Review and Critical Thinking Questions Essay

Review and Critical Thinking Questions Essay.

What is a family? What is family composition? Family is a group of people tied together by blood, co-residence, or affection. Family composition is the makeup of the family including the numbers of members, their ages, and their relationship with each other What is cultural bias? What is an example of this?

Cultural bias is the interpretation or judgement of practices by the standards of ones own culture. Looking at a different culture wrong because its not the way we deal with a particular concern in our nature.

What are stereotypes? How are they different from prejudice? Stereotypes are assumed beliefs of a group of people. The difference between prejudice and stereotypes is is that stereotypes are based off of a a characteristic of a person from some members in the group and prejudice is an assumption before getting to know people. What is the difference between a nuclear family and an extended family? A nuclear family will be just the two parents and their children living in one home, as to an extended family is a family where the grandparents or maybe grand kids are living in the home too.

Critical Thinking Questions

How can families assimilate to a new culture? They can do things like learn the language, they can try to join the culture by eating their foods, listening to their music. What are some of the problems with stereotypes or cultural bias when looking at families? Sometimes your assumptions are wrong or you close your thoughts up to other people because they aren’t like you. And you should always be open to new people or new things because not everyone in the world is like you. Adversity affects today’s family, just as Black Death affected families from earlier times. What kinds of adverse challenges do today’s families face and how can they manage the situations? Families today face adverse challenges like financial, emotional, and health. The easiest way to deal with any family challenges is to talk as a family and find ways to better or eliminate the situation.

Review and Critical Thinking Questions Essay

Natural variations are subtle changes in handwriting that occur normally

Natural variations are subtle changes in handwriting that occur normally.

Review Questions

1. What is a questioned document? Describe at least one example of something that might be a questioned document.

Natural variations are subtle changes in handwriting that occur normally. A questioned document is a document in which the script or type used in its composition causes suspicion. 2. What is an exemplar? What are the best types of exemplars? Exemplars are authorized examples of how a text should look as a reference. The best types of exemplars are the ones of similar content and/or in the same format. 3. What are natural variations? Describe how these may happen.

Natural variations are subtle changes in handwriting that occur normally. This usually happen with time.

4. How are stamped signatures different from written signatures? Stamped signatures are literal stamps that leave a print of a signature instead of a hand signing. 5. What are some of the typescript machines that document examiners may have to investigate? Choose one of these machines and describe what document examiners may look for when comparing the machine to a questioned document. Some of the typescript machines that document examiners have to investigate are typewriters, photocopiers, and fax machines. With photocopiers, for example, investigators may closely look for discrepancies between copies, as there are little flaws common in every copy.

Critical Thinking Questions

1. Why are questioned documents important in forensic science? What is one example of a situation where a questioned document might be an important part of a criminal case? Questioned documents are important in forensic science because the verification of a document could sway a course one way or another. For example, a forged suicide note could suggest foul play. 2. What are some of the ways that a document examiner might try to match a questioned document to a specific typewriter? What aspects might they look at? A document examiner might try to match a questioned document to a specific typewriter by noting possible variations over time that could account for any discrepancies. 3. Imagine that you have been asked to determine whether a signature on a check is authentic or a forgery. What steps would you take in doing this? What aspects would you examine? If I were to determine whether a signature is genuine of a forgery I would closely examine the strokes and curves of the handwriting.

4. Imagine that you have been asked to determine whether a will written fifty years ago is authentic or a modern-day forgery. How would you go about doing this? What aspects would you examine to help you make your determination? To determine whether the will was a forgery or an authentic document I would collect exemplars to compare with the original document. I would closely compare the two and look for suspicious similarities or differences.

5. A law enforcement agent is in charge of getting a writing sample from an uncooperative suspect. The agent puts the suspect in a comfortable room and has the person choose from a bunch of pencils and ink pens. The agent takes the questioned document and dictates the information to the suspect, having the suspect write down what she says as she reads from the questioned document. After several paragraphs, the agent stops and has the suspect rewrite the material two more times. What did the agent do wrong in this situation? What did the agent do right? The agent should not have given the suspect the free range of writing materials but was correct in the material that they had the suspect write down.

Natural variations are subtle changes in handwriting that occur normally

Irrational Beliefs Essay

Irrational Beliefs Essay.

Report on some of your own irrational beliefs that have gotten you off course and lowered your self-esteem. Offer rational beliefs that you can take on to dispute your stinkin’ thinkin’. How will changing your irrational beliefs help you to achieve your academic goals? Our upsets are caused not so much by our problems as by what we think about our problems. When our thinking is full of irrational beliefs, what Ellis calls “stinkin’ thinkin’”, we feel awful even when the circumstances don’t warrant it, and how we think about the issue in our lives is the real issue.

I have a few irrational beliefs myself. These include my fear of public speaking, my fear of how people perceive me, and my personal appearance. In high school I enrolled in a speech class that was required for my diploma. My problem wasn’t remembering what to say but being able to speak in front of a classroom full of people.

I shouldn’t have had a problem with it at all, considering the classroom was full of people I’ve known my whole life, people I’ve grown up with. I got up in front of the class ready to go, I managed to spit out two sentences then my mind went blank.

I was embarrassed, scared of what they would think about me if I were to mess up. Would they call me names? Would they think I wasn’t prepared? Would they think I was dumb, powerless, uncreative, and weak? The only thing I could think to do was run to the nearest exit, so out I went. My teacher had followed me but at that point I had tears in my eyes, I was shaking with sweaty palms. She managed to calm me down, she gave me the rational beliefs that I needed, and she believed in me exactly how I should have believed in myself. It all tied into how I am obsessive over what others think of me, my clothes, my hair, and my shoes. I have the irrational belief that everyone needs to look at me and think that I have everything together. In reality my life is usually a mess but I have those materialist things to hide behind.

My weight has always been another irrational belief of mine, constantly calling myself fat, not wearing the clothes I want, looking in a mirror and talking myself down. I gained forty pounds in almost two years. I wasn’t the small delicate girl I used to be and I didn’t think I would ever get back to the point of being happy with my body. In order to change these irrational beliefs I need to fill my mind with rational beliefs, such as I am a great public speaker when I am prepared, I am beautiful and smart with or without materialist things, and lastly if I am unhappy with my body then I have every right to change it.

According to psychologist Ellis, a key to correcting irrational thinking is changing a “must” into a preference. I can always distract myself from negative, judgmental thoughts by simply telling myself, “STOP!” Then replace my blaming, complaining, or excusing with something positive. Wisely choosing the thoughts that occupy my mind, as well as avoiding automatic, negative thoughts that undermine my self-esteem will also help. Changing my irrational beliefs will help me achieve my academic goals by giving me the confidence to organize my schedule, and be able to speak in front of people as well as with others.

Irrational Beliefs Essay

Critical Thinking Assignment Essay

Critical Thinking Assignment Essay.

The memorandum from Salvador Monella to the Board of Directors addresses the rising costs of employee healthcare benefits at Penn-Mart. His communication includes an explanation of his purpose in addressing the healthcare costs, findings regarding Penn-Mart’s benefits costs, a recommended program to implement for cost reduction, and a discussion containing support for their recommendation. While some business people may be tempted to simply accept the information presented in Mr. Monella’s memorandum, it is my opinion, after reading Browne and Keeley’s Asking the Right Questions (2012), that adopting a critical thinking approach is the most effective way to evaluate the document.

Using a critical thinking approach to evaluate this business document will help a reader to know when to accept and when to reject information they are presented.

The reader knows that information that passes the critical thinking questions they ask is worth accepting. Implementing strong-sense critical thinking and using the same skills to evaluate all claims, even one’s own, prevents falling to conventionality.

In the tenth edition of Asking the Right Questions (Browne & Keeley, 2012), there are ten critical questions to ask that are presented. The ten questions are: What are the issues and the conclusions?, What are the reasons?, Which words or phrases are ambiguous?, What are the value and descriptive assumptions?, Are there any fallacies in the reasoning?, How good is the evidence?, Are there rival causes?,

Are the statistics deceptive?, What significant information is omitted?, What reasonable conclusions are possible? (Browne & Keeley, p. 9) After asking and evaluating each of these questions, a reader will have a solid basis on which to decide if Mr. Monella’s recommendations should be accepted. It is my opinion that his recommendations should not be accepted until more information is provided. Each of the ten critical thinking questions will be evaluated in order to demonstrate how this conclusion was reached.

The first question a critical thinker must ask when reading is, “What are the issues and conclusions?” (Browne & Keely, p. 18) As a reader, it is important to identify the issue the author is discussing and the conclusion they have drawn in order to successfully form an opinion regarding the information presented. The issue is the topic that an author is addressing, while the conclusion is the message they intend to convey to the reader.

There are two types of issues- descriptive issues and prescriptive issues. A descriptive issue poses questions regarding descriptions of the past, present, or future. Prescriptive issues pose questions about actions that should be taken, what is ethical or moral, and what is good or bad; they are issues that require prescriptive answers. In the memorandum, Mr. Monella presents a descriptive issue that requires an answer to describe how the work place will be in the future. How can Penn-Mart control the cost of employee healthcare benefits? The conclusion presented is to implement a new wellness program call the “Get Well” program.

The second question that must be addressed is, “What are the reasons?” (Browne & Keeley, p. 29) Reasons are the statements an author provides that support or justify their conclusion. As the book states, “you cannot determine the worth of a conclusion until you identify the reasons.” (p. 29) In order to identify the reasons supplied by an author, a critical thinker must ask why the author believes their conclusion. In the memorandum, the reasons stated support the conclusion of initiating a “Get Well” program. The memorandum states that data “indicates that individuals who voluntarily neglect their health account for the greatest impact on the growth in benefits costs.” The data includes smokers, individuals who do not exercise, and those who avoid preventative care in the group in question. The second reason given is that the program will make employees more aware of their own health status and identify issues they can improve to become more fit.

Other reasons provided by the memorandum are that the initiative aligns with other public health initiatives, there have been other studies on obesity, the initiative will provide initiative for employees to adopt healthier lifestyles, and it will make employees feel better about themselves. After identifying the basic structure of a message, a critical thinker must ask, “What words or phrases are ambiguous?” (p. 40) An ambiguous word or phrase is one that has multiple possible meanings. Ambiguous words or phrases in an argument create the need for clarification of the meaning before a reader can fully evaluate the argument. When reading a document such as the memorandum, it is helpful to mark ambiguous words or phrases in statements as they occur. The ambiguous terms identified in the memorandum have been italicized. “The objective of the ‘Get Well’ program is to…help them identify issues that they could mitigate on their own to become more fit.” (p. 2) “The ‘Get Well’ initiative completely aligns with other current public health and fitness objectives…” (p. 2)

“There have been numerous research studies on obesity published in scholarly journals.” (p. 2) “We firmly believe that many Penn-Mart employees want to get fit and that the ‘Get Well’ initiative will provide the necessary incentives… Giving a blood sample and filling out a survey form is not intrusive or burdensome – these are two things that people do routinely. Those who might oppose “Get Well” are either unfit, or they have something to hide.” (p. 2) “These recommendations have been thoroughly researched and represent state-of-the-art in our field.” (p. 2) Each of the italicized phrases can either have multiple meanings, or is not specific enough to use to determine the statement’s validity. For example, the suggested program is intended to help identify employee health “issues,” however different people may consider different things to be health issues.

While one person may consider smoking to be a health issue, others may not. “Completely align[ing]” with objectives may mean that initiatives are designed by the same person, implemented for the same group of people, and intended to accomplish the same goal; however it also may mean that it has the same general objective. Each ambiguous term has the same possibility of containing various meanings. Next a critical thinker must ask the fourth critical question, “What are the value and descriptive assumptions?” Assumptions are beliefs that are generally taken for granted that support the reasoning and conclusion of an argument. Value assumptions demonstrate a preference for one value over another. Descriptive assumptions demonstrate beliefs about the world. In the memorandum both value and descriptive assumptions are demonstrated. The value assumption demonstrated is equality versus individualism. Mr. Monella states that is unfair to young, healthy people to let employees unequally use healthcare insurance resources. This demonstrates a preference for individualism over equality.

The descriptive assumption in the memorandum involves beliefs about Penn-Mart’s healthcare benefits strategy and controlling the cost of the employee healthcare program. It assumes that there are no other ways to control spending, other than by implementing the Get Well program. Fifth, a critical thinker must ask, “Are there any fallacies in the reasoning?” (p. 74) Fallacies are logic tricks an author may use to lure a reader into accepting their conclusion. There are multiple fallacies in the memorandum. First, the authors claim that the “Get Well” will make Penn-Mart employees feel better about themselves, which appeals to emotions. The memorandum states that the recommendations have been thoroughly researched and represent state-of-the-art in our field, which appeals to questionable authority; the researchers and qualifications for being state of the art have not been specified. Those who might oppose “Get Well” are claimed to be either unfit, or they have something to hide, which attacks person rather than ideas.

The final statement, “to quote the famous Charles Darwin, ‘survival of the fittest’ is a natural part of evolution,” introduces a red herring. The next step in evaluating the conclusion is to ask, “How good is the evidence?” (p. 92) The memorandum cites data from underwriters that indicates individuals who voluntarily neglect their health account for the greatest impact employee healthcare benefits costs, which is the author using a case example as evidence. The underwriters believe that many Penn-Mart employees want to get fit, which generalizes the desires of a portion of the employees to the entire population. Cited published research studies on obesity appeal to authority. A research study is used as evidence with data from underwriters is cited twice. The “Get Well” program is claimed to make Penn-Mart employees feel better about themselves, generalizing from the research sample. Finally, an employee survey about satisfaction with their benefits could be a biased survey. “Are there rival causes?” (p. 128)

This question helps evaluate an argument’s strength by examining any other reasonable causes for the event in question. Rival outcomes would provide different causes for the rising employee healthcare benefits costs at Penn-Mart. The memorandum states that the rise in benefits costs is driven by causes such as an aging workforce with tenure. However, other possible causes exist, such as inflation for common medical procedures such as physical examinations. The memorandum also demonstrates the fundamental attribution error by citing individuals who “voluntarily neglect their health” (p. 1), although there may be other reasons they do not exercise, such as preexisting conditions like arthritis. While statistics may seem like impressive additions to an argument, they may also be deceptive. They frequently do not “prove what they appear to prove.” (p. 142) Knowing the unreliableness of statistics makes it important for a critical thinker to ask, are the statistics deceptive? (p. 142)

Statistics stating that wages and benefits make up roughly 40 percent of Penn-Mart’s annual budget are cited, however 40% is not clearly defined or accurately identified. Also cited is data from underwriters indicating that participation in voluntary health benefits programs “peaked at 5% of total FTE’s in 2006” (p. 1), but what does 5% of total FTE amount to? The 5% is again not clearly defined or accurately identified. Equally as significant as the information included in an argument is the significant information that is omitted. Omitting significant information from an argument shapes the reasoning in favor of the author. In order to judge the quality of an argument’s reasoning, a critical thinker must ask, what significant information is omitted? (p. 153) For example, in Penn-Mart’s situation, the potential long-term negative effects of the Get Well program are omitted. Could the program have negative consequences?

The suggestions state that employees who do not comply with the terms of “Get Well” should be given the possibility of paying a fine, declining future healthcare benefits, resigning, or being fired. However, the memorandum does not address what the consequences might be of the majority of employees refusing Get Well would be to Penn-Mart. If the company selects to fire those employees, they may lose many workers, causing the whole organization to suffer. The final question to ask in the critical thinking model is, what reasonable conclusions are possible? (p. 163) As a critical thinker, the objective is to determine and accept the most reasonable conclusion(s) to an argument that most closely adheres to personal value preferences. There are frequently alternative conclusions or multiple conclusions that are possible given the reasoning of an argument.

For example, one conclusion to the Penn-Mart situation is that the Get Well program is the best solution to rising healthcare costs. Another conclusion may be that there is another program that may be a better fit for Penn-Mart. After asking and evaluating all ten of the critical questions to ask, I believe that I have determined the most reasonable conclusion. To determine the best conclusion, it would be necessary to obtain clarification about the ambiguous terms before evaluating the argument’s strength. Without that information it is not possible to make a firm opinion about the strength of reasoning. Until the clarification is provided, it is my opinion that the suggestions of the consultant company should not be accepted. There are too many ambiguous terms and fallacies employed to determine that the argument is strong enough for acceptance.

Resources

Browne, M. N., & Keeley, S.M. (2010). Asking the right questions: A guide to critical thinking (10th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Critical Thinking Assignment Essay

Forensic Science Essay

Forensic Science Essay.

Review Questions
1.​ What are the four types of evidence in a criminal investigation? The four types of evidence is physical evidence, documentary evidence, demonstrative evidence and testimony.

2.​ What are individual characteristics? Give an example of an individual characteristic?
Individual characteristics are properties associated with a common source to a high degree of certainty. An example of individual characteristics that forensic scientists may look for are the ridge characteristics of two fingerprint samples.

3.​ What is the difference between individual characteristics and class characteristics?
Class characteristics are those that can only be associated with groups not just a single source

4.​ What are physical and chemical properties? Give an example of each. Physical properties are those that describe a substance or object without referring to any other substance. For example the physical properties of glass might be its weight, size, color, and volume. The physical properties are those that an object or trace evidence has with just its physical existence, without altering it in any way with chemicals.

Chemical properties are those that describe what happens when a substance reacts with another substance. For example, when the drug heroin comes into contact with the Marquis reagent chemical it turns purple. This behavior describes the chemical property of heroin and helps forensic scientists identify its presence.

5.​ What do forensic scientists do to collect and preserve soil samples? Soil samples are typically collected from the crime scene within a 100-yard radius at various spots. Forensic scientists take great care in collecting and preserving soil samples, if soil is found on the bottom of a shoe for example the soil is left on the shoe and the entire shoe is taken to the crime lab. The  object must also be stored in such a way that any pieces of dirt that may fall off the object are retained.

Critical Thinking Questions
1.​ Why do you think forensic scientists are so careful that the tests they do are sensitive, reproducible, and specific? What might happen if they were less careful about this? If the actions are not taken correctly then if you might mess up or accidental loose some evidence you have some more, they label to help with the specifics. If they are less careful about this then it might not be any use to them and just be a waste of their time.
2.​Which type of evidence do you think is most useful in an investigation? Why?
I believe that the most useful evidence is physical evidence because it helps give more detail than any other type of evidence.
3.​ Why do you think that forensic scientists continue to look for class characteristics given their limitations?
Forensic scientist might continue to look for class characteristics because they would like more evidence to convict or help with other law binding reasons.
4.​What do you think would be some of the challenges in collecting and preserving impressions? Why?
I believe that some challenges might be having to be very gentle and cautious about what you do and how you treat the evidence.
5.​If you were on a jury, do you think you would expect individual characteristics in the evidence? Why or why not? What effects might it have if individuals expect to have individuals characteristics presented? I believe I would expect individual characteristics because that would help me make some serious and maybe even final decisions.

Forensic Science Essay

Critical Thinking and Problem solving Essay

Critical Thinking and Problem solving Essay.

Numerous decisions are taken every day. People choose when to get up on a certain morning, what clothing to wear, and whether to read a particular book. Most of the decisions made throughout the day are relatively trivial or inconsequential. It probably does not matter too much if it is decided to sleep an extra 15 minutes on a certain morning or if a blue shirt is selected rather than a green one. However, some of the decisions can carry substantial consequences.

Choosing to get an undergraduate or graduate degree, deciding on a new job or career, or selecting one vendor out of many candidates to be the long-term supplier of a company of a necessary resource are important decisions that are likely to have a significant and meaningful impact. Learning, understanding, and applying critical thinking and problem-solving skills can improve the quality of the decisions that mean the most to us. The research paper also explores some fields where critical thinking proves a pathfinder in finding the correct solution to a problem.

Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Introduction Critical thinking and problem solving have been identified as essential skills for college students. Problem solving is defined as a step-by step process of defining the problem, searching for information. The goal of problem solving is to find and implement a solution, usually to a well defined and well- structured problem. Critical thinking is a broader term describing reasoning in an open-ended manner, with an unlimited number of solutions.

The critical thinking process involves constructing the situation and supporting the reasoning behind a solution. Traditionally, critical thinking and problem solving have been associated with different fields: critical thinking is rooted in the behavioral science, whereas problem solving is associated with the math and science disciplines. Although a distinction is made between the two concepts, in real life situations the terms critical thinking and problem solving are often used interchangeably. In addition, assessment tests frequently overlap or measure both skills.

Problem solving is defined as understanding the problem, being able to obtain background knowledge, generating possible solutions, identifying and evaluating the process, and exhibiting problem-solving dispositions. It is easy to fall into routine ways of thinking instead of being creative. The accompanying display lists some common barriers to creative thinking. A major block to creativity is groupthink (going along with the majority opinion while personally having another viewpoint). Nurses or the employees of the company, who engage in groupthink generally, wish to avoid interpersonal conflict.

It takes intellectual courage to think something new and different from one’s peers, and then act on those thoughts. Independent thinking is a hallmark of persons who think critically and creatively. Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Critical thinking includes problem solving and decision making processes. People use problem solving in their daily lives. With the problem-solving method, problems are identified, information is gathered, a specific problem is named, a plan for solving the problem is developed, the plan is put into action, and results of the plan are evaluated.

However, this kind of problem solving is frequently based on incomplete data, and plans are sometimes based on incomplete data, and plans are sometimes based on guesses. Conversely, the nurse uses the nursing process to identify and to make decisions about client needs. It is a systematic and scientifically based process that requires the use of many cognitive and psychomotor skills. According to Costello-Nikitas, the following actions interfere with effective problem solving: • Jumping too quickly toward a conclusion before exploring all the aspects of the problem

• Failing to obtain critical facts, about either the problem or proposed change • Selecting problems or changes that are too general, too complex, or poorly defined • Failing to articulate a rational solution to the problem or proposed change • Failing to implement and evaluate the proposal appropriately Definition, Explanation and Importance of Problem Solving E. Paul Torrance’s definition of creativity fully describes problem solving and suggests the skill needed to reach this higher level goal: The process of sensing problems or gaps in information, Forming ideas or hypotheses, testing and modifying

These hypotheses and communicating the results (Torrance 1994). A problem is “a question or situation that presents doubt, perplexity, or difficulty or a question offered for consideration, discussion or solutions” (Webster 1995). Problems are ever present in the life, preschoolers learn to say” I have a problem and apply the phrase to everything from a broken crayon to muddy shoes. Adults spend a great deal of time worrying about their own problems, which range from how to get three kids to various ball practices on the same afternoon to devastating financial or health problems.

The ability to solve problems is highly important and should be a significant part of educational training. Higher-level Thinking Skills Schools curriculums often include the development of higher-level thinking skills, processes that require more mental effort than simple memory and recall. For example, many social studies guides denote decision making and problem solving (higher-level thinking skills) as key skills (Riecken and Miller 1990), which students use to solve problems. Higher-level thinking skills are sometimes known as higher-order thinking skills or productive thinking skills.

Treffinger and Nassab (1996) discuss productive thinking and define it as including “creative thinking, critical thinking, problem solving, and decision-making…. ” They further discuss the fact that productive thinking “builds on a rich knowledge base, motivation, personal characteristics and styles, and meta-cognitive skills. ” Critical Thinking Swartz and Perkins (1990) discuss critical thinking as the “the critical examination and evaluation—actual and potential—of benefits and courses of action.

Numerous lists of critical thinking skills exist; however, close analysis of them often reveals similarities in semantics. One list of critical thinking skills (Maker and Nielson 19996) follows: • Determining fact and opinion • Choosing relevant from irrelevant information • Determining the accuracy of a statement • Determining the credibility of a source • Recognizing ambiguities • Identifying underlying assumptions • Determining external and internal bias • Recognizing valid and fallacious arguments Critical thinking in Nursing Profession

Nurses use critical thinking skills in each step of the nursing process. “Everything nurses do require high level thinking; no action is performed without critical thinking” (Rubenfeld & Scheffer, 1999) “Because the conclusions and decisions, nurses make affect people’s lives, our thinking must be guided by sound reasoning—precise, disciplined thinking that promotes accuracy and depth of data collection, and seeks to clearly identify the issues at hand. The role of the nurse has shifted from one of “hand maiden” to one of an autonomous partner in health care delivery.

The impact of technological expansion and the increased acuity level of patients, combined with consumer demand for accountability and responsibility, have fueled this change. Currently, novice nurses must possess cognitive skills that require critical thinking. The nurse uses critical thinking to solve problems, make decisions, and establish priorities in the clinical setting. The framework for solving patient problems is called the nursing process. Critical thinking is an essential skill in the administration of safe, component nursing care. Critical thinking may be defined as “the process of purposeful, self regulatory judgment.

The process gives reasoned consideration to evidence, contexts, conceptualizations, methods, and criteria” (American Philosophical Association, 1990) Ennis describes critical thinking as “reasonable, reflective thinking that is focused on deciding what to believe or do” (Nosich, 2001). Critical thinking is a goal directed; it is thinking with a purpose. Critical thinking also involves questioning. These questions include: Why? Who? What if? When? Where? Data are collected and organized within the critical thinking process. Pertinent data are separated from irrelevant data.

Related data are clustered together to encourage the recognition of patterns. These clusters of data are then analyzed, and successful solutions to problems are identified. Knowledge Critical thinking calls for a knowledge base that includes declaration knowledge, (specific facts or information) and operative knowledge (an understanding of the nature of that knowledge). Nursing curricula assist the student in learning specific facts about nursing and the delivery of quality care. Students are also taught how to examine the belief underlying the facts in order to analyze and interpret those facts.

In other words, students are not expected to merely repeat facts that have been memorized but instead to understand the reasoning behind the knowledge. Finding meaning in what one is learning is the core of critical thinking. In order to think critically, to solve problems, and so make decisions, nurses must develop a broad base of knowledge. This knowledge base includes information from other disciplines such as science (anatomy, physiology, and biology), psychology and philosophy (logic) Nurses apply this knowledge to specific client situation through critical thinking. Critical thinking and Problem solving in Business

Gone are the days when management expected workers to check their brains at the door. As a knowledge worker, one is expected to use one’s brains in thinking critically. One will be solving problems and making decisions. Faced with a problem or an issue, most of us do a lot of worrying before separating the issues or making a decision. All that worrying can become directed by channeling it into the following procedure: 1) Identify and clarify the problem Your first task is to recognize that a problem exists. Some problems are big and unmistakable, such as failure of an air-freight delivery service to get package to customers on time.

Other problems may be continuing annoyances, such as regularly running out of toner for an office copy machine. The first step in reaching a solution is pinpointing the problem area. 2) Gather Information Learn more about the problem situation. Look for possible causes and solutions. This step may mean checking files, calling suppliers, or brainstorming with fellow workers. For example, the air-freight delivery service would investigate the tracking systems of the commercial airlines carrying its packages to determine what went wrong. 3) Evaluate the evidence

Where did the information come from? Does it represent various points of view? What biases could be expected from each source? How accurate is the information gathered? Is it fact or opinion? For example, it is a fact that packages are missing; it is an opinion they are merely lost and will sum up eventually. 4) Consider alternatives and implications Draw conclusions from the gathered evidence and pose solutions. Then weigh the advantages and disadvantages of each alternative. What are the costs, benefits, and consequences? What are the obstacles, and how can they be handled?

Most important, what solution best serves your goals and those of your organization? This is where your creativity is especially important. 5) Implement the best alternative Select an alternative and put it into action. Then, follow through on your decision by monitoring the results of implementing your plan. The freight company decided to give its unhappy customers free delivery service to make up for the lost packages and downtime. Be sure to continue monitoring and adjusting the solution to ensure its effectiveness over time. Developing critical thinking and problem solving skills in the child

Reasoning, critical thinking or general intellectual functioning is one of the strongest predictors of academic success and resilience. Teaching children problem solving – how to figure things out—is key to success learning, and problem solving is characterized by the ability to generate possible strategies, analyze those strategies,, and anticipate their possible consequences. Skills that a child learns to master under the heading of problem solving include planning, flexibility, resourcefulness, and critical thinking. Planning entails looking ahead, anticipating possible outcomes, and making healthy choices.

Flexibility entails shifting plans when one’s original strategy does not work out. Resourcefulness involves seeking help when needed, using resources intelligently, and developing “street smart. ” Critical thinking refers to higher-order thinking skills that go beneath surface impressions and opinions to offer understanding and deeper meaning to an event or situation. Conclusion Many decisions don’t need much thought. Relatively small, routine, or mundane choices generally don’t require spending a lot of time or energy because the outcomes associated with these types of decisions probably don’t affect very much.

Important decisions can shape lives, and decision quality is improved if person critically analyze the problems by considering new and different options, weighing the evidence objectively, looking at a problem from a different angle that gives different insights, developing novel solutions that effectively solve dilemmas, and accurately forecasting the probable impact of our decisions. Critical thinking is a process that emphasizes a rational basis for what one believes and provides standards and procedures for analyzing, testing, and evaluating beliefs.

Critical thinking skills enable decision makers to define problems within the proper context, to examine evidence objectively, and to analyze the assumptions underlying the evidence and beliefs. Critical thinking enables to understand and deal with the positions of others and to clarify and comprehend one’s own thoughts as well. When critical thinking is applied, all aspects of the decision process are involved, from defining the problem, identifying and weighing decision criteria, and generating and evaluating alternatives to estimating the consequences that will result from our decisions.

However, critical thinking does not mean that a person always make best possible decisions, never reach the wrong conclusion, and never make mistakes; it is simply a process person apply that enables, to arrive at superior; it is simply a process one apply that enables, to arrive at superior decisions consistently. Problem solving is a part of decision making. A systematic process that focuses on analyzing a difficult situation, problem solving always includes a decision-making step. Many educators use the terms problem solving and decision making synonymously, but there is a small yet important difference between the two.

Although decision making is the last step in the problem-solving process, it is possible for decision making to occur without the full analysis required in problem solving. Because problem solving attempts to identify the root problem in situations, much tine and energy are spent on identifying the real problem. Decision making, on the other hand, is usually triggered by a problem but is often handled in a manner that does not eliminate the problem. Reference DeLaune, Carter, Sue. Ladner, Kelly, Patricia. (2002). Fundamentals of Nursing: Standards & Practice. US: Thomson Delmer Learning. Pg. 82, 89 Heywood, John.

(2000). Assessment in Higher Education: Student Learning Teaching, Programmes and… England: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Pg 177 Meador, S, Karen. (1997). Creative Thinking and Problem Solving for Young Learners. Westport: Libraries Unlimited. Pg. 69, 70 Marquis, L, Bessie. Huston, Jorgenson, Carol. (2005). Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Nursing: theory and Application. Wolters Kulwer Health. The NPEC sourcebook on assessment. US: DIANE Publishing. Pg. 11 Williams, W, Steve. (2002). Making Better Business Decisions: Understanding and Improving Critical. North America: Saga Publications. Pg. 1-3

Critical Thinking and Problem solving Essay

Barriers Of Critical Thinking Essay

Barriers Of Critical Thinking Essay.

Three barriers that influence your thinking are fear, laziness, and stubbornness

Fear: Overcoming fear is one of my biggest challenges there are several ways I have learned to try and overcome that fear is stop doubting myself when it come to taking on a new task. Always keep a positive attitude even when I think negative. Because of my fear unfortunately I have missed out on several opportunities that could have been very positive. What I have also learned about overcoming fear is never be afraid of opportunity.

Learning how to face your fears head on is a great way to overcome fear as well. Once you overcome fear it can be life changing.

Laziness: Overcoming laziness in critical thinking is to understand that research is very important and not always wanting to the easy way out of things. Taking the time to sit back and analyze and consider different point of views and also opinions. Always be willing to put in hard work when it comes to critical thinking.

Critical thinking plays a critical part in our everyday lives and being able to make quick decisions is very important. Sometimes information is not easy to access and in some cases this where research and critical thinking play a major role in quick decision making.

Stubbornness: Overcoming stubbornness in critical thinking is being able to accept another person opinion also being open to changes. Not always thinking about what’s in it for me stop always saying I can’t or I want just because a change may come. Being able to think of change in a positive way in everyday living there is always change some we may like some we may not however as a human being you have to be able to accept and live with change. Employers have constant change and as an employee we have to be able to adapt and keep an open mind in every aspect.

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Barriers Of Critical Thinking Essay

Validity, Reliability and Credibility Essay

Validity, Reliability and Credibility Essay.

Information that is found on blogs, social media, net and .org are not always valid. Credibility is information or data that will have reference and resources. When it is researched you can determine the reliability of the data or information by its sources. The author or source of information will have validity from peers, journals etc. There was recently on Facebook, about 2015 taxes being delayed until October of 2015. There was many on the social media that was responding by sending to others.

The information that was sent seems to be from the IRS. Of course, because Facebook does not have credibility and reliability there was no validity. Researching the information that was posted from, National Report.net, which .net is neither a reliable source nor do it has credibility. Nation Report is an impendent news source.

Because there was about to be major turmoil, there was information posted on irs.gov to get complete and factual information concerning 2015 taxes. It was stated on nationalreport,net website that, “starting n 2015 Federal tax refunds for the 2014 fiscal year are going to take longer for Americans to receive.

A lot longer.” www.nationalreport.net This is why it is important for a person to train their eyes and their mind to think, even be suspicious about web pages. The question that came up where is the server a commercial ISP, or provider hosting like .com or aol.com. Also, the source of information for government information was not from a government website.

In our reading, page 128 chapter 4, “Evaluating Website Credibility: A Tip from the Professional,” says it is best to do our best in assessing features of any website before we consider information important. Internet sources should be completely avoided nor should information be immediately trusted. This is why the information on the tax situation was not taken likely or serious by all that read it. Yes, there was information about the taxes for 2015; it was taken out of content.

RUNNING HEAD: VALIDITY, CREDIBILITY, AND RELIABILITY

This is why any information or data that is acquired it should be validated, the credibility should be check and it should always be check for reliability. All that is found on the internet is not credible.

RUNNNG HEAD: VALIDITY, CREDIBILITY, AND RELIABILITY

Reference:

www.nationalreport.net
Moore, B.N., & Parker, R., (2012). Critical thinking (10th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Quintanilla, K., & Wahl, S. (2014). Business and professional communication: Keys for workplace excellence. (2nd ed.). Los Angeles, Ca. Sage

Validity, Reliability and Credibility Essay

Continuing Academic Success Essay

Continuing Academic Success Essay.

While being responsible for our academic success, prioritizing work to achieve goals can be valuable to students without a success driven mindset. Responsibility and action along with ethics help set the path for proper results and set standards for academic achievement. As I explore this new endeavor in my life, I will outline my failures, successes and the lessons I have learned along the way. Failure is something I have to accept. I have failed a lot in the past, and I have allowed those failures to effect me in the present.

As a young boy in grade school, I would always work hard to obtain good grades. After my first semester in high school, I assumed it was natural for me to get good grades, so I refrained from working hard. After a few months of not striving to my full potential, my academics began to suffer, and I failed a few classes. I was very disappointed in myself, and I then became afraid to try because of a failure mindset.

I started to expect failure in my immediate life, especially in my academics. I started to believe I was not good enough to achieve. I would psychologically defeat myself before attempting to do well.

Now, I have realized the values in failing by allowing my disappointment to be my motivation for success. Since then, I have learned the importance of setting goals. “How can you expect to hit a target without aiming first” (Robusto, 2009). Goal setting is important to me because I am a person who likes to take on too many responsibilities. I have a tendency to overload myself with work and at times get overwhelmed when I cannot complete all tasks in a timely manner. I became aware of the process I needed to work on in order to achieve my set goals. I started to write down all tasks I needed to complete and the dates of completion. I set time apart to evaluate my works and prepare to setup a procedure on how to fulfill these functions that allow me to feel accomplished and not overwhelmed on projects with sensitive time constrictions. While continuing with my academic success, I have been setting new goals academically and for my career. My educational goal will be to complete one assignment a day and participate in two-class discussions per day.

My career goal is to mentor one of my peers every six months in the area I have already mastered. In doing this, I will assist someone in their career goals as well as my own to ensure everyone develops and succeeds. As I read through my results for the Ethical Lens Inventory and realize, ethics is a set of principles of right conduct (Ethics 2011). My core ethical lenses are sensibility and equality. I listen to my intuition to determine the characteristic traits and attributes that best serve the community. I remain attentive to the particular needs of those in a similar situation as I carefully evaluate their outcome for my resolution. Further sharpening my critical thinking skills in learning from others mistakes and not committing the same mistake twice. My blind ethical lens leads me to believe that I rely heavily on the attributes of the role. At times, this can be risky because I forget that individuals are fallible, and I should rely solely on people to solve problems. In knowing this about my moral background, I run the risk of believing that my role is more important than other individuals and will not be susceptible to constructive criticism.

So I do not hinder my development; I should allow others to assess the role and assure that all roles are important. Even though thinking is a process, and intelligence is the product (Jensen 2005), we have to understand without thinking of the ending result, we can never consider the product. Critical thinking has an important role in learning and development because if properly executed it allows me to see the entire situation instead of the individual task. I plan to take the necessary actions to determine the task with open eyes and an unbiased approach. Remembering the facts about the situation can help in resolving the issue. Understanding by reiterating the problem can help me further comprehend. Applying then analyzing the tasks and or situations so I can prepare the steps to come to the evaluation. I can see if the resources are accurate and thorough. The last thing I should be able to do to assure my critical thinking skills are complete is a form of creating.

I take all the information of this situation, and use it in my final resolution. These steps are crucial in the ability to think clearly and not be clouded by biased information. Advancing in my critical thinking skills is as important as my writing skills. I have to take the appropriate steps in continuing to engage the readers throughout the writing process. Writing is crucial as a student and everyday life because it is a form of communication. I will utilize the necessary resources to assist me in applying the lessons being instructed for completion of each assignment in accordance with the University guidelines. Allowing myself to create an outline for the topic before the rough draft is setting the priority of how the papers thesis will be well planned for the entire topic. I can use many of the University’s resources such as the thesis generator to begin the subject of the assignment. Grammarly is a great resource to assure the proper format and grammar for the paper.

The University has various resources such as live assistance in the Center for Writing Excellence. The benefit of using external resources is that one cannot rely only on their opinion alone but can get a different perspective of the situation. The University library is an excellent option for researching credible information to guarantee educational success. Although, some information in the library could be bias, we have to do the research on each source to review the comparisons and understand which source is indeed accurate.

In conclusion, the information obtained and lessons learned in this course have given me a boost of confidence in my critical thinking, reading and writing skills. I feel comfortable in continuing my academic success with this knowledge. I feel as though I have accomplished great things in these past five weeks and will continue to move forward. The University has given me the desire to continue the achievements in my educational career by showing me the proper approach of getting the job done correctly. I now realize that a failure does not define a person. The failures can be used as a stepping-stone in the journey to greatness.

References
Ethic. (2011). In The American Heritage dictionary of the English language. Retrieved from http://search.credoreference.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com/content/entry/hmdictenglang/ethic/0 Jensen, Eric. “Critical Thinking Skills.” Teaching with the

Continuing Academic Success Essay

The problems and limitations of speed dating Essay

The problems and limitations of speed dating Essay.

Speed dating, a matchmaking process which allows people to talk with each other within 7mins and then change to another one, is considered as the most effective manner for singles to meet their dream men or women. As we spot out the benefits of this kind of dating, we should also be aware of the questions it may bring up.

How deep can you know about a new person with a conversation that lasts only for 7 minutes? Probably not so much.

The most evident problem speed dating may create is that communication is too little for you to understand a stranger in such a short period. You can, for instance, finding out what his job or hobbies is, but never his personality or characteristic. As a consequence of misjudgement, , you are likely to find that you dated a person who are not the one you expect.

Another disadvantage to mention is the potential peril posed during the second individual meeting. Yes, you can prove the information participant provided authentic or not.

However, you can’t tell he is a good person or not. The organizer can not ensure the participant are all good people with no bad intention. This may put women into danger when they hang out with strangers they meet in speed dating afterward.

Everything is two-sided, either do speed dating is. Just be careful while you are meeting new attractive singles and don’t judge a book by its cover, understand more about him or her before making decision.

The problems and limitations of speed dating Essay