lot of different opinions. It is up to the voter to decide which party they feel has similar beliefs. Democrats and Republicans have very strong beliefs and only some now a days try to follow the ways for when the original parties were in session. In conclusion, the difference between a liberal and a conservative can no longer be defined within the constraints of the Constitution of the United States. In America today, the answer to this question can only be answered in view of our nation’s socialist political structure. A liberal is defined as a liberal socialist and a conservative is defined as a conservative socialist.

Works Cited

Barton, Stephanie. “Parties For Taxes: Republicans Vs. Democrats.” _Investopedia_. Web. 15 Oct. 2014.

Blake, Aaron. “Democrats Are Winning on Social Issues – Politically, at Least.” _Washington Post_. The Washington Post. Web. 20 Oct. 2014.

Diamond, Larry Jay., and Richard Gunther. _Political Parties and Democracy_. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 2001. Print.

Han, Lori Cox., and Tomislav Han. _Handbook to American Democracy_. New York: Facts On File, 2012. Print.

McLaughlin, Seth. “Political Parties Struggle with Gay Marriage Issue.” _Washington Times_. The Washington Times Web. 16 Oct. 2014.

“Mitt Romney on Tax Reform.” _Mitt Romney on Tax Reform_. Web. 19 Oct. 2014.

“Our Party.” _Democrats.org_. Web. 19 Oct. 2014.

“Republican National Committee | GOP.” _GOP_. Web. 19 Oct. 2014.

Democrats vs. Republicans Essay

Gun Control Proposal Essay

Gun Control Proposal Essay.

2013 has been embossed by recent incidents such as a Vegas shooting that ended the lives of three people, four gruesome murders in Orange County in California, and many more tragedies. It is estimated that there are 300 million guns in personal hands in the US today, many legally owned and others not (Neyfakh). Every year, close to four million guns find their way into the market (Nicolas and Nelson). This level of gun infiltration is alarming; it means that even the Supreme Court would find it hard to locate or seize these guns.

Gun related violence has caused many to review their stances on the issue. In essence, gun violence is at an all-time high in the United States, as referred to by President Obama in the State of the Union Address; therefore, Unites States government should require criminal background checks for all gun sales, including those by private sellers that currently are exempt. Besides being at the top of Obama’s agenda, gun control is also an issue that has received enormous emphasis in the media.

In his address, the president sought extensive support for comprehensive background checks to buy guns, an interdiction on high-capacity magazines and assault weapons.

According to President Obama, the proposal will diminish the rampant gun violence in the country. This new plan aims to do the following: to seal background check escape routes to keep out guns out of the reach of criminals; to completely ban high-capacity magazines and military assault weapons, as well as other necessary steps to minimize gun violence; to guard schools and other public environments; and to improve access to psychological health services. Statistics reveal that up to forty-five percent of all households in the US have a gun in their possession (ProQuest Staff). This shows that guns are too easy to access and their abundance in the US ought to concern many Americans. Many of those who advocate for gun control measure want a total ban. They would prefer the United States to become more like her neighbor Canada. There are few guns per capita in Canada and all guns have to be registered with the national government. This approach to the ownership of firearms has many advantages. Most of all, Canada’s rate of firearm homicide is a sixth to that of the US (Nicholas and Nelson).

However, it is useless to argue for the application of the Canadian approach in the United States. Circumstances are extremely different. It is difficult to determine whether, and to what extent, American values and culture can yield to embrace the characteristic benefits derived from Canadian-style gun control. Clearly, Americans should embrace the White House’s resolution to the propagation of gun-related bloodshed in the US. Many voters concur with the president with regards to the proposals, especially on universal background checks and harsher penalties for wrongful gun purchases. The president’s take is synonymous with that of Harry Reid, Senate Majority Leaders, who has a positive rating from the National Rifle Association (NRA). To reiterate his position on the need for gun control measures, the president cited a string of mass shootings, which have happened during his tenure. Those who listened to the State of the Union Address comprised groups of people who had been directly or indirectly affected by gun violence.

Though background checks are required in the US., due to the still-increasing rates of gun violence have proven them to be ineffective because of the various loopholes which put these lethal weapons in the hands of criminals and people who suffer from mental disabilities. With the current method, anytime someone buys a gun from a federally licensed gun dealer, the dealer is required to run a check on the buyer by submitting the name to the federal database. That database consists of criminal records and mental health records as provided by federal and state courts and agencies (Feldmann). Convicted felons and those determined by the courts to be dangerously mentally ill are prohibited by federal law from buying firearms. Also, states have added their own categories of who is prohibited from buying a gun. The downside is that there are loopholes in the current federal background check system.

Forty percent of all firearms purchased in the United States are sold without background checks because the guns aren’t purchased from a federally licensed firearms dealer (Neyfakh). Any purchases that fall under this category are processed without proper background checks. Despite the objections to this proposal, the rate of gun violence is increasing at such a rapid rate that the American people must prioritize in order to help prevent such tragic and avoidable events such as the Sandy Hook Elementary shooting. They must put into perspective which of the following is more important to defend: the prevention of devastating mass shootings that have led to the homicide of over 8,583 people in 2012 through the use of extensive background checks, or the possible violation of citizens privacy (Neyfakh).

This idea is already accepted by over ninety-two percent of Americans, according to a poll taken by the Huffington Post in January 2013*. If an extensive background check on Adam Lanza’s mother-the owner of the guns he used to commit the shootings of twenty-six children and teachers-the government might have been aware that her son, who has autism, may gain access to her military-grade weapons. Any skeptics must put into consideration that more time than not, public safety is more important than personal privacy in regards to gun violence prevention.

In conclusion, universal and extensive background checks may be the single most important gun violence prevention measure that the government could adopt. This plan closes the loopholes which have greatly contributed to the extreme amount of gun violence in the United States. It will prevent criminals and mentally ill people from gaining access to them. Approving this form of background checks is necessary because gun violence is at an all-time high in the United States; therefore, Unites States government should require criminal extensive background checks for all gun sales, including those by private sellers that currently are exempt. Past attempts at preventing this type of violence have been proven to fail due to the various loopholes and the ever-increasing rate of gun-related deaths. It is time for the American people to take action to significantly decrease-and eventually eliminate-gun violence in the United States.

Works Cited

Edwards-Levy, Ariel. “Gun Poll: Background Checks Supported By 92% Of Americans.”_The Huffington Post_. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 17 Jan. 2013. Web. 26 Feb. 2013.

Feldmann, Linda. “Key Omission from Obama’s State of the Union Address: Gun Control.” _The Christian Science Monitor_: 15. Jan 26 2011. _The Christian Science Monitor; Los Angeles Times; National Newspapers Core._ Web. 13 Feb. 2013 .

Neyfakh, Leon. “Who Guns Really Kill.” Boston Globe. 20 Jan 2013: K.1. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 13 Feb 2013.

Nicholas, Peter, and Colleen McCain Nelson. “Obama Urges Action on Expansive Agenda.” Wall Street Journal. 13 Feb 2013: A.1. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 13 Feb 2013.

ProQuest Staff. “Topic Overview: Gun Control.” ProQuest LLC. 2013: n.pag. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 13 Feb 2013.

Gun Control Proposal Essay

Were The Upper And Lower Canada Rebellions in 1837 a Success? Essay

Were The Upper And Lower Canada Rebellions in 1837 a Success? Essay.

The Rebellions of 1837/1838 in both Upper Canada and Lower Canada were attempts and attacks at their current government for various reasons. The rebellions in Upper Canada were to bring about an American style democracy, while the rebellions in Lower Canada were largely due to discrimination against the French, unequal taxation, and lack of power within the government to bring about any reformation. In the end, the rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada had a profound impact on the future of the British coloniesTo an extent, the rebellions in both Upper and Lower Canada did not have much of profound impact on any British colonies immediately, especially as hoped.

To begin with, the rebellion in Upper Canada failed miserably because of the lack of military experience from the rebels, and, as a result, it wasnt very threathening.

The Upper Canada Rebellion was a lost attempt for change, which, at first, just resulted in severe punishment, such as death, flogging, hanging, and transportation, for the rebels.

Aside from providing entertainment from watching the public hangings, the government became more strict and severe, an unplanned result, although the government did begin to investigate the problems. In addition, the rebellion in Lower Canada also failed miserably and was short-lasted, thus it didnt have much of an impact immediately, as the government just arrested the leaders and supporters. By angering the government, the rebellions also caused the government to concentrate more on punishments for the rebels, such as transportation to Australia, instead of working on fixing the colony- an unplanned short-term result. Aside from these failed rebellions, as severe punishments were the last thing on the rebels minds, their was no immediate impact on the colonies and the rebellions could very well have been done in vain.

However, even though the rebellions in both Upper and Lower Canada in 1837 didnt have a significant or planned effect on the future of the British colonies immediately, these rebellions definitely had a profound and positive long term effect on the colonies. After the rebellions, Britain, later on, realized that change was necessary in the colonies, and, thus, ordered Lord Durham to investigate the causes of the rebellions and his solutions, which would completely change Upper and Lower Canada forever. Because Durham realized that government was a major cause of the rebellions, he proposed a responsible government, which is a government in which the Executive Council is responsible to the elected members of the Legislative Assemblt. As a result, because of this drastic change in government that will eventually spread to the colonies, the rebellions did have a profound impact on the colonies in the long run, especially aknowledging that this was the first step towards complete democracy in Canada.

Furthermore, after his investigation, Durham also had a proposal to unite the colonies of British North America under one government for many reasons, including improving economy, trade, and travel. As it can be seen, if the rebellions didnt take place, Durham may never have had the opportunity to suggest such a proposal, another reason why the rebellions did have a significant impact on the colonies, which were later merged. And finally, the rebellions also caused some people to consider the problems of Canada in more depth, which also, in the end, resulted in Confederation, a process that made the colonies into one independent and democratic nation, in an attempt to fix Canada of its problems, including the ones that caused the rebellions. As we can see, the rebellions of Upper and Lower Canada had a significant impact on the British colonies in the long term, and it was, supposedly, the beginning of the formation of a new Canada.

The rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada in 1837 were significant events that affected the future of Canada. These rebellions were the first step toward confederation because it allowed others to see Canadas flaws, which, in the end, resulted in the a greater nation from coast to coast- one united Canada. Because of this vast country, Canada continues to remain properous in every aspect- politically, socially and economically, and because the rebelliosn led to a some-what democratic government (responsible government), Canada has slowly developed into one of the most democratic nations in the world today. And finally, without the rebellions, Canada may have, to this day, remain British property, as onfederation may not have occured, but, instead, Canada contiues to remain a prosperous and independent country.


(used for all info)www.wikipedia.com

Were The Upper And Lower Canada Rebellions in 1837 a Success? Essay

Human Rights In Pakistan Essay

Human Rights In Pakistan Essay.

The human rights commission of PakistanSince independence and partition from British India in 1947, Pakistani political institutions have been dominated by the military. Pakistan has had a military government for thirty of its fifty-eight years of independence. The Pakistani military is a descendent of the British Indian Army and has retained the institutional structure, culture, and imperial ethos of its colonial predecessor. (Ghafoor 2007 101-18) Similar observations can be made about the next most powerful institution in Pakistan, the civil bureaucracy. Most analysts of the Pakistani state and politics have described the governance structure in the country as an oligarchic relationship between the landed feudal elites and the civil and military bureaucracy.

Most accounts of the Pakistani state and society have adhered to a narrative structured around civil and military bureaucracy, landed feudal elites, and ethnic and religious nationalist forces. The traditional narrative has also typically blamed the asymmetrical power of the tripartite oligarchic structure for the attenuated development of the civil-society institutions.

(Abbas, 2005 74-79)

Partially in reaction to the excesses of the Zia regime and its allies, the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan (HRCP) was formed in 1986. In the two decades since its inception, the HRCP has become the most influential nongovernmental actor in the cause of human rights in Pakistan (UNDP 2000). The immediate impetus for the HRCP’S formation was opposition to a battery of regressive laws passed by the Zia regime, including the separate electorate for non-Muslim minorities of Pakistan and the Hudood ordinance, in addition to vastly enhanced powers of the state for arbitrary arrests, censorship of the press, and limiting political dissent .Although women and religious minorities were the main victims of Zia’s Islamization drives, the progressive elements in the society were especially targeted for state oppression because they were deemed to be aligned with the main leftist opposition, the People’s Party. It was in this environment that a group of prominent citizens, primarily lawyers, including Asma Jehangir, Justice Dorab Patel, Malik Qasim, and Fakhruddin G. Ibrahim met and decided to merge many organizations and prodemocracy groups under the umbrella of the HRCP.

Among the organizations were the Malik Ghulam Jilani Foundation for Human Rights and some political-prisoner-release and legal-aid committees. (Zaman 2004 689-716)Democracy and human rights in PakistanEach of the three discourses of national security, developmentalism, and identity politics have pulled Pakistani civil society in conflicting directions, as has the process of mobilizing social capital. The two organizations discussed here–Jamaat-e-Islami and the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan–serve as exemplars of the larger tensions within Pakistani society and not as moral opposites. (Ghafoor 2007 101-18) All organizations/movements are deemed to be part of civil society unless they or their subsidiaries espouse and/or practice violence against noncombatant civilians. A civil society by definition does, and should, contain a range of agendas. Promoting a certain interpretation or vision of religion, state, and society is inherent to the dynamics of a vibrant civil society. But when support of an agenda leaves the political sphere and becomes a violent armed struggle, questions can legitimately be raised about its place within civil society.

The issue of what type of violence will qualify a nonstate actor to be excluded from the ambit of “civil” society is debatable and echoes the very contentious contemporary debate on the definition of terrorism. (Rana 2004 48-52)Military democracy and human rightsThe social-capital literature, despite its conceptual ambiguities and political pitfalls, provides intriguing insights into progression beyond the crude structural determinism of the past, but not to the extent of dispensing with structures altogether and embracing the cruder neoliberal celebration of individual and collective agency. (Daechsel 2007 141-60) All human societies have norms, networks, and horizontal associations that facilitate the agendas of individuals and groups. The more important question is, what are those norms and networks mobilized to achieve? How do certain norms become more ascendant than other norms, such as exclusivist and violent religiosity versus tolerant and nonviolent piety, or discrimination versus democracy? (Inayatullah 2007 27-42)Benazir and Pakistan human rights

Pakistan’s economic liberalization programs during Benazir Bhutto’s second term (1993-1996) encountered frequent political crises. While growth was steady during this period, external debt soared and the Karachi Stock Exchange plunged. Bhutto avoided certain quick fixes that were politically risky. She refused to impose taxes, for example, on agriculture and the politically influential feudal landlords who supported her staunchly. In 1995-1996, for instance, landlords paid only $79,000 in wealth tax–or 0.0036 percent of the direct taxes collected. Following the assassination of Benazir in late December 2007, the human right situation of Pakistan worsens due to dictatorship of President Pervez Mushrif. The announcement of emergency rule in the country has raised the chance of violation of basic human rights in the country. (Malik 2007 117-28)Marshal Law and human rightsSince its creation as a Muslim country in 1947, Pakistan has undergone a tumultuous process of nation building, seeking to create consensus and institutions sufficient for its stability.

The straggle to establish a parliamentary democracy in a federal setting has been hampered by interethnic strife, fragmented elites, praetorian rule, and regional and global influences. Since 1947, the military officers have three times (in 1958, 1969, and 1977) administered governments by martial law, seeking to gain legitimacy en route to nation building. (Kennedy 2007 14-33)In Pakistan, the civilian rulers have often relied on the military to preserve their power. Dominated by Punjabis and representing landed and industrial interests, the military regards its dominance of Pakistani politics as vital to any attempt to safeguard the territorial integrity of the country in the face of bewildering ethnic, linguistic, and regional diversity. Military and non-military governments have equally appealed to Islam in order to maintain their legitimacy and to uphold different political, economic, and class interests. Because Islam has been, throughout Pakistan’s brief history, manipulated for political and non-political purposes, one can argue that the religion has had a divisive rather than a unifying impact there. General Zia ul-Haq (1977-88) used Islam not only as a means to suspend democratic elections and constitutional liberties but also to legitimize his own power.

Zia instituted a progressive program of Islamization that transferred the laws of the land from a more secular tradition to an Islamic one. This diminished the quality of Pakistani institutions, notably the system of justice. In his attempts to forge an alliance with Muslim clerics, Zia offered them positions as magistrates. This placed people with no prior legal or judicial qualifications in the seats of judges. The move damaged the integrity of the Pakistani judiciary and also tied its power directly to the state and Zia. (Mustafa 2004 168-84)Feudalism and violent customsPakistan continues to be a predominantly agrarian, rural, and feudal society. The transregional alliance forged by feudals, generals, and bureaucrats has prevented the expansion of civil society. In addition, cultural/religious developments, such as orthodox Islamic influences and the strict enforcement of Shari’a law, have adversely affected the country’s human rights situation. The prospects for the improvement of human rights in Pakistan are bleak, although the country is ranked, according to the comparative survey of freedom worldwide, as partly free. (Malik 2007 117-28)

Death from torture in police custody is epidemic. Indefinite detention without any charges, sometimes up to one year under Article 10 of the constitution, is commonplace. Self-censorship is widely practiced, especially on matters relating to the armed forces and religion. Traditional cultural and religious forces block political and legal equality for women. These forces also discriminate against women in socioeconomic domains. On 2 January 1997, an all-Pakistan Working Women Convention in Karachi expressed concerns over social attitudes towards women. The convention called for an end to abuse of property rights, inheritance, and social traditions. (Khan 2007 181-95)Many human fights observers in Pakistan have objected to the action of a grand jirga of the Affidi sub-clans of the Khyber Agency that has decided to exclude women from voting. The tribal elders’ opposition to rural women’s voting rights in the North-West Frontier Province and Baluchistan reflects their deeply entrenched tribal hierarchy. Death for adultery in rural areas is commonplace.

The 1991 bill to expand Shari’a law preserves the subjugation of wives in marriage and divorce proceedings. Forced or child labor is widespread in rural areas, and the central government appears unable to prevent it. After the threat of sanction by sporting goods manufacturers and labor organizations, Pakistani authorities have begun a crackdown on child labor in the soccer ball industry. They conducted more than 7,000 raids on various businesses between January 1995 and March 1996. Ethnic and religious discrimination are rampant. Baluchis, Pathans, Ahmediyans (a religious sect), Christians, Shi’ite Muslims, and Hindus are frequent targets. The Federal Shari’a Court has prescribed the death penalty for insulting the Prophet Mohammad. The most active and vocal human rights monitoring groups, the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan (HRCP) and the Bonded Labor Liberation Front (BLLF), have been instrumental in promoting legislation which bans the bonded labor system. (S.V.R 2005 135-36)Human right abuses

Women’s rights, however, are restricted in varying degrees in Pakistan The poor women’s rights condition can often be attributed to de facto underdevelopment, low female literacy rates, and brutal local traditions and customs in the case of Pakistan, and to patriarchy, strict social codes, and male-centered structures in the cases of Pakistan. (Nizamani 1998 317-37) While Pakistan has ratified the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, Pakistan have thus far refused to ratify those agreements (Malik 2007 117-28) More than half of Middle Eastern and North African countries have ratified the same covenants. Pakistan has ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.

With the exception of Saudi Arabia, which is not a party to any human rights instruments, all Muslim countries are a party to one or more of those instruments. Although the ratification of these human rights instruments is no evidence of palpable improvement of fundamental rights, becoming party to such treaties has at least made their governments vulnerable to international criticism in cases of grotesque violations of global standards. It should be noted, however, that effective enforcement of human rights instruments remains almost entirely within these countries’ purview. (Whaites 2005 229-54)Role of AmericaHuman Rights Watch has also documented Pakistan’s role in the Kashmir conflict. Despite official denials by government officials in Pakistan, there is little doubt that much of the weaponry used by the militants reaches Kashmir from Pakistan. As anyone who has traveled in northwest Pakistan knows, weaponry siphoned off from supplies provided by the United States during the Afghan war is readily available in the arms bazaars of the Northwest Frontier Province. Pressure from the United States and other donor countries persuaded India to take a few steps toward accountability for its security forces. (Daechsel 2007 141-60)

India established a Human Rights Commission and publicized one or two arrests of soldiers who had committed abuses. In March 1994, as noted above, it permitted the ICRC to conduct a survey of humanitarian needs in Kashmir. To ensure that human rights reform in India amounts to more than cosmetic gestures, the international community, through bilateral and multilateral initiatives, should press India to allow outside international investigations of human rights violations in Kashmir, permit international humanitarian agencies direct access to prisoners, and prosecute and punish army and paramilitary forces responsible for murder and torture. Following the Marshal Law and emergency rule the commonwealth suspended the membership of Pakistan on the violation of basic human rights. (Ghafoor 2007 101-18)Constitution and human rightsThe founding members of the HRCP were mindful of the need for political action to bring about meaningful change. But in an atmosphere in which “the political parties had been bludgeoned into oblivion” and, in the opinion of the HRCP founders, “had also lost their way” in the cause of fighting for human rights, the need for a nonpartisan, but not apolitical, watchdog organization to speak up for the rights of the victims of state oppression was urgent.

The three resolutions adopted at the first meeting of the HRCP in 1986 were the holding of free and fair democratic elections, abolition of the separate electorate for the religious minorities in Pakistan and bringing them into the mainstream, and abolition of the death penalty. The last was particularly ambitious, given that the popularity of the death penalty in Pakistani state and society is perhaps matched only by Saudi Arabia and Texas! (Nasr, 2004 95-99)The HRCP was an avowed secular organization in a time when secularism was equated with atheism and antireligion in Pakistani society. In the words of one of its founding members, the HRCP was and continues to be an organization representing a “liberal democratic movement” in the society. Religious revivalist organizations were particularly hostile to the HRCP’S secularist message and have been a source of harassment to the HRCP membership from its inception.

Although the HRCP is not a direct competitor in the electoral arena with Islamist movements, its activism against instances of religiotribalist injustice toward women has particularly rankled many Islamists, who tend to equate many tribal cultural traditions with Islam. Unlike many of its Western counterpart organizations, the HRCP has not limited itself to a legalistic interpretation of human rights, although that is an important element of its advocacy agenda. The annual human rights reports published by the HRCP are notable for their uniquely political view of what constitutes the arena of human rights. (Daechsel 2007 141-60) The HRCP has cultivated close partnerships with trade and worker unions in Pakistan and has highlighted such diverse issues as unemployment, foreign policy, militarization of civilian organizations, media, health, education, and youth affairs in its widely disseminated annual reports and council-meeting statements (HRCP 2003, 2004a, 2004b).

The activist background of some of the HRCP’S founding members and the organization’s declared allegiance to secular democracy and improving human welfare through justice have induced it to take a very broad and admittedly politicized view of human rights in Pakistan, despite contrary advice from some of its Western donors. (Cohen, 2006 18-26)Future of PakistanThere are irreducible differences and rivalries between secularists and Islamists. Precisely how these differences will be settled is difficult to foretell. If both sides refute the cardinal principle of conflict resolution-that is, the truth lies in the middle–the rivalries are bound to be more violent than ever before.

If, on the other hand, they seek a political pact, the amelioration, if not the termination, of the conflicts would be likely (Malik 2007 117-28) a policy that respects pre- and post-elections pacts could minimize the eruption of such conflicts. Thus far, however, the failure to achieve such a middle ground has resulted in political disasters that have not only jeopardized the reign of self-indulgent and corrupt leaders, but also the civil, political, and economic fights of the vast majority of the people. (Daechsel 2007 141-60)


S.V.R. Nasr. (2005) “Islamic Opposition in the Political Process: Lessons from Pakistan,” in Esposito, ed., Political Islam: Revolution, Radicalism, or Reform? 135-36.

Abbas, H. 2005. Pakistan’s Drift into Extremism: Allah, the Army, and America’s War on Terror. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 74-79.

Cohen, S. P. (2006) The Pakistan Army: With a New Foreword and Epilogue. Karachi: Oxford University, 18-26.

Daechsel, M. (2007) Military Islamization in Pakistan and the Specter of Colonial Perceptions. Contemporary South Asia 6 (2): 141-160.

Ghafoor, A. (2007) A Social Engineering Experiment in Pakistan: A Study of Orangi. Regional Development Dialogue 8 (2): 101-118.

GOP [Government of Pakistan]. 1993. National Environmental Action Plan: The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy. Karachi: Government of Pakistan, Environment and Urban Affairs Division.

HRCP [Human Rights Commission of Pakistan]. 2003. Council Statement 2003. Lahore: Human Rights Commission of Pakistan.

Inayatullah, S. (2007) Imagining an Alternative Politics of Knowledge: Subverting the Hegemony of International Relations Theory in Pakistan. Contemporary South Asia 7 (1): 27-42.

Kennedy, C. H. (2007) Bureaucracy in Pakistan: Karachi: Oxford University Press, 14-33.

Khan, T.A. 2007. Economy, Society and the State in Pakistan: Contemporary South Asia 9 (2): 181-195.

Malik, I. H. (2007) State and Civil Society in Pakistan: Politics of Authority, Ideology, and Ethnicity. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 117-28.

Mustafa, D. 2004. Pakistan and the September 11th Terrorist Attacks: Back from the Brink? In The Unfolding Legacy of 9/11, edited by J. Haft and M. O. Lombardi, 168-184. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America.

Nasr, S. V. R. (2004) The Vanguard of the Islamic Revolution: The Jama’at-i-Islami of Pakistan. Berkeley: University of California Press, 95-99.

Nizamani, H. K. 1998. Limits of Dissent: A Comparative Study of Dissident Voices in the Nuclear Discourse of Pakistan and India. Contemporary South Asia 7 (3): 317-337.

Rana, M.A. 2004. A to Z of Jehadi Organizations in Pakistan. Translated by S. Ansari. Lahore: Mashal Books, 48-52.

Whaites, A. (2005) The State and Civil Society in Pakistan. Contemporary South Asia 4 (4): 229-254.

Zaman, M. Q. (2004) Sectarianism in Pakistan: The Radicalization of Shi’i and Sunni Identities. Modern Asian Studies 32 (3): 689-716.

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Human Rights In Pakistan Essay

Jeffersonian Republicanism vs. Jacksonian Democracy Essay

Jeffersonian Republicanism vs. Jacksonian Democracy Essay.

Thomas Jefferson and Andrew Jackson were two influential political figures in two very different eras, ranging from 1800-1808 and 1808-1840 respectively, that established two very different political philosophies. Each formed their own system that helped shape the way people think about American government. Liberalism is a political philosophy that goes against the established status quo at the time in order for change, where as a conservative is one which adheres to principles established by that same status quo. The Jeffersonian Republicans image of the common man was one vested in the educated and independent farmer, who by no stretch of the imagine had the capabilities to serve in government.

The Jacksonian Democracies image of the common man expanded from farmers to include laborers, planters, and mechanics. Jackson saw these people as the true representatives of the Government, and thus its true servers. The image of the common man for each the Jeffersonians and the Jacksonians differed in the fundamental principle of the true chosen class, and its real role in Government.

Although Jeffersonian Republicanism established a more liberal status quo in comparison with the old Federalist policies, Jacksonian Democracies conservative maintenance of Jeffersons status quo did more to assist the common man in regards to the political, social, and economic aspects of his era.

In contrast to the Jeffersonian era, Jacksonian democracy promoted the strength of the executive branch and the Presidency at the expense of Congressional power, while also sought to broaden the public’s participation in government. The belief in a weak national government was held by the Jeffersonians; they contended that government officials who used their powers too much were in fact abusing them (Ambiguous Democracy in America, 1800-1848). In Jeffersons time the two highest voted candidates became the President and the Vice-President of the United States. Jeffersonians believed more in the power of legislature, because it was a type of power given to the educated masses. Jacksonians however, believed in universal white manhood suffrage, rather than just the propertied class being able to vote, and supported the patronage system that enabled politicians to appoint their supporters into administrative offices, arguing it would reduce the power of elites and prevent aristocracies from emerging.

In the age of Jackson, a candidate was chosen by a nominating convention and the President and Vice-President ran for their offices separately. The people demanded elected (not appointed) judges and rewrote many state constitutions to reflect the new values. Jackson saw no reason not to use force to achieve his goals exemplified in his handling of the Nullification Crisis of 1832, with the passing of the force act to force any law necessary (Brinkley, Alan, and Davis Dyer). Jacksonians believed in a stronger government, but it was a type of self government. In this system of beliefs, the president was considered to be a representative of the people, and thus he found no reason in his mind not to veto a law which he did not see fit. Jackson used Jeffersons policies to bring into fruition the ideals of the true common man in government.

While Jeffersons ideas of social mobility reflected a growing sense of equality for all classes, Jackson established his idea of the true chosen class, and specifically geared his policies of social mobility towards this. Jefferson doubted that white civilization and Indian savagery could coexist and although he said that men were born to freedom, not to slavery, he still held many slaves. He felt strongly that women had a single purpose in life: marriage and subordination to a husband. Jefferson saw no reason to let them vote since women were never called upon to discuss politics. One of the many bills Jefferson proposed was the Bill for General Education, which allowed everyone to have as much free education as each person was fitted for (Cunningham, Noble E.). Jefferson believed education would be the cure of all evils.

In the same manner, Jackson veered away from extending equality to slaves and women received little betterment, although many reforms were taking place in the time of the Jacksonian Democracy. Jackson forced thousands of Native Americans to march from Georgia to Oklahoma on the infamous Trail of Tears with his Indian Removal Act, thus showing his hatred for the Native Americans (Brands, H. W.). Jacksonians opposed programs such as educational reform and the establishment of public education. They believed that schools restricted individual liberty by interfering with parental responsibility. The importance of the Jacksonian Era was not that the gap between rich and poor had narrowed, but that there were now few barriers that prevented people from gaining wealth and power. Because Jackson eradicated the Indian threat (a major concern for common people), and belittled the importance education, his party symbolized that a man could come from nothing, and become president, which was a source of inspiration and hope for the common man.

Both Jefferson and Jackson did what they felt would economically benefit the common man however Jeffersons maintenance of the Hamiltonian economic system, which benefited the upper class, did less for the common man then Jackson, who advocated for the ideals of economic success for all. Jefferson encouraged State banks and was originally opposed to the national bank, however once in office he saw the true benefits of such a bank. Jefferson feared the consequences of industrialization, and thus didnt support it. In Jeffersons government corporate charters were granted to favorites of state legislators & often implied monopoly rights to a business, thus the common man had no chance for economic success. Jackson won the Bank War by having federal income deposited in state banks, while he continued to draw money out of the national bank by putting it into his state (Wildcat) Banks, because he saw the bank as a tyrannical source for the wealthy (Feldmeth, Greg D).

Jacksonians accepted industry as essential to American economy, and thus further supported the common man. Jacksonians believed that corporate charters should be available to all who chose to risk starting a business, and thus anyone could make money (Jeffersonian & Jacksonian Democracy Comparison). This idea was exemplified in the Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge decision on corporate monopolies. Both mens ideas cause a state of relative economic turmoil, however each was generally looking out for the common man. Jeffersons policies however were still partially geared towards the elite, and thus do not help the common man as much as Jacksons economic system, which was entirely geared towards the common man.

Both Jefferson and Jackson advocated for the common man, but it was Jackson that is seen as the true champion for the rights of the common man, and he was thus their true server. Jeffersonian Republicanism is characterized as liberal because from the Federalists to the Jeffersonians they changed the basic political ideology. The Jacksonians however are considered to be conservative because from the Jeffersonians to the Jacksonians the basic political ideology didnt change, that is, advocating for the common man. Jeffersons ideas had the common man rooted in its intentions. Jefferson when in office however didnt act on these policies and Jeffersonian Republicanism was thus characterized as a system that advocated for the common man but didnt fully act for the common man.

The Jacksonians embodied the American spirit, and so perfectly displayed the ability to climb from the very bottom to the very top. Jacksonians personified hope in a nation where hope was desperately needed. The growing lower and middle classes fought endlessly for their rights, which were continually denied by those in power. Jackson knew the plight of the poor, and during his administration, he made many efforts to return the country to the people. Both Jeffersonian Republicanism and Jacksonian Democracy were based on the beliefs in the freedom and equal rights of all men. However, Jacksonians acted more thoroughly on these ideas. While these two men essentially shared many of the same beliefs and ideas, there was a noticeable difference to how they acted on them and spoke out about them. Thus it can be seen that Jacksonian Democracy advocated more for the common man than Jeffersonian Republicanism.

Works Cited

“Ambiguous Democracy in America, 1800-1848.” 9 Nov. 2008 .

Brands, H. W. Andrew Jackson : His Life and Times. New York: Doubleday, 2005.

Brinkley, Alan, and Davis Dyer, eds. The Reader’s Companion to the American Presidency. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company Trade & Reference Division, 2000.

Cunningham, Noble E. In Pursuit of Reason : The Life of Thomas Jefferson. New York: Louisiana State UP, 1987.

Feldmeth, Greg D. “U.S. History Resources.” Jacksonian Democracy. 31 March 1998. 9 Nov. 2008 .

Jeffersonian & Jacksonian Democracy Comparison. 9 Nov. 2008 .

Jeffersonian Republicanism vs. Jacksonian Democracy Essay

Compare/Contrast essay on Republicans and Democrats Essay

Compare/Contrast essay on Republicans and Democrats Essay.

Anti-slavery individuals who believed that the government should grant western lands to settlers free of charge founded the Republican Party in the 1850’s. The first official meeting was held on July 6, 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. The republicans became a national party in 1856. Abraham Lincoln was the first republican president. A few credits to the republican party include: the signing of the emancipation proclamation by President Lincoln, the 13th amendment which outlawed slavery, the 14th amendment which Guaranteed rights Privileges and Immunities of Citizenship, Due Process and Equal Protection, and the 15th amendment which gave all citizens the right to vote no matter what color, race or indifference they might have.

In 1917, a Republican from Montana named Jeanette Rankin was the first woman elected to congress.

The basic principles of the Republican Party are: all people are entitled to equal rights, individuals, not government, and decisions are best make close to home. The elephant is the symbol of the Republican Party. It was by a cartoonist for Harper’s Weekly named Thomas Nast.

Many significant Republican presidents served our nation with great leadership and integrity these include Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses Grant, Herbert Hoover and Dwight D. Eisenhower. Between those men we ended slavery, war and depression to bring our country into a great civilization where every man, woman and child is free to achieve the hopes and dreams as they please.

In 1792, Thomas Jefferson founded the Democratic Party. It was formed as a congressional caucus to fight for the Bill of Rights and against the Federalist Party. Thomas Jefferson was the first democratic President elected to office. There is a lot to be said about the past leaders of the Democratic Party, the first word that comes to my mind is dreamers. There were great strides taken for our country when democrats were in office. Roosevelt ended the depression, brought water to California and saved many of countless farms in the Midwest.

Truman integrated the military and helped to reconstruct Europe by establishing the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. And in the 1960’s President Kennedy created the Peace Corps, banned atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons and spoke these famous words whose echo still resonates in the ears of many Americans “ask not what your country can do for you–ask what you can do for your country.” And finally, President Clinton who reduced unemployment, lowered the crime rate and reduced the national debt significantly.

The former Chairman of the Democratic party Ron Brown once said,” The common thread of Democratic history, from Thomas Jefferson to Bill Clinton, has been an abiding faith in the judgment of hardworking American families, and a commitment to helping the excluded, the disenfranchised and the poor strengthen our nation by earning themselves a piece of the American Dream. We remember that this great land was sculpted by immigrants and slaves, their children and grandchildren.” In my opinion, no truer words have ever been spoken about the principles of the Democratic Party.

There are many differences between republicans and democrats. Republicans are known as the conservatives and democrats are known as the progressives or liberals. Democrats believe that tax cuts should go to working families to increase their purchasing power, which in turn increases the economy. Republicans believe that tax cuts should go to the wealthy so they can invest more. Through all the studying and research, that I did there is one sentence that sums up everything “democrats are for the working man and republicans are for the businessman”.

Since doing this essay, it has enlightened me on the vast differences between each party. I did not know a lot of the information that I read about and I enjoyed it immensely. I have a newfound respect for each of the parties. It took a lot of hard work and ingenuity to break from England and start this great country of ours, and it takes a lot more to keep it going year-by-year and decade by decade. I am very proud to be an American and can only hope to do half of what our Founding Fathers have done for us.

Reference Page

Langan, John. College Writing Skills. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Hardin, Richard. “Difference between Democrat and Republican Parties.” 20 Aug.2008 http://www.rahardin.com/DemocratRepublican.htm.

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Compare/Contrast essay on Republicans and Democrats Essay