Prevention and Crisis Intervention Essay

Prevention and Crisis Intervention Essay.

Jill is a 27-year-old female who has come in today because she is having problems in her relationship with her husband, Jeremy. She is a nurse who has been working very hard at putting Jeremy through medical school in order to better their lives. She has voiced concerns with being unassertive. She lacks confidence, self-confidence, and seems to be very timid. As she sits in the chair she seems to be in pain as she shifts. She states that she loves her husband very much but that she is unsure how to please him or make him happy anymore.

He always seems to be angry no matter how hard she tries. Due to a lack of openness and receptiveness sexually with her husband, she says that he “does things to her”. She has voiced being scared that he will find out that she is here today and asking for help. “The ABC model of crisis intervention is a method for conducting very brief mental health interviews with clients whose functioning level has decreased following a psychosocial stressor” (Kanel, 2006 p.


“Identifying the cognitions of the client as they relate to the precipitating event and then altering them to help decrease unmanageable feelings is the central focus of the method” (Kanel, 2006 p. 69). The crisis intervention was first introduced in 1940 by Caplan and Lindermann. Since that time, others have developed methods that were based on the same methods and procedures. The ABC model that we use today comes from several sources, according to the text, including Jones’s A-B-C method of crisis management and Professor Moline’s class (Crisis intervention). Within the last 20 years the model has been revised to fit more up-to-date information as it is learned. The model‘s theoretical base is derived from scientific information and research along with feedback and experiences of clients and students. Its main purpose is to teach students how to use the model, interview psychiatric patients, and interview those in need of crisis intervention. Although these are the main purposes for using the model, “the components of any one stage could be used at any time” (Kanel, 2006 p. 70).

There are three stages of the ABC Model: Developing and Maintaining Rapport (A), Identifying the Problem (B), and Coping (C). “The foundation of crisis intervention is the development of rapport—a state of understanding and comfort—between client and counselor” (Kanel, 2006 p.70). This stage is so important that no real work can be accomplished before it is established. A person needs to feel understood and validated before they are comfortable enough to open up to you. Some of the skills necessary for this stage are basic attending skills, questions, paraphrasing, reflection of feelings, and summarizations. “The primary purpose of using the basic attending skills is to gain a clear understanding of the internal experience of the crisis as the client sees it” (Kanel, 2006 p. 70). First and foremost, this begins with listening. This is not to be confused with hearing. You really need to listen. You want to show the client that you are completely there for them by maintaining eye contact, using a soft, soothing voice, and have attentive body language (sitting close and having a relaxed posture).

The questions you choose to ask are also important. Close ended questions generally require short answers like “yes” and “no”. These are generally only used to answer factual information. Using open ended questions allows for the client to open up and reveal their true feelings. “When the question is posed effectively, it helps move the interview along and allows gathering essential information about the nature of the crisis” (Kanel, 2006 p. 73). Paraphrasing is also an essential skill. This is done by either restating to the client what it is that you thought you heard, or by using the clarifying technique which is just asking a question that would clarify the information just given by the client. “The intent is to encourage elaboration of the statements to let the client know that you, the counselor, have understood or heard the message; to help the client focus on a specific situation, idea, or action; and to highlight content when attention to affect would be premature or inappropriate” (Kanel, 2006 p. 75), all of which shows the client empathy and helps to establish rapport.

Reflection of feelings is a statement to the client that is based on verbal and nonverbal cues given by the client that expresses the emotional expressions of the situation. This helps the client to see that you truly understand them and their feelings and allows them to open up more. “Clients can then express their own feelings about a situation; learn to manage their feelings, especially negative ones; and express their feelings toward the mental health care provider and agency” (Kanel, 2006 p. 76). Summarization is another component to this stage. This helps to bring bits and pieces of the interview together in order to get a greater understanding of what is going on. It helps to transition over to the next stage which is identifying the problem. Stage B is identifying the problem. This step is said to be the post crucial one. This stage begins at identifying the precipitating event. Obviously Jill and her husband have been having ongoing issues, but it is important to gain knowledge of the exact event that brought her in.

This can be done by asking her “What happened that made you decide to come in?” If she answered with a simple “I don’t know” or “I’m not sure” you would need to problem further. If she answered in a vague way, maybe asking her to explain what the final straw in the situation was. “Another reason for specifying the precipitating event is to be able, later on, to explore how the client has been trying to cope since it happened” (Kanel, 2006 p. 82). Next I want to explore her thoughts about the event. “It is clients’ perceptions of stressful situations that cause them to be in a crisis state as well as the inability to cope with the stress” ((Kanel, 2006 p. 82). Jill has confirmed that her husband hits her on a regular basis. She has stated that he has also raped her on several occasions. He threatens her well-being, her job security, other members of her family, as well as her dog even. Jill may be feeling alone, scared, betrayed, and more.

The person who has vowed to love her and protect her is the very person who is harming. “Assessing the client’s perception of the precipitating event is the most important part of the interview and must be done thoroughly on every visit to check for changing views as well as long-standing views on a variety of issues” (Kanel, 2006 p. 83). Next we want to identify impairment in functioning. This is done by understanding how her perceptions and cognitions of the events have caused problems with functions in other areas of her life such as “occupational, academic, behavioral, social, interpersonal, or family functioning” (Kanel, 2006 p. 83). Different perceptions could cause different effects on functioning in the different areas and should be dealt with separately. How we would help her in one area may not work in another area. Jill is often frightened and scared. She has absolutely no social life outside of work and home. She has missed work on several occasions from either injuries sustained from her husband, or he will not physically let her leave the home.

She enjoys her job and stated that at the current time it is th4 only thing that gives her any joy at all, and now she cannot even enjoy that. She is afraid that even when she is at work that he will show up and somehow get her fired. He has also threatened to spread rumors or make up something that would cause her to lose her license altogether. Within this stage you also want to identify any ethical concerns. Is Jill suicidal or homicidal and if so to want degree? Jill confirms that she is neither of the two and just wishes to get help and understand what she should do next. You want to identify if there are any substance abuse issues. Jill says that she does not drink or use drugs at all, but that she believes her husband does (although she has never physically seen it herself). She stated that he used to be so loving and caring. She can think of no other valid reason for his actions and has concluded that it must be due to drugs. Within the last part of this stage it is suggested to identify therapeutic interventions. This is done by “providing supportive statements, educational information, empowering statements, and reframing statements that will aid the client in thinking differently about the situation and assist them in coping with it” (Kanel, 2006 p. 86).

I would first start by letting Jill know that she is not alone. “When she learns that about 30 percent of women live in such relationships, she may feel differently about herself and the abnormality of the situation” (Kanel, 2006 p. 86). Offering literature that discuss what she is going through will help her to get past the feeling that she is the only one going through something of this nature. Offering such statistics and information will increase her knowledge and offer coping skills in managing her cognitive thoughts. “Battered women, rape survivors, and survivors of child abuse often suffer from learned helplessness stemming from the abuse” (Kanel, 2006 p. 87). They begin that they can only survive the situation rather than escape it. To change this cognitive thought process you give her options. This can include confronting her husband in front of others who will help in the situation, calling the police, pressing charges, support groups, shelters, etc. This helps move Jill from a feeling of powerlessness to feeling like she has some type of control over her life and the situation.

Finally, we move on to the final stage of the model, Coping. You start my summing up the events and asking how they have dealt with them in the past. Jill states that she has not done anything but try not to make her husband mad. She said that she did not feel like the “episodes” were occurring often enough to be considered abuse, and did not want to get her husband into trouble. Exploring what has worked and not worked in the past is helpful, especially if Jill is not ready to leave her husband or press charges. From there we will explore and discuss new coping behaviors. Asking Jill how she thinks she will proceed next is a great place to start. She will be more likely to follow the plan if it is one that she has come up with herself. Jill states that she is ready for a change and that she cannot handle being in this situation any longer. She said that she is not willing to go to a shelter at this point because she fears that she will not be able to keep her job and that she feels like that is just running from her husband and the problem. She said that her course of action is to go file charges against her husband and obtain an order of protection.

She believes that she will stay with family until things have subsided to ensure her safety. In Jill’s case I would support her by stating that these are wise choices and that she should feel proud of herself. I would them offer her information of the support groups in the area and what times they are help. Discussing therapy to help her cope with the situation as well as information on marital counseling if she chooses to go that route. This is not to take away from her previous plan, only to offer other solutions for the future.

I would also make sure that she has emergency shelters and numbers to support lines in domestic violence and rape situations. Giving Jill information that will give her knowledge on what to expect as far as legally and medically is important as well. Knowledge on restraining orders, how to obtain one, and what if covers is applicable to give her since she mentioned this in her plan. The final component in this stage is commitment and follow-up. I will ask Jill for a verbal agreement that she will indeed follow through with our plan of action. “This explains why it is best for clients to develop their own coping plans; they are more likely to follow through with a plan they have formulated themselves” (Kanel, 2006 p. 92).


Kanel, K. (2006). A Guide to Crisis Intervention [VitalSouce bookshelf version]. Retrieved from:

Prevention and Crisis Intervention Essay

Crisis In Masculinity Essay

Crisis In Masculinity Essay.

Masculinity is changing not just in the United States, but worldwide as well. The processes for masculinity are changing because, in part, the institution of family is itself transforming. In traditional societies, the family system tended to take the form of the extended family. In extended families, more than two generations of the same kinship line lived together, either in the same residence or in nearby dwellings. All adults in these extended families shared responsibility as a whole but the centrifugal force always stayed within the capacities of the patriarch.

Then, during the Industrial Revolution, the nuclear family became the most common familial system, at least within the Western nations. In the modern world, the smaller nuclear family structure held many advantages over the traditional extended family. Nuclear families helped to promote geographical and social mobility. Smaller families also tended to spend less money simply because there were fewer individuals to provide for. This important social change would have profound effects on how man would be looked.

While the nuclear family offered increased economic feasibilities, the man and wife- who now had to raise the children on their own- sometimes found child rearing to be exhausting and a burden. In addition, the children- to a considerable extent separated from most other family members- would sometimes find themselves alienated from these extended family members. In many respects, the nuclear family engenders a sense of loneliness within offspring. This had a fundamentally derailment of the male offspring psyche.

In the last few decades, the number of “non-traditional” families has skyrocketed. These family structures include single-parent families and reconstituted families (nuclear families in which at least one member is a survivor of divorce). These “non-traditional” families pose special problems for children and particularly for the male child who needed support that is more moral during the growing period. Often, the head of the household in single-parent families does not possess the financial resources to take care of the offspring properly.

In addition, some heads are so busy with work and other adult responsibilities that they cannot provide adequate supervision for the offspring. Reconstituted families face the difficult challenges of creating appropriate relationships among stepparents and stepchildren, between the children of one spouse and the children of the other spouse, and between various new half-brothers, half-sisters, and the existing children. From the parameters of grown-ups, Men and women experience the effects of divorce similarly in many respects.

Men and women both experience shock during and following the separation procedure. Divorce painfully frustrates long-held habits. Many times during the day, former habits must be faced consciously. For most, they provided comfort and happiness, and when the relationship ends, these old comforts and sources of happiness abruptly evaporate. Obviously, established sexual patterns are disrupted, and the disruption can be jarring for many people. Often, it triggers sexual abnormalities.

Some divorced persons become sexually repressed (at least for a time), while others engage in promiscuity. Divorce, for both men and women, can entail ambivalence toward the partner and oneself (Leslie and Korman, 1985). Divorced individuals also experience at times severe stress as they somehow seek out new friendships, new sexual partners, and above all, new lives. The attempt to adjust to the separation is usually accompanied by varying amounts of frustration and emptiness. Economic disruptions also impair mental hygiene for both men and women.

There are, however, some important general differences in how men and women respond to marital separation. Sociologists have noted that, often, men are the first to desire divorce, but that women are generally the first to suggest it. However, these are not hard-and-fast rules. Other sociologists have suggested that women tend to be more emotionally resilient in response to divorce. They are less likely to become reclusive and less likely to assume dangerous, self-destructive behaviors such as smoking or substance abuse.

It can be stated that all these aspects shaped the basic psyche of a modern man and masculinity changes with it at the same time. This is the prime aspect of emotional dependence that a man craves and this would be relevant while discussing the films. THE FIGHT CLUB The film’s narrator, Jack symbolizes the American search for meaning. America may promise freedom, especially to the white man, but Jack’s life is not free. He is bonded in chains to his corporate office job and his IKEA catalogues. He is “on a spiritual train straight to nowhere.

” (Uhls, 2000) The cancer support group gives Jack what he needs – emotional attention. Here people “really listen” and he can cry and feel for the first time. Fight Club is a profoundly dark look at America’s problems of meaning (e. g. slavery to capitalism even where people are supposed to be born into freedom, violence in a land offering justice, consumerization and the distance between have and have nots in a land of community, meaning in a post-modern reality that understands all meaning as a relative cultural and perpetually changing context).

Purely sociologically, Jack may represent the establishment of American patriarchy. Jack’s masculinity has been reduced to tears shed on things he actually does not empathize with – however much he wants to. If Jack is not allowed to express his creativity as a “movie god” or “rock star,” he can create his own god in the theater of his mind that will grant him permission to feel in a more lasting way. Carl Gustav Jung’s findings seem to suggest that each individual psyche has the potential for two opposing personalities: ego and shadow.

Ego controls the psyche, but when ego is disrupted (through Tyler’s cutting frames into the film) or weakened through insomnia or an emotional void (as is evident in Jack’s case), the shadow creeps in to take control. The ego is constructed around societal norms and the desire for behavior, which “fits into society. ” However, Post-Modernity challenges these social norms. The destruction of Jack’s ego also parallels the destruction of American hegemony. (Kar, 2006) In accordance to Marxist Feminist models, the economy is a prime dominant feature of a patriarch.

(Chaudhuri, Shonhini, 2006) THE FULL MONTY A new style of film making developed in England during the early 50’s reflecting the social and sexual changes slowly beginning to be felt as a post-war generation came to maturity. The Full Monty can be said to be influenced by this British New Wave movement in the 1950s–1960s. The product of a post-industrial marketplace and post feminist anxiety, the film depicts the consequences of corporate downsizing while expressing a political viewpoint concerning the plight of Britain’s growing number of unemployed steel workers.

Serious and comic elements of the plot converge thematically to confront the issues of working-class alienation and the confusing demands of modern masculinity. The Full Monty is set in Sheffield, an industrial city in the north of England. The opening of the film establishes the economic status of the city’s past. The promotional short opens the film, which makes a direct link to the location. Sheffield is shown to be a thriving place, but it is clear from the cinematography that this was supposedly shot some time in the past.

Much of the action takes place in an old, disused factory, redundant because of a decline in the steel industry. The factory serves to highlight the present situation of the main characters in that a working life is part of their past and, like the factory, they too are redundant. Sheffield has become some sort of a semi-slum with the only visible increase in anything being the amount of layoffs from steel-factories a once flourishing industry. (King, 2006)

Gaz spends most of his time in the Worker’s Club, a sort of place where jobless people sit around to wait for job offers. He and his friend Dave as well as former supervisor Gerald have been sitting around the club for months without any “call for duty. ” What seemed like a bad break for Gaz has transformed itself into desperation when he cannot afford the 700 pounds of child-support money to his ex-wife. Suddenly facing the possibility of losing custody o f his son, he goes on to concoct an enterprising wild-idea to get the money he desperately requires.

Gaz manages to get the support from the others and they manage to get a few other jobless men to join in their gag: to perform a strip-act at the local pub. Here is a plain struggle to exist rather than the Nitztchiean search for meaning in The Fight Club. Dave and Gerald too have problems their own. There we have it, people with real problems and a not-so-practical solution for them. However, as well as being focused around ‘work’, the film is more to do with identity away from the workplace, as the men search for a way of asserting themselves as individuals now the traditional roles have been eroded.

The Full Monty seems to imply that attempts to reconfigure the relationship itself are as foolhardy as trying to posit an alternative ending to a story that has already been written and filmed. This pessimism carefully weaves itself into the logic of the story. (Lamb, 2004) In tone and premise, The Full Monty denotes a willful deconstruction of the myth of genders to arrive at a positive solution. It has a progressive outlook compared to the dark pessimism of The Fight Club. References: Chaudhuri, Shonhini, 2006, Feminist Film Theorists Mulvey, Silverman, de Lauretis, Creed, New York, Canada, and London: Routledge

Kar, P; (2006); History of Silver screen Economics and Related Applications; Kolkata: Dasgupta & Chatterjee King, H; (2006); Principals Today; Auckland: HBT & Brooks Ltd Lamb, D; (2004); Cult to Culture: The Development of Civilization on the Strategic Strata; Wellington: National Book Trust Leslie, Gerald R. and Korman, Sheila K. (1985). The Family in Social Context (Sixth Edition). Oxford: Oxford University Press Uhls, Jim; 2000; Fight Club, “The Shooting Script”; Wellington: Herbert Press

Crisis In Masculinity Essay

Crisis intervention theory Essay

Crisis intervention theory Essay.

The crisis intervention theory was developed by Linder Mann and Gerald Caplan, this theory however was developed by a team of sociologist, social workers, doctors and counselors, the incident that led to the development of this theory was the coconut clove fire where 493 people perished in a night club in the US. The behavior and thought of people in crises change, they are usually confused, agitated in that they are easily angered, they feel helpless, they feel helpless and headaches. However the two scholars identified two types of crisis situations

Developmental crisis- in this type of crises the situation is predictable example old age crisis.

Situational crisis- this type of crisis is unpredictable and unexpected example natural disasters, fatal illnesses and rape. Techniques of crisis intervention according to this theory – Assessing the events that triggered the crisis. – Assessing the coping strength of the client under normal circumstances. – The human service worker should focus on the target area and give hope to a client.

– The worker should have a plan of action with well planed specific tasks. – The worker should always keep the client in touch with reality and avoid asking question that may hinder the thinking of the client. – The worker should concentrate on obtaining the missing information and concentrate on the present situation and not much on the past. How this helps solve the client’s problem – This intervention strategy helps to give hope and encouragement to the client to coupe with the crisis.

– It also helps to build the confidence of the person in crisis. – By concentrating on a specific task the client changes the way of thinking, feelings and actions. – The model emphasizes that the termination of the services should be done until the client overcomes the crisis. Contribution to crisis intervention This theory has contributed to crisis intervention strategies in that it emphasis that when dealing with a client it does not necessarily mean that the mechanisms that worked in the past can be used in the present situation.

The theory also states that it is not easy to point out people with crises because people interpret crisis differently but the theory states that people make comments such as they cannot cope, they feel helpless and that they are failures, however this theory has contributed to crisis intervention in that it emphasis putting the needs of the clients first. Reference: Albert R. Roberts (2005) Crisis Intervention Handbook: assessment, treatment and research, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Crisis intervention theory Essay

Analysis of President Kennedy’s Cuban Missile Crisis Speech Essay

Analysis of President Kennedy’s Cuban Missile Crisis Speech Essay.

President John F. Kennedy’s inaugural address in January 1961 foreshadowed his Cuban Missile Crisis Speech of October 22, 1962. His steely, resolute admonition to the world in general and to Soviet Chairman Khrushchev in particular made it clear that the president would not and could not tolerate the provocative, extremely dangerous deployment of Soviet nuclear weapons in nearby Cuba. He realized that his paramount goal, for every day of his presidency, was to maintain the security of the United States, and by extension, the free world.

The Soviet’s deceitful and reckless acts and maneuvers in Cuba brought the world to the brink of nuclear annihilation. Our nation and the world can be proud and eternally grateful for Mr. Kennedy’s wise, firm, restrained and reasonable response to the Soviet’s belligerent affront. Strength, determination and a figurative steely stare were clearly and firmly conveyed to the Soviets in the missile crisis speech. This strength of character, embodied in Mr. Kennedy and within the venerable and brave history of the United States and its people, should have already been evident to all those who heard the new president’s inaugural address.

He trumpeted our unwavering commitment toward national security and freedom when he said, “Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and the success of liberty. ” The Soviet’s Cuban encroachment was a threat of the highest order to liberty and freedom. President Kennedy laid out a specific, simple, horrifying picture of the threat that faced the United States and the world when he starkly and frankly described the Soviet nuclear missile threat in the neighboring country of Cuba.

He stated that “unmistakable evidence has established the fact that a series of offensive missile sites is now in preparation on that imprisoned island. The purpose of these bases can be none other than to provide a nuclear strike capability against the Western Hemisphere. ” Cuba embodied the pathos, or pitiful suffering aspect of this scenario because they were a helpless pawn in the hands of the bellicose Soviets. The United States’ ethos and logos were the stern, unwavering principles that guided the president to figuratively stare down the foolish, reckless Soviet aggressors.

Mr. Kennedy recalled the seeds of World War II as a precedent when he said, “The 1930’s taught us a clear lesson: aggressive conduct, if allowed to go unchecked and unchallenged, ultimately leads to war. ” He was prepared to pay any price to unearth these seeds of potential global nuclear war. A catastrophic, potentially world-altering event was seemingly imminent as President Kennedy laid out a series of seven steps in an attempt to avert Armageddon. He spoke to the world and directly to Khrushchev with these firm, non-negotiable steps.

A strict embargo of all military shipments into Cuba was imposed and coupled with a dire, monumental warning to the Soviets: “It shall be the policy of this nation to regard any nuclear missile launched from Cuba…as an attack by the Soviet Union on the United States, requiring a full retaliatory response upon the Soviet Union. ” With this warning, the United States unambiguously reserved the right to unilaterally defend itself from Soviet aggression with a massive nuclear retaliation.

Wisely, in addition to this stark warning, Mr. Kennedy proposed that the Soviets should reconsider the gravity of their provocative actions and withdraw their weapons from Cuba. Kennedy left the Soviets an honorable, face-saving out when he implored them to not “widen or deepen the present crisis” and to participate in “a search for peaceful and permanent solutions. ” Thankfully, the Soviets realized their potentially cataclysmic miscalculation and promptly backed down and withdrew their nuclear weapons from Cuba.

President Kennedy met his responsibility to protect the United States by handling this challenge deftly and superbly, and the American people and the world rightly applauded him. Foreshadowing of this monumental test was contained in Kennedy’s inaugural address, many months prior to the Cuban missile crisis: “In the long history of the world, only a few generations have been granted the role of defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger. I do not shrink from this responsibility—I welcome it. ”

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Analysis of President Kennedy’s Cuban Missile Crisis Speech Essay