Review Questions Essay

Review Questions Essay.

1. What does the word “processing” in data processing mean? A process is any manipulation of data, usually with the goal of producing information.
2. Give three examples in which raw data also serves as useful information.



3. Give three business examples (not mentioned in the text) of data that must be processed to provide useful information.


4. Give three examples of subsystems not operating in the context of IT. Why are these considered subsystems and not systems? Account Payable – records information about money that organization owes to suppliers and service providers General Ledger– records current transactions

Account Receivable– records sums owed to the organization and by whom each subsystem has a well-defined goal.

Together, the subsystems make up the organization’s accounting system.

5. How do TPSs and DSSs differ?

Transaction Processing Systems (TPSs) is any system that records transactions; Decision Support Systems (DSSs) is the information system that aids managers in making decisions based on built-in models. 6. What is a problem? Give an example of a business problem and discuss how a computer-based information system could solve it.

A problem is any undesirable situation. Both problem-solving and decision-making require information gathering the right information efficiently, storing it so that it can be used and manipulated as necessary, and using it to help an organization achieve its business goals are the keys to success. 7. What is synergy? How is synergy accomplished when a person uses a computer? Explain the connection between synergy and increased productivity.

Synergy (from Greek “To work together”) is the attainment of output, when two factors work together, that is greater or better than the sum of their products when they were separately. 8. “An information system consists of hardware and software.” Why is this statement inadequate? An information system has become synonymous with a computer-based information system that computers collect, store, and process data into information according to instructions people provide via computer programs. 9. In which situations does one need to make a decision? Give three examples not mentioned in the chapter. What if we purchase raw materials overseas?

What if we merge our warehouses?
What if we double our shifts and cut our staff?

10. How can a DSS help make decisions?

Organizations often build information systems specifically designed to help make decisions. 11. Note the word “support” in decision support systems. Why these applications are not called decision-making systems? Because they have neither the time nor the resources to study and absorb long, detailed reports of data and information, organizations often build information systems specifically designed to help make decisions. 12. Who is considered a knowledge worker? Will you have a career as a knowledge worker? Explain. Hardware and software platforms, products, and applications System analyst – proven knowledge in advanced operating and personal computer systems; must have a thorough understanding in multiple

13. What is the most prevalent type of information system? Why this type of is IS so ubiquitous? Supply Chain Management System; the term “supply Chain” refers to the sequence of activities involved in producing and selling a product or service. 14. TPSs are usually used at the boundaries of the organization. What are boundaries in this context? Give three examples of boundaries. TPSs the predominant function of TPSs is to record data collected at the boundaries of organizations, in other words, at the point where the organization transacts business with other parties. They also record many of the transactions that take place inside an organization. Automatic Teller Machine (ATM)

Credit card-processing
POS machines
15. Among IT professionals, the greatest demand is for network administrators and analysts. Why? Because they are among the top 25 percent of the best-paying jobs.

Review Questions Essay

Person centred approaches Essay

Person centred approaches Essay.

Implement person centred approaches in health and social care

1.1 Define person-centred values.
1.2 Explain why it is important to work in away that embeds person centred values.

The underlying purpose of “Person-centred values” is to ensure that the individual needing care is placed at the very centre of the decision making process about their life, the services and support they want and need.

Therefore, under this strict system, the person is always placed at the very centre of the planning of the care programme required, in that he or she will always be consulted and that his or her views will always come first.

Therefore the plan is tailor-made to that particular person, and it should include all aspects of care, from the Social and Health Services, from that individual’s family and from the voluntary sector.

This is the current policy and it applies to those people with learning disabilities, mental health problems, and physical disabilities, to older people who need support, and to young people making their transition to adulthood.

To place the person at the centre certain values must be upheld: Individuality (everyone’s differences must be recognised and respected), Choice (for individuals to be able to make own choices and be in control of own life), Privacy (information and activities must be kept confidential), Independence (empowering individuals to do activities for themselves) and dignity (be treated in a respectful way).

It is vital for the social care worker to work using these precise methods to establish the needs and wishes of the individual. This will also mean that individuals will feel empowered and in control of their lives, be more confident about making decisions, will feel valued and respected.

1.3 Explain why risk taking can be part of a person centred approach.

The person centred approach to risk includes making an assessment with the people involved in the plan such as the individual, their relatives and other professionals. Risk taking is part of a person-centred approach as this empowers individuals to have choices about what they want to do in their lives as well as to be part of their community. Not allowing individuals to take risks can have a negative impact on an individual’s life to not live it as they wish.

1.4 Explain how using an individuals care plan contributes to working in a person centred way.

To be person-centred the person must always be at the centre of their care plan. This means that individuals must always to be consulted and their views must always come first. Therefore, no two care plans are alike because each individual is different from another. Each individual should be involved at every stage of their care plan; from deciding who to involve, how to meet the individual’s needs, the support required and how to feedback on how the care plan is working.

3.1 Explain the importance of establishing consent when providing care and support. 3.3 Explain what steps to take if consent cannot be readily established.

It is always very important to establish the consent of the individual when providing any care or support programme or procedure. This is essential so as to include that individual with any decision-making, in order to ensure that they do not feel left out, ignored; in this way they can understand and agree to that element of their care or support.

I would discuss the problem, that consent cannot be established, with the supervisor or manager of the home, and, if necessary, the individual’s doctor and advocate. I would also make a record of this, which I would sign and date.

4.1 Describe how active participation benefits an individual. 4.2 Identify possible barriers to active participation.

Active participation benefits the individual because that person is always made to feel that he or she is continually important, and that things are done for their benefit, with their consent. This ensures a positive approach for the individual that makes them an active part of how they choose to live and puts them first as the focus.

Barriers can take several forms – the emotions, the disabilities, and the attitudes of the individual concerned, any or all of which can deter active participation by that individual in any activity or action. Similarly barriers exist if social care workers’ attitudes and approaches do not value active participation, strict routines and lack of training on using the active participation approach can also be barriers.

5.3 Explain why a workers personal views should not influence an individuals choices.

The care worker’s personal views may well simply rule things out for the individual being cared for, because the worker might take a subjective position rather than looking to find creative solutions for that individual. Such a stance could prevent the individual from making informed choices about their care. Therefore, personal views should never influence the choices of any individual as this also goes against their rights and can make an individual feel pressurised to agree.

5.4 Describe how to support an individual to question or challenge decisions concerning them that are made by others.

When others make decisions for the individual, the care worker should talk to the individual to ask that person whether he or she understands what has been decided for them. Once the individual understands those decisions, he or she should be encouraged to state whether they agree with them. If not, then that individual should be enabled to question and challenge them either themselves, through the social care worker or an advocate.

6.1 Explain how individual identity and self esteem are linked with well being. 6.2 Describe attitudes and approaches that are likely too promote an individuals well being.

Maintaining an individual’s identity is done by always recognising that person as a human being, not a number – identity is who the person is. Ensuring that the individual IS important and that their views and concerns are always dealt with in a positive and caring manner will always ensure that person is valued and has a high self-esteem. All this will contribute to their sense of well being.

By always ensuring that the individual is treated in a professional, kind, caring and courteous way, their sense of well-being is always assured. Care workers can also make sure that they use a number of different approaches – empowering approaches that enable the individual to take control, a positive approach that encourages the individual to feel good, working in a trusting and professional way enables a good relationship to build between the care worker and individual and promoting a sense of well being.

You may also be interested in the following: critically review approaches to person centred practice

Person centred approaches Essay

‘Jasper Jones’ by Craig Silvey Essay

‘Jasper Jones’ by Craig Silvey Essay.

‘In this coming of age story, Charlie must question his conventional notions of what is right and wrong as he navigates small town morality, racism and hypocrisy.’

In the novel ‘Jasper Jones’ written by Craig Silvey, the main character Charlie Bucktin experiences many life changing events that occur throughout the novel, which makes Charlie dramatically change his outlook on life. During the novel Charlie slowly uncovers that life in Corrigan is made up of rumours and lies. Charlie learns a great deal about himself, others, Corrigan and important decisions that teaches him some of life’s great lessons.

The protagonist of the novel Charlie Bucktin is an innocent little boy until he encounters the ‘fearful’ character Jasper Jones when he appears at Charlie’s bedroom window one night by surprise. Charlie changes his thoughts from right to wrong completely. The town’s thoughts of Jasper are unbearable and should stay away from him. The major event that brings the two boys together is the brutal death of Laura Wishart.

Jasper taking Charlie to where Laura Wishart’s body is, which then Charlie has to face make a decision whether he can keep it a secret it or not. ‘No, it’s too late. Like Jasper Jones, I have seen what I Have seen.

I am involved.’ Charlie makes the choice to keep it a secret from the people of Corrigan. Charlie now starts telling lies to people to protect the ones that he loves. ‘How strange and unsettled I am. Like a snow dome paperweight that’s been shaken…Everything in my world that was steady and sure and sturdy has been shaken out of place, and it’s now drifting and swirling back down in a confetti of a debris’ Charlie compares himself to a nobody before he meets Jasper Jones, but after Charlie has officially meets Jasper he feels as though he has purpose in life. In the small town of Corrigan it is filled with rumours and lies. A huge amount of secrecy and mistrust is conducted by everyone in Corrigan. The lack of tolerance and understanding of each other in Corrigan creates rumours that are untrue, but people still believe them because they have nothing else to believe.

A character named ‘Mad Jack Lionel’ is an example of which where the people of Corrigan misjudged him ‘but as the myth grows in girth, so too does our fear of speculation and intrigue for the kids of Corrigan’ thinking that Jack Lionel murdered a women. Realistically he was in a car accident which where the women was killed. Charlie and Jasper share thoughts on their views of the world, and are clearly outsiders in the community. The thoughts of Jasper Jones in the community of Corrigan ‘a thief, a liar, a thug’ had no impact on Charlie, he ignores all the propaganda targeting Jasper and pursues an unbreakable bond between the two of them. As Charlie uncovers the town of Corrigan, he realises how racist and hypocritical Corrigan actually is. Not only is the town racist to Jasper, but also to Charlie’s best friend Jeffery Lu. Charlie learns through different situations throughout the novel.

‘Jeffery’s parents are Vietnamese, so he’s ruthlessly bullied and belted around by the boys at school…But he takes it all astonishingly well, which has always eased my guilt given that I’m answer brave enough to intervene. Jeffery is unflappable’ as Jeffery is bullied so much at school he has never looked back at the bullies; he always has a smile on his face. Jasper is also a target for racism in the town of Corrigan. Being somewhat rebellious half-cast young boy, and not socially accepted because he is indigenous. He is the only indigenous member of the community even though the rest of the community treat him as an outsider.

Charlie comes to the conclusion to trust Jasper and not to believe what other people. His learns to not to judge something until you fully understand the situation. The duration of the novel Charlie started off as an innocent little boy, facing many events which made ‘grow up’ and not just think about the importance of himself but by the others around him also. This new found lesson will benefit Charlie later in life as he will make better decisions and back himself, and trust other people which will lead to greater trust and respect between them.

‘Jasper Jones’ by Craig Silvey Essay

Facilitate Continuous Improvement Essay

Facilitate Continuous Improvement Essay.

Assessment Activity 1

1. You work for an organisation that does not actively encourage its employees to participate in decision-making processes, and to assume responsibility and exercise initiative as appropriate. What would you say to convince the organisation’s management that they should actively encourage employees to assume responsibility and initiative? Write a transcript of what you would say.

“Although not encouraged, recently I decided to let our ICT Support Specialist head up the roll out of our new Antivirus solution. I presented him with the project and advised that he will be managing it and will need to source the resources required and also the process.

The only information I provided was a deadline of 4 weeks to complete the project/rollout

Firstly the feedback I got from the Support Specialist was incredibly positive. He was excited to run his own project and make his own decisions on how to complete it. It brought out a different side to an employee whom sometimes finds it hard to stay motivated.

The project is in its final stages now and has ran very smoothly and is well ahead of schedule.

I believe encouraging employees to make their own decisions does boost initiative and this is one example of how extra responsibility and the opportunity for a non-management employee to work autonomously brings in very positive results.

This is something I would like to encourage to my department more often as I believe I can get excellent outcomes on upcoming projects.

2. Do you consider group decision-making to be a valuable tool that will aid in encouraging employees to participate in decision-making processes, and to assume responsibility and exercise initiative? Explain.

I strongly believe any decision making process privileges that one can grant to employees can be very beneficial as stated above in the example. This shows trust in employees, and I believe giving employees extra responsibilities can have a very positive effect. In a group decision making environment, this also promotes team work. Having a department making decisions together is a great way to encourage this.

Assessment Activity 2

1. Your organisation has changed the way it accepts payments from customers/clients to make the process easier for clients/customers. What would you do to ensure that the organisations continuous improvement processes are communicated to all stakeholders?

I believe this is something the whole organisation should be aware of, this way any client facing employees can better explain this to customers/clients in the event questions or queries are raised.

Stakeholders would include clients/customers so I believe a communication in the form of a letter/email should be sent out to all the client base explaining how the new payment process works and how it will benefit them. The most important part is to promote it as a positive change for the client/customers.

Assessment Activity 3

1. Define sustainability and outline why organisations should develop workplace sustainability policies. Sustainability in a business sense is the management the impact the organisation has in it’s environment. The impact can cover areas that not only include the “environment” but also the staff, client base and even the finances of the organisation.

Developing Sustainability policies is very important in a number of ways. It can be promoted by the organisation that they follow this policy in order to achieve a smaller carbon footprint, however at the same time this could be saving the organisation money. For example, the organisation decides to implement double sided printing, now this is reducing paper usage which is fantastic to the environment, however it is also reducing the amount of paper the organisation is purchasing, therefor reducing expenditure.

2. Research environmental management issues for the workplace and state why these issues should be taken into consideration when planning and managing an organisation’s operations. The main issue as with most organisations is their impact to the environment and their footprint. This can effect a number of areas within the organisation, including reputation to their clients/customers, general publics views/opinions, employees and even the companies finances. In an office environment such as Status Industries. The main concerns are overuse of paper and printing products, lighting usage and power consumption. These can all be addressed. See table on next page how Status Industries has engaged these issues with policies.

Environmental Issue
Over Usage of Paper in printing
Environment, Cost of Paper, Paper Wastage
Double Sided Printing forced on all Xerox devices within organisation
Dramatic reduction in paper usage. Cost of paper saved.
Colour Printing Usage in office

High usage of colour toners where not needed, cost impact as colour prints more expensive than black and white. Force default Black and White printing. Requiring staff to have to select colour printing if they require it. All Staff email sent explaining cost of colour printing over black and white Black and White printing increased. Less colour toner usage. Cost savings.


Lighting currently on 24 hours a day. Expensive power bills and waste of electricity Timers installed on lights to switch off at 8pm every night and to be off over weekend periods Dramatic cost saving and less usage of power. Cost saving on replacing globes.

Electricity Wasting

Computers and monitors switched on 24/7, wasted electricity usage, expensive electricity bills Email sent out by management detailing a new policy to switch off PC’s at night when finished. Exclusions from this are staff whom like Reduction in power. Reputation from general public boosted as windows are on main road and public can see Monitors are left on at night time.

Assessment Activity 6

You have been asked to develop strategies to ensure that systems and processes are used to monitor operational progress and to identify ways in which planning and operations could be improved. In particular, your organisation wants you to determine whether processes currently carried out by employees are as efficient as possible. How would you go about doing this? Firstly you could perform an audit of the current processes. Let’s look at a new employee process and how this is setup from at an IT viewpoint.

The current process below

Now there have been several flaws in this process. Mainly the communication breakdown with Human Resource and IT which has resulted in accounts not been created in time. There are ways to alter the current process and instil new procedures to ensure the process is more successful. The proposed changes are below: A timeframe of at least 10 days for Human Resource to allow for the completion of IT’s account creation and asset allocation (PC/Laptop, Mobile Phone) Accountability to one staff member in Human Resources to communicate with an IT staff member regarding any change to the process and vice versa. A written and ISO approved document on the procedure. This is from the beginning stages with HR to the finishing touches on the IT stages. This is to be given to all staff members in both departments and signed by each staff member. So it is on record as being understood by each employee in case further action/education/disciplinary discussion is required.

Assessment Activity 7

You have determined that adjustments should be made in your work team. Changes need to be made to the way customer complaints are recorded and dealt with. How would you go about communicating the need for change to strategies to relevant stakeholders? Relevant stakeholders internally are first and foremost the executive team, they are the ones that make the organisational impact decisions. Changing the way customer complaints are dealt with is something they will need to provide input for. Once they have approved the said solution this should be communicated in several forms to the customer base. This can be done by posting letters, emails and on the main page of a website. In the planning stages communicating three different alternative solutions to Executive Management would be a good first step. Explaining and selling the reasons why this should be changed.

The main goal in mind for making a change that effects customers, is to ensure it is a “better solution” A good example of this is a large organisation such as Telstra. They have a reputation for having less than satisfactory customer service via phone. Customers have complained about being transferred multiple times and not getting a solution. Telstra has made large steps to improve customer service and have introduced a “Chat” service. This is ideal for people who have a desk job and don’t have the time to be on a phone. You speak to one representative and can explain information a lot easier. This is a very positive step that other organisations in the industry have followed. Selling the vision to relevant stakeholders, explaining how it will benefit the customer base. Remembering please customers not only retains a base, it can increase reputation and perhaps even allow for expansion of customer base.

Assessment Activity 9

2. Give examples of aids/tools that can be used to document the data from a checklist Several graphs and tables can aid the recording of this data and also to report on the data collected. Such Graphs that could be used in this instance are Pie Graph to show the amount of a certain defect on a certain shift to compare where most of the errors are occurring Line Graph to show where the peak period of errors occur

Histograms to show similar to the above

Example of a Pie Graph for the above table

3. Why do graphs and charts provide a good representation of data? Graphs and charts provide a graphical view of the overall picture. As shown above in the Table of Data and also the Pie Graph. Straight away by looking at the Pie Graph you can see the trend. When analysing data Graphs are the best way to do this instead of tables. It can be a quick reference guide compared to sifting through a large amount of numbers. On the subject of trends. Line Graphs can show this better than most methods in some cases where using a line graph is applicable. For example. To see how many defects over a 24 hour period took place in a factory environment. Here you can see where defects dipped and were at a minimum and also peaked and showed a maximum. From this data you can easily see where pain points are in a situation and then provide a possible resolution.

Assessment Tool 2

1. How can an organisations continuous improvement processes be communicated to all stakeholders and how can individuals and teams be encouraged and supported to embrace it? Communicating change in any organisation is important. Stakeholders in certain situations depending on the scale of change could include almost every employee. Best practice is to have a seminar or training session to highlight the need for certain changes or continuous improvement.

For example if the organisation wants to be ISO accredited in a certain area, then it becomes vital for all employees to play a part. Explaining the positives the improvement will entail will certainly sell the vision.

2. Having made a decision about what to do to improve an organisations processes, what should you do to plan for the implementation of that change? A Project Plan is always a good start. This can outline the schedule and resources required, identify the tasks and objectives associated. Communication again is very important with any change, to ensure all of the organisation (if applicable) is aware of the change. The key thing to remember is, people don’t like change if they haven’t been advised.

3. Explain the difference between Feedback and feed forward control. Feed-Forward Control is a measure that regulates inputs. This can be resources such as human resource, financial and material. This is a proactive measure to allow management to prevent issues instead of having to resolve them later. This is known to be a time consuming exercise,

4. What processes might be used to ensure that team members are informed of outcomes of continuous improvement efforts? Why is this necessary and how will this contribute toward further improvements?

Reports can be sent to team members on a set time frame (monthly, quarterly) this could include data and graphs/tables. Graphs are a great way to visually see trends and also to gauge whether there has been improvement in a certain area. It also determines where there are possible issues. It allows the team to strategize where and how they can improve.

5. What is continuous improvement?

Continuous improvement is an infinite process to improve a service, product or process. Depending on the type of industry the organisation is in will determine what areas of will utilize this type of method. Let’s look at an IT department, who has an inbuilt database every employee uses for the day to day tasks. A prototype has been created of this software, and it is in production. However there will always be room for improvement for any software, so constant updating is done on the software, the applications team within the IT Department work each day on add-ons or improvements. What started out as version 1.00 has now turned into 2.34 in the space of 3 years.

6. What can you do to support improvements now and in the future? Improvement in an organisation comes with ideas from the team. This can be suggestions raised in meetings, feedback and communication. The only way to improve processes, products or services is to communicate with departments and key members of staff.

Having evidence in front of employees such as graphs is a great way to visually demonstrate where improvement is needed in certain areas. Concentrating on weak points in the organisation is the key to improvement.

Assessment Tool 3: Project

Continuous improvement is common in most organisations in some degree. This is an exercise that can cover a number of areas. Usually the three areas are as follows


Process in the context of continuous improvement can look at ways to improve the said process. Let’s look at the example of a crucial process in a majority of organisations. A login is required for every employee who starts with the company. This is for them to login to their desktop and perform day to day functions. The process is as follows.

The problem is with this process is communication is relied upon. There is no official area where data can be obtained. IT need to wait for HR to provide information, then HR have to wait for IT, The manager of a new employee has to wait for IT and HR. There has been several flaws with this. Improvement can be done is a number of ways.

1. Have a meeting with HR and IT to establish procedures and timeframes 2. Look at a more centralised system where details can be accessed.

It was later decided a shared calendar on Sharepoint with email alerts when entries are created to be sent to all HR and IT staff. HR would enter a new starter on this calendar, IT would see the details and create the account. They would then add the relevant login details to the calendar and notify the manager. This is seen as a better process, but one that can still be improved upon. There can be a period of trial over a set timeframe to see if it can be improved even further. Taking as much manual labour out of the equation will reduce the amount of errors, oversights etc. Now looking at service. Customer Service or Service Delivery (in an internal environment) is extremely important in any industry. Good customer service means happy clients, more clients which leads to a successful organisation.

Let’s look at the example of an ISP. They have 3 core call centre departments, a Sales, Billing and Technical Support area. How can we gauge what customers impressions are of the level of customer service? A good way is after a phone call to have a rating system where a customer can rate the level of service is received from 1-5. 5 being exceptional and 1 being appalling. This is the first step in continuous improvement in customer service. The survey could be on going or could be over a set period. Either way reporting could be sent on the results to managers/team leaders. There might be a number of trends identified. Staff with exceptional consistent ratings could be rewarded. Staff with lower or appalling ratings could be trained to improve their skill. Reporting for this survey could be time stamped, so graphs could be created when staff aren’t providing a good level of customer service.

You may see a trend like Monday being the worst performing day or Friday afternoon. Education, Training are a number ways to continue the improvement of customer service. As well as awards or rewards as stated above. The final area is products. If an organisation is in the business of developing and distributing products, their main concern with continuous improvement will be developing this product to ensure it is the best in their market. If in a mass production environment, quality control would be paramount to ensure product defects are at a minimum or non existent. Earlier in this document a graph was created showing defect levels over certain shifts.

This is a great way to isolate where improvement is needed. Why did a certain shift have so many defects? Is there something wrong with the team who is assigned to these shifts? This may involve further staff training, disciplinary action or new staff members involved. Sometimes it could be as simple as making a clearly defined process to get a product complete without issues. Let’s look at the example of Microsoft. They are the pioneers of operating systems. According to data for the years 2004 – 2009, Microsoft on average has covered around 90% of the market across the globe. (see graph on next page)

This is an extraordinary number and one that comes with pressure and responsibility to ensure its product is up to an elite standard. Microsoft will release Operating Systems every 4 years on average, however after the release they will continue to build on the operating system. Adding features, fixing bugs, improving the overall experience. Also it offers support to customers with forums such as Technet and the obvious customer support. The updating is the main part of continuous improvement. This builds towards the next version of the Operating System which in some cases not all, will be an absolute improvement over the predecessor. Example being Windows 8, they have received overwhelming feedback that consumers are not favourable of the start menu being removed.

They listened and implemented a start menu of some description in Windows 8.1 and it will return in Windows 10. Risk Management comes into play with most decisions or implementation of a new process. With the three examples shown above a Risk Management assessment of some degree/scale would be included. For the example. Microsoft would need to investigate whether continuing support for an operating system would be viable. They will usually release a statement to the public explaining how long their support and updates will be created for Operating System. Microsoft also would have weighed the pro’s and cons for implementing a start menu feature into 8.1. Customer satisfaction is a high priority, however if it isn’t feasible it would be a risk to implement it. As you’re using resources and time to implement something rather major. Wouldn’t this be better spent developing on the next version.

How does continuous improvement affect employees? This question is very important. As employees are a major part of how well an organisation succeeds. An example of this would be an entrepreneurial firm which is small. Employees are driven to succeed because a sense of ownership due to it being only around 20 staff members, each is aware of their responsibilities and are directly accountable for certain roles. However the firm’s hierarchy believe the best way moving forward is to grow. As the growth takes place the sense of ownership has decreased. The culture will understandably change. Therefor it is incredibly important in the early stages prior to making major changes such as growth, that the organisation creates a culture that values accountability and to provide for accountability in organizational design. Communication in a small company will be different to a larger one. There would be little need for formal communication and any sort of reporting as they are all in the same small location.

They also understand what is important to communicate due to the scale of workload. The change here as it grows would need to be subtle. Explaining to current staff the need/requirement to implement different ways we must communicate. It is logistically going to be impossible to have a general talk with another colleague about something critical when they are in the East coast of the United States and you are based at Head Office in Sydney Australia. If this is educated earlier, it will provide a better understanding from long standing employees on how it will benefit the organisation, this once again comes back to the culture created. The employee will see this will a positive for the organisation. Attitude towards change can vary dependent on factors such as the average age and tenure with the organisation as well. Why do organisations feel the need to incorporate continuous improvement sometimes is dependent on the type of industry.

The pressures of certain industries almost forces organisation to implement continuous improvement. The Business Environment refers to the factors that affect an organisation’s ability to be competitive in their market. Kodak for example, were a leader in photographic/camera film. However the environment changed around them dramatically in recent years with digital photography taking over the market. Film was no longer the medium used. It saw a decline in revenue ($14.5bn in 1995 to $2.35bn in 2013) A lot of companies would not of survived something this dramatic. Kodak revolutionised and changed their way of thinking.

Kodak had to shrink in size and effectively start again, go back to basics. It kept the best minds they had to brainstorm how to continue. Kodak is now a leader in photo print paper, packaging, commercial film and speciality chemicals. Although Kodak isn’t a good example of “improvement” there is an argument for continuity. Not many companies have survived when hit with a change of the scale photography went through over 10 years ago. It is a credit to Kodak they were able to adapt to change and strive to succeed with improvement to the way they work in their industry.

Facilitate Continuous Improvement Essay

Freemark Abbey Winery Essay

Freemark Abbey Winery Essay.

1. Construct the decision tree for William Jaeger.

2. What should he do?
Jaeger should choose to harvest later and wait for the storm. If the storm does come but destroys the grapes, he can decide whether to bottle wine or not to protect winery’s reputation. In either way, he will gain higher revenues from harvesting later than harvesting immediately: EV of “Do not harvest & Bottling”: $39240

EV of “Do not harvest & Not bottling”: $39240-$12000*0.6*0.5=$35640 EV of “Harvest”: $34200

If the winery’s reputation is of great importance for long term profitability, he should choose to sell the wine in bulk, or sell the grapes directly to avoid impairing reputation.

Besides, Riesling wines contribute only about 1,000 cases of wine, and the whole winery produced about 25,000 cases of wine bottled each year. Since the Riesling takes only about 4% of winery’s total production and the decision analysis only affects a small proportion of winery revenues, an expected value approach is used (not expected utility approach).

However, if Jaeger is extremely risk average or the winery could not afford any risks at that time, he could choose to harvest immediately to reduce uncertainty.

3. Incorporate the option that Jaeger can obtain perfect weather information on the path of the storm into your decision tree. Note that the type of storm remains uncertain.

4. What should he do now? And at most how much he is willing to pay for this piece of information? With perfect information of whether storm strikes or not, Jaeger should still choose to harvest later and wait for the storm. EV of “Harvest” stream: $34200

EV of “Do not harvest” stream: $39240 (no matter Jaeger decides to bottle not-up-to-standard wine or not) When Jaeger decides to “bottling” not up-to-standard wine, EV of “Information” stream: $39240

When Jaeger decides to “not bottling” not-up-to-standard wine, EV of “Information” stream: $34200*0.5+$37200*0.5=$35700 (“Information, Storm strike, Do not harvest & Not bottling”: this option will not be chosen as its EV is $34080, smaller than EV of “Information, Storm strike & Harvest” $34200) As the option “harvest later and wait for the storm” will bring the highest revenues no matter Jaeger decides to bottle not-up-to-standard wine or not to protect reputation, he should stick to the strategy of harvesting later.

Even if the perfect information is free-of-charge, and he decides to bottle not-up-to-standard wine to get more monetary returns, the expected value is the same as “do not harvest and do not gain perfect information”. If he chooses to get perfect information, and decides to not bottle not-up-to-standard wine, the expected value will be lower. Because the perfect information cannot affect his choice from an ex ante position, it is worthless and he is willing to pay for zero. In this case, the information cannot predict the storm type, so the perfect information is worthless for Jaeger. If the perfect information can predict the storm type, it is valuable and Jaeger will be willing to pay.

Freemark Abbey Winery Essay

Models of practices that underpin equality Essay

Models of practices that underpin equality Essay.

1.1- Explain models of practices that underpin equality, diversity and inclusion in own area of responsibility?

My role as a senior care assistant requires me to support individuals from a diverse range of backgrounds and cultures. At all times, I am expected to uphold and promote equitable practice and offer equality of opportunity while taking into account peoples political, economical, social and civil rights while promoting diversity and inclusion.

I must consider my own areas of responsibility within my workplace and how my practice underpins the values and principles of equality, diversity and inclusion.

In addition to this, my role is to support and influence the practice of my staff, to ensure that staff and residents are treated equally and fairly without discrimination. This is done by using a person centred approach, which is a model of practice that ensures individuals are central to the planning of their support, and are empowered to identify personal choices about how they want to live their lives.

This also relates to the service users, as it enables them to be actively involved in all aspects of their care.

Equality is ensuring that everyone is treated equally and fairly regardless of their ability, religion, beliefs, gender, race, age, social status or sexual orientation. Diversity recognises that although people have things in common with each other, they are also different and unique in many ways. Diversity is about recognising and valuing those differences, and consists of visible and non-visible factors.

These include, personal characteristics such as background, culture, personality and work style in addition to the characteristics that are protected under discrimination legislation in terms of race, gender, disability, religion and belief, sexual orientation and age. By recognising and understanding individual differences and embracing them, a productive environment whereby everyone feels valued can be created, known as inclusion.

The policies and procedures within my workplace are underpinned by a variety of legislation and current codes of practice. These provide me with a framework for ensuring that I uphold the principles and ethics of equality, diversity and inclusion.(see appendix)

The Equality Act 2010 is the law that bans discrimination and helps achieve equal opportunities in the workplace and in the wider society. The Act brought together and replaced previous equality legislation, such as the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (DDA), the Race Relations Act 1976 and the Sex Discrimination Act 1975. It simplified and updated the law and strengthened it in important ways. The Act protects people from discrimination on the grounds covered by the previous equality laws. These are now called “protected characteristics”, and are; age, disability, gender reassignment, marriage nd civil partnership, pregnancy and maternity, race, religion and belief, sex and sexual orientation. The Act also promotes equality of opportunity to prevent discrimination arising in the first place.

The Equality Act also protects people from various forms of discrimination relating to disability, and also discrimination and harassment: Direct discrimination is when you are treated less favourably than another person because of your disability. This also extends to people who are discriminated against because of their association with someone who has a disability or because they are thought to be disabled. Discrimination arising from disability is when you’re treated less favourably because of something connected with your disability (rather than the disability itself). But it’s not discrimination if the employer or service provider can justify how they treat you, or if they didn’t know that you are disabled. Indirect discrimination happens when a rule, policy or practice is applied to everyone, but it has a particular disadvantage for disabled people.

But it’s not discrimination if it can be justified. Failure to make reasonable adjustments is when you need a reasonable adjustment so you are not at a ‘substantial disadvantage’, but the adjustment has not been made. The duty to make reasonable adjustments covers the way things are done, a physical feature (such as steps to a building), or the absence of an auxiliary aid or service (such as an induction loop or an interpreter). Harassment is unwanted behaviour that has the purpose or effect of violating your dignity or creating an intimidating, hostile, degrading, humiliating or offensive environment. Victimisation – when you’re treated badly because you’ve made or supported a complaint under the Equality Act.

The Mental Capacity Act 2005 (MCA) creates a framework to provide protection for people who cannot make decisions for themselves. It contains provision for assessing whether people have the mental capacity to make decisions, procedures for making decisions on behalf of people who lack mental capacity and safeguards. The underlying philosophy of the MCA Is that any decision made must be in their best interests. The MCA is governed by 5 core principles. These can be summarised as follows: Presumption of capacity (section 1(2) MCA).Every adult has the right to make their own decisions if they have the capacity to do so. Family carers and healthcare or social care staff must assume that a person has the capacity to make decisions, unless it can be established that the person does not have capacity Maximising decision making capacity (section 1(3) MCA). People should receive support to help them make their own decisions.

Before concluding that someone lacks capacity to make a particular decision, it is important to take all possible steps to try to help them reach a decision themselves. Right to make unwise decisions (section 1(4) MCA). People have the right to make decisions that others might think are unwise. A person who makes a decision that others think is unwise should not automatically be labelled as lacking the capacity to make a decision. Best interests (section 1(5) MCA). Any act done for, or any decision made on behalf of, someone who lacks capacity must be in their best interests. Least restrictive option (section 1(6) MCA). Any act done for, or any decision made on behalf of, someone who lacks capacity should be the least restrictive option possible.

The Human Rights Act is a UK law passed in 1998. It means that any person can defend their rights in the UK courts and that public organisations (including the government, police and local councils) must treat everyone equally, with fairness, dignity and respect. The human rights that are contained within this law are based on the articles of the European Convention, and does two things; judges must read and give effect to legislation in a way which is compatible with the Convention Rights, and it is unlawful for a public authority to act in a way which is incompatible with a Convention right. The rights that are protected by the HRA are;

The right to life
The prohibition of torture and inhuman treatment
Protection against slavery and forced labour
The right to liberty and freedom
The right to a fair trial and no punishment without law
Respect for privacy and family life and the right to marry
Freedom of thought, religion and belief
Freedom of expression
Free speech and peaceful protest
No discrimination
Protection of property, the right to an education and the right to free elections

GSCC Codes of practice- Although the GSCC closed in July 2012, the codes of conduct are still used in care homes. The document contains agreed codes of practice for social care workers and employers of social care workers describing the standards of conduct and practice within which they should work.

1.2 – Analyse the potential effects of barriers to equality and inclusion in own area of responsibility? Equality in the workplace is about more than simply giving equal treatment to all employees and complying with the Equality Act. Within the home, we work to remove the barriers which affect recruitment and progression. These barriers can include age, gender, race, sexual orientation, religion or belief, social background, physical or mental disabilities, marital or parental status, gender identity, communication and language.

All policies and practices within the organisation create equal opportunities for personal and professional growth- from establishing fair pay structures offering equal access to benefits to ensuring that promotion and progression is fair. At the very minimum, employers are required to eliminate discrimination from the whole employment cycle, starting from the application stage and throughout an employee’s career.

Barriers that prevent equality and inclusion are as follows;
Physical- Buildings and access, personal physical health, sensory loss
Attitudinal- Personal feelings, thoughts and behaviours
Structural- Economic, environmental, social systems
Institutional- Policies and procedures where some people are disadvantaged over others e.g. maternity leave

Examples of inequality in the workplace include;

Direct discrimination- when an employer treats an employee less favourably than someone else because of a protected characteristic Indirect discrimination- when a working condition or rule disadvantages one group of people more than another. E.g. saying that applicants for a job must be clean shaven puts members of some religious groups at a disadvantage. Indirect discrimination is unlawful whether it is done on purpose or not.

Equality laws may be jeopardised if training and promotion is targeted at younger members of the team, assuming that older workers are not as interested in career progression as their younger colleagues. Failure to provide adequate facilities for disabled people in the workplace, or failure to tackle bullying and harassment against an employee from a different ethnic origin may contribute towards a tribunal claim. Discriminatory tactics in screening of potential staff members, e.g. deliberately choosing male staff over female staff regardless of their ability to do a job.

Effects of this type of discrimination include; diminished life chances, social exclusion, marginalisation, poor interpersonal interactions and communication, disempowerment, and low self-esteem and self-identity.

Oppression is another barrier that can affect equality, diversity and inclusion. It is the consequence of five different factors including; stereotyping, prejudice, discrimination (as stated above), oppression and internalised oppression. It is defined as the “unjust or cruel exercise of power” (Webster, 2013). Standing up and taking action when this type of behaviour occurs is a way to eliminate oppression. Also, being aware about what oppression is as well as methods of prevention can be used as an effort to reduce, if not eliminate, and enables staff to work in an anti- oppressive manner. Oppression happens in many atmospheres, especially in a working environment.

Prevention is the main key to avoiding this type of hostility. This can be done with enforcement of policies, including written disciplinary actions that will be utilised if this occurs, as well as a chain of authority. Having a written policy clearly sets out the expectations of employees by the employers, not only of what is acceptable and unacceptable, but what consequences are to be enforced on to non- compliant employees. This should be read and signed by all employees as a preventative measure to avoid further problems.

The chain of authority is listed so employees are aware of who they will have to answer to in this situation, and who will be enforcing the consequences of their actions. The mechanics of oppression are described as participating, turning a blind eye and denial. Staff who witness this type of behaviour, being well aware but not taking action or altogether denying that the behaviour is occurring are examples showing how oppression continues to exist.

Failure to uphold equality, diversity and inclusion through practice will breach European and UK law and codes of practice and incur penalties such as loss of registration and significant damage to reputation. Consequences for the individual range from low self-esteem, poor mental and physical health and risk of harm and abuse. Therefore, it is paramount that regular training, supervisions and discussions take place to ensure that staff do not display this type of behaviour, or are victimised by others. As a senior, it is important that I notice these barriers and act quickly to prevent any issues from developing.

1.3 – Analyse the impact of legislation and policy initiatives on the promotion of equality, diversity and inclusion? It is important that I am familiar with the Acts of Parliament, regulations, guidance and codes of practice in order to promote best practice within the home and to inform staff, ensuring they are up to date on any changes. As a qualified social worker, I already have some background knowledge on different acts and legislation within the health and social care sector, and have put these into practice in two six month placements throughout my academic career, and also my current job in the care sector.

Equality, diversity and inclusion are addressed within the essential standards set out by CQC which are underpinned by the Health and Social Care Act 2008. Regulation 17(2) (h) of the Health and Social Care Act 2008 (Regulated Activities) Regulations 2010 says that : “the registered person must…take care to ensure that care and treatment is provided to service users with due regard to their age, sex, religious persuasion, sexual orientation, racial origin, cultural and linguistic background and any disability they may have”. This regulation relates to Outcome 1 – respecting and involving people who use services. However, the wording of this regulation suggests that these equality characteristics should be considered in all aspects of care, treatment and support.

This is also the approach taken by CQC in the essential standards. In addition, Regulation 9(1)(b)(iv) of the Health and Social Care Act 2008 (Regulated Activities) Regulations 2010 says that: “The registered person must take proper steps to ensure that each service user is protected against the risks of receiving care or treatment that is inappropriate or unsafe, by means of… the planning and delivery of care and, where appropriate, treatment in such a way as to— avoid unlawful discrimination including, where applicable, by providing for the making of reasonable adjustments in service provision to meet the service user’s individual needs.” This regulation relates to Outcome 4.Regulation 17(1) a of the Health and Social Care Act 2008 (regulated activities) regulations 2009 says that: “The registered person must, so far as is reasonably practicable, make suitable arrangements to ensure…the dignity, privacy and independence of service users.” Regulation 17(2) (a) says that: “the registered person must treat service users with consideration and respect” This regulation relates to Outcome 1.

The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 has now been repealed and replaced by the Equality Act 2010. Formerly, it made it unlawful to discriminate against people in respect of their disabilities in relation to employment, the provision of goods and services, education and transport. The DDA 1995 departed from principles of older UK discrimination law (the Sex Discrimination Act 1975 and the Race Relations Act 1976). These acts, also repealed and replaced by the Equality Act 2010, made direct and indirect discrimination unlawful. The core concepts of the DDA 1995 are instead: less favourable treatment for a reason related to a disabled person’s disability; and failure to make a “reasonable adjustment”.

“Reasonable adjustment” or, as it is known in some other jurisdictions, ‘reasonable accommodation’, is the radical concept that makes the DDA 1995 so different from the older legislation. Instead of the rather passive approach of indirect discrimination (where someone can take action if they have been disadvantaged by a policy, practice or criterion that a body with duties under the law has adopted), reasonable adjustment is an active approach that requires employers, service providers etc to take steps to remove barriers from disabled people’s participation.

The National Minimum Standards sets out the standards for care homes for older people, which form the basis on which the new National Care Standards Commission will determine whether such care homes meet the needs, and secure the welfare and social inclusion of the people who live there. The standards set out in this document are core standards which apply to all care homes providing accommodation for older people. They acknowledge the unique and complex needs of individuals, and the additional specific knowledge, skills and facilities needed in order for a care home to deliver an individually tailored and comprehensive service.

As stated in outcome 1.1 I have discussed the Equality Act 2010, the Human Rights Act 1998 and the Mental Capacity Act 2005.

It is also essential that all staff are familiar with the homes own policies on diversity, equality and inclusion (see appendix) If these policies are not adhered to, it could result in guidelines, legislations and requirements also not being adhered to, which could result in the residents and staff being subjected to abuse.

2.4- How do you support others to challenge discrimination and exclusion? As a senior, I have an important role to play in championing diversity, equality and inclusion in my workplace. I am expected to articulate my own beliefs and values regarding diversity, recognise equality, respect and tolerance, and encourage non- judgemental attitudes and anti- discriminatory practice in order to inspire and lead my team. It is also important to encourage a positive culture within the workplace that promotes the principles of good practice.

Examples of opportunities include; Developing and delivering training and CPD reviews so that the team is kept up to date with new developments Providing a safe environment where people feel empowered and supported to challenge discrimination and poor practice Ensure all staff are aware of the “whistleblowing” policy and other policies in place to challenge discrimination. (see appendix)

I am also the workforce representative, so this means that staff can openly discuss any issues or concerns they have which could include issues of discrimination and exclusion. I have received some complaints that staff feel they are being victimised, as there has recently been a divide between night/day staff, with each day/ night members complaining that the other are not pulling their weight, or they are not assisting the residents in meeting their personal care needs to a high standards e.g. wet beds, soiled pads not being changed etc.

To rectify this issue, staff members were expected to complete a night/ day shift that was opposite to their usual shift pattern, in hopes to highlight what the different shift patterns and routines entailed and what was expected from staff members. The work “clique” was also used which has serious connotations as can be linked to bullying, which is a form of victimisation and exclusion. There was a management meeting held to discuss these issues and ways to rectify them. A “team building” night out was arranged, in hopes to bring all staff together.

When discrimination and exclusion occur in policy and practice, I have a duty of care to challenge it, by reviewing and monitoring situations to identify and give examples of best practice. This can be done by undertaking supervisions, encouraging reflective practice to consider individual roles and accountability, maintaining quality assurance systems and record keeping, monitoring and evaluating processes and regular training. Ensuring staff are familiar and adhere to policies and procedures (see appendix) is also a positive way to address issues of discrimination and exclusion, as it ensures staff are fully aware it will not be tolerated within the care home.

In relation to the residents there are many laws and policies that are aimed to prevent this. The “No secrets” white paper is a UK Government initiative from the Department of Health which provides guidance on developing and implementing policies and procedures to protect vulnerable adults from abuse. Abuse can be defined as: Physical, sexual, psychological, financial, neglect and discriminatory. The Protection of Vulnerable Adults (POVA) policy also states the duty of care placed on local authorities and organisations to protect older people from abuse and harm. As the care home specifically caters for residents with Alzheimer’s and dementia, there is a higher chance that these residents can face widespread discrimination for a number of reasons.

There is significant misunderstanding and stigma attached to dementia that manifests itself in widespread discriminatory attitudes. Age discrimination is also a factor that they could face, and potentially more at risk of discrimination and infringements on their human rights because they may not have the capacity to challenge or report what has occurred, meaning they face a poorer quality of life. At the care home, we ensure that this type of discrimination is challenged by offering high quality care based on individualised care and support which builds on a person’s abilities and strengths, treating people with dignity and respect offering choice and safeguarding privacy, and that staff are properly trained in caring for residents with dementia and who are fully supported in their role. If a resident or a member of their family feel they are being discriminated against, the complaints procedure enables them to formally complain, and feel fully supported in doing so. The “residents charter of rights” policy is available to all residents, their families and visitors, and details how they should be treated according to the Health and Social Care Act 2008, and also the essential standards set out by CQC.

3.1- Analyse how systems and processes can promote equality and inclusion or reinforce discrimination and exclusion? Every organisation has policies and procedures in place that are informed by legislation and national guidelines, in hope to promote anti- discriminatory practice. At the care home, we have a mission statement that details the way we intend to create a positive working environment whereby the shared principles and values of good quality support are upheld throughout the organisation. The statement reads; Vision Statement: We strive to be at the forefront of delivering exceptional standards of care and establishing ourselves as a leading and innovative care group in the United Kingdom. Mission Statement: We believe in a holistic care approach supported by dedicated and motivated staff team who are specifically trained to deliver a quality service.

Our ethos encourages independence of residents in a friendly, welcoming, and safe environment with a “home from home” atmosphere. Philosophy of Care: QCG philosophy encompasses five basic principles of care which are; Quality of care with a holistic approach ensuring psychological, spiritual and physical well-being of residents A motivated, enthusiastic and specifically trained staff team to deliver this care Ensuring dignity and respect of residents in a non-discriminatory way in accordance with the resident’s charter of rights. (see appendix) Encouraging an independent and supported lifestyle with well-structured activities and social programmes A homely care approach fostering friendships, family involvement, local community interaction and

The effectiveness of these systems and processes will need to be monitored, and this can be done through; A regular review and audit of policies and practice will identify areas to be addressed Individual and family questionnaires can identify areas that require improvement, but also highlight areas of good practice and provide the benchmarks for reviewing and monitoring practice within the workplace. In depth and thorough induction training to ensure new employees are aware of their job roles and responsibilities Complaints procedures can contribute to providing evidence in particular cases. Developing and maintaining effective complaints procedures will enable areas to be identified relating to diversity and equality which require improvement.

4.1- Describe ethical dilemmas that may arise in own area of responsibility when balancing individuals rights and duty of care?


My duty of care towards the resident, and my responsibility to safeguard individual privacy could cause legal and ethical tensions. Ethical dilemmas arise frequently throughout the social care sector, particularly within my role as a senior carer, and it is my duty and the duty of the home to ensure that individuals are protected from harm. A number of factors need to be considered including the residents need to be informed as to how information about them is used and consent should be sought to share information with outside agencies.

However, information can be disclosed where there is an overriding public interest e.g. where abuse is suspected. In this circumstance, confidentiality can be broken if a resident is at serious risk of; harm to themselves, harm to others, exploitation or physical/ sexual/ verbal abuse, significant financial gain or loss. I would also need to assess whether or not the resident has capacity and adhere to the MCA 2005 framework. The five principles of assessment are; Presume capacity unless established otherwise

Take practical steps to enable decision making
Accept that people can make unwise decisions
Act in the persons best interests
Use the action least restrictive of the persons rights and freedom of choice

The use of sharing of service user information forms an essential part of the provision of health and social care, however the nature of this information needs to be in line with the legal duty to keep all personal information confidential. The relationship between staff and resident needs to be one of fidelity and trust, and residents have a legitimate expectation that private information will not be shared, used or disclosed without their consent. Therefore, all staff have strong legal and ethical obligations to protect resident information and the law and standards that govern practice and the handling of personal and confidential information are;

The Data Protection Act
The Human Rights Act 1998 (article 8)
The Freedom of Information Act (2000)
The Essential standards of quality and safety
The Equality Act 2010
The Public Interest Disclosure Act (1999)

Own Beliefs and values

Each person has a unique set of values and beliefs, and strive to live their lives by these. The same is true for the resident who are supported within the care home, and occasionally personal values and beliefs may be different from the residents and their families. If the resident has a Lasting Power of Attorney in place that has a say over their health and welfare, or if they had a living will in place prior to a decline in their mental illness than this can also cause an ethical dilemma. A resident in the care home had a living will in place where, in the event that they had a decline in their mental state and became very unwell, then they would not want to be treated for this illness.

The resident does now unfortunately have severe dementia; he became unwell with a chest infection, and his daughter, who has Lasting Power of Attorney, did not want him treated. Personally, I did not agree with this decision, as felt that it was not a severe illness as stated in his living will, and could be overcome with some antibiotics. His daughter did not want the GP contacted, however, I felt it was in the best interests of the resident to speak with the GP regarding this issue, as felt he could become seriously unwell without antibiotics, so I was therefore trying to protect him from harm. This was a serous ethical dilemma for me and a big learning curve. After a long discussion with the GP, it was decided that the GP would contact the daughter to explain the possible severity of the situation, and she eventually agreed to treatment.

Other factors that can cause ethical dilemmas include; the management of resources- balancing good support with available resources can be a challenge, organisational policies- While there may be solid reasoning’s behind the policies, some may impact negatively on a staff member if for example they are unable to work unsupervised due to disability, safeguarding- disclosing information of a safeguarding matter to the correct person if a resident and/or staff member has asked you not to disclose and balancing the needs of the family and the needs of the individual- sometimes challenging the families wishes to meet the needs of the individual may be necessary.

4.2- Explain the principle of informed choice?

Choice and control is about freedom to act, for example to be independent and mobile, as well as freedom to decide. Having choice and control over one’s life and involvement supports autonomy and self-esteem. The issues of choice, control, involvement and self-determination are at the forefront of current government policy. Department of Health research found that health and social care recipient’s value having information to make choices and decisions for themselves, and that feeling confident and maintaining control is important. Putting People First (2007) outlined a shared vision for social care and radical reform. Autonomy – through maximum choice, control and power for people over the services they receive – is central to the values outlined in the paper.

Information, advice, advocacy and support with decision-making, are all key to ensuring that people can exercise autonomy. Every resident in the care home has a consent to care and treatment form in place that they must agree to before care can be carried out. This means they agree to information sharing, intervention from GP’s and nurses etc. If the resident is unable to give signed consent but it appears they can give verbal consent than their next of kin can sign for them. However, if the resident is unable to give signed or verbal consent, than this would affect their informed choice as a Mental Capacity Assessment and Best Interests Assessment is carried out.

For most residents in the care home, making complex decisions and choices requires additional support as the majority have a diagnosis of Alzheimer’s or dementia. There are different processes for decision making when considering choices. An informed choice is when an individual is supported to make a decision, and as a senior, I have a responsibility to provide residents and their families with all the necessary information to make those decisions. It is important to be mindful of the range of accessible information the individual requires in order for them to make the decision, and this decision must be unbiased and evidence based. It is important to also consider how the resident communicates and who else may need to be involved such as family members, GP’S social workers etc.

Many of the residents have a Power of Attorney in place which covers finances, and approximately four residents have a Lasting Power of Attorney which covers health and welfare. In this case, decisions can be a lot harder to make as a family member may have the final say regardless of the residents values, which should always be upheld. This is because the resident may not be able to express their wishes due to a decline in their mental illness. The residents are however, protected by the Mental Capacity Act and the Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards.

Models of practices that underpin equality Essay

Duty of care Essay

Duty of care Essay.

“Duty of care” means to provide care and support to individuals within the law and also within the policies, procedures and agreed ways to work. It is about keeping the service users independence, to support and enable them to live within an environment free from prejudice and safe from abuse. Everyone is entitled to their own opinions, choices and we should respect that at all times while promoting them as an individual.

By working within standards set out and within our own capacity we will prevent harm from occurring to ourselves, others and the individual.

By giving an individual choice and respecting their views/wishes they know that their independence has not been taken from them, giving them more confidence if an issue of safeguarding etc. were to arise.

To understand and be able to pass on the procedures in place if we are suspicious or aware of abuse, an individual being endangered or poor work practice by another carer or agency.

Reporting, recording are the steps needed to ensure that any form of safeguarding or protection issues are dealt with immediately and correctly.

While working in care, the aim is to give the best possible standard of care to service users, but sometimes there can be a conflict beetween the individual’s or their family’s wishes and rights and the duty of care. In this case the most important thing is to decide whether the person is aware of the risks and consequences of the decision and has the capacity to make the decision. Before taking best interest decisions I have to make sure that the person definitely lacks the capacity. The person or their next of kin has an overall right and responsibility in decision making for issues relating their care, and I need their consent to deal with certain issues. When a dilemma arises, my responsibility is to support individuals or their families to make informed choices. Even if I disagree with their decision, I can only give advice but can not force them.

Duty of care Essay

A Summary of Cyert & March’s Behavioural Theory of the Firm Essay

A Summary of Cyert & March’s Behavioural Theory of the Firm Essay.


Cyert and March are concerned with the business firm and the way the business firm makes economic decisions. The authors make detailed observations of the processes and procedures by which firms make decisions, using these observations as a basis for a theory of decision making in business organizations. They argue that one way to understand modern organizational decision making is to supplement the microeconomic study of strategic factor markets with an examination of the internal operation of the business firm-to study the effects of organizational structure and conventional practices on the development of goals, the formation of expectations, and the implementation of choices.

At the very outsetset, the authors make four major research commitments:

To focus on the small number of key economic decisions made by the firm

To develop process-oriented models of the firm

To link models of the firm as closely as possible to empirical observations

To develop a theory with generality beyond the specific firms studied

Cyert and March develop an empirically relevant, process-oriented general theory of economic decision making by a business firm.

They present the rudiments of a behavioral theory of the firm that have proven to be relevant both to economic theory and to the theory of complex organizations.

The authors then go on to lay out the antecedents to the behavioral theory of the firm. They discuss the theory of the firm, organization theory and certain questions in a revised theory of firm decision making regarding:

Organizational Objectives

Decision strategies

Decision making within strategies

To build the behavioral theory of the firm, Cyert and March develop four major subtheories concerning the following:

Organizational goals

A theory of organizational goals considers how goals arise in an organization, how goals change over time, and how the organization attends to these goals. The organization is described as a coalition of stakeholders, with some of these stakeholders organized into subcoalitions. In a business organization the coalition members also include managers, workers, stockholders, suppliers, customers, lawyers, tax collectors, regulatory agencies, and so on. Clearly then, organizational goals must deal successfully with the potential for internal goal conflicts inherent in a coalition of diverse individuals and groups.

Since the existence of unresolved conflicts among organizational stakeholders is a key feature of organizations, it is difficult to construct a useful descriptively accurate theory of the organizational decision-making process if we insist on internal goal consistency. Such a decision-making process need not necessarily produce consistent organizational goals.

An important mechanism for dealing with stakeholder conflicts is the sequential attention to conflicting goals. A consequence of this mechanism is that organizations ignore many conditions that outside observers see as direct contradictions. Decentralization of decision making (and goal attention), the sequential attention to goals, and the adjustment in organizational slack that acts as a cushion in down times permit the business firm to make decisions with inconsistent goals under many (and perhaps most) conditions.

Organizational expectations

A theory of organizational expectations considers how and when an organization searches for information or new alternatives and how information is processed through the organization. Expectations are by no means independent of hopes, wishes, and the internal bargaining needs of subunits in the organization. Information about the consequences of specific courses of action in a business organization is frequently hard to obtain and of uncertain reliability. As a result, both conscious and unconscious biases in expectations are introduced. Thus, local priorities and perceptions obtain. In addition, there is some evidence of more conscious manipulation of expectations.

Communication in a complex organization includes considerable biasing and influence activities-and considerable bias correction as well. In addition, organizations often protect themselves from the worst effects of influence activities by focusing on verified data in lieu of uncertain estimates and  using easily checked feedback information.

Organizational choice

A theory of organizational choice needs to characterize the process by which the alternatives available to the organization are ordered and selected. Organizational decisions depend on information estimates and expectations that ordinarily differ appreciably from reality. These organizational perceptions are influenced by some characteristics of the organization and its procedures. Second, organizations consider only a limited number of decision alternatives. Finally, organizations vary with respect to the amount of resources that such organizations devote to their organizational goals on the one hand and suborganizational and individual goals on the other hand. The firm is considered to be an adaptively rational system in which the firm learns from experience. General choice procedures are summarized in terms of three basic principles:

Avoid uncertainty: The firm looks for procedures that minimize the need for predicting uncertain future events. One method uses short-run feedback as a trigger to achieve action; another accepts (and enforces) standardized decision rules.

Maintain the rules: Once the firm has determined a feasible set of decision procedures, the organization abandons them only under duress.

Simplify the rules: The firm relies on individual judgment to provide flexibility around simple rules.

Organizational control

A theory of organizational control specifies the difference between executive choice in an organization and the decisions actually implemented. Organizational control within an organization depends on the elaboration of standard operating procedures. It is hard to see how a theory of the firm can ignore the effect of such organizational procedures on decision-making behavior within the organization. The effects fall into at least four major categories:

effects on individual goals within the organization,

effects on individual perceptions of the environment

effects on the range of alternatives considered

effects on the managerial decision rules used.

Cyert and March’s basic theory of organizational control assumes the following:

Multiple, changing, acceptable-level goals

An approximate sequential consideration of alternatives

Uncertainty avoidance

Cyert and March propose two major organizing devices: a set of variable concepts and a set of relational concepts. The variable concepts discussed previously are organizational goals, organizational expectations, organizational choice, and organizational control. There are also four major relational concepts:

Quasi-Resolution of Conflict

In keeping with numerous theories of organizations, Cyert and March assume that the coalition in an organization is a coalition of members having different personal goals. Members require some procedure for resolving conflicts, such as acceptable-level decision rules, sequential attention to goals, or both.

Uncertainty Avoidance

The authors submit that organizations typically try to avoid uncertainty. First, organizations avoid the requirement that they correctly anticipate events in the distant future by using decision rules emphasizing short-run reactions to short-run feedback, rather than anticipation of long-run uncertain events. Second, organizations avoid the requirement that they anticipate future reactions of other parts of their environment by arranging a negotiated environment. Organizations impose plans, standard operating procedures, industry tradition, and uncertainty-absorbing contracts on that environment.

Problemistic Search

Cyert and March’s behavioral models assume that search, like decision making, is problem directed. Problemistic search means search that is stimulated by a problem (usually a rather specific one) and is directed toward finding a solution to that problem. Such organizational search is assumed to be motivated, simple-minded, and biased. This bias may reflect training or experience of various parts of the organization. This bias may reflect the interaction of hopes and expectations, and communication biases are expected to reflect unresolved conflicts within the organization.

Organizational learning

To assume that organizations go through exactly the same processes as individuals go through seems unnecessarily naive, but organizations exhibit (as do other social institutions) adaptive behavior over time. Cyert and March focus on adaptation with respect to three different phases of the decision process: adaptation of goals, adaptation in attention rules, and adaptation in search rules. They submit that organizations change their goals, shift their attention, and revise their procedures for search as a function of their experience.


In this book the authors adopt a problem driven way of analysis. For example, when there are conflicts, the authors let the firm to set these conflicts as constraints and solve out a possible solution. In the modern context, this could make organizations weak. Organizations must be dynamic in anticipating problems and mitigating them or adapt to them and benefit accordingly.

Cyert and March have shown how to construct behavioral models of firm-level decision making and indicate the basic theoretical framework within which such models are embedded. Cyert and March’s behavioral theory of the firm can be applied to price and output decisions, internal resource allocations, innovations, competitive dynamics, and predictions of other organizations’ behavior. However, an underlying assumption of rationality has been made. Behavioral theory must also study the possibility of non-rational decisions or unpredictable outcomes of rational decisions.


Cyert, R. M., & March, J. G. (1992). A Behavioral Theory of the Firm.
_Cambridge, Mass_.

A Summary of Cyert & March’s Behavioural Theory of the Firm Essay

AirAsia Consumer Behaviour Essay

AirAsia Consumer Behaviour Essay.

1.0. Introduction


AirAsia is a Malaysian company, that introduced the Low Cost Carrier service to the domestic market and eventually the asian region. Currently AirAsia is the leader in this market segment. Before it becomes the AirAsia that we all know today, AirAsia was a poorly performed company owned by a government-link company (GLC) in Malaysia, DRB-HICOM. In 2001, it was sold to the current owner, Tony Fernandes and its TuneAir company, for a sum of only RM1.00 or approximately US$0.30, together with its accumulated debt of RM40 million (AirAsia, 2008).

Within two years, Tony Fernandes exceeds everyone’s expectations, and turned AirAsia to a profit making company. By the third year it was listed in the Kuala Lumpur bourse with outstanding IPO (initial Public Offer) of RM717.4 million (AirAsia, 2008).

In 2006, the AirAsia was given the use of LCCT terminal in Malaysia, because its passenger load have expanded to such a capacity. This assignment will describe how AirAsia, managed to become the company it is today, started with a fleet of only 1 aircraft in 2001, to a fleet of 72 aircrafts, flies over 61 domestic and 108 international destinations, and operates over 400 flights daily from hubs located not only in Malaysia, but also Thailand and Indonesia, and launched AirAsia X for longer haul flights with its wide-body aircrafts, through the eyes of Consumer Behaviour, from psychological drivers, sociological drivers and consumer decision making process.

2.0. Psychological Drivers of consumer behaviour

There are psychological drivers that influence the consumer’s behaviour. They are; motivation, perception, learning, values, beliefs and attitudes, and lifestyle, are useful for intrepeting the consumer’s buying process and directing the company’s marketing efforts.

2.1. Motivation.

Motivation is the energizing force that causes behavior that satisfies a need. The needs are hierarchical, from the basic of it and higher.

2.1.1. Hierarchy of Needs

From this Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, before AirAsia, air travel is generally considered in the higher hierarcy of needs, esteem, where some people intend to show others their ability to travel by air, and visit destinatations that others can’t. This is what AirAsia realized, they created the tagline “now everyone can fly”, hence creating the awarenes to the people, and also created the motivation that now air travel is no longer considered in the ‘esteem’ hierarchy of needs, people can travel just to fulfil their Love/Belonging needs, whether people travel to seek the ones they love, friends or family, or they travel to please those loved ones, such as holiday destinations, by air.

2.1.2. Means-end chain.

Means-end chain follow a time-honered approach for thinking about motivational issues. The central premise — that objects have value only because they produce desirable consequences or enable one to avoid negative consequences — is at the heart of most modern conceptualizations of motivation (Atkinson, 1964, Lewin, 1951, Tolman 1959).

The above chain shows that at the end of the day, a consumer who purchase AirAsia as way of their air travel, will have excess money to save or to spend on something else in their travel or holiday.

The ad above, shows that because of the AirAsia’s cheap price of airticket to London, consumers get to spend their money on something else, like shopping and visiting heritages places in London. AirAsia marketing people created the motivation of a desirable consequences if consumer purchase their service

2.2. Perception.

Perception is “the process of assembling sensations into a useable mental representation of the world,..perception creates faces, melodies, works of art, illusions out of the raw material of sensation” (Coon, 1983) or to summarize, is the process by which physical sensations are selected, organised and interpreted. Individuals with the same need might not purchase or choose similar products or service due to the difference in perception.

From the perceptual process model above (Solomon, 2006), AirAsia succeded in creating stimulations and attentions, and try to generalized the perception of people that now everyone can fly. Obviously they stimulate the sights first, by using the same tagline in every ads, media and online and billboards. Thus, consumers remember this information, which results when they want to purchase an airline ticket, AirAsia is the first choice comes to mind.

2.3. Learning

Learning is “the process by which relatively permanent changes occur in behavioural potential as a result of experience” (Anderson, 1995). AirAsia’s marketing people understand consumer’s learning process affecting their decision making.

2.3.1. Behavioural Learning.

Repeated exposure to an experience will result in the process of developing an automatic response to that particular situation. In the AirAsia case, the company is trying to develop that automatic response is choosing AirAsia as their airline, everytime a customer wants to buy an airline ticket. e.g: As AirAsia owns by Tune group who also owns the Hotel chain of Tune Hotel, the company able to sell air tickets together with hotel fares, resulted in cheaper and convenient way to travel. Customers learned that through the website, they can purchased the air ticket together with hotel. This resulted in repeated behaviour of purchasing AirAsia ticket, as the customer find it more convenient.

2.3.2. Cognitive Learning.

AirAsia is trying to make connections between the two ideas of purchasing airline ticket together with the hotel. But now, as the customers uses the AirAsia website to purchase the air ticket, they can also choose a wider range of hotel choices, not just the AirAsia’s own Tune Hotel Chain. AirAsia through their website now also act as an agent, where customer, as they’re saving money by buying airasia’s ticket, have the options to spend more whether to indulge in more luxurious way of staying, by choosing more luxurious hotels that now available in the company’s website.

The above screenshot of airasia’s website shows that cosumers can purchase airticket and hotel vouchers at the same time.

2.3.3. Brand Loyalty.

One of the way of doing applicating learning principles by AirAsia is introducing their reward programs to AirAsia’s customers, there are the frequent flyer miles, or free ticket, or holiday vouchers to give away to its customers. These things reinforce their behaviour and build brand loyalty toward AirAsia itself. AirAsia is trying to educate the people, they themselves become the catalyst of the learning process.

The outcome of learning is memory. By putting inputs and information out there, “now everyone can fly”, even the people who are not in needs of air travel, learned that there is now a cheap way to fly. Hence, this information is recovered from memory when these consumers are in need of air travel, and choose AirAsia.

2.4. Beliefs and Attitudes.

Beliefs and attitudes play an essential role in influencing the buying decisions of consumers. No matter how good the service is, but if the consumer feels it is useless, he/she would never purchase it.

From the attitude-towards-the-ad models, AirAsia, creates such an exposure to ads for consumers, with the same theme of red and white, in their billboards ads, website’s look, magazine and newspaper’s ads, thus affecting the beliefs towards the AirAsia brand.

Constant exposure to these ads and commercials, with red and white coloured themed, create the attitude of choosing AirAsia, when the time is come for consumer to make a choice.

2.5. Lifestyle.

A person’s activities, interests and opinions, often resulted in that particular person’s lifestyle. The technology nowadays created a new lifestyle in people’s life. Internet and smartphones is becoming more and more important to people. AirAsia recognized this, beside website as their purchasing portal, now people also can purchase air ticket and hotel voucher as well through their smartphones, by creating application for smartphone’s plattforms such as iOS and android.

3.0. Sociological Drivers of consumer behaviour
3.1. Personal Influence.

Personal influences resulted from the interaction between one individual and others. These influences can also come from opinion leaders, where one individual can exert certain infulence over other people. e.g., in a working environment, when a manager decided to use AirAsia, even for his/her personal travel, his/her subordinances will be influenced to do the same thing.

3.2. Reference Groups.

When a certain individual looks to a group of people, as a basis of self-appraisal or as a source for personal standards, these group of people can be considered as Reference groups. Marketers must understand: how groups influence individual behaviour, how group influences vary accross products and brands, how to use group influences to develop effective strategies. Recognizing these groups can help the marketing people of AirAsia for their marketing strategies. There are three types of reference groups to create a difference in marketing implications:

3.2.1. Membership group.

A membership group is where an individual is actually belong to.

3.2.2. Aspiration group.
An aspiration group is a group where an individual want to be indentified to.

3.2.3. Dissociative group.
A dissociative group is a group where one individual wants to maintain a distance to, because of differences in values or behaviour.

3.3. The Family.

Differential influence of family members can affect the pruchasing decisions. AirAsia recognized this by introducing one credit card for all transactions in their home website. In asian region, in a family, decision usually carried out by the head of the family (the father), or the one who is providing for the whole family. Thus, even where a situation like a joint decision making is arised, the father who has the biggest income usually make the decision. In their website, a father, can create a username, which already included with all the credit card’s data. In this case, any family member who wants to purchase air ticket can easily use their husband’s/father’s username.

3.4. Social Class.

Social class is a relatively permanent, homogeneous divisions in a society into which people sharing similar values, interests, and behaviour are grouped. The determinant of social class usually include occupation, source of income and education. AirAsia’s marketing strategies and advertisement spotted these social classes in society, especially the middle-class. The rise of middle-class economy in asia pacific region created more value-oriented consumer, where value for money is important. Co-workers, students even housewives group can now easily travel and spend holiday together.

3.5. Culture

Culture refers to the set of values, ideas and attitudes that are accepted by a homogeneous group of people and transmitted to the next generation. The South East Asian region, where AirAsia is based, is translated to a growing market. By studying the buying patterns of these people, AirAsia can focused their marketing strategies. These growing market in South East Asia, which also recognized by the growing economies, means more and more people have an extra disposable income. The South East Asian people are easily affected by others. A trend is easily formed, if a group of workers, families or students are using AirAsia to travel and explore new places and shared their experiences through social media, it can easily influence other similar groups in the society to do the same thing.

4.0. Consumer Decision Making process.

4.1. Problem recognition.

First stage of the consumer decision making process is the problem recognition. At this stage, a consumer is perceiving a need. In AirAsia’s case, is the need to travel. In some AirAsia’s advertisement, the marketing people shows a numerous travel destination, with each separate own picture, and shows how cheap it is now to get to those places by using AirAsia as their airline. Hence, it is underlining the need of the people. This relates to marketing mix, of PRODUCT, PRICE and PLACE. For PRODUCT and PRICE, no airlines before airasia can provide this low fare of airtickets. As for PLACE, airasia provides more destination regionally than any other airlines and also have new sales office in major cities not just in Malaysia, but also Indonesia and the Phillippines. Another thing, the internet booking, how airasia manage to save consumer’s time in purchasing of airticket, people can now buy their airtickets online, or even from their smartphones.

The ad shows how cheap it is to travel to Paris. The need to travel, especially overseas, maybe as honeymoon, is already there, but now AirAsia, with these commercials all over the place, is enhancing that need.

4.2. Information search

The information search by the consumers, clarify what options are there available to them. Which airline is the cheapest, which one is the most comfortable, hassle free and so on. There are two steps of information search;

4.2.1. Internal Search.

Internal search is where one search one’s memory, recall any previous experience or information, in this case, related to air travel. An individual may remember how hard it is to purchase a ticket using a physical store, where the need to be at the travel agent physically and purchased the ticket. In marketing mix, PROMOTION, airasia is going all-out with their “now everyone can fly” tagline. Consumer can see this tagline everywhere; billboards on roadsides, magazines, newspaper, even on news website as pop-up advertisement. Airasia is trying to plant this tagline inside everyone’s mind, hence, by the time they want to purchase airticket, they straight away remember of airasia’s “now everyone can fly”.

4.2.2. External Search.

Sources for external information are usually friends and family, public sources, and marketer-dominated source. Marketer-dominated sources are where AirAsia’s marketing team excelled at. Their advertising aggressive all over the place and media, their websites are constantly updating with new time-limited promotions, causing people to access it more often. Now, consumer’s can even subscribe for their newsletter by emails.

In relation to marketing mix, airasia provide new PRODUCT/SERVICE. The screenshot above shows AirAsia comes up with hassle free website, with its flash page technology, that shows multiple destinations pictures that always changing in the home page.

4.3. Evaluation of alternatives

At this stage, a consumer is evaluating what are the alternatives of choices he/she has. The company will always enhancing what are their superiorities over competitors. PRICE is one obvious thing why consumer choose AirAsia, theirs will often cheaper than others. Other way doing this is always one step ahead in the technology side of marketing. AirAsia is the first airline that providing online purchasing through the internet. Now, where other low-cost airline also have the same feature on their website, AirAsia have come up with smartphone application. This application can be downloaded to a consumer’s smartphone, and he/she can easily make flight queries or purchasing ticket(s) or even buying hotel voucher, just by using his/her smartphone.

4.4. Purchase decision

At this stage, consumer are making their decision in which airline service to choose. AirAsia’s marketing people understand at the previous stages of CDP, they have excelled. Hence, at this stage, their marketing mix, PRODUCT, PRICE, PROMOTION and PLACE of AirAsia have succesfully target the consumer and guiding them into purchasing their service.

4.5. Postpurchase behaviour

At this stage, the consumer compares the service they purchased with expectations and is either satisfied of dissastified. Expentancy disconfirmation with performance approach (Oliver, 1997) and the balancing paradigm (Fournier and Mick, 1999) are two current theories of consumer satisfaction. Satisfaction more likely to lead to repeat purchase/loyalty and positive Word of Mouth (WOM). Dissatisfaction more likely to lead to brand switching, complaints and negative word of mouth (WOM). In AirAsia’s case, they try to minimize the consumer’s expectations as low as possible.

The two pictures above are the screenshot of airasia website when consumer purchasing airticket. It clearly shows that passengers will not get in-flight refreshment, no complimentary luggage, no choice of seats, unless they purchase all of these things in the website. By doing this, AirAsia managed to get their customer’s expectations as low as possible, beacuse they don’t promise other than the service that you, as a customer, already purchased online.

5.0. Conclusion

Airasia has established themselves as a profit making company and a succesful low cost carrier that prompted other airlines in the south east asian region to do the same thing. This company build their brand name with their tag line “now everyone can fly”, telling people that flying is now more affordable and easy. This tagline is also shaping their marketing mix. For their Product, Price, and Place, airasia clearly introduced a new way of flying by airlines, a cheap and easy one. At Consumer Decision Making process, the Product and Price influenced consumer at the Problem recognizition and Information search step process. With Promotion, they influence the steps of Information search and Purchase decision in the CDP process. Airasia is so aggressive in their promotional activities, by putting their tagline “now everyone can fly” in every advertisement and commercials.

By understanding the psychological drivers and sociological drivers of consumer, airasia have executed its marketing plan briliantly, putting the type of advertisement that suitable. By understanding the Consumer Decision making process, AirAsia provide what kind of values that consumer seeks and asses in the information search, and evaluation of alternatives stages. By the time consumer making their purchase decision and postpurchase behaviour, these values are good enough to make them purchase airasia’s service and by not giving the consumer high expectations from the first time, the satisfaction rate from consumer is high. The succes story of AirAsia marketing strategies shows how important it is for a brand to understand the psychological drivers, sociological drivers and the decision making process of consumer behaviour.

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AirAsia Consumer Behaviour Essay

Principles of beneficence and non-maleficence Essay

Principles of beneficence and non-maleficence Essay.

_In order to have a common basis of understanding some words need to be defined:_

_BENEFICENCE:_ _The action of helping others and performing actions that would result in benefit to another person._

_NON-MALEFICENCE:_ _The avoidance of causing harm or evil by doing a certain action or by not doing any action at all._

_PHYSICIAN:_ _is a professional who practices medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury and other physical and mental impairments_.

_TORT_ : A civil wrong committed against a person or property, excluding breach of contract.


As the principles of beneficence and non-maleficence are closely related, they are discussed together in this section. Beneficence involves balancing the benefits of treatment against the risks and costs involved, whereas non-maleficence means avoiding the causation of harm. As many treatments involve some degree of harm, the principle of non-maleficence would imply that the harm should not be disproportionate to the benefit of the treatment.

Respecting the principles of beneficence and non-maleficence may in certain circumstances mean failing to respect a person’s autonomy i.e. respecting their views about a particular treatment. For example, it may be necessary to provide treatment that is not desired in order to prevent the development of a future, more serious health problem. The treatment might be unpleasant, uncomfortable or even painful but this might involve less harm to the patient than would occur, were they not to have it.

In cases where the patient lacks legal competence to make a decision, medical staffs are expected to act in the best interests of the patient. In doing so, they may take into account the principles of beneficence and non-maleficence. However, it would be helpful for medical staff in such cases, if the patient lacking capacity had made an advance directive. Nevertheless, as will be seen in the following section on “the position of advance directives alongside current wishes”, problems may arise when there is a conflict between what a person requested in an advance directive and what in the physician’s view is in their best interests, particularly in cases where it is no longer clear that the person in question would still agree with the decision previously made.

Examples of Beneficence:

Resuscitating a drowning victim.

Providing vaccinations for the general population.

Encouraging a person to quit smoking, etc.

Examples of Non-maleficence:

Stopping a medication that is shown to be harmful.

Refusing to provide a treatment that has not been shown to be effective.

One of the most common ethical dilemmas arises in the balancing of beneficence and non-maleficence. This balance is the one between the benefits and risks of treatment and plays a role in nearly every medical decision such as whether to order a particular test, medication, procedure, operation or treatment. By providing informed consent, physicians give patients the information necessary to understand the scope and nature of the potential risks and benefits in order to make a decision. Ultimately it is the patient who assigns weight to the risks and benefits. Nonetheless, the potential benefits of any intervention must outweigh the risks in order for the action to be ethical.


Also known as Negligence, the person guilty of committing a tort is called TORTFEASOR.

The two types of torts are:

_Intentional_: such as ASSAULT (threat or bodily harm to another), BATTERY (An action that causes bodily harm or injury), DEFAMATION OF CHARACTER (An action damaging a person’s reputation by making public statements), FALSE IMPRISONMENT (Intentional and unlawful restraint or confinement of one person by another), FRAUD (Intentional misrepresentation to take advantage of the resources of another person), INVASION OF PRIVACY (An intrusion into a person’s seclusion or private affairs).

_Unintentional_: this one is when there is a non intended harm is caused but committed unreasonably or with a disregard for the consequences.

There are four elements that make a person eligible for liability. Those elements are known as ”THE FOUR D’S OF NEGLIGENCE”, which are: Duty, Derelict, Direct Cause and Damages. A complaint has to include all four elements or the court will not consider the claim.

In conclusion, the presence of these two principles is important because, they provide a system of checks and balances for providers and patients in making decisions concerning medical care, and they are necessary to a patient’s autonomy or independence in making his/her own decision.

Principles of beneficence and non-maleficence Essay