Black Death Essay

Black Death Essay.

Around 1330, a horrible plague was reported to break out in China. Trade between Asia and Europe currently was frequent, and in 1347 rat-infested ships from China arrived in Sicily, bringing the disease with them. Since Italy was the center of European commerce, business, and politics, this provided the perfect opportunity for the disease to spread. To the Europeans, it seemed to come out of nowhere and kill everyone in its path. The bubonic plague, as it is called today, continued at 10-year intervals throughout the Middle Ages.

It spread rapidly for a variety of reasons. Poor living conditions were probably the number one factor in the passing of this disease. People believed that washing themselves would open their pores and let the disease in, so bathing was rare. This of course, as we know today, only excelled the spread of the bubonic plague.

The bubonic plague had extreme effects on the demographics of Europe. The worst epidemic claimed the lives of nearly 25 million people, all in under five years.

It took at least two centuries for Western Europe to regain its population. Urban populations recovered quickly, in some cases within a couple years, through immigration from the countryside because of increased opportunities in the cities. Rural population recovered itself slowly, because peasants left their farms for the cities. This time period in which the plague spread and killed so many people was known as the Black Death.

The Black Death had major effects on Europe. Wars stopped and trade slowed considerably. People were forbidden to gather in groups and religious services were suspended. Homes of infected people were sealed off to protect others from the plague. Businesses shut down their doors, having a huge impact of the economic aspects of Europe. Many people fled to the country to get away from where they thought was the hot spot for the plague. The bubonic plague changed the political, social, economical, and religious aspects of Europe forever and had an affect on the way things are today.

There were many consequences to the increases and declines of population and European society. People fled to the city because everyone around them way dying. So many died, in fact, that it had major effects on the population in Europe, which, in turn had effects on many aspects of society. Farmers who had provided food for people were fleeing and food was scarce. Government, trade, and commerce virtually came to a halt. No aspect of European society was not affected by the coming of the plague and by its duration.

The demography of Europe in the late middle ages can be easily related to overpopulation in the modern world. Poor living conditions due to overcrowding led to the rapid spread of the bubonic plague. If a plague was ever to break out in such places like China, Africa, or any other 3rd world country, it would be devastating. In Africa there is a major epidemic or the Ebola virus. It is still running ramped throughout the country, and it is not treatable by antibiotics. Poor living conditions contribute to the deadly position of this virus, and science has no known cure. If it was to ever spread to America the impact would be great and might be similar to the consequences of the bubonic plague in the middle ages. Overpopulation and overcrowding lead to poor living conditions which then lead to the rapid spread of any disease that may happen to come.

Black Death Essay

The Angel of Death and the Sculptor by Daniel Chester French Essay

The Angel of Death and the Sculptor by Daniel Chester French Essay.

The work of art I chose was “The Angel of Death and The Sculptor” by Daniel Chester French. According to the Metropolitan Museum of Art’s website, he recreated this piece based on the authentic sculpture by Martin Milmore. Martin Milmore created the piece as a memorial in honor of his brother’s death. The original artwork was made of bronze, but French recreated the piece out of marble. The original work of art is located in Forest Hills Cemetery, Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts.

In the Metropolitan Museum, the recreation is located in the American Wing. This section of the museum has a glass roof to let sunlight shine through. The work of art is standing up against a flat concrete wall. Several feet in front of the sculpture is a water fountain. I could hear the water flowing as I observed The Angel of Death. It gave me a feeling of serenity.

The piece is a relief sculpture. It seems as though it was meant to be seen from the front, but it has multiple viewing angles.

I suspect that French was a fan of the Classical Era. The Angel of Death is standing contrapposto. Her dress drapes around her body; losing sight of her feet. His attention to detail is evident. The dress looks very realistic and free flowing, and you can see the feathers in her wings. She has a cloak or hat that envelopes her face. The way her hand holds the poppies is naturalistic. Her features appear muted about what she is about to do; take the sculptor’s life.

French indicates that the sculptor is very young and talented through his work. Not only does this piece have classical characteristics, but it also has the Old Kingdom attributes. The sculptor is in the middle of creating a profile piece of the Sphinx which is located in Giza, Egypt. He has a long bladed tool in one hand holding above his head, and in the other is a hammer about to strike. He has one leg up and is barefoot while is wearing an apron-like smock over his clothes which drapes down his body. His arms and back look remarkably lifelike. Another example of French’s attention to detail. There is a huge amount of negative space between him and his art work. It looks as though he is in mid-action but still with classical characteristics. Looking at Hellenistic or Baroque art, I can tell the difference in the works between emotions and movement.

There is plenty of light shining down on this piece. The dark areas are mostly around The Angel of Death’s face. In my opinion the darkness is there to show the sadness or gloom around her. I get the impression the man that is honored in this piece was a real sculptor like his brother, Martin Milmore, and was taken from the world at a young age. His face is smooth and very innocent. I am unsure of how he passed, but French implies that it was too early. I get the feeling of shock that the sculptor is about to be taken away right in the middle of working on his piece. From looking at this I feel sad for the family that lost this sculptor, but it also gives a sense of peace that possibly he was taken by an angel. An angel showing calm and peace.

I am unsure of what the original work looks like, but French’s take is naturalistic and photographic. When I stood on either side of the sculpture I saw something different. I was able to see full frontal of their faces. Standing in the front or viewing a photo of the piece only their profiles are visible. You can see the negative space between the arms, legs and head of the sculptor’s body. The Angel of Death is so grand and big compared to the young man. She must be over six feet tall. Standing there, I felt so small compared to her.

Viewing this piece in person gives it more depth. I have more perception of what the artist is trying to convey. In my opinion, observing a work of art in person gives oneself a better appreciation of the piece. You can enjoy it and view it in its entirety. Looking at a photo does not do it justice. The paintings, sculptures, and buildings that I have learned in this class has intrigued me. I hope to travel around the world to view and receive a true comprehension of the great works of art throughout history.

Works Cited
The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2000 – 2011

The Angel of Death and the Sculptor by Daniel Chester French Essay

Death Be Not Proud: Simon Birch to The Scarlet Ibis Comparison Essay

Death Be Not Proud: Simon Birch to The Scarlet Ibis Comparison Essay.

It is said that a person can accomplish anything if they put their mind to it. Humans have walked on the moon, swam the English Channel, and overcome disabilities to defy nature itself. In the film Simon Birch and the short story “The Scarlet Ibis”, two boys work to push past their disabilities that limit their lifestyles to the point of eventual death. Both Simon Birch and Doodle (“The Scarlet Ibis”) prove that strength does not necessarily have to come from the healthiest of humans, but that the ideas of tolerance for all should be a universal practice.

Through their similarities and differences, these unlikely characters teach the reader about might and acceptance of those with disabilities. Doodle and Simon Birch are boys born with handicaps that could easily have limited their lifestyle. Doodle’s developmental delay and Simon’s small stature cause both characters to rely on those around them for support and assistance. Luckily, the kindness of Joe Wentworth towards Simon Birch and the consistent attentions of Doodle’s brother, allow both handicapped boys to live lives greater than most of the world could imagine.

Swimming, learning to walk, and boxing were a few things that Doodle learned from his persistent brother. Likewise, Simon enjoyed swimming with his friend Joe, and also playing baseball, which was some thing others did not think he could do. Not only did both characters push themselves with the help of their support systems, they also viewed the world around them as a beautiful place, in which they could learn to defy the limitations of their human bodies. The doctors never believed that Simon would amount to anything and he became a handicapped hero by saving a bus full of kids.

Doctors said Doodle would never walk and through pain, frustration, and never giving up, he was able to learn to walk by his 6th birthday. The similarities between these characters are uncanny, but one thing that is continuously evident is that their disabilities did not handicap them. While these two boys have many character traits in common, their differences are most evident in the way they were treated by those around them. Shame and embarrassment in having a handicapped brother is what motivates Doodle’s brother to teach Doodle to walk.

In contrast, Simon Birch’s best friend, Joe, never treats Simon as handicapped and willingly brings him everywhere he goes. However, Simon’s family and many people around him do not see Simon as a miracle, but rather fear his “differences” as they do not understand him. He is ignored, rudely made fun of by others his age, and even told by a priest that God doesn’t have a plan for him. Doodle’s situation is completely different as his family is very supportive, caring, and nurturing, even if pride is the cause in the case of his brother.

Pride also leads to another contrast between these characters in their inevitable deaths. While Simon Birch dies a triumphant hero’s death, a disappointed brother leaves Doodle behind when he can no longer keep up. Despite Doodle’s warnings, his brother continues on without him only to return to find Doodle bleeding from the mouth and finally overcome by his handicapped limitations. The early deaths of these two boys are yet different as one dies due to love and other out of embarrassment. The important message of tolerance for all differences can be seen in the likenesses and dissimilarities of Doodle and Simon Birch.

Both demonstrate an inner strength, greatly due to their support systems, uninhibited by size or development that makes them mighty. Both also show a love for others that causes them to sacrifice their own lives. Each of their sacrifices paints a picture of how the world treated them differently and how one rose to a hero’s challenge and the other died in miserably being pushed beyond his limits. The greatest lessons are sometimes found in the most unlikely places. Anyone can be a hero, but maybe being a hero is more about looking beyond the surface and most importantly, leaving pride behind.

Death Be Not Proud: Simon Birch to The Scarlet Ibis Comparison Essay

Who Is Ultimately Responsible for Romeo & Juliet’s Death and Why Essay

Who Is Ultimately Responsible for Romeo & Juliet’s Death and Why Essay.

Death is and always will be a hard topic to talk about, especially when someone is to blame. In the play, Romeo and Juliet, written by William Shakespeare, many characters could take responsibility for the deaths of the young lovers, but who is ultimately to blame? In my opinion, Romeo is the main cause of their deaths. He rushed into marriage without thinking ahead as to what they would do or tell their rival families. He then got himself banished from Verona for killing Tybalt, and lastly, instead of moving on from Juliet, he killed himself.

Firstly, Romeo rushed into finding love.

Before the night of the Capulet party, he had been weeping over Rosalie. Just a few hours later, Romeo says, “Beauty too rich for use, for earth too dear! So shows a snowy dove trooping with crows, As yonder lady o’er her fellows shows. The measure done, I’ll watch her place of stand, And, touching hers, make blessed my rude hand.

Did my heart love till now? Forswear it, sight! For I ne’er saw true beauty till this night. ” (I, V, 52-53). By this time, Rosalie was long forgotten. Romeo speaks of love when he has only just seen Juliet for the first time; he was head over heels in love after that one night.

Everything that happened between Romeo and Juliet occurred so quickly that they did not even have time to stop and think. When he met Juliet at her balcony, they realized they had discovered newfound love, so of course, Romeo proposed. Back tracking, this all happened in the span of one night. Romeo clearly took things way too quickly and fell hard for Juliet right when they met, regardless of their family rivalry. This also holds him responsible for Juliet and his own death because things would not have escalated nearly as quickly if Romeo hadn’t wanted to get married the day after they met.

Even at in the balcony scene, Juliet brings up the dangers of their relationship. Juliet says, “The orchard walls are high and hard to climb, And the place of death, considering who thou art, If any of my kinsmen find thee here. ” (II, II, 62-65). She brings up their difference and challenge, but of course, he did not take her seriously, and went to love for his answer. He was selfish and wanted her all to himself, again, not weighing the fact that he was a Montague and she was a Capulet as hard as he should. He was irresponsible and acted out with his heart, not his brain. Secondly, Romeo had gotten banished from Verona.

Yes, it is understandable that he took Tybalt’s life for taking his cousin’s, but it was all terrible timing. Romeo says, “Now, Tybalt, take the villain back again The late thou gavest me; for Mercutio’s soul Is but a little way above our heads, Staying for thine to keep him company. Either thou, or I, or both, must got with him. ” (III, I, 124-128). If Romeo had kept a low profile, and not taken revenge for his cousin, he would not have been banished. If he had not been banished, Friar Lawrence would have been able to deliver the letter to him, which would make him learn of Juliet’s real status.

Who Is Ultimately Responsible for Romeo & Juliet’s Death and Why Essay

Class Discussion Wills and trusts Essay

Class Discussion Wills and trusts Essay.

What consequences might there be if a will’s custodian fails to turn the will over to the probate court after the decedent’s death? If a will’s custodian fails to turn the will over to the probate court after the decedent’s death, the court may compel the custodian to produce the will this is if requested by the potential beneficiaries of the will, and if the custodian fails to produce the will, he or she may be subject to criminal charges (Herskowitz, 2014).

When would a personal representative have to institute an ancillary jurisdiction proceeding? A personal representative would have to institute an ancillary jurisdiction proceeding if the decedent owned, at the time of death, real property in a jurisdiction from the jurisdiction they lived in.

This is required because other jurisdictions are not allowed to make distribution decisions about real property outside of their jurisdiction. The purpose is to transfer the title of the real property to the jurisdiction the trustor lived in to keep the estate together.

(Herskowitz, 2014). What steps might have to be undertaken to find the will of a decedent? To find the will the steps the family of the deceased should take are: 1. Search the decedents’ home and office first (ie: dresser drawers, file cabinets, desk drawers, closets, the refrigerator, the freezer, books, under mattresses, and the attic) 2. Search the safety deposit box if one exists.

3. The family can also check with all family members, an attorney or family friend that may have the will. (Herskowitz, 2014). What steps are required to prove a lost will?

The person contending that the original will was lost must present a copy of the will, a proof of the wills execution and validity, by either, producing witnesses who will authenticate that the copy is a true and correct copy of the will or, a “self-proving” affidavit at the end of the will to the probate court. (Herskowitz, 2014).


Herkowitz, S. D. (2014). Wills, Trusts, and Estates Administration, 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Class Discussion Wills and trusts Essay

Death Penalty Research Paper Essay

Death Penalty Research Paper Essay.

I. Introduction

The death penalty in the United States is a constant source of controversy. Efforts to abolish capital punishment in America date back to over 100 years and continue to expand in present-day. In addition, all 50 states vary in their retention and application of the death penalty. Currently, the death penalty is legal in 32 states, the distribution of the actual executions however, is quite wide. The five states with the highest number of executions performed account for approximately 65% of the total executions in the country since the US Supreme Court re-affirmed and reinstated the death penalty in 1976.

The state of Texas alone is responsible for almost 37% of the country’s executions. In contrast, 14 states have executed five or fewer prisoners since 1976.

II. History Since the earliest societies, capital punishment has been used as a method of crime deterrence.

Historical archives show that the even the most primitives tribes utilized methods of punishing culprits that often included taking their lives in order to pay for the crimes they committed.

Murder most often warranted this ultimate form of punishment.

As tribal societies formed social classes and man-kind developed its own self-governed republics, capital punishment became a usual response to a variety of crimes, such as sexual assault, military offenses and treason. Written rules were created to alert the people of the penalties that could face them should they participate in any wrongdoing. One of the earliest written documents observed that supported the death penalty was the Code of Hammurabi, written on stone tablets around 1760 BC. The code contained approximately 282 laws that were proposed by the Babylonian King Hammurabi and included the theory of an “eye for an eye.” Several other ancient documents were also supportive of the death penalty; these included the Christian Old Testament, the Jewish Torah, and the writing of Athenian legislator Draco, who was a proponent of capital punishment for a large number of offenses in Ancient Greece.

The earliest forms of the death penalty were intended to be painful, slow and torturous. Some ancient cultures employed methods of crucifixion, stoning, and being burned at the stake among others. Later civilizations found these methods to be cruel, unusual forms of punishment and thus opted for more humane practices. During the 18th and 19th centuries, legislators found less painful and faster approaches to execution, which included beheading by the guillotine and hanging. These practices were typically large public spectacles and were not any less bloody or violent but death was almost always instantaneous, so they were perceived as being more compassionate.

III. In the United States

Capital Punishment in the United States dates back to the founding of the original colonies, and was used for a variety of crimes such as burglary, treason, counterfeiting and murder. During the American Revolution, legislators in the United States began to examine and revise policies behind the death penalty. In 1971, the constitution was amended to prohibit any form of punishment deemed “cruel and unusual.” Although the amendment did not intend to ban capital punishment, it did start a movement towards performing more human executions. Currently, 32 states in the US allow the death penalty, although the greatest number of death row inmates and actual executions occur in only a few of those. California is the state with the largest death row population of 625 inmates, but they do not perform executions frequently. In fact, in the last three years, only two people have been put to death. In contrast is Texas, while also having a large number of offenders on death row (453), Texas follows through with executions, executing more people each year than any other state. Their executions constitute 46% of all executions performed in the year 2002.

IV. Eligibility

Eligibility for the death penalty and determining what criteria qualifies a crime for the death penalty varies by jurisdictions. No” automatic” sentence exists for any crime. The death penalty is assigned to crimes that contain aggravating factors, and are “monstrous or horrific” in nature. Examples of aggravating factors include intentional, premeditated murder, and murder that results from the commission of certain violent felonies such as robbery, rape, kidnapping, burglary and arson, even if the death results as an accident. These vary by state and in some the list of aggravating factors is lengthy and not well defined which can mean a lot of crimes can potentially be classified as “capital.” Prosecutors of the jurisdiction in which the crime has occurred make the decision of whether to seek the death penalty in each case. Critics allege that prosecutors are influenced to consider factors when seeking the death penalty that should not be relevant, such as the race of the victim and offender, for example. Community and public outrage as well as media attention can also impact the process of seeking the death penalty. (Marcus, 2007)

V. Trials

Trials for death penalty cases differ from other trials in that they are more intensive, expensive and much more complicated, after all, the outcome could end or spare someone’s life. They attract wide-spread and sometimes sensational media attention that can become distracting and unfavorable for the defendant as well as the other parties involved in the case. Political and public pressure is placed on the judge and prosecutors to secure a conviction and death sentence. Defense lawyers too face a great deal of pressure to save their client’s lives. Another aspect of capital case trials that sets them apart from regular cases is the selection of the jury. Potential jurors in capital cases must undergo a somewhat extensive process before being qualified to participate. The most important criteria they must meet however revolve around the individuals personal views on the death penalty. Qualified jurors must be in support of capital punishment and willing to impose it, those that cannot abide by that requirement are excused from jury service.

Capital trials are separated into two sections, in the first only evidence and defenses are heard, this is referred to as the guilt phase. At the close of the guilt phase while the jury does not yet deliberate about a sentence, they do however decide to convict or acquit the defendant. Should the defendant be convicted, the penalty phase of the trial begins, during this phase the jury hears arguments and evidence concerning sentencing options. At this time, prosecutors will argue for a death sentence and must present aggravating factors associated with the crime. They will also attempt to stir the jury away from feelings of sympathy for the defendant, by stating past criminal charges or lack of remorse about the crime. In contrast, defense lawyers will argue against the death penalty, trying to persuade the jury to sentence their clients to life imprisonment instead.

To do this, defense attorneys introduce mitigating factors such as the defendant’s age, absence of a criminal record, relationships with family members, and character. In some cases, they may use evidence that could facilitate understanding of why the defendant committed the crime, some examples being mental illness, abuse or neglect as a child, etc. Sometimes family and friends of the defendant can testify for them, this is also permitted for families of the victim, which often take this time to speak about their loss and state their preference for a life or death sentence. After all evidence has been presented and following any testimonies, the jury is excused to deliberate once more, this time deciding on a sentence.

VI. Appeals

The idea of “swift justice” is thought to be lost in capital punishment cases. Usually, it takes several years from the time a person is convicted of a crime to the actual execution. One of the aspects of death penalty cases that make them so extensive is the appeals process. Generally, following conviction, a defendant has the right to an automatic or “direct” appeal to the state appellate court. Courts are required by law to look at these cases. Evidence presented in a direct appeal is very limited, typically dealing with whether objections were sustained or overruled correctly. Within a year of the direct appeal, death row inmates must file again in order to secure their rights, failure to do so would mean the defendant has chosen to waive their appeals. Incompetency on the part of an attorney or lack of one has resulted in many death row defendants missing appeal deadlines, while some may not even be aware of this procedural right. There is no second opportunity to file for an appeal once the deadline has been missed, regardless of the circumstances.

The next step in the appeals process is referred to as state post-conviction. The defendant will use this appeal to present any state constitutional claims and any evidence to challenge their conviction. Some of the more prevalent claims made in post-conviction appeals include improper and unprofessional conduct on behalf of the police or prosecution, race discrimination, mishandling or inconsideration of pertinent evidence and inadequate representation on behalf of the defense attorney. Evidence that has been newly discovered or was not available at the time of trial is admissible during this phase of the appeals process. Post-conviction relief is not easy to obtain, an in-depth investigation of the case and all evidence from the trial must be conducted by the defense lawyers. This can be expensive, time consuming and for the many inexperienced and poorly-resourced lawyers that represent these types of inmates, it becomes a challenging task.

The inability of the defense counsel to provide sufficient mitigating factors and thoroughly investigate a case is the most prevailing failure observed in capital punishment cases. While it is true that many defendants receive inadequate representation, it is very difficult to obtain relief based on ineffective legal assistance. If the court determines that the defendant would have been convicted and sentenced to death regardless of poor legal representation, then there is no entitlement to relief. Should a death row inmate be denied relief in post-state conviction, he can proceed with a final appeal which is now handled by Federal courts, this is referred to as federal habeas. When a defendant has exhausted all appeals, the last option is to ask for clemency from the governor or President, depending on if it is a state or federal death penalty case. Clemency has been known to only be granted in extraordinary cases and is becoming more and more uncommon. (

VII. Methods 1. Lethal Injection

Today, all of the states that have the death penalty employ the lethal-injection. Oklahoma became the first state to adopt this method of execution in 1977, with the first person being executed by lethal injection being Charles Brooks 5 years later in 1977. ( In preparation, the inmate to be executed is permitted a shower, a change of clothing and a final meal of their choice. At the time of the execution, the prisoner is taken to the execution room and where two IV tubes are inserted into his arms, following, a harmless saline solution is started immediately. Then, when the prison warden gives signal, a curtain is raised exposing the inmate to witnesses in an adjoining room.

At this time the prison is allowed his final statement. At the conclusion of the inmate’s last words, the execution begins with the drugs being administered as follows: Sodium thiopental: This drug, also known as Pentathol is a barbiturate used as a surgical anesthetic. In surgery, a dose of up to 150mg is used. In execution, up to 5,000 mg are used. This is a lethal dose. From this point on if the prisoner is still alive, he should feel nothing. Pancuronium bromide: Also known as Pavulon, this is a muscle relaxant given in a strong enough dose to paralyse the diaphragm and lungs. This drug takes effect in 1-3 minutes. A normal medical dose is 40 – 100mcg per kilogram; the dose delivered in an execution is up to 100mg.

Potassium chloride: This is a toxic agent which induces cardiac arrest. Not all states use this as the first two drugs are sufficient to bring about death.

Saline solution is used to flush the IV between each dose. A minute or two after the final dose is administered, a doctor declares the prisoner dead. The body is then sent to the coroner for verification, an autopsy is sometimes performed. Finally, the body is released to family for burial. 2. Electric Chair

The electric chair was an invention by Harold P. Brown who was an employee of Thomas Edison, the sole purpose was to investigate the uses of electricity in executions. The chair was first adopted in 1889 and the first execution took place in 1890 in New York. In execution by electric chair, the prisoner is strapped to the chair with metal straps and a wet sponge is placed in his head to aid conductivity. Electrodes are placed on the head and legs to create a closed circuit. Depending on the physical state of the prisoner, two currents of varying level and duration are applied. This is generally 2,000 volts for 15 seconds for the first current to cause unconsciousness and to stop the heart.

The second current is usually lowered to 8 amps. The current will normally cause severe damage to internal organs and the body can heat up to 138 °F While unconsciousness should occur within the first second or two, there have been occasions where it has taken much longer, leading people to highly oppose this method of execution. Clean up post-execution is unpleasant, skin has been found melted on the electrodes and the person can lose control of bodily functions, burning of the skin occurs often. 3. Firing Squad

Many consider the firing squad to be the most honorable method of execution. The carrying out of firing squad executions can vary, but generally the inmate is blindfolded and restrained. A group of men then fire a single bullet into the heart of the condemned. In some cases, one of the shooters is given a blank in order to feel less guilt afterwards. However, none of the shooters know who holds the blank, or if any of them do. Currently in the US, only two states are permitted performing of executions using this method: Idaho and Oklahoma.

4. Gas Chamber

The gas chamber as a method of execution has been used in a considerable number of cases. It was first made popular from its use in German prison camps during World War II where it was used to execute millions in one of the worst genocide cases of the 20th century. Although five states in the US still allow its use, death row inmates in all of those states are given the option to choose the lethal injection instead. In gas chamber executions, the executioner prepares the chamber by placing potassium cyanide pellets into a small compartment beneath the execution chair. The prisoner is then brought in and secured to the chair.

The chamber is sealed and the executioner pours a quantity of concentrated sulfuric acid (H2SO4) through a tube which leads to a holding compartment in the chair. The curtains are drawn back for witnesses to see the execution and the prisoner is asked to make his last statement. After the last statement, a level is thrown by the executioner and the acid mixes with the cyanide pellets generating lethal hydrogen cyanide (HCN) gas. The prisoners will generally have been told to take deep breaths in order to speed up unconsciousness, but in most cases they hold their breath. Death from hydrogen cyanide is painful and unpleasant. (; (

VIII. Deterrence

In American society, deterrence has always served as a justification for support of the death penalty. Numerous studies conducted have failed to indicate a conclusive deterrence effect. For ex, if the death penalty was truly a crime deterrent, then the states that do not have the death penalty would be expected to have higher murder rates. However, it is just the opposite, states that do not employ the death penalty show consistently lower murder rates. In addition, the United States significantly higher murder rates than European countries who do not allow the death penalty. (Fagan)

IX. Conclusion

Overpowering evidence leads to the conclusion that the death penalty system in the United States is broken and undeniably flawed. Incompetency in representation, racial prejudice, inadequate funding and human mistake all contribute to a dark reality of the death penalty that is wrongful convictions and inequity. In a system teeming with error, the risk of executing the innocent is authentic. Reform in our death penalty process and procedures is necessary and urgent. It is our provocation to work towards a systematic change that will guarantee fairness and equal access to justice, due process for all persons facing the death penalty.

2. 3. Paul Marcus, 2007. William & Mary Law School. Capital Punishment in the United States, and Beyond. 4. 5. Jeffrey A. Fagan. Columbia Law School. Capital Punishment: Deterrence Effects and Capital Costs.

Death Penalty Research Paper Essay

Josef Mengele – the Angel of Death Essay

Josef Mengele – the Angel of Death Essay.

After the war many Nazi doctors were tried at Nuremberg, for war crimes and crimes against humanity. Yet the man who became the most infamous Nazi doctor — although Hitler himself may never heard of him — fled to South America and escaped prosecution. He was never caught and convicted, though he lived for decades thereafter.

Mengele, called ‘Uncle’ by the countless children he subjected to gruesome experiments and unthinkable torture, and known as the “Angel of Death” in the concentration camps, was responsible for the torture and deaths of 400,000 people, and the torment of thousands more.

The most important thing to note about Mengele is that he was not an isolated example of an evil maniac gone berserk. He was simply part of a system and a much wider network of Nazi doctors. His work may have been different from those of the other doctors only in quantitative terms not qualitative terms.

Today, the Auschwitz experiments of Josef Mengele remain the most egregious example of the collaboration of unscrupulous researchers with equally unscrupulous senior scientists and prestigious scientific institutions – which is a phenomenon that could be happening on a wide scale in our own times, especially in matters of drug trials of giant pharmaceutical corporations.

In 1947, the world learned of what is now the most infamous scandal in medical research: medical experiments conducted by Nazi doctors. Nazi doctors performed a variety of extremely disturbing experiments on prisoners in concentration camps.

Some experiments were designed to further the war effort. For example, to study gunshot wounds, Nazi doctors shot inmates and examined their wounds. To study diseases such as typhus, Nazi doctors intentionally infected inmates with disease. To study human capacity to withstand exposure to cold, Nazi doctors stripped inmates and exposed them to icy water or blizzards. However, the majority of experiments had less to do with winning the war and more to do with promoting or substantiating Nazi ideology. Doctors were interested in sterilizing undesirables, “curing” homosexuality, and establishing anthropological differences between races.

To find an effective means of mass sterilization, Nazi doctors injected hundreds of women with a caustic substance in the hope of obstructing their fallopian tubes, and inflicted severe burns and infections on both male and female prisoners by exposing them to high doses of radiation. To “cure” homosexuality, Nazi doctors injected hormones into inmates suspected of being homosexual. To catalog physical differences in race, Nazi doctors killed a number of prisoners, stripped the flesh off their bones, and saved their skeletons for an anthropological museum.

Dr. Mengele is among the best known SS physicians at Auschwitz, and was responsible along with other SS doctors for “selections” and medical experiments that used prisoners as guinea pigs. Mengele could never have thought of himself as a monstrous psychopath, though, but only as a “biomedical scientist” participating in a broad program of racial research. During the Holocaust Mengele and many other Nazi physicians used thousands of camp inmates, especially those with disabilities and “deformities” as subjects for their biomedical racial “research. “

Born in the Swabian section of Bavaria in 1911 into an upper middle-class family, Mengele eventually earned two doctorates. The first doctorate was in physical anthropology at Munich under Theodor Mollison in 1935 and the second was in medicine at Frankfurt under Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer in 1938. He received his license to practice medicine in late 1937 but apparently did not pursue certification in a specialty. Instead, he opted for research. As a student of anthropology, he had studied under the leading exponents of the “life unworthy of living” theory and it greatly influenced his thinking and behavior.

The notion that some lives were not worth living was rapidly becoming academically acceptable. His two dissertation supervisors were eugenicists, and his dissertations in anthropology at Munich and in medicine at Frankfurt both dealt with research in racial hygiene. After finishing his second doctorate, Mengele continued his research in Verschuer’s Frankfurt Institute for Hereditary Biology and Race Hygiene. As principal investigator, Verschuer supervised the research of numerous assistants under a variety of DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft – German Research Foundation) research grants.

Verschuer’s 1938 report to the DFG on this sponsored research, focusing on the genetic study of twins and families, lists the work and publications of his assistant Mengele. Although Mengele did not join the Nazi party until 1938, he belonged to the brown-shirt storm troopers, the SA, during 1933-34 and in 1938 joined the SS. As an SS member, he was drafted during the war into the Waffen SS instead of the Wehrmacht, advancing by 1943 to the rank of captain (Hauptstrumfuhrer).

He served as an SS physician to the Eastern front until he was wounded and therefore posted to the concentration camp death head units in the rear. He functioned during 1943-1944 as one of the SS physicians at the Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp. In his new post, Mengele performed the usual duties of a concentration camp SS physician as well as the special Auschwitz assignment of directing selections for the gas chamber. In addition, Auschwitz opened up unlimited opportunities for the ambitious researcher.

Research subjects were available in large numbers, and the restraints of medical ethics did not apply. Further, Mengele could compel highly skilled inmate physicians to design and conduct research, perform tests and autopsies, and produce research papers, without the need to share credit with them. It is therefore not surprising that Mengele used Auschwitz as a research laboratory. Otmar von Verschuer, Mengele’s mentor who was himself a protege of Eugen Fischer, had left Frankfurt for Berlin in 1942 to succeed Fischer as director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology.

Mengele had worked at the institute during SS assignments to Berlin and thus continued to contribute to Verschuer’s research projects (Cefrey 62). When Mengele went to Auschwitz, Vershuer realized the potential of this posting, and as principal investigator, he carried Mengele’s Auschwitz experiments on his DFG grants. Therefore, Mengele’s experiments — that often necessitated the killing of children, thousands of them (especially twins) — were part of the official program and in pursuing his shockingly macabre “research” he was only following the broad lines of Nazi research agenda.

Driven by the desire to advance his medical career by scientific publications, Dr Mengele began to conduct all kinds of utterly atrocious medical experiments on living Jews, children, twins, disabled people, and all those who fell into the Nazi category of ‘Untermenschen’ – all of whom he took from the barracks of the concentration camp at Auschwitz, or ‘selected’ right away on their arrival, and brought to his hospital block.

Mengele used the pretext of medical treatment to kill thousands upon thousands of prisoners, personally administering the horrific torture procedures, for example as by injecting them with phenol, petrol, chloroform, or by ordering SS medical orderlies to do so. From the moment of his arrival at Auschwitz, Mengele joined the other SS officers and SS doctors, among them Dr Clauberg and Dr Kremer, in the ‘selection’ of Jews reaching the Auschwitz railway junction from all over Europe.

With a movement of the hand or the wave of a stick, he indicated as ‘unfit for work’, and thus destined for immediate death in the gas chambers, all children, old people, sick, crippled and weak Jews, and all pregnant women. Between May 1943 and November 1944 Mengele conducted, also along with Dr. Heinz Thilo, scores of such selections. Mengele was especially on the lookout for twins and other promising research subjects (Lifton 165).

He also took an equally decisive part in several selections in the camp infirmary, pointing out for death by shooting, injection or gassing those Jews whose strength had been sapped by starvation, force labor, untreated illness or ill-treatment by the guards. On May 26, 1943, only two days after he arrived at Aushwitz, Mengele committed his first mass murder. There was a typhoid epidemic in the barracks of over a thousand Gypsies who had been brought to the camp two months earlier.

For Dr Mengele, typhoid was not an illness to be cured, but one to be eliminated; that day, all the Gypsies were dragged out of their barracks and driven to the gas chambers. Against their names in the camp register were put the letters ‘SB’ – ‘Sondebehandlung’, Special Treatment. This was just a sign of much worse things to come. In perpetrating a host of such ghastly “medical and scientific experiments,” Mengele was of course being an independent member of a larger cohort of wanton butchers.

These Nazi doctors most brazenly forsook their Hippocratic Oath and armed themselves with scalpels, forceps, and needles in inflicting immeasurable pain and torture on hundreds of thousands of innocent people, a significant portion of them being children. Mengele regularly mailed the results of his research on twins to the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute. There scientists analyzed the samples of blood obtained before death and the organs obtained after dissection.

It was a systematic, organized and purposeful enterprise. Though few of these doctors collected scientifically valid data and many of the experiments were expressions of pure pathological sadism, the Nazi doctors justified their acts of torture and inhumanity as attempts to improve German medicine and advance science. Mengele himself, through his research on twins, dreamed of being able to genetically engineer a flawless race.

The ultimate goal was to produce an ideal race of Aryan men and women endowed with only the finest genetic traits, who would rapidly multiply and rule the world. (Lagnado, Dekel 61) Of the approximately 350 doctors who are estimated to have committed medical crimes, only about 20 doctors and 3 assistants were brought to justice in Nuremberg (Spitz 50). Some others were tried, and sentenced to in American military trials at Dachau.

Still many doctors escaped, including one who would become the most infamous of them all, Dr. Josef Mengele. Human experimentation neither arose with the Nazis, nor ended with them; however, the history of human experimentation in the West is usually divided into two eras: before the Nazis and after. Mengele is by no means such a grotesque aberration as he may appear to be at first. Nazi doctors perpetrated some of the most horrendous actions during the Third Reich, but the shadows of Auschwitz and Nuremberg are long.

Though Mengele escaped scot-free, we at least know about his evil deeds; there may be many others of his ilk alive today and even working in collaboration with reputed organizations whose work we may never even come to know. Works Cited Cefrey, Holly. “Doctor Josef Mengele: The Angel of Death” New York : The Rosen Publishing Group, 2001 Lagnado, Lucette Matalon; Dekel, Sheila Cohn. “Children of the Flames: Dr. Josef Mengele and the Untold Story of the Twins of Auschwitz. ” New York : Penguin Books, 1992 Lifton, Robert Jay. “The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide” New

Josef Mengele – the Angel of Death Essay

Discuss symbolism of death in `Don`t go gentle into the good night Essay

Discuss symbolism of death in `Don`t go gentle into the good night Essay.

Dylan Thomas’ “Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night” is arguably the most famous villanelle compose in English. The poem’s subject is death; more specifically, the death of Thomas’ own father. Critical interpretations of the poem uniformly praise the poem’s imagery and symbolism, while popular appraisals of the poem center around the poem’s simplicity of language and its easily memorable, repeated lines. Though technically restrained and simple from the standpoint of language and imagery, the poem creates complex tensions and associations by the changing emphasis of the repeated words and imagery.

By causing the reader to read the same, repeated words, each time with a different emphasis on meaning and imagery, Thomas attained a depth and profundity in his villanelle which seems to take the form itself to an entirely new plane of expression. Part of Thomas’ extraordinary capacity to express deep themes in the villanelle form is derived from his capable use of symbolism throughout the poem.

Because the poem is about death, the symbolic associations in the poem which are tied to Thomas’ conception of death provide the primary emphasis for the poem’s expression and tension.

Merely by reading the title, the reader is furnished with Thomas’ first and most dynamic symbolic association with death — “That Good Night. ” Death is symbolized by a “good night” which indicates both departure and (through logical progression) the eventual rising of the sun, or resurrection. The tension of the poem is squarely evoked, also, in the title with the verb “go” providing another symbolic association with death, that of motion, travel, departure and movement.

Both associations, “good night” and “go” imply activity beyond death. So the admonition “do not go” by implying stasis, begins the central tension of the poem, right from the title. Lines 2 and 3 extend the symbolism of death into a more complex series of associations, one which includes overtly negative evocation “Old age should burn and rave at close of day;/ Rage, rage against the dying of the light. ” Here death is symbolized by the “close of day” and as a “dying” light.

The admonition to “not go” becomes an impassioned verb “Rage, rage” and also “burn and rave. ” Though not explicitly stated, the connotation is that life = day, so death = night. By all logic night and day follow one another, of course, so life beyond death is implied in Thomas’ symbolic associations with death. Further symbolic association with death is made by Thomas use of blindness and sight to differentiate between the dead and the living.

“Grave men, near death, who see with blinding sight/ Blind eyes could blaze like meteors and be gay,” and again there is good reason to read sight and blindness as interchangeable states, with Thomas so implying that life and death are the same. Meanwhile, with each refrain of the poem, he implores “Do not go gentle into that good night/ rage, rage against the dying of the light” and this is where the suspense and emotion of the poem are generated. The final symbolic association with death that is woven into the poem is Thomas’ use of the term “sad height.

” These words imply heaven but also the grief of mortality in one unique phrase “And you, my father, there on the sad height,/Curse, bless me now with your fierce tears, I pray. ” The suspense of the poem is broken, finally, by the refrain — which by now, the reader realizes cannot keep the subject of the poem (or anyone) from their appointed time with death. because the symbolic associations of the poem describe death as a both unknown but possibly beautiful and renewing state of being, the poem has sustained tension and ambiguity.

Thomas crafted a poem which posited his subjective experience of his father’s death and his subjective associations with the consequences and realities of human mortality. The poem relies on symbolic associations of a universal and enduring nature to describe a complex interrelationship between life and death and the joy and despair of mortality. It is due to these associations that Thomas’ poem has become one of the most celebrated if not the most celebrated villanelle in English.

Discuss symbolism of death in `Don`t go gentle into the good night Essay

Forensics Text Questions Essay

Forensics Text Questions Essay.

1. What is liver mortis? How might this reveal information about the time of death? Liver mortis is one sign of death that occurs when blood settles in the lower parts of the body. The part where the blood accumaltes can be discolored or turn a purple color after a certain time and reaches its limit at 8-12 hours after death and can help investigators reveal info about time of death. 2. What three aspects does a forensic autopsy seek information about? Describe each of these aspects? They seek information about the cause of death, mechanism of death, and manner of death.

The cause of death is the medical reason that caused or led to the death. The mechanism of death refrences to a tool or mechanism used to cause the death. The manner of death has to do with if the death had to do with murder or suicide, not natural causes of death. 3. How can digestion rates give information to forensic scientists about the time of death? Digestion stops whenever somone dies so that means investigators can look at how far along a food eaten by the viticm is along in the digestion process.

4. What is mummification?

Mummification is the drying of tissues and bones.
5. How can human bones give forensic scientists an indication of age? Describe some of the aspects that would give this information. Investigators can get some indication of the bones size by looking at the length of the bones or how much wear the bones have. If the bones are smaller then this could indicate that it was a child. If the borns have arthritis or wear in the joints, this can help them iindicate that it was an older person or adult.

1. Imagine that you are at a crime scene. You find skeletal remains, but the skeleton is not complete as some of the smaller bones are missing. The bones are within a twenty feet radius. Based on this information, what would you be able to ascertain about the time of death and the individual who was killed? Investigators could indicate how long it has been since time of death by the location of the bones. The time of death would probably be around a year if the bones are 20 feet apart and smaller bones are missing. The missing bones could have been carried away by animals or insects. 2. Out of the different methods to help determine the time of death, which one do you think is most effective? Why? I think algor mortis is effective becuase the body starts to cool down after death. If a body is cold or at room temperature, investigators can indicate that the victim has been dead for awhile whereas if the body is warm they can indicate the time of death has been not too long.

3. Do you think you would like to participate in an autopsy? Why or why not? I would like to participate in an autposy because I would be interested in seeing how the death affected the boody. It would be interesting the inspect a body and try to figure out the actual cause of death instead of what was said about the cause of death.. It’s like you be able to have the facts instead of just what was heard. 4. If you were a forensic anthropologist and were studying human remains, what information would you look for in the bones? Why would this information be helpful? I would look for the location of the bones to figuer an estimate of time of death. I would also look at bone lengths to figure out the age or sometimes gender. I would also look at the wear of the bones and wear around the joints to get an estimate of the age of the victim. I would also look for any arking to see if they had a disease that could have caused the death. I would also look for any fractures or injury in the bones to figure the cause of death.

5. What can the distribution of bones tell a forensic scientist? What do you think would be the most challenging aspect of collecting skeletal remains at a crime scene? The distribution of the bones can help investigators get an estimate of the time of death. If the bones are not atached and spread out, then the time of death is longer then if they were attached. I think the most challenging aspect in collecting skeletal remains would be figuring out the age oof the victim. There are only few methods in figuring oout the age and it wouldn’t be that precise either, just a guess of around an age.

Forensics Text Questions Essay

Should they death penalty be brought back into Australia? Essay

Should they death penalty be brought back into Australia? Essay.

The debate for restoration of the death penalty in Australia has been ongoing since the 1985 abolishment of capital punishment in Australia. Following the abolishment of capital punishment, Australia has not seen any rise in the number of homicides and murders, suggesting that execution does not deter criminals. Each time another heinous crime is committed, public outcry reignites the debate on the reintroduction of the death penalty. In Australia today many obstacles are preventing the restoration of the death penalty including the high cost of capital punishment and the history of innocent people being executed however recent political leaders have mentioned that the return of the death penalty could be appropriate.

The death penalty was abolished in Australia decades ago but the battle against capital punishment was left incomplete.

Since the abolishment of the death penalty in Australia, Australia has seen no dramatic rise to the number of homicides and murders. One of the major fears when abolishing capital punishment was an increasing number of murders.

This is evident in the _Australian Institute of Criminology_’s article: _”The argument for capital punishment usually hinges on the fear of increasing murder rates. Yet in Queensland, for example, in the decade prior to the abolition of capital punishment (1912-21), there were 131 murders, whereas in the decade following abolition (1923-32) there were 129 murders.”_ (Potas and Walker: 1987)

This information clearly shows that the abolishment of the death penalty did not lead to an increase in homicides and murders in Queensland. _Table 4_ (Potas and Walker: 1987) on the _Australian Institute of Criminology_ article also shows the effects of the abolishment on conviction rates for murder and manslaughter in the major states in Australia. From this graph, it is evident that the abolishment had no major effect on homicide trends in each state with the exception of South Australia. Capital punishment should not be brought back into Australia as execution has not deterred criminals.

The death penalty should not be brought back in Australia as it would be the Australian taxpayers that would pay the price as capital punishment is very expensive. Although many would believe that keeping a criminal under supervised imprisonment for life would be more expensive than the death penalty, the truth is that capital punishment is actually very expensive and costs much more than life imprisonment. The Australian Coalition Against Death Penalty (ACADP) is a human rights organisation which is dedicated to achieving total abolition of the death penalty in Australia.

In an article written by ACADP, it is evident that the procedures are longer in a capital case and _’one single capital case could cost…around $5.5 million [and] life imprisonment for 30 years costs $1.5 million.’_ (ACADP: 2003) The process of the capital system could be limited however, creating a cheaper alternative for capital trails but this answer would result in a higher possibility of convicting and executing an innocent person.

One of the main advantages of abolishing the death penalty is the reduced risk of executing an innocent person. In the past Australia has seen judicial errors including Australia’s last man hanged Ronald Ryan. Ryan was executed in 1967 when accused for murdering a prison guard when attempting to escape Pentridge Prison. _The Australian_’s story on Ronald Ryan states that _”Ryan could not have shot dead a warder during their dramatic escape… because the rifle he was using had jammed”_ (Hughes: 2007) It is now evident for Australia to see that _”the last man hanged in Australia was innocent”_ (Hughes 2007). The death penalty is a denial of human rights and it violates the right to life. The death penalty should not be brought back into Australia because it is neither right nor just to kill an innocent person.

While there are many reasons against the death penalty, the Australian government has continued the argument about the death penalty since the abolishment in 1985. In 2010, the Death Penalty Abolition Bill was debated in Federal Parliament. If passed, it would block any states attempt to bring back capital punishment. Since the debate, the bill has passed so now individual states have no power to reintroduce the death penalty, it is a federal responsibility. Recent political leaders including Kevin Rudd and Tony Abbott have mentioned instances where the death penalty might be appropriate. Tony Abbott, the opposition leader at the time, said _’in the case of someone who cold-bloodedly brought about the deaths of hundreds or thousands of innocent people… maybe the only appropriate punishment is death.’_ (Williams: 2010)

From this, it is evident that there is consideration for the death penalty to be brought back in Australia when an indictable crime is committed. Australian surveys also show a movement towards the restoration of capital punishment since in the Australian National University’s 2007 Electoral Survey ‘_44% of people thought the death penalty should be reintroduced”_ (Williams: 2010). This is an excessive increase from 1986 when capital punishment had only just been abolished where a national survey commissioned revealed ‘_only 26% of respondents felt that the death penalty was appropriate”_ (Potas and Walker: 1987). These statistics show that although Australia does not have the death penalty, the majority of the population supports its return.

In conclusion, the advantages of continuing the abolishment of the death penalty have overpowered the advantages of restoring the death penalty in Australia. Although Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott believed that capital punishment may be necessary in some cases, Australia has seen no rise the number of murders after the abolishment of the death penalty, therefore overriding the need to have capital punishment. Arguments such as the high cost for the death penalty and the past executions of innocent people also argue against the restoration of capital punishment. There are more arguments against the restoration of capital punishment so it is evident that the government has made the right decision to abolish the death penalty and not to restore it.



Australian Coalition Against Death Penalty 2003, _’_The High Cost of Capital Punishment’, _ABC Online Forum,_ viewed 2nd May 2014,

In this article, the Australian Coalition Against Death Penalty deliberates the high cost of capital punishment compared to the cost of life imprisonment. The author uses research from reliable lawyers and court cases to estimate the cost endured for one single capital case and life imprisonment. Their research aims to provide the public reader with reliable information and to warn them the expenses that they too will have to pay if capital punishment were to be brought back into Australia. The article is useful to my topic since the author debates against capital punishment being brought back into Australia due to the major tax increases that Australians would have to pay if it were to be brought back. The article has limitations however since the figures that the author has provided for the cost of both trials has only been estimated and without taking into account of any rising costs. Nonetheless this article is still relevant and will form one of my arguments to continue the abolishment of capital punishment in Australia.


Hughes, G 2007, ‘Ronald Ryan did not kill warder’, _The Australian,_ 21 December, viewed 31st May 2014,

In this article, Hughes explains the hanging of Australian’s last man; Ronald Ryan and how after 40 years, Ryan has been declared innocent. The author had used information coming from Ryan’s former accomplice as well as information from the trial in 1967 and more recent forensic information to uncover the mystery that has been ongoing for the last 40 years as to whether Ronald Ryan really did kill a prison guard or not. The article focuses on informing the public of the decision made by the Australian Government which has been proven to be wrong.

This article is useful as research for my essay as Hughes shows how the death penalty has executed innocent people in the past which is one of the reasons why Australia should not re-introduce capital punishment. This article is a limited source of information since it only discusses one innocent man that was executed in Australia. It is still useful however since it does show that capital punishment is not always judged correctly, executing innocent people. This article will be useful from my essay to debate whether the death penalty should or should not be brought back to Australia as it will give me another arguing point.


Potas, I & Walker, J 1987, ‘Capital Punishment’, _Australian Institute of Criminology,_ viewed 31st May 2014,

In this article, Potas and Walker presents material which they believe will inform readers about the disadvantages of the death penalty and why the debate should cease. They have gained reliable information to form their argument to change the reader’s point of view to theirs. The article focuses on putting events that have already occurred into perspective and showing the reasons for why we do not need the death penalty to punish criminals.

This article is useful as research for my essay as it gives information and statistics that help to support that the death penalty should not be brought back. The main limitation is that the article was written in 1987 which was only three years since the last state in Australia abolished the death penalty so the public’s opinion on it may have changed since this time. However, statistics and facts used from the time cannot be changed and still provide relevant and necessary information for my research. This article will provide a well-structured argument for my essay since it provides the reader with many interesting statistics and facts.


Williams, G 2010, ‘No death penalty, no shades of grey’ _Debate About Death Penalty,_ viewed 4th June 2014,

In this article Williams discusses a recent problem to the debate of the death penalty. The article aims to inform the public that the death penalty is still a relevant debate in today’s society through the use of interviews with Tony Abbott and other surveys in the past decade. The article focuses on _The Death Penalty Abolition Bill_ which has just recently been passed to block any state in the attempt to bring back capital punishment.

This article is useful for my research since it is a recent article and provides information that the debate on capital punishment continues in Australia today. The article is limited however since it does not provide the reader with more information about the surveys as to what sort of people have been surveyed. Nevertheless, this article will be useful as research for my essay as it provides lots of information and more recent facts about the death penalty.


Australian Coalition Against Death Penalty 2003, _’_The High Cost of Capital Punishment’, _ABC Online Forum,_ viewed 2nd May 2014,

_Australian Coalition Against Death Penalty,_ 2014, viewed 3rd June 2014,

_Death Penalty_, 2014_,_ viewed 2nd June 2014,

Hughes, G 2007, ‘Ronald Ryan did not kill warder’, _The Australian,_ 21 December, viewed 31st May 2014,

Potas, I & Walker, J 1987, ‘Capital Punishment’, _Australian Institute of Criminology,_ viewed 31st May 2014,

Should they death penalty be brought back into Australia? Essay