Positive impact of multiculturalism in America Essay

Positive impact of multiculturalism in America Essay.

Nowadays, it is common to see people from diverse background living together in a single territory. Some societies are even lenient in allowing the existence of diversity which could be termed as multiculturalism. Multiculturalism is identified as the co-existence of different cultures in a single bounded territory where in the small group of people of diverse background have the right to practice things that are different from the dominant population and are still accepted as an important part of a whole (Kennedy-Dubourdieu, 2006, p.

1).

United States is considered as a land of diversity and a destination to millions of immigrants who are seeking to become a part of the “American dream. ” The rise of multiculturalism has been evident in the country since the second half of the twentieth century. Since then various debates have been raised against the fast-paced movement of multiculturalism in the United States. It has been consistently told that there are various drawbacks regarding multiculturalism (Parillo, 2008, p. 167). However, most of the people have always focused on the negative impact of multiculturalism, never realizing that things always have its flipside.

This paper sought to explore the positive impact of multiculturalism in the United States. According to Vincent Parillo (2008, p. 167-168), multiculturalism in the United States will not simply fade away. Because every nation’s strength lies among its people, it should be clearly understood that United States is not an exemption. The diversity of people played a substantial role in the development of United States as a whole. Many immigrants from different countries have come in the United States and contributed much in America’s evolution.

The coming of age of United States’ agriculture and industrial landscape was shaped by past immigrants who were responsible for the creation of transportation systems, cities and labor unions. Likewise, current immigrants have also strengthened America’s economic state. The technological industry of America rose to its competitive level because of immigrants who have recognized the full potential of these advancements. Apart from these, immigrants from different nations have brought billions of dollars in the nation’s economy with the help of their businesses, consumerism and occupations.

Additionally, the workforce of different sectors in the country has been benefiting from the diverse pool of people who are sharing their knowledge and skills in the union labor. The education system in United States is also not new with the aspect of multiculturalism. After World War II, the colleges and universities in the country has been more diverse. Through the acceptance of multiculturalism in educational facilities, majority of the people become more attentive about the rich concepts of diverse society, politics and economy.

Multiculturalism also set a ground for students to give recognition in the works of other people especially in the field of literature. The development of the influence of multicultural literature exposes students to become more understanding in the diversified forms of lifestyle outside America, which means that although there are no firsthand accounts with the actual events, the students are given the idea of how other cultures work, which in a greater scale could contribute to the knowledge of the students of where and how things have originated (Lowe, 2000).

Records also showed that educational facilities in the United States that are racially and ethically diverse substantially benefits the students because they are able to learn more in that particular environment and becomes a well rounded person. Students actively participates in the society that is driven with pluralistic and democratic thinking which in the end they could use once they leave the school grounds. In addition, the presence of multiculturalism in American higher education promotes the reduction of the patterns of racial segregation that has been permeating in the school grounds for such a long time.

The incorporation of diversity in the curriculum also serves as an opportunity for creating effective interpersonal relationships among students which they could later on use to act responsibly and negotiate on things beyond borders and colors (Clayton-Pedersen and Musil, 2008). Unlike other people from different nations who are able to speak two languages or are considered as bilingual, majority of the American’s are monolingual.

Because of this reason, American’s are placed in a disadvantaged position in the business community and global marketplace which are landscapes that encourages the usage of different languages. Through multiculturalism, the mastery of a secondary language is given priority in different sectors. It was also posted that learning another language enhances the mental mobility of an individual and provide a holistic view of the cultural background of the said learned language.

More so, learning a different language creates the whole American society attain the level of maturity and tolerance towards its relations with interracial groups. Thus, it is posted that additional languages through multiculturalism are indications that Americans have met the needs of minorities to find the freedom and opportunity in the “land of the free” (Parillo, 2008, p. 169). Multiculturalism also diminishes the ignorance and arrogance of American’s towards other interracial groups.

Since Americans and other racial groups are sharing together in a single territory, people happen to engage in activities that promote the knowledge about all shades of people. Suppose that an American did not have any encounters with a particular culture, and rely mainly on the news that he or she viewed such as that particular culture has minimal technology and are inclined towards nature. Consistently the American, who was born in a country that is technologically rich and driven towards modernity, would think that he or she is far more superior compared to the people in the said culture.

Due to this idea, the individual closes his or her mind to have any dialogue or contact with any of the members of that culture. However, through multiculturalism close contact between the two cultures are possible where in the other culture could be praised for their perspective of maintaining the environment that has been the top priority of many environmentalists while the other culture could be reinforced to understand that the continuous exploitation of the environment for the improvement of their prized technology does not reach the standards of true progressiveness.

In the end, there is a meeting of knowledge where in the questions that surround the American is satisfied by the dialogue that is made through multiculturalism (Ainsah-Mensah, 2007). Combating stereotyping as well as racial discrimination is also an advantage of multiculturalism. By discovering and building upon the similarities of every individual as well as acknowledging difference, various minorities in United States are able to break through the color barrier.

It is evident that from many sectors across the United State the optimal performance and productivity of every individual, American or individual of color, is enhanced because of the decrease in segregation. And because of this, the country’s monoculturalism has been translated into a pool of diversity where the maximum potentials of individual contribute to the improvement of every aspect of the nation and the true meaning of democracy and civil rights has been sufficed (Parillo, 2008, p. 68). Apparently there is a continuous increase in the multicultural society in the United States and various changes are taking place. However, it is important to note that the growing number of racial minorities in the country does not always post a negative impact on the nation as a whole. What many do not realize is the fact that the things that are sometimes viewed to be a threat for the improvement of United States could also be an asset.

Obviously people are more centred towards the drawbacks of multiculturalism not realizing that multiculturalism has been an important factor in shaping United States. Multiculturalism fosters a better understanding towards people of color. As such, it also bridges gaps undermined by ignorance and promote oneness and synthesis in different aspects of the community. Likewise, it is an important medium that encourages interracial relations. By deeply understanding the impacts of multiculturalism, significant changes for the betterment of the country and its people could be properly attained.

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Positive impact of multiculturalism in America Essay

Fast Food Culture Essay

Fast Food Culture Essay.

People eat fast food when they don’t have enough time to afford themselves a fine delicious meal due to busy work or study. Fast food keeps them from the trouble of cooking and saves them large amount of time. Along with the development of economy, people of the 21st century are entering an era of fast rhythm called “fast food era”. The name “fast food era” is derived from the term “fast food”, describing a time in which pace and efficiency are excessively highly emphasized.

Fast food not only represent less time to eat, but also refers the world are rush that people lose patiences to look clearly of themselves who consumed too many stuff, however they didn’t really satisfy.

Fast food culture is now extending to all aspects of modern life. Once there was a survey indicating that in South Korea, nearly a half of office staff set speed as one of the important standards in work. They enjoyed the pleasure of fast working while could barely putting up with “Mr.

Slow”. Besides working area, fast food culture can be also found in the field of knowledge and education. On the sales ranking lists of online bookstores like Amazon and kindle, books with the striking names as “how to …..” can be easily found. These books teach readers the crash courses to master a skill after thumping through dozens of pages. Classics are compressed into thin books or movies. People can digest a classic even within two or three hours which in the past, could never be possible.

Stunningly still, “fast food culture” is penetrating into the sacred turf of love and marriage. Speed dating is rather popular in china nowadays. Recent years has witnessed the springing up of matchmaking programs in china like “If You Are the One”, “Take Me out” and so on. On these programs, a young man and a young lady both know nothing about each other before the TV programs start care quickly matched within 20 minutes on spot. Many young people get married after meeting each other for several weeks or even a few days.

This phenomenon is called “flash marriage” or “lightning marriage”. A survey released by Virgin Media aiming at 1,968 adults from England examined their speed at eating, spending money and having sex. The result revealed that scores of them are bolting down their evening meal in less than ten minutes. Others are hurrying through love-making in just two minutes. Workers are also frittering their monthly wages well before their next payday. Psychologist Honey Langcaster-James said “we are now living at a “crazy pace””.

The question is, are we really happy about this fast-paced, constantly changing world? Do we really enjoy life in itself? China’s urban quality of life index report issued by the Chinese Academy of Economy and the Capital Economy and Trade University reveals the life quality indexes of 30 provincial capital cities. The index report indicates that life quality of Beijing is far lower than that of other cities like Guangzhou, Nanjing, Yinchuan, although the pace of life in Beijing ranks the first. Dwellers in Beijing feel less happy but much more stressed than those in other capital cities. Thus, we may reach the conclusion that fast-paced life and the pure pursuit of material wealth can not bring us real happiness.

But what makes us unhappy and how to find the key to happiness? Philosophy provides us the answer. “The unexamined life is not worth living.” ①the famous philosopher of ancient Greece Socrates once said. He believed man should reflect on himself with a critical attitude. Without self-reflection, life can not be regarded as complete. People living in modern society are deprived of the time to contemplate themselves and many other things. They race through life at a breakneck speed, without being able to appreciate the beauty of life itself. This is why they easily lose their mind in the fast changing world and feel unhappy or depressed under many circumstances. “ Be as you wish to see” ② “Know thyself.” “Worthless people live only to eat and drink; people of worth eat and drink only to live.”

“The secret of happiness, you see, is not found in seeking more, but in developing the capacity to enjoy less.”③ Socrates then gave us the solution. He told us we should get to know ourselves, know who we really are and what we really want. This would help us in our pursuit of real happiness without being striving for the wrong thing. Socrates also enlightened us that we should hold a dialectical attitude towards man’s seeking for material wealth. We human beings have unlimited want in material, which is something we are born with. However, too much desire for material wealth may bring us anxiety and worry.

Liu An, a famous figure of imperial linage of the Western Han Dynasty, wrote in the masterpiece Huai Nan Zi, “trouble comes from excessive desire”. ④ So we should allow ourselves to seek for material fortune properly in order to satisfy our needs, but we shouldn’t let this want for material wealth turn into a crazy avarice. Thus we need to control our desire and also understand the secret of happiness, namely “happiness does not lie in seeking more, but in developing the capability to enjoy less.” Ancient Chinese political theorists Mencius happened to hold the same belief. He once said “there’s no greater idea than abnegating one’s desire to keep inner peace.” ⑤

The remarkable emperor of the ancient Rome Marcus Aurelius, who was also a great philosopher, wrote a book named the Meditations. This book is the production of his deep contemplation on human life which gives us a lot of sagacious advice about life. “After all, there should be some leisure in life”, Marcus Aurelius wrote in his book.⑥ Nowadays, people live in bustling cities, busying working and studying. While in the deep of their minds, seldom are there any people know what they really want. Most of them care much about gains and losses, fame and fortune, which makes them live very tired everyday.

They should have time to reflect on their behaviors and moral ethic, adjust themselves before stepping into the next phase of life. Most people are suffering agonies in their life. The agonies, Marcus Aurelius thought, come from their discontent of power, money and fame. Their endless desire for power, fame and money lies on their shoulders like a piece of heavy stone. What they should do is to alleviate the burdens, stop being obsessed by fame and fortune and keep inner peace. Only by doing this, can people remove worries and live happily.

Life is not a race, but a journey to be savored each step of the way. So stop hurrying to seek for fortune and fame. Excessively Fast-paced life only lessens your feelings of happiness and creates the illusion of fear. Slow down your pace, spare your mind some time to contemplate on your behaviors and appreciate the beauty of the world you are living in. drop the electric books, Read a paper book word by word, line by line, page by page, you’ll find the sparkling thoughts of the author, maybe an there will be an emotional resonance between you and the author. Give away fast food; cook a meal with your beloved one.

Taste every dish carefully and slowly, you’ll discover the fragrance of food, and you’ll also taste the love of your wife. Slow down your pace when you are traveling, walk into the narrow street that you didn’t even pay attention to and stop for a plain little flower growing on the roadside, you’ll be surprised at the unique beauty of it. That is also a beauty granted by our mother nature. Spend more time with the girl you plan to have a relationship with; you will get to know her better and better. Her merits and shortcomings will be all exposed before you. Then make a decision whether you should stay with her or not. This is much better than a flash marriage after a tree days’ acquaintance and then you already begin to regret for your hasty decision.

Life is short. You never know what may happen tomorrow. Therefore, it is important to enjoy today. Of course, some people will say that’s why it is important to concentrate a lot of things into a day and live a fast-paced life. If then, how would you possibly have time to enjoy all of those experiences? By doing a few things slowly and doing them well, you can savor the experience and get satisfaction in the process. Haste makes waste. We can’t rush through things mechanically like machines do. If we do, we might forget something; we might take shortcuts. By taking our time, we can do a chore carefully, completely, and correctly.

If we could made life slow down; see ourselves clearly, we could gain the great connection with ourselves. In the Buddhism, when they wake up; they starts have question for whole day that is what I really want; if I dead tomorrow, what are we going to do. We may regard after we miss the really motion, relationship and even ourselves. We should stop to catch shadow which is the stuff go around our life; we should keep the inner emotion and thought. Civilization starts philosophy and question, people own the thought to create art and the form of universal. Are we go backward with civilization? It seems like we carry a pot of flowers; we lose the flower in the road; but we hold the pot.

Quote a famous verse written by Tao Yuanming, the famous writer of the Chinese Eastern Jin Dynasty here,“neath the Eastern fence My gaze upon the Southern mountain rests; The mountain views are good by day or night, The birds come flying homeward to their nests. A truth in this reflection lies concealed, But I forget how it may be revealed.”. ⑦ People walk around to gather water in a cup. People didn’t know and recognize cup already full, because their heart didn’t full. They thought the cup still empty. Therefore, they keep infuse water into that. It talks about human condition, they have empty mind how could they know something? Do the master of yourself, not the society. Gives up the fast food, let us starts a real life.

Citizen

1. Leibowitz&David. 2010. The Ironic Defense of Socrates: Plato’s Apology [M]. Cambridge University Press.

2.”Socrates.” BrainyQuote.com. Xplore Inc, 2012. 23 October 2012. http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/s/socrates380638.html

3. “Socrates.” BrainyQuote.com. Xplore Inc, 2012. 23 October 2012. http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/s/socrates385762.html 4. http://paper.people.com.cn/rmrbhwb/html/2007-12/14/content_33890507.htm

5. http://baike.baidu.com/view/4886275.htm

6.Marco Aurelius. 2009. Meditation [M]. BiblioLife,LLC.

7. http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_4e276d2c0102e4b5.html

Fast Food Culture Essay

Cultural background Essay

Cultural background Essay.

1. How do cultures shape minds? The cultural ancestry of a certain individual often makes an impression on the individual itself. However, if the individual is more often exposed to a certain culture that is totally different from their ancestry, there is a greater chance of adapting to the said culture in order for them to “fit-in” with the population. 2. What cultures affect middle and high school students?

The Hispanic/Mexican and Asian cultures have more effect on middle and high school students since they make sure that the next generation realize the importance of having their own distinct culture regardless of their ability to adapt to the cultural conditions of the country where they reside.

3. What literacies influence student’s thinking and behavior in and out of school? Literacy in the English language is the major influence followed by literacy in cultural heritage.

4. Where is our adolescent literacy crisis rooted? It lies in the ability of the adolescent to adjust to both the family and social environment in relation to their quest for knowledge during their formative years.

5. How can teachers respond to literacy and learning challenges in their content area classrooms? The teachers can set the learning pace that would put the students, regardless of intellect or cultural background, at ease in the classrooms making them eager to learn more.

Cultural background Essay

Culture Analysis of Toyota Essay

Culture Analysis of Toyota Essay.

ABSTRACT

This case study analyses the corporate culture of Toyota by using two theories and then analyze the national cultures of Japan and USA by using two theories and its impact on the corporate culture of Toyota. The models of “Edgar Schein” and “Charles Handy” will be used to analyze the corporate culture of Toyota while the models of “Greet Hofstede” and “Fons Trompenaars” will be used to analyze the national cultures. Afterwards the case study will discuss the climate of Toyota and the impact of the same to its success.

Also the case study will analyze the reasons as to why the Toyota Company had to face failures and whether the company culture had any impact in the same. It will also point out on how the culture of Toyota had become inflexible over a period where the company was facing rapid expansions in to other countries and how it had impacted the success of the company. Finally the author will provide with suggestions and advice as to how Toyota could do in the future on developing their corporate culture.

Toyota was established as a commercial vehicle manufacturer in 1937 with a capital of ¥ 12 million. By 1948 Toyota’s debt was 8 times than its capital value. In 1950s Toyota studies US plants, including Ford, and supermarkets during a 12 week study visit. They see little improvement since his previous trip but use supermarkets as a model for just-in-time production. Toyota entered the US in 1958 by launching its model the Toyopet. It established its first overseas production unit in Brazil in 1959 and entered the European market in 1963. Besides manufacturing, the company started a global network of design and R&D facilities covering the three major car markets of Japan, North America, and Europe.

The company underwent rapidexpansion in the 1960s and exported fuel-efficient small cars to different countries across the world. By the early 1970s, Toyota‘s global vehicle production was behind that of only GM and Ford. The oil crisis in the late 1970s gave a major boost to Toyota, with many people shifting to smaller, fuel-efficient cars, where Toyota had a significant presence. In 1988, Toyota opened its first plant in North America in Georgetown, In 2000, Toyota‘s global production exceeded five million vehicles.

By November 2003, Toyota‘s market capitalization touched US$ 110 billion. In 2006, Toyota became the third largest car and truck seller in the US, surpassing Chrysler Group LLC13 (Chrysler). In 2007, Toyota with sales of 2.6 million vehicles overthrew Ford from the second position in the US auto market. About two-third of Toyota‘s workforce was located outside Japan at that time. In July 2008, Toyota replaced GM15 as the largest automaker in the world. In the financial year 2008, Toyota emerged as the largest automobile manufacturer in the world.

2. National Culture & Toyota Culture

3.2. What is Culture

“Culture is not something you can manipulate easily. Attempts to grab it and twist it into a new shape never work because you can’t grab it”- Prof.John P. Kotter “Culture” could be defined as “the sum total of the beliefs, values, rituals, rules & regulations, techniques, institutions, and artifacts that does characterize human populations”. Sociologists generally talk about the term socialization process, referring to the influence of parents, friends, education, and the interaction with other members of a particular society as the basis for one’s culture. These influences result in learned patterns of behavior common to members of a given society.

3.3. National Culture

3.4.1. National culture according to Fons Trompenaars model Fons Trompenaars teamed with Charles Hampden-Turner and developed a theory on culture. Universalism vs. Particularism – Universalism cultures are strictly rule-based behavioral cultures where particularistic cultures tend to focus more on the exceptional nature of present circumstances. Toyota had been a company who was working on relationship based culture where they have even treated the suppliers as of their own. They value these relationships and trusts that through such practices they will achieve success. Specific vs. diffuse – This the manner which the organization or the culture handles their communications (Low context vs. High context) it is obvious that the Japanese belongs to low context and it was the case in Toyota as well where they value long term relationships with employees and its suppliers. Individualism vs. Collectivism – Individualism is about the rights of the individual.

It seeks to let each person grow or fail on their own, and sees group-focus as denuding the individual of their inalienable rights. Communitarianism is about the rights of the group or society. It seeks to put the family, group, company and country before the individual. It sees individualism as selfish and short-sighted. It is clearly proven that Japanese works as groups and all team members and senior managers altogether will decide together on many strategies. Inner-directed vs. Outer-directed (“Do we control our environment or work with it?”) – An inner-directed culture assumes that thinking is the most powerful tool and that considered ideas and intuitive approaches are the best way. An Outer-directed culture assumes that we live in the ‘real world’ and that is where we should look for our information and decisions. The Japanese culture had strong beliefs on thinking power. Even at Toyota they created their own environment through introducing TPS and Toyota way.

3.4.2. National culture according to Greet Hofstede’s model National cultures can be described according to the analysis of Geert Hofstede. It has five dimensions –• Power Distance, • Individualism, • Masculinity, • Uncertainty Avoidance, • Long-Term Orientation. Japanese national culture had a huge influence in corporate culture of Toyota even though they had their operations stretched towards the other parts of the world. Power Distance – By means which you could understand “the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally”. As per the table given below, it shows that Japan has more power distance than of USA culture. It’s clear as where all the strategic decisions were taken through the head office of Japan through a hierarchical layer who had more authoritative power.

Most of the decisions were dependent on fewer individuals. Individualism – Individualism is the one opposite of collectivism that is the degree to which individuals are integrated into groups. “Individualism pertains to societies in which the ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after himself or herself and his or her immediate family.” In Toyota all employees were treated equally important, referred as knowledge workers and everybody was given the freedom to come up with ideas. As per the table given below USA can clearly been seen as individualistic culture where as Japan is more towards Collectivism culture. Masculinity – is the degree to which ‘masculine’ values like competitiveness and the acquisition of wealth are valued over ‘feminine’ values like relationship building and quality of life.

According to the table, both Japan and USA are having high Masculinity characteristics but it’s much higher on Japanese cultures. In Toyota, they were obsessed to overtake their competitors and become as the largest automaker in 2008 simply to prove their power proving masculine approach towards their competitors. Uncertainty Avoidance – focuses on the level of society’s tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity. A High Uncertainty Avoidance ranking indicates the country has a low tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity. This creates a rule-oriented society that institutes laws, rules, regulations, and controls in order to reduce the amount of uncertainty. Japanese try to avoid uncertainty by planning everything carefully. Japan is a culture that depends on rules, laws and regulations.

Japan wants to reduce its risks to the lowest and proceed with changes step by step. The United States scores a 46 compared to the 92 of the Japanese culture. Uncertainty avoidance in the US is relatively low, which can clearly be viewed through the national cultures. In Toyota, you could see that they make all the related parties (Supplier, Designers, Engineers, Dealers and Partners) involved in the manufacturing process right from the designing stage to marketing the product so that they produce exactly what is needed with minimum risk. Long-Term Orientation – focuses on the degree the society does or does not embrace long-term devotion to traditional values. High Long-Term Orientation ranking implies that the country embraces to the values of long-term commitments and respect for tradition and where long-term rewards are expected as a result of today’s hard work. This is very evident as Toyota has spent much revenue and focus on R&D activities even at tougher times.

Hofstede’s Dimension of Culture Scales

When considering these factors, it is obvious that Toyota (which comprises with Japanese culture embedded to its organizational culture) will have a significant impact to its culture when working in USA as USA culture is much more different to than Japanese culture.

3.4. Culture of Toyota
3.5.3. Toyota’s culture according to Edgar Schein’s Theory Schein’s three levels of culture model were developed in the 1980s. Schein identifies three distinct levels in organizational cultures: 1. Artifacts and behaviors

2. Exposed values
3. Basic Assumptions
Artifacts of Toyota – Artifacts are the visible elements in a culture. Artifacts can be easily recognized by people. Artifacts can be dress codes, furniture, art, work climate, stories, work processes, organizational structures etc..Toyota’s artifacts could be * Fuel efficient vehicle manufacturer

* Concentrated highly on maintaining quality and minimizing waste. Basic Assumptions of Toyota – Basic Assumptions reflect the shared values which are within the specific culture. These values oftentimes will not be especially visible to the members of the culture or the external parties. Assumptions and espoused values are possibly not correlated, and the espoused values may not at all be rooted in the actual values of the culture. This may cause great problems, where the differences between espoused and actual values may create frustrations, lack of morale and inefficiency. Toyota, when they ventured in to U.S. is when conflict in culture start to appear. Japanese corporate culture often conflicts with American management styles is partially due to a basic underlying assumption of Japanese culture.

* Japanese Corporate Decision-Making involves group where Americans make decisions as individuals. * Japanese management is much more focused on relationships with their employees than rules to ensure corporate goals are met. * Managers in Japan depend on the honor system to get work done, relying on their workers’ trust and good will * The traditional structures and the hierarchy maintained by Toyota * Functional managers acting as mentors to other staff to understand the values and the culture of the organization * Chief engineers played a vital role in the organization’ * All employees of all levels were treated as knowledge workers * Encouraged all employees to communicate in simple language and encouraged them to be a part of different clubs & groups to share ideas amongst them. * Personal relationships were valued on a higher level

3.5.4. Toyota’s culture according to Charles Handy Theory Charles Handy gave a classification to the organizations culture into range of four cultures. The four cultures he discusses are Power’, ‘Role’, ‘Task’ and ‘People’. Power Culture – Power is concentrated in a smaller group. Power radiates out from the centre, usually a key personality, to others in the organization who send information down to other departments, functions or units. After the Toyota Company had established after global expansion over different continents, the main decision making power was still with headquarters which reflects the control was centralized to Japan headquarters. Role Culture – This culture comprises with several functional units of the organization which have to implement the decisions.

The strength of the culture lays in specialization within its theses functional units. Interaction takes place between the functional specialism by job descriptions, procedures, rules and systems. Toyota showed lot of signs of role culture. During the Manufacturing process, they got the Engineers, suppliers and all the other related parties involved from the designing part to the sale of vehicle. Also they treated all employees as equal and each employee were given the opportunity to give their suggestions or express their feelings. Also Toyota had separate divisions operating for separate functions such as Sales, Finance, Legal, Manufacturing and R&D.

Task Culture – Such cultures are of organizations which are much involved in R&D activities. They will create temporary task teams to meet their future needs. Information and expertise are the skills that are of value here. In Toyota it was not much shown this type of culture but since Toyota were very aggressive in intensive R&D activities and they emphasized the fact that engineers to spend more time on core engineering and technical skill acquisition, it shows a little bit of task culture in existence in Toyota.

3. Corporate Climate
4.5. What is corporate climate?
Climate is defined as the recurring patterns of behavior, attitudes and feelings that characterize life in the organization. Climate impacts employee attitudes and motivation which directly impact on business performances.

4.6. Was the climate correct in Toyota

The corporate climate in Toyota was set right at the beginning and lost its way when the expansion process was taking place. As we all know, Toyota has been valued as an organization which been driven through its values, processors and philosophies. Their main focuses were initially on understanding the requirements of the users through intense R&D activities and fulfill the same while maintaining high level of quality. For such they had developed mechanisms such as TPS or Toyota way. The Toyota Way was invented, discovered, and developed over decades as talented Toyota managers and engineers, learned to cope with its (Toyota’s) problems of external adaptation and internal integration. Managers understand the challenges and context that led to active on-the-floor problem solving, not theoretical, top-down exercises. Communications were very strong amongst the functions units. With the rapid expansion and the globalized diversifications being carried out (more broadly in USA), Toyota turned in to an ambition driven company that ignored its traditions.

The practice of conveying the Toyota way to an alien culture was an uphill task and a costly exercise. Also there were signs that the top level of the company had its own issues. 1995 when Okuda became the President, he made some dramatic changes to the long lived traditions of Toyota culture by cutting costs, increasing focus on product development and revamping of the product designs. Under his leadership, Toyota went on massive overseas expansion in a rapid phase but the cultural development and the processed values were not conveyed in the same phase. Once the expansions were set the focus/objective of the company became to be the largest car making company in the world beating GM.

They were obsessed with this new vision. In parallel to this new vision somewhere in early 2000s, they launched the CCC21 cost cutting program. Due to such many of Japan employees were reduced from overseas plants and due to such the transferring of age old quality practices and corporate philosophy couldn’t be done to its subsidiaries. And finally due to new vision of being the largest car maker, more of production was focused than quality and Toyota looked for suppliers who could produce parts at a lower cost. Due to cultural change and knowledge gap between suppliers and Toyota, series of downfall in quality was observed later in Aug 2009.

4.7. Areas which went wrong with culture

As per the case study it is evident that the two countries naturally have different cultures and they will impact the new venture which has cross cultural dynamics. In Toyota culture, they were very concerned on the values and the processor and the people involved. It’s much towards the Japanese cultural influence. But with the expansions, such practices were not effectively transferred to the employees of USA where they were part of a different culture. Even though they set up different division set up in different parts of USA all the main decisions were taken from the headquarters which was in Japan.

The overseas divisions were not given much authority. Also another facture was that in Japanese culture they need lot of paperwork to take a decision where in USA culture they take quick decisions. Due to such several crucial decisions could not be taken on time leading to losses and at times up to legal penalties. And the Rigid structures and the Hierarchy were not helping the operations or were not letting the company grow towards the future. As the decision making was solely with the headquarters, it did not empower or give an opportunity to the managers in the USA offices as they were to follow set orders or tasks. 4. Suggestion for way forward

5.8. How could Toyota do better in the future

When managing cross cultural issues, it is important that both parties spend a considerable amount of time on understanding each other’s cultures. It is very important that while the top level managers concentrate on the new diversification, the product lines and the bottom lines, they should strategize on how to manage the cultural issues as well. Toyota could have send the senior managers to USA prior to the expansions to really understand the culture of USA and same way they could have brought in the senior managers who were to be recruited from USA to Japan so they could have an deeper understanding of their corporate culture and the values. Same way they must be flexible on the structures and the Higher achy of the company by empowering the other unit heads to take decision and to be innovative from their end and back them on their decisions. Instead of adopting a culture where rewards are given on growth or production, it could be a combination of such and encouragement workers to perform better in order to collectively improve the company.

More relationships could have been built with the suppliers and the dealers in order to maximize the production output and to develop the exact required features. The workforce in the USA plants to have a combination of Japanese and USA employees even at the senior levels. This way the touch of the original Toyota values and philosophies will not die fast and could be incarnated to the other employees as well. While trying to be the leader in automobile market, its not advisable to use only the cost leadership. It’s shown in the case study and in many other articles which done by industry experts that due to severe cost reduction practices, Toyota lost its core value which is Quality on its product. Hence it’s always good to have a mixture of strategies when conquering a market. Another aspect is Quick decision making. It is very important that when workings with a culture like USA who are keen on quick decision making, Japanese should react fact to situation otherwise will be at the risk of obtaining losses. R&D activities must be focused on the correct path as such practices will define the future of the company.

If the R& D was done properly at Toyota they wouldn’t have acquired so many losses through recalls and poor product designs. And the sharing of information is a definite need when dealing with cross cultural matters. Since both cultural parties are new to each other such communications would bridge the gap. 5.9. Measures which they could take to effectively embed the proper culture to its employees As mentioned earlier, studying the involved cultures is an important process in any organization. For an example, the company which I work for (which is a leading Optical service provider in the country), they closely monitor the culture of the suburb or the region which they think of expanding before taking any key decisions. Same way, Japanese senior managers could have stayed in USA for long enough to get a grasp of their culture and understand their values and way of doing things. Understand the culture of the market which you are entering is a key strategy.

Secondly they could have brought in the USA managers whom were to take up senior position in USA plants much prior to the installation of the factories as n induction programme or as an apprentice programme so that the Japanese managers could really transfer the cultural aspects and the values of Toyota which has been practiced for the past decades successfully. In my organization we do such practices as we recruit employees from the region where we are planning to expand to and place them at out head office so that they will be well trained and would really understand our values. Similarly, we send one of our senior staff or Managers to the newly opened branch once its stetted up to be there for a certain period so that he will be an mentor to the others and also he will bring in the details of the prevailing culture of the said region.

Another thing Toyota must do is to empower the Managers from the said culture so that the decision making and other practices would be much more effective and related to the actual requirement. For this I could again take my company where all the branches are operated as separate profit centers and the Branch manager is empowered to take decision on behalf of the organization on many operational and at times on some strategic matters.

Also for the employees of the two cultures to have much closer ties, Toyota could use the prevailing technologies such as social networking sites whereby they could get the employees of two cultures to meet up on a virtual world and get to know better and even to share ideas amongst them. This way the belongingness and the team work will develop amongst the employees. In our organization, we organize staff day outing, workshops, outward bound training programmes and other get-to-gather activities whereby they will get to know each other better and share their ideas amongst them.

5. Conclusion

As most of the solutions are given in the previous paragraphs, the following points to be considered when managing cross cultural issues. When applied to cross cultural management of organizations different corporate cultures can be identified and proactive solutions must be developed to ensure compatibility between all parties and its cultures. And each culture must be valued as they are similarly valuable to both parties. When recruiting new employees it is very important to mentor them about the prevailing corporate culture and the values attached to these cultures. Train and socialize current employees to be more receivable for the coming alien cultures. Change and be flexible on organizational structure to give employees more control. Empower employees to make decision about their jobs.

The long lived traditions and the best practices should not be neglected at any time and more importantly the culture plays a very vital role on the organizations success.

6. Reference
http://geert-hofstede.com
ICBT Study materials
www.lindsay-shervin.co.ul
www.changingminds.org
www.businessmate.org

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Culture Analysis of Toyota Essay

In what ways can an organization’s structure and culture be internal strengths or weaknesses Essay

In what ways can an organization’s structure and culture be internal strengths or weaknesses Essay.

Every organization has a corporate structure and culture these vary based on several variables. I will discuss the most common which is a divisional structure, which is appropriate for a large corporation as well. According to our text regardless of the size of a company to be strong the basic structure within the company must easily support a strategy under consideration by top management.

Management in turn must decide whether the proposed strategy is feasible or if the structure should be changed to reflect the company’s mission.

Basically a company must clearly define their mission, objectives, strategies and end goal. To be successful the company must in turn structure management, divisions, and employees in a strategic way in order to gain a successful outcome.

Unsuccessful companies that I have been a part of tend to have a strategic structure in place, but the weakness comes in as soon as they quit following the plan or deviate from the structure. From my experience a structure is as successful as the culture within the company.

The internal values, beliefs and expectations if clearly shared and followed by all employees will directly affect the success of a company. According to our text in order to be successful a corporate culture will fulfill these functions:

1.Convey a sense of identity for employees. 2.Help generate employee commitment to something greater than themselves. 3.Adds to stability of the organization as a social system. 4.Serves as a frame of reference for employees to use to make sense of organizational activities and to use as a guide for appropriate behavior.

When a company does not fulfill these functions you will find weakness as well as unhappy employees, which in my opinion can be one of the greatest weaknesses any company can have. The key to success is to follow the strategies and fulfill a corporation’s mission thus meeting their objectives. I have been a part of very successful company’s as well as some that have been unsuccessful. I have found that the easiest way to weaken a structure is when management does not listen to or value their employees input. Other areas of weakness are when management doesn’t honor their word or the company goals.

An achilles heal for any company is a weak inefficient human resources department. When the HR team hires ineffective and unreliable managers they must immediately jump in and begin to train or assist that manager in following the company’s strategic plan, or let go of that manager after a time. Otherwise the employees of that department will negatively affect the culture so fast and it is incredibly difficult and lengthy to rebuild that culture. Not only do you loose valuable employees, but disgruntled employees begin to speak negatively about the company to family, friends, and social media. This causes any company time and money to repair their culture within and outside of the company, hence great weakness arises.

In what ways can an organization’s structure and culture be internal strengths or weaknesses Essay

Cross – Cultural Analysis Essay

Cross – Cultural Analysis Essay.

“When starting a business a cultural analysis needs to be done if the business targets a range of audience from several locations” Globalization is an inevitable process in the 21st Century, and so is the cross – culturalization. The world is becoming more and more homogeneous, and distinctions between national markets are not only fading but for some products its disappearing. This means that marketing is now becoming a world common discipline. However, on the other hand, the differences among nations, regions, language, regulatory environment, past heritage, ethnic groups, etc in terms of cultural factors still exist in the market place and having obvious impact on the marketing practices of the business organizations.

From a marketing point of view it is very important for marketers to realize that the markets in the 21st century are cross-cultural markets and to be aware of and sensitive to the cultural differences is a major premise for the success in the 21st Century marketplace. The following aspects should be vital to be considered by a business: * cultural impacts on marketing (international versus domestic) * cross-cultural dimensions of marketing research

* cross-cultural aspects of marketing mix (products, price, promotion, and distribution) * cross-cultural marketing education and professional training * cross-cultural practice in electronic marketing

Cross-cultural marketing can be seen as the strategic process of marketing among consumers whose culture differs from that of the marketer’s own culture at least in one of the fundamental cultural aspects, such as language, religion, social norms and values, education, and the living style.

From the anthropological perspective all market behaviours are culture-bound. Therefore, in order to match the marketing mix with consumer preferences, purchasing behavior, and product-use patterns in a potential market, marketers must have a thorough understanding of the cultural environment of that market.

Some Real World Examples for Cross-cultural Marketing

To what extent culture of a particular market place has influenced the marketing practices of business corporate can be understood by analyzing each element of the marketing mix (4 Ps’ i.e. product, price, promotion and place).

(1)Product
* Pizza Hut and Domino’s in India
1992: Paneer on a pizza!
1997: Paneer on a pizza?
2002: Paneer on a pizza.

Same statement, same concept but the noticeable thing is the change in the attitude. It started from “absolute disbelief” to “why not” to “calm acceptance”. It shows how foreign based multinational companies have changed their product according to the taste of the indigenous of a country. In this case one element of the marketing mix, product has been changed to cope up with the existing culturally bound taste of Indians. Pizza Hut and Domino’s now serve Tandoori, Paneer and Chettinad toppings which are absolutely new menu for these MNCs but culturally accepted traditional foodstuffs for Indians.

* Maggi in India

Noodles were alright for dinner once in a while and it is accepted in other countries as well but it was unsuccessful in India. Since Indians consider idly, dosa, chappathi, etc as their dinner menu. Then Maggi wanted another marketing strategy to sell its product and it marketed Maggi as a snack not as a dinner and succeeded in the market. This also reveals how culturally bounded practices impact the marketing strategies. They also went along with curry flavour, tomato flavour, etc in India.* Swarovski in India

Swarovski is a Czech Republic based crystal venture incorporated in 1895. Swarovski India (Pvt) Ltd faced a difficulty in marketing crystals in India primarily. In the European and Western countries crystal is considered as a valuable gift item and initially they marketed their crystal as in the same manner in India but they struggled to capture the market due to the existing cultural aspects. Indians had a sentiment about gold and silver as ideal gifts for a bride or a bridegroom and they are culturally taught that gold and silver are the ideal gift for every occasion. Swarovski there after realized the need for Indianization and came up with an alternative product. They introduced crystal studded sarees firstly and now they are offering a collection of sarees, blouses, odhnis, and salwar kameezes studded with crystals.

* MTV and V Channel in India

Youth of India expects music which is some what related to their culture and prefer the styles like bhangra which is a traditional Indian music style. Realizing these desires, western channels like MTV and V channel has included Indian pop, a kind of fusion music of India into their charts. (2)Price

* KFC and McDonalds in Sri Lanka

MNCs like KFC and McDonals are giving their primary concern to the price they charge from Sri Lankans since people in Sri Lanka are more conscious about the prices of product than the quality. Even the displays they use to show their products, specifically display the price of each product. This proves that these MNCs are amending their marketing strategies regarding price to suit Sri Lankan market.

(3)Promotion

Marketing cross culturally consist advertisements as it foremost part, which directly appeal the target market. Promotions in the sense it mainly includes advertisements and the cultural issues relating to those advertisements should be precisely dealt in order to capture the market through a healthy relationship with the target market. For this purpose most of the MNCs utilize the technique called “Advertising Localization”. It is not a mere change of designation stemming from computer science vocabulary but a radical change of perspective concerning the real nature and modes of linguistic and cultural transfer from one language into an other.

* Coke Advertisements in India

Coca cola uses different celebrities in each region of India to communicate more effectively with the target market by considering their cultural variabilities. They use Aamir Khan in North India, Vijay in Tamil Nadu, Jyothika in Andhra Pradesh and Aishwarya Rai in rest of India endorsing the same Coca-Cola. This shows the perspective of marketers that the people will feel more comfortable when they see a person from their own cultural background in advertisements and feel positive toward their products. In Sri Lankan context Santhosh and Bathiya endorse Coke and the concept of the advertisement is carefully designed to reflect the local culture in each frame.

* Toyota Advertisements

Toyota used a pregnant, naked woman in their advertisements and this was accepted by some countries and where as some countries protested against it and Toyota later withdrew the advertisement. This shows how the cultural believes of people influence the marketing practices of business organizations. (4)Place

* Dilmah Distribution in The Global Market

Dilmah uses several methods of distribution in several countries. It operates in 93 global markets and it has its own distribution mode through its regional channels in certain countries and where as in other several countries it uses a native prominent goods distributor for their tea. In countries like Australia, USA, and European countries it uses its own distribution channels where the customers believe in manufacturer own brand and distribution. In certain countries like Jordan, UAE, etc. it uses a native goods distributor to distribute their tea since these customers buy the products which comes from their own distributors.

Cultural Influences

Since culture is a wide spread phenomenon which cannot be separately identified from the group of people who share a set of accepted behaviors, customs, and values, it is obvious that the impact of such shared culture would result in all sorts of decision makings of the human beings. Such impacts can be mainly seen in the following perspectives. * In the General Point of View: For example; language, body language, punctuation, negotiation styles, gestures, etc. can be given. * In the Human Relationship Point of View: For example; employee relationship, customer relationship, supplier relationship, stakeholder relationship, etc. can be pointed out. * In the Marketing Point of View: The impact that culture would have on the 4Ps.

Aspects to Consider When Starting a New Business Which is Believed to Have Cultural Impacts Even though cross cultural clashes create barriers they
also provide challenges for the international businesses where those challenges encourage the business to develop further. All it is required to have a comprehensive knowledge about the impacts of the culture on the international business and prepared with all sorts of precautionary actions to be successive. The followings can be provided as recommendations to be successful in the global business;

* Doing a thorough market research

* Doing internal research to identify the cultural impacts among the employees
* Adaptation to the differences
* Developing commonly accepted standards which to be followed by all the stakeholders of the business
* Customization to a greater extent

Cross – Cultural Analysis Essay

Main Causes of Culture Shock Essay

Main Causes of Culture Shock Essay.

Stepping out of one’s comfort zone is not an easy step to take, not to mention stepping into a foreign land. Culture shock is one of the very common problems many face, especially when travelling abroad. For the purpose of this essay, the term “culture shock” refers to the unfamiliar feeling of a new atmosphere when in another country. It also refers to the ability to adapt experience and accept another country’s culture. The main reasons of culture shock are difference in values, loneliness, as well as daily life challenges.

To begin with, one of the main causes which contribute to the feeling of culture shock is due to the difference in values. Values may differ in terms of religion, laws, traditions, and customs. Many embarking on a journey to a foreign land have to accept and learn the foreign country’s values in order to be able to enjoy the richness of the local culture. However it may seem to be very difficult to accept the new values as it differs too much from another country’s culture, thus causing culture shock.

A good example would be that many international students might have difficulties adopting the new values which the foreign country adopts, and might feel homesick due to the culture shock. Therefore, the difference in values is one of the main causes of culture shock. In addition, another cause of culture shock is due to the feeling of loneliness. The feeling of loneliness can cause many adverse effects, causing depression and anxiety. Many suffer from culture shock due to loneliness because, like a child in school for the first time, there are no familiar faces to be seen anywhere.

It is a frightening experience as in a foreign land there might be a language barrier and a difference the lifestyle which may hinder the process of socialising and cause loneliness. A good example would be when international students live in home stays they might feel a sense of loneliness due to the fact that the environment in the home stay as well as the food served differs a lot from the student’s home back in their homeland. Therefore, loneliness is indeed another main cause of culture shock. The last and most important cause of culture shock is the daily life challenges.

Like a fish out of the water, it is a very new environment when in a foreign country. The weather, transport, language to speak in becomes a challenge, as each country has its own individuality. It can be a daily struggle for many to adapt to these major differences and would take awhile to get used to the new environment. A good example would be that many migrants would take at least a month to climatise to the new temperatures as unlike Saudi Arabia with extremely hot weathers, countries like New Zealand have very cold temperatures.

Thus, daily life challenges are the most important reason for culture shock as it is not easy to adapt to a new environment. To sum it up, culture shock is caused by the contrasts in beliefs and principles, it is also caused by the initial stages of feeling isolated from home and lastly it is also caused by the problems faced on a day to day basis. Perhaps the most important reason is the problems faced on a day to day basis. This is so as it would cause a significant amount of inconvenience and adapting to the individual for a period of time, thus undergoing a transition period to cope with culture shock.

Main Causes of Culture Shock Essay

Changing police culture Essay

Changing police culture Essay.

The New Zealand police for the last 30 years has faced an unfriendly and an unprofessional police culture that has infringed on both the rights of fellow police offices and those of the society as a whole. This culture of open and fear less sexual misconduct and harassment of women through rape and other forms of sexual assaults. Reports indicate that most of the alleged perpetrators of these violence are high ranking policemen like the police commissioner himself. In the year 2007, the police commissioner gave findings on changing the police culture to give confidence to the public on the utility of the New Zealand police.

There rests several critical elements that could hinder successful implementation of the recommendations by Margaret Bazley commission. First and foremost, I think the time lapse when the New Zealand police had started committing these types of insults had created a different culture amongst them. Culture in this respect means a shared organizational values and beliefs as well as norms that guide the action of individuals.

Most of it was concentrated within the police force itself with policewomen victims of their colleagues. This is a major critical point towards the implementation of the police culture change.

It therefore needs to be taken on board to achieve results for the New Zealand police and their acceptable conduct. In addition to this, the tradition that what they used to do was right according to them it portrayd a major challenge to abandon such behaviors. Their socialization and mental orientation become a stumbling block to a swift adoption of a crime free police force. Changing a culture is a process that needs time and it goes in steps. The other challenge is engraved on leadership and the wide spread misconduct of the police force across all ranks up to the commissioner.

This goes ahead to crimes committed in the vicinity of the police commissioner and no action is taken. This confirms that down to the juniors, the situation is incomparable. For there to be positive change, I think there must be a radical move that exempts none of the alleged victims. The biggest problem now arises on who among them arrests the victims. Organizational culture involves status assumption in organizations with the leaders being assumed to be role models. With the findings of the investigate magazine, it reaffirms that only top ranking police officers were the perpetrators of sexual violence against their colleagues.

A police cover is the worst the police can ever trade with on matters of public interest. In most organizations, bureaucracy is the order and that this cannot be assumed neither altered. This is even terrible because it exist with the top ranking officers since they are the source if information to the public. The lack of a purely independent investigative body of handling police complaints against their fellow officers. It is very hard for the police force to investigate itself on matters of social injustice. Even the government itself cannot perform because it still has to protect the reputation of its workers.

It is only a body with no vested interests that can give results on dealing with complaint of the police force. The formation of a body with powers to investigate past crimes committed by the police force meant that the current and the ongoing were lawful to be put on hold awaiting investigation. The long procedural process of going back to 1980s up to 2007 gives the police a lot of confidence in terrorizing their colleagues due to the lack of immediacy in handling the allegations that arise. This is because culture unites people psychologically and includes a mission to meet.

The threats to successful implementation of the recommendation is the diversity of offenses by the New Zealand policemen. Most officers are alleged to have committed several offenses. Dewar for example was convicted of four charges. It calls for the police commissioner to take radical steps in resolving the conflict since he is part of the problem. None of the junior police officers can accept to be prosecuted unless the police commissioner starts. Based on their previous culture it is hard for them to break the already held norms.

It even goes further such that those officers convicted of crimes threaten to resign then it becomes hard to eradicate the culture. The formation of the “independent complain authority” cannot achieve if the police are not willing. Who will report those cases if the police themselves are already held in one culture? The police commissioner, Mr. Howard Broad was forced to respond to his own allegations of misconduct. He was affected positively and negatively as a leader. On the positive approach, he must have felt challenged that as a role model he had failed his juniors.

The best was to try to avoid such suspicious allegations and promise to take responsibility of implementing the entire culture change. The trait theory puts it clearly that leadership is founded on personality. As a human being like any other and having been in a situation of an engraved culture over along time makes him fall in some uncalled for mistakes. However, his colleagues look at him like a teacher. He is very willing to a successful implementation of the recommendation though in a challenging environment.

The police commissioner need to take his allegations of his misconduct and reaffirm his colleagues that he is ready to lead like a an example. Leadership is situational so he needs to work hard and give results on culture change. The greatest work ahead of the commissioner is to ask for corporation from the rest of the police. The government has the duty to get a competent person to lead the culture change in the police if Mr. Broad’s efforts are declared inconsequential. Mr. Broad as a leader is fully committed to preserving the reputation of the police however he may be thought of having committed a social misconduct.

He says that his role as a police commissioner is to cement the reputation for performance and integrity within the police. This shows how much confident he is in dealing with the scenario. On the other hand, the allegations made on the police commissioner affects his ability negatively. Being the head, many of his junior officers may not take the initiative to listen to his advice. Such will divide the police to those who are loyal to the commissioner and those who are the direct opposite of his commands.

This is likely to make work hard for Broad in implementing the recommendations. The inability of Mr Broad to take any action on a pornographic movie shown in his house shows how he is covering his friends. This is likely to persist with other high ranking officers not unless his case brings justice to the aggrieved parties. Here Broads ability is depicted as a failure and even leading the culture change may be hard for him based in people’s knowledge of his behavior. Regarding his personality as the lead team in the culture change, Mr Broad has two wars to fight.

First, as the police commissioner he has the role of being an example to the whole New Zealand police. They are supposed to view him as a symbol of unity and service to protect the people of New Zealand. On the other hand, he has the duty to protect the reputation of the whole force on the public and give confidence to the public on their commitment to serving them. From the case leading culture change in New Zealand, there are lessons on the issues of managing culture change. Several issues need to be taken into consideration in the process of reforming persistent behaviors.

The interest of reforming the police should be based in recognition of collective attitude of the organization as a whole and sideline the attitude of individual officers. The police need to find evidence on misconduct by some police officers and legally deal with officers condoning inappropriate sexual activity. The New Zealand police management lacked inappropriate policies, procedures and practices to deal with unending cases of sexual misconduct. This encompass the unavailability of standards of work amongst the front line staff. This is a shorcoming of many organizations.

According to the inquiry done by Bazley, it found that standards varied across police Districts. This inconsistency resulted to the unavailability of procedures to deal with them. To address this, there needs to be drafted code of conduct for sworn police officers. The quality of investigation is vital in handling complaints against police officer’s. The complaints process on the police should be made public top enhance public confidence on the police. Prompt handling of the complaints is vital in radically driving the culture change. However, the force lacks resources to publicize its findings.

The government of New Zealand has the duty to invest in the Public Complaints Authority for it to perform its duties. Changing culture of a police force is a process that also involves sustaining public confidence in the police. Police officers need to adhere and demonstrate standards of ethical and moral behavior. The police management system should comprise technocrats in administration who understand culture and organizational leadership. The management has to portray competence in handling police matters and maintaining a culture that supports police standards.

This kind of management is supposed to break the strong bonding amongst the police which hinders them investigate their colleagues. The issue of on duty an off duty remain a problem among the New Zealand police. According to leadership theories, a leader remains a leader to at all costs and that he has a duty to those he leads. With such concerns, the male dominated force needs to view the work of the police to be a full, time job with responsibilities to meet. This operates by enhancing public confidence on the police.

Changing police culture Essay

Theory of Political Culture and Ideology Essay

Theory of Political Culture and Ideology Essay.

A political culture can be defined as a framework of similar values, beliefs and attitudes shared by people in a certain nation or state. Such ideals and behaviors are normally related to the government and the politics of a country and they tend to develop with time to shape the views of that country’s citizens in regard to the world and their sense of what is right or wrong, just or unjust, possible and impossible (Ginsberg, Lowi and Weir 18). The concept of a political culture is properly explained using four major aspects of a government and politics.

These four aspects include; understanding the relationship between a government and the citizens, the government obligations, limits of the governmental authority and understanding people’s rights and responsibilities. The importance of a political culture is to establish a background on which the politics of a nation or a state unfolds. It also sets limits and boundaries which are to be obeyed by all actors involved in a political realm.

Every nation has its own political culture.

For instance, most Americans believe that there is ultimate importance of individual efforts in achieving personal success and for this reason,they are generally opposed to generous welfare benefits (Clark and Schaffner 567). Ideology refers to the way in which cultures are structured to enable a government to exercise maximum control on its citizens with minimum conflicts. Ideology in simple terms refers to specific attitudes, ideas and beliefs which advocate for a systematic plan aimed at bringing change in the social, political and economic arenas of a country.

Examples of political ideologies include anarchism, socialism, statism, libertarianism, fascism, communism, conservatism and communitarianism (Cummings 56). Political ideology is different from political culture in many ways. For instance, traditionalists are not necessarily conservatives the same way liberals are not moralists. The culture of American politics is deeply rooted and it is associated with democracy, constitutionalism and capitalism. In this case, democracy in the U. S is less direct as it is marked by extreme fragmentation of power by the governing body.

Constitutionalism is concerned with law and attention to individual rights of its citizens while capitalism spells out the distinction between political and economic issues. The book Habits of the heart written by Robert Bellah et al describes the American culture in terms of its values, belief and expectations as well as strengths and weaknesses in relation to the manifestations to an individual and the community as a whole (pp. 143-145). Most of the values and beliefs which make up the American political culture originate from the Greco-Roman, Anglo-Saxon, Judeo-Christain, Native American, African as well as Asian cultures.

The core values of the American culture contained in the American creed include life, liberty, equality and pursuit for happiness. In addition, it includes individualism, unity and diversity of various cultures. Ideals in the American culture originate from past experiences such as those obtained from its former colonist (Britain) as well as material circumstances. According to Ginsberg, Lowi and Weir, the presence of a political ideology in the American politics is very important since its absence is likely to lead to radical pragmatism which is bound to trigger bad decisions and ethics in the policy making of the political culture.

The values and beliefs held in the American political culture assist the society in the war against racism and other ethnic differences. It also helps to shape the racial attitudes and facilitates democratic stability in the region. One of the most rampant characteristics of the American culture is consumerism. Consumerism is regarded as the new capitalism and originates from the dialectic of democracy and capitalism. The American societies are preoccupied by the ideals and values associated with consumerism as a result of numerous commodities and products fabricated under the television spectacles.

In the past few decades, consumerism has led to the transformation of the American citizens into ‘shoppers’ who are slowly taking away the state sovereignty from within (Wayne, Mackenzie and O’Brien 65). The trends of consumerism are impacting a big blow on the nation’s democracy affecting the judgment, liberty and overall citizenship. Consumerism leads to a disorder known as citizen schizophrenia which divides the common citizens into opposing groups denying them the legitimate access to what is civic or public. Essay 2: Political Culture of Texas.

The politics and the political culture of Texas has been a subject of debate for a long time now and there has been a base line describing it as a conservative type of culture(John 87). The political culture of Texas and its ideology has been well described using three major philosophical streams which include populism, social conservatism and classical liberalism. These three ideals are said to form the foundation of the Texas political culture on which permanent values, beliefs and attitudes are built and allowed to interact with other societal values in a complex way.

The ideals have led to what is referred to as a ‘low tax, low services’ political culture in the state. Although Texas government has undergone some immense growth in the last few decades, the ‘low taxes, low services’ culture still remains firm in the state (O’Connor and Sabato 256). In addition, Texas is known to have a tradition which serves business interests both small and large with a wide latitude in terms of their economic and political ventures.

The state also provides subsidies for a variety of its industries ranging from road construction, sports, real estate development, manufacturing industries among others. The state government political culture further promotes oil extraction in those regions which are environmentally sensitive and it has outsourced the services which are related to human health and well being. The government has also started the process of selling the subsoil water rights of land owned by the state to private companies and individuals thus encouraging regional and foreign investments in the state.

In an effort to shape its public policy, the state has a culture which permits extensive campaigns of the elected officials and it only imposes few restrictions regarding contacts between the executives in the bureaucracy and private entities. On the other hand, this political culture allows the government to tolerate a wide variety of disparities in the political access between individuals or ordinary citizens and people who are powerful either economically or politically in the state.

In comparison to the political culture on the American nation as a whole, Ginsberg, Lowi and Weir argue that the Texas political culture is similar to that of the nation as a whole in that it puts much emphasis on values of democracy, equality and liberty. They however add that these values differ in the way they are expressed and exercised in the political institutions of Texas as opposed to those at national level (pp. 304-349). In addition, the Texan political political culture as classified by Prof. Elazar is moralistic, individualistic and traditionalistic (Patterson 34).

In addition, the Texas political culture puts much emphasis on democracy and has been mainly dominated by one democratic party in the past although it is slowly evolving into a two party state. In conclusion it can be said that although the Texas political culture is relatively young as compared to the national political culture it is business focused as it shuns public expenditure on social programs while at the same time leaving room for huge contracts by providing subsidies on industries and permitting sale of state property to private business interests.

Theory of Political Culture and Ideology Essay

Serial Killers and the Influences in Hollywood’s Pop Culture Essay

Serial Killers and the Influences in Hollywood’s Pop Culture Essay.

Research Question(s): Why have infamous serial killer cases become so popular in the media and are portrayed in Hollywood films/TV shows? Why do the audiences find horror movies based on killers entertaining? Are the viewers psychologically predisposed by these depictions to react with violence and committing murder?

Importance: This is an important issue because there is an increase in the violence portrayed on TV that has influenced the viewers into “fixing” their problems by turning in committing crimes.

Hypothesis/Claim: American culture gives eccentricity emphasis to TV shows like Dexter and movies like Chainsaw Massacre.

The viewers are psychologically predisposed to the violence and inept to assimilate into social customs thus brings the audience to resolve their life problems with violence. Hollywood movie producers should revise their scripts and removed movie projects based on murderers in order to decrease the percentage of viewers turning to crimes.

Possible Counterarguments: Hollywood has changed the dynamics of the entertainment business. The shows such as Dexter and movies like Silence of the lambs and Psycho are seen as surreal works of entertainment and do not influence the audience to turn to violence.

Method: I will research by watching movies based on serial killers and their scandalous cases. I will review studies on viewers’ violence and see if there’s a correlation between the two. I will research for psychological/sociological studies about serial killers and the negative influences shown in pop culture. I will also research violent acts within the last 15-20 years.

Interest: This topic interests me because my major is criminology. I plan on the future working for the government and profiling criminals to find the offenders and protect civilians. I find interesting that in the past 10 to 15 years the majority of horror movies and TV shows are based on killers. If shows like CSI and movies like Silence of the lambs have influenced me to major in criminal justice, will it also have the effect of influencing others to become killers and turn into crime?

Chapter and Article from Signs of Life: Video Dreams: Television and Cultural Forms- A Moral Never-Never Land: Identifying with Tony Soprano by James Harold, page 296

Five Keywords I will use as search terms:
1. Serial Killers and pop culture
2. Influence films
3. Psychological/Sociological films
4. Violence and pop culture
5. Pop culture and audience

Serial Killers and the Influences in Hollywood’s Pop Culture Essay