Aims Of Guidance And Counselling Essay

Aims Of Guidance And Counselling Essay.

The aims of the guidance and counselling service are similar to the purposes of education in general—to assist the student in fulfilling her basic physiological needs, understanding herself and acceptance of others, developing associations with peers, balancing between permissiveness and controls in the educational setting, realizing successful achievement, and providing opportunities to gain independence. The purposes of guidance and counselling provide emphasis and strength to the educational program. Some specific aims of the school guidance and counselling program include the following (Gibson, 2009):

To Provide for the Realization of Student Potentialities

To all students, the school offers a wide choice of courses and co-curricular activities.

A significant function of education is to help students identify and develop their potentialities. The counsellor’s role is to assist students to distribute their energies into the many learning opportunities available to them. Every student needs help in planning his major course of study and pattern of co-curricular activities.

To Help Children with Developing Problems

Even those students who have chosen an appropriate educational program for themselves may have problems that require help.

A teacher may need to spend from one-fifth to one-third of his time with a few pupils who require a great deal of help, which deprives the rest of the class from the teacher’s full attention to their needs. The counsellor, by helping these youngsters to resolve their difficulties, frees the classroom teacher to use his time more efficiently.

To Contribute to the Development of the School’s Curriculum Counsellors, in working with individual students, know their personal problems and aspirations, their talents and abilities, as well as the social pressures confronting them. Counsellors, therefore, can provide data that serve as a basis for curriculum development, and they can help curriculum developers shape courses of study that more accurately reflect the needs of students. Too often, counsellors are not included in curriculum development efforts.

Aims Of Guidance And Counselling Essay

Curriculum conceptions Essay

Curriculum conceptions Essay.

A curriculum conception or theory is defined as a certain approach that is used in the development and also enactment of a curriculum. The curriculum can also be seen and understood in terms of different conceptions and they include; the academic rationalist conception, the humanistic conception, the cognitive perception and the social re-constructionist conception. Curriculum conceptions ? The academic rationalist conception. The academic rationalism conceptualizes curriculum as distinct disciplines or subjects.

The conception puts more emphasis on the responsibilities of the schools in enabling the young people share their intellectual gains.

The academic rationalists further believe that the curriculum should develop the mind of the learners with knowledge that can be objective and which can also be tested through empirical reasoning and evidence. From a rational perspective the development of the mind is achieved through the mastering of the fundamental knowledge structure, relations that are logical, meaning, criteria for assessment and the evaluation of the truth.

The academic rationalists however do not limit their conception only to the transmission of the knowledge that is in existence to the future generations.

This conception on the other hand indicates that knowledge can be also be created and the ? The cognitive processes conceptions In the cognitive conception the content is criticized by others as being excessive and it also puts no emphasis on the learning process. The sole purpose of this conception is the provision of necessary skills and processes to the learners so that they can then be able to learn how to learn well.

On the other hand the conception is aimed at providing the learners with the opportunities that would further help them in enhancing their intellectual faculties. (Riding, Phil, Howell, Sue and Levy, Phil 1995) The conception is also based on the argument that the mind has various cognitive faculties which should and also can be enhanced deliberately and they faculties further need a deliberate attention if they are to assist the learners and also help them in their growth.

This conception advocates for developing a curriculum that encourages the teachers to use several combinations of their teaching strategies and once the students are competent with their skills then they are encouraged to solve various problems. The conception also emphasizes on evaluation that is based on the application of the concept and acquisition which maybe further achieved through the use of problem solving situations and also by testing. The conception however values the learning and also the rigor particularly if they are applied in different specific contexts.

? The humanistic conception The humanistic conception is also called the personal relevance conception and it further supports the view that the curriculum which is used in the schools should provide the learners with intrinsic rewarding experiences so as to enhance their personal development. The humanistic perspective however relies on the work of the humanistic and experimental psychologists who argue that the curriculum should enhance personal growth.

They also claim that the curriculum should give more opportunities to the learners so that they can enhance their individual self concept in order to achieve their self actualization. The most ideal issue in the humanistic approach is self actualization of an individual. The humanistic educators on the other hand effect an integration of the affective, psychomotor and the cognitive domains. In the humanist conception the curriculum content mainly consists of the situations that are valuing, experiences that are self examining, and social emphasis so as to produce the learning experiences that are vital and very enriching.

In this conception the content is however perceived as a liberating force in enhancing the learner’s growth towards their self actualization. In the humanistic perspective the most essential feature in the curriculum is that the teacher should provide a very supportive environment so as to enhance self learning in the learners. The concept also emphasizes on the holistic and integrated approach where the teacher is the facilitator, supporter as well as the resource person. In the humanistic conception there is an opposition to evaluating the performance of the students.

The educators in this conception emphasize on the learners personal growth other than the precise measures on the students performance that is based on some defined criteria. The techniques that are employed include interviews, observation, personal diaries, reflection an also participation. In general the assessment of the learners however takes very low profile as the learners experience their learning which is far more important than the learners attaining high marks. ? The social reconstructionists conception

This conception supports the status quo and the theorist’s further claim that the curriculum in the schools should affect the social reforms so that the society can be improved and made better for every one. On the other hand in this perspective the betterment and the societal needs are positioned above the needs of the individual. The conception has three perspectives which seek to foster critical discontent within learners in the schools and they are inclusive of; the futurist perspective, the social Reconstructionism and the social adaptation.

(University of Phoenix 2002) The three highly favour the learners by making them more critically aware of their environment so that they can be able to facilitate the reforms in the society. First and foremost the social adaptation is a conservative case for the school curriculum adaptation to be able to meet the needs of the society. The social Reconstructionism is a critical and also radical perspective which demands that a rapid change in the curriculum would be able to meet the immediate and the urgent needs of the society.

The futurist perspective on the other hand gives a speculative view of what the curriculum might look like so that it can meet the needs of the society that are perceived. The content in this perspective is drawn from an examination of the needs of the society, future aspirations, current ideals and also the social issues. The role of the curriculum conceptions in shaping education The curriculum conceptions play a very significant and also a major role in the shaping of the curriculum.

First and foremost they assist the curriculum developers construct a curriculum that is well organized in relation to the curriculum’s concepts which have been in existence. On the other hand the curriculum conceptions assist the curriculum developers further develop a curriculum that encompasses all the members of the of the society in their own diversity. The curriculum conceptions further helps the curriculum developers in their decision making tasks of curriculum development and thus they play an important role in the determination of the final nature of a curriculum.

A personal conception Personally I would develop a curriculum that that is more readily understood by the curriculum developers as well as the learners themselves. I would choose a curriculum that would be easily adapted and also comprehended satisfactorily. I would consider applying a feature of the humanistic perspective which opts for the learner cantered design as well as provide the learners with intrinsically rewarding experiences that enhance on their personal growth. (Savage and Sherry 1991)

I would also incorporate an aspect of the academic rationalists who enhance the intellectual abilities of an individual by the study of worthwhile subjects. Also I would not leave the aspect of the cognitive conception as this will further enable the students to develop their cognitive skills that will then enable them in resolving their personal needs and also problems. In my conception I would also incorporate some aspects of the social re-constructionists so that the learners will be able to reform and further help in producing a better society for all the people.

A good example of my conception in the military field is whereby the army of the United States of America has a training curriculum whose content includes encompasses all the four major curriculum conceptions aspects. For instance in the cognitive conception the military training curriculum content provides the military trainees with the necessary skills such as the defence skills so that they can be able to enhance their intellectual faculties.

Similarly the content in the curriculum of the American military according to the concepts of the academic rationalists help the military trainees to develop a learning mind with an objective of gaining skills and knowledge that can be tested by evidence. For instance the content that is learned by military trainees will have the skills and knowledge tested by practice that could be going for a war for the defence of the country. Global and local issues affecting curriculum development In curriculum development there are local and global issues that affect the curriculum.

In the curriculum development the global dimensions incorporates the key concepts of conflict resolution, human rights, diversity, global citizenship, values and perceptions, social justice and also interdependence. • Diversity. In diversity the curriculum should help the students understand and also respect their differences in relation to the common humanity. The curriculum should help the learners appreciate their differences and also similarities globally and in their context of the human rights.

The curriculum should also help the learner’s value bio-diversity as well as develop a sense of awe at the variety of 0ther people’s environments around the world. • Global citizenship. In the issue of global citizenship the curriculum should enable the learners to gain skills, knowledge and also the understanding of the institutions and concepts which help them to become, active, responsible and also informed citizens. In this issue also the curriculum should help the learners further appreciate the global context of the national and global issues and also the decisions which are made at the societal and personal level.

For instance, in the science curriculum the content should promote discussions on the science based issues which may affect the lives of the learners, the society’s direction as well as the world’s future. • Conflict resolution. In the issue of conflict resolution the curriculum should help the learners understand the need of maintaining and also improving the existing quality of life without further damaging the planet earth for the generations to come.

For instance in the geography and science curriculum the content should contain the principles of sustainable development as it further explains the positive and the negative effects of the technological advancements on the people and the environment at large. The content should also highlight the need of choosing various materials, making various processes and also using the available resources sensitively. • Human rights. In the issue of the human rights the curriculum should help the learners know as well as understand about the human rights as they value the common humanity.

They should also be able to understand the framework of the human rights as an instrument for challenging the prejudices and inequalities that may in existence such as racism. For instance, in the history curriculum the content should be able to teach the learners on the lives of the people who have fought for the rights of the human beings globally. • Interdependence. In this issue the curriculum should help the learners understand how different people, economies, places and also environments are all interrelated and also that various choices and events have different repercussions globally.

Furthermore the curriculum should enable the learners to comprehend how the world is a global community and also the meaning of being a citizen. For instance, in the history curriculum the content should show the learners how historical events around the world are interrelated and in geography the content should help the students understand why places and people are interdependent. (Print 1993) • Sustainable development.

In the issue of sustainable development the curriculum should have a content that allows the learners to understand the need of maintaining and improving the quality of life presently without destroying the earth’s environment for the generations to come. The learners should be able to understand and appreciate that the economic development is the only aspect of the quality of life. For instance, the history curriculum should have content that shows how the actions in the past and the choices also in the past have affected the environment as well as the lives of the people.

• Values and perceptions. In the issue of values and perceptions the curriculum should enable the learners to develop critical evaluation of the representations in the global issues and also an appreciation of the effects that values and perceptions have on people’s values and attitudes. In science for example the curriculum content should be able to indicate how the different cultures are perceived and the extent to which the scientific idea’s are used, valued as well as accepted. • Social justice.

In the issue of social justice the learners should be able to understand the importance of social justice as an element in both improved welfare of the people and also sustainable development. For instance the geography curriculum should however have a content that shows how the level of development in the various parts of the world is related top individuals quality of life. (Cole & Suggett, 1994) Strategic and operational issues affecting curriculum development There are also various strategic and operational issues that affect the development of a curriculum.

These include the adaptation to the new curriculum, financial planning issues, and the workforce that is involved in the development of the curriculum, the curriculum implementation planning, assessment as well as the alignment process. Conclusion In conclusion the curriculum plays a very significant role in modelling the various approaches which will be used to impart the learners with beneficial knowledge and skills. Reference: Cole, P. & Suggett, D (1994): Understanding Teaching, Curriculum and the social context of schooling. New York: Macmillan, Print, M.

(1993): Curriculum development and design. St Leonard’s, Australia. Unwin & Allen publishers. Savage, E. and Sherry, L. (1991): A conceptual framework for technology education. International Technology Education Association; Reston, VA University of Phoenix (2002): Foundations of Curriculum and Instruction. Boston: Pearson Custom Publishing. Riding, Phil, Howell, Sue and Levy, Phil (1995): An action research approach to curriculum development Information Research, retrieved from; http://InformationR. net/ir/1-1/paper2. html accessed on 5th November 2007.

Curriculum conceptions Essay

What makes a good school? Essay

What makes a good school? Essay.

There are numerous factors that go into deciding what makes a school good, including the staffing of the school, the area of which the school is in, and the amount of money that the school has available to it. It is possible that two people commenting on the same school could have contradictory views on whether or not that school is good. Everyone’s high school experience is at least slightly different from everybody else’s, which causes these differences in opinions in what makes a school good.

The viewpoint of which that person views a school also affects how they view the school. For example, a person judging a school for the Department of Education for New York State might look at a school differently than a parent of a student at that school. Often times a school is said to be good or bad based on statistics, such as test scores, graduation rates, or college attendance. Although there will be differences, there is usually a large majority that decides one way or the other, when it comes to determining if a school is good or bad.

The two main factors in determining a school’s “value” are staffing, which includes teachers and administration, and funding. It is very important to have highly qualified teachers teaching students. How can students be expected to learn what the curriculum calls for them to learn, when the teachers themselves need an education in what they are teaching. Such was the case for Jacob, an African American junior from the South Bronx of New York City. In the letter, “Postcards from America,” from Letters to the Next President, Jacob says, “I’d like a teacher who really knows math and knows how to teach it.

All through high school, I don’t think I ever had a teacher really qualified in math. When I heard there was a Math Regents test, I knew I wasn’t prepared. So I left. No Diploma.” This is a very sad case because the failure of his teachers in not knowing the material they were teaching caused him to drop out of high school and give up a chance for a much better life that graduating from high school and possibly going on to college would have caused. A good school will have highly educated and qualified teachers, who enjoy what they are doing, and want to see their students succeed. The fact that some schools don’t offer this leads to another potential problem in schools.

One of the first things that needs to be looked at when teachers are found to be doing an inadequate job of teaching their students is to look at the school’s administration. They are the ones responsible for hiring the teachers, and also for making sure that the teachers are qualified for the positions that they are placed into to teach. At my former high school, there was one particular physics teacher who did a horrendous job when it came to teaching his students. This particular teacher also worked as an engineer and would come into school and instead of teaching the class about physics, would either have the students do paper work for him that related to his engineering job or would send the students to the library for meaningless assignments.

It is the administration’s fault for hiring this physics teacher and for allowing him to create a bad educational experience for his students. However, as a good administration should do, once the problem became evident, they dealt with it swiftly and forcibly. The problem was brought up to the school board, and the physics teacher was denied his tenure, effectively ending his job as a teacher at the school. This incident just goes to show that for a school to be considered good, the administration has to make sure that the teachers it hires are good teachers, and that they also need to keep tabs on those teachers once they are hired. An administration cannot be afraid to take action, when action is necessary.

Teachers and administration are also very important when it comes to the climate of the school. They are responsible for making sure that the school is a safe place for students to learn. Another letter from Letters to the Next President, entitled “Why We Need Public Education,” by John Goodlad, states that one of the most important expectations that parents have about school is that their children will be safe while they attend. It is the responsibility of the teachers and administration of the school to make sure adequate rules are in place and that students follow these rules to ensure their safety. These rules have to be enforced fairly, though, and not be more lenient for some students and stricter for others based on race, ethnicity, or for any other similar reason. Although funding, which will be discussed more in depth later, sometimes makes it difficult, teachers and especially administration needs to make sure that the school is well maintained and is clean, as well.

One example of an administration failing to do this, although it probably has more to do with lack of funding, comes again from the letter, “Postcards from America,” where Sarafina, the daughter of migrant workers in California, attends school at a school where there are “no seats on the toilet and not enough paper in the bathroom to clean yourself.” Sometimes, it is just the small things like this that can cause a school to be considered good or bad, although this school most likely had many other problems to go along with the lack of seats on the toilets and lack of toilet paper. As stated before, this exact example is probably better suited to show a lack of funding, which is also a very important factor in determining the value of a school.

Funding for schools might be the single most important factor when it comes right down to it. Very rarely would a person find a poorly funded school that could be considered a good school. The amount of resources a school has affects many different aspects of a students education. The reason funding could be considered more important than teachers and administration is because funding often determines the quality of teachers and administration a school has. A school with a lot of money can afford the very best teachers to educate the students. In sections of New York city where funding for schools is very low, a person can become a teacher with little or no training.

A person would never see this in the suburbs, where resources are much higher for schools. Teachers that are hired by these schools are most often education majors coming out of college that have had much experience in education related classes. Once again, the letter “Postcards of America,” provide us with proof of the differences in funding that schools receive. Ashley St. Pierre, from the Bronx, New York, writes, “I just learned that schools in the suburbs receive something like $16,000 per student, compared to our $8,000 per student.” This just goes to prove that a school receiving half as much money as a counterpart can in no way afford the best teachers available.

Another aspect of funding, is providing the necessary tools for students to learn. These can be as simple as pens and pencils, paper, and adequate textbooks, or more technologically advance things such as computers, microscopes, and adequate technological facilities for science classes. It is a fact that in today’s world, students must learn to use computers and be comfortable with using them. A good school has the funding to provide students with computers at school and also the resources to help students learn how to use them. At a poorly funded school, if they are lucky enough to have computers, they are usually old and not abundant. Such is the case of Derrick Attakai who attends school at Little Singer Community School, located in northeastern Arizona in the Navaho Nation.

In the letter “Broken Roads and the Great Mother Earth,” from Letters to the Next President, Derrick states that when given a research project students have to wait there turn at a computer in order to do their research due to the limited amount of computers the school has. His school also uses old textbooks that are falling apart. He also says that the lack of certain tools like microscopes causes the teachers to not be able to help the students out as much as they would like to. A good school should have enough good computers to allow the students to do research and learn how to use the computers effectively and efficiently, without having to stand in line for them.

Another area of education that funding affects is the curriculum itself and the after school curriculum, with things such as clubs and sports. A good school should have a wide variety of courses that it can offer, as well as different levels that those courses can be taken at. Honors courses and AP courses are a must to challenge those students who may find regular level classes boring and unchallenging. A good school must also allow for those students who may fall behind their peers, and need special attention in the form of inclusion classes and special education classes. Good funding also allows for a wide variety of electives to be available, which help to keep the students interested in school by allowing them to take classes that interest them. At my former high school, numerous AP and honors courses were offered, which I participated in.

These classes allowed me to not only expand my knowledge and look at things from a different perspective, but they also gave me the opportunity to get a head start on college, with college credits being “made available,” depending on how well you do in the class. After school clubs and sports are also very important in a student’s educational experience. Without funding, however, only certain sports can be offered, if any at all. The wrestling team at my former high school had many participants, but due to a lack of funding there is talk that it could be cut in order to save money. The same can be said about clubs, where students get a chance to expand their boundaries and find things they are interested in. It takes money to operate these clubs and after school activities in order to keep them free, and when there is a lack of funding, these activities are many times the first to go.

One common topic that I found upon reading Letters to the Next President, and A Letter to Teachers, was that there are many people out there who think that a common characteristic of a good school is that a good school teaches students about the civic duties that go along with being an American. These include things like voting and being good citizens. One example of this from Letters to the Next President was in U.S. Senator John Glenn’s and Leslie F Hergert’s letter entitled, “The Civic Mission of Schools,” where they say schools should, “Lift up the civic purpose of education and the important role schools play in developing citizenship, knowledge, and skills.” Vito Perrone also mentions a similar idea in A Letter to Teachers, where he states that “there is an ongoing concern in American society about low levels of active citizenship in communities and limited turnouts in elections.” A good school should encompass all this, and help students to become better citizens and better Americans.

I believe that the best judge of a good school is those who are most directly affected by that particular school, which would be the students. Unfortunately, students don’t really get too much say in this. I would have to say that the next best decider on whether a school is good or not would have to be the parents because they can best judge how well their children’s’ educational experience is coming along. If the parents are actively involved in their children’s’ education they should be able to look past scores and grades and see what kind of education the students are actually getting. The other deciders, I feel, look too much at test scores, for example, New York State and college admission offices. These deciders take a look at specific tests which can be considered biased and unfair, and not the overall educational experience that students receive. There is much more to a quality education and a good school than test scores.

In conclusion, there are many things that go into determining what makes a good school. Not all schools out there can meet all the requirements I have laid out, but there are some. The fact of the matter is that it all comes down to the amount of funding a school receives. A person would be hard pressed to find a good school in the inner city, where school may only receive a few thousand dollars per student. In suburban areas, where student expenditures are in excess of ten to fifteen thousand dollars, a person could find numerous schools that could qualify as good schools. Teachers and administration are also an important part of a good school, and there isn’t a school out there that could be considered good that doesn’t have highly qualified and educated teachers. The sad fact is that there are many more bad schools and far fewer good schools in this country than there should be, and this needs to be fixed.

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What makes a good school? Essay

The No Pass/No Play Rule is Unfair Essay

The No Pass/No Play Rule is Unfair Essay.

Although the no pass/no play rule has the best of intentions, many educators state that few, if any, students have benefited from this unjust rule. It takes away a source of achievement and self-esteem, which only leads to increasing anger, frustration, and hopelessness.

The academic requirement for the no pass/no play rule states that if a student receives a grade below 70 in any academic class at the end of the grading period may not participate in any extracurricular activities for at least three school weeks.

But even if a student fails academically or drops out of school, they should at least have hope that they are good at something. People DO make a living in music, art, athletics, and many skills we consider as “extra-curricular.”

The message sent from the no pass/no play rule is “what you are good at isn’t important or valuable enough.” It recognizes and makes students aware of their inadequacies and takes away the only sense of achievement they have.

There are better ways to help guarantee students pass in school. Some examples include periodic testing to ensure the quality of education, and mandatory testing for everyone prior to graduation. Some of these have already taken place in some schools. But art, music, and athletics should be treated as if they are as important as math, science, and history because they are. For many kids they are even more important in both school and life.


The No Pass/No Play Rule is Unfair Essay