Criminal Analysis Paper 

Comprise a comprehensive analysis of all potential threats and vulnerabilities at Richmond.
International Airport. This assessment should be conducted without consideration to, or analysis
of, existing measures. This is your personal assessment based on your knowledge gained from
the information in this course and outside sources (i.e., scholarly, governmental, academic).
Prepare a report reflecting the findings from the analysis.
At a minimum, the assignment should include:
 An introduction that provides a brief outlining the purpose of the report.
 Identification of stakeholders responsible for ensuring security, prevention, and
risk management, discussion of the interdependencies, relationships, and legal
requirements of the stakeholders.
 A description of the threat assessment that outlines all identified threats and hazards and
the potential impact on affected resources (organized by natural, accidental, and
international or malicious).
 A description of the vulnerability assessment that outlines all identified vulnerabilities
using potential impact categories (catastrophic, critical, limited, minor, and negligible);
develop appropriate definitions for each of the categories. Similarly, definitions should
be developed for the likelihood of occurrence (highly likely, likely, possible, unlikely,
remote/rate). Do NOT assign weights or probabilities to each category. This will be
done in the next assignment.
 A summary of your findings. Do NOT make recommendations. This will be done in the
next assignment.
 Length of assignment: 900-1400 words
o Include in the assignment the following; however, note that these are excluded
from the length of the assignment:
 Title Page, References, Two Tables
 Format of assignment: APA
 Number of citations: 4
 Acceptable sources (e.g., scholarly articles published within the last five years)
Note: The Turnitin plagiarism tool will check your assignment for originality.

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Explain the concept of comparative criminal justice.

In Unit VII, you will complete a research paper on a foreign criminal justice system of your choice and familiarize yourself with its law enforcement, court system, and corrections practices.

This assignment will include two parts, but both will be submitted in a single document. In preparation for the research paper, complete both parts as stated below.

Part I: Research Paper Topic

For this part of the assignment, you will identify one foreign criminal justice system as the topic for your research paper.

Explain why you chose this topic and include the information below.

· Explain the concept of comparative criminal justice.

· Identify how a foreign criminal justice system follows the concept of comparative criminal justice.

· How does this foreign criminal justice system compare to the United States?

*This part must be at least two pages in length.

Part II: Annotated Bibliography

For this part of the assignment, provide 4 scholarly resources that support your topic (two of which must come from the CSU Online Library) and will be used as the basis for developing your research paper.

Under each reference, summarize the source and how it applies to your research topic on a foreign criminal justice system.

*Part II should be at least one page in length.

CSU Online Library:

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Group Presentation Rubric

Group Presentation Rubric
You must identify pending legislation (local, state or federal) that impacts nursing directly or indirectly. Identify the sponsor of the bill and where it stands to date. You must research the evidence surrounding the legislation.
With supporting evidence, you must argue for or against the bill. All members of the group need not agree. Each member can present differing arguments. Lastly, you must identify your representative that can impact the bill and send correspondence explaining why they should or should not vote for the bill. You must submit proof that the correspondence was sent and present responses from the legislator. A group report will be submitted to Professor Ford. A presentation will be presented to the entire class. You will be allowed 20-25 minutes to present, allowing each group member 5-6 minutes each.
Criteria Exemplary
Problem Thoughtful description
of the legislation and
the impact on nursing.
Sponsor of the bill
Full description of the
legislation and the
impact on nursing.
Sponsor of the bill
Minimal description of the
legislation and the impact
on nursing. Sponsor of
the bill identified
Void of description of
the legislation and the
impact on nursing.
Sponsor of the bill
Reflection Thoughtful description
of the importance
selected bill to the
group, the challenges,
and the successes
Full description of the
importance selected
bill to the group, the
challenges, and the
Minimal description of the
importance selected bill
to the group, the
challenges, and the
Void of description of
the importance
selected bill to the
group, the challenges,
and the successes
Analysis and
Literature Review
Includes five primary
sources and at least one
secondary source
(sources are explicitly
Literature Review
Includes five primary
sources (sources are
explicitly stated)
Literature Review
Includes three to four
primary sources (sources
are explicitly stated)
Does not include data
from any reliable
sources or sources not
Clearly identifies the
recommendations for
solving the issue
Some identification of
recommendations for
the issue
Limited identification of
the recommendations for
the issue
No identification of the
recommendations for
the issue
Application The recommendation
letter was submitted to
local legislator. Proof of
written response from
The recommendation
letter was submitted
to local legislator.
Proof of written
response from not
The recommendation
letter written but not
submitted to local

The recommendation
letter was not included.
Miscellaneous Group Paper is well
written; has no
grammar or spelling
errors. Proper APA
Group Paper is well
written; has minimal
grammar or spelling
errors with proper
APA format.
Writing is average; has a
few grammar and/or
spelling errors with
proper APA format.
Group paper is poorly
written; has many
grammar and/or
spelling errors. APA not
Visual Aids Slides, posters, and/or
handouts are
professional and easy to
read. Materials enable
speaker to focus on
presentation and provide
Slides contain
appropriate material but
too much text or too
many images/builds.
Handouts and other
materials provide useful
Slides, handouts,
materials with occasional
typos, unclear
organization, and/or
questionable applicability
to presentation. All slides
Typos throughout slides
and materials. Does not
include handouts; too
much text on slides.
Material on slide either is
identical to speaker’s
audience with important
resources for later
information for further
consideration but may
not directly relate to
central topic.
include significant
amounts of text.
speech or completely
disconnected from it.
Organization Contains a clear central
message and clearlyidentifiable sections
featuring purposeful
organizational pattern
Central message is
identifiable; sections of
the speech may vary in
explicit organizational
pattern, which influences
the audience
engagement level or
comprehension of the
central message.
Central message is not
clearly and/or easily
identifiable by audience;
sections may be in need
of further organization
and clarity
Does not contain central
message or identifiable
organizational pattern
Involved audience in
presentation; held their
attention throughout by
getting them actively
involved in the speech
and using original, clever,
creative approach.
Presented facts with
some interesting content;
held attention most of
the time by interacting
with them.
Some related facts but
went off topic and lost
audience. Failed to utilize
method to pull the
audience into the speech.
Speaker fails to hold
audience attention for
half or less of the
Preparation Speakers maintain eye
contact; seldom returning
to notes; Speakers
obviously prepared and
has a solid grasp of the
Speakers maintain eye
contact most of the time
but frequently returns to
notes. Speakers spent
significant time preparing
and appears at ease but
doesn’t elaborate.
Some eye contact, but
not maintained and at
least half the time reads
from notes. Speakers
needed more practice or
knowledge of their topic.
Speakers read all or most
of report with no eye
contact. It is likely the
speaker did not practice
out loud. Unlikely the
speaker would be able to
answer questions about
the topic.
Total Points /100

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Secular and Christian-based Educational Centres

Public Administration

The main difference between secular and Christian-based educational centres is that the latter integrates knowledge regarding God’s truths into the curriculum. At the same time, the former prioritizes science as the source of facts. For instance, in a secular institution, a student is taught from time go that mathematics goes along a long way in representing useful facts. On the other hand, in Christian education, math instructors teach that mathematics is a part of explanations of the various mysterious works of God in the universe. Likewise, this course would be conceived, taught, and understood differently at Belhaven University than at secular education. Consequently, this post refers to five passages in the Old and New Testaments as provided in the Bible gateway (2011) site to briefly discuss the conception and understanding of public administration at a Christian-based institution.

In the first scripture, Psalm 75: 1-8, the main theme is giving thanks to God for his righteous judgment. At Belhaven, public administrators are not only people in the country’s political leadership but also the entire public sector, including justices, law enforcement officers, and village elders. Given the institution is driven by a wide range of Christian values, Belhaven students pursuing public administration would acknowledge and appreciate the biblical direction that God rightly ordained these public servants, which means their judgment represents God’s. Furthermore, verse 7 reiterates the position of God that he remains the Judge of judges whose word puts down one while simultaneously exalting another. At the same time, Mathew 25: 31-36 states that the arrival of the King Jesus Christ will be characterized by separating people into two groups, sheep on the right and goats on the left. This implies the inevitable punishment of individuals who misused God-given gifts and rewards for the righteous servants.

From the above statement, a public administration student at Belhaven understands that God would not allow people he has so far uplifted to lead others to misuse their positions. The second passage, Daniel 2: 2-23 supports this viewpoint by asserting that God gives wisdom, and power, reveals the truth, and knows anything that constitutes lies and darkness. Students would only thank God for these revelations even as they prepare to play an active role in public administration in their respective countries. These students could constructively criticize their leaders, align organizational goals, practices, and activities with Christian values where applicable, and serve as pacesetters in establishing a God-fearing public organizational culture. In other words, they would allow God to guide their actions as Daniel did in Babylon while serving as a provincial governor.

In addition to recognizing the importance attached to God’s active role in judging public leaders and followers based on their performance and his free wisdom and power, Romans 13: 1-6, 1 Peter 2:13-17, and John 19:10-11 emphasize the need for every person to subject themselves to the higher powers. When Jesus refused to answer Pilate, who in turn became angry, threatening to crucify Christ, he reminded the governor that he should base his judgment on God, the source of his governorship and authority, not his mind. At Belhaven, students are made to understand that they must not resist the ordinances by God lest they suffer damnation. As they are prepared for leadership, students understand that their future roles should revolve around perpetuating good and not evil in society. Concisely, a student at a Christian-driven institution would always hold and promote a different and non-radical worldview of public administrators as they view them as representatives of God who are chosen to serve humanity and remain answerable to the higher power.


Bible gateway. (2011). 1 Peter 2:13-17. New International Version (NIV).

Bible gateway. (2011). Romans 13:1-6. New International Version (NIV).

Bible gateway. (2011). John 19:10-11. New International Version (NIV).

Bible gateway. (2011). Matthew 25:31-46. New International Version (NIV).

Bible gateway. (2011). Daniel 2:20-23. New International Version (NIV).

Bible gateway. (2011). Psalm 75:1-8. New International Version (NIV).

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Self-Incrimination/Inculpation: Evolution

Slide 1: Title

Self-Incrimination/Inculpation: Evolution

Slide 2: Introduction

Self-incrimination, also known as self-inculpation, refers to the act of exposing oneself to a pending criminal prosecution by testifying against or oneself.

In most cases, self-incrimination is a product of interrogation, while some self-incriminate voluntarily.

Given the complexity attached to self-incrimination, the United States Constitution, through the Fifth (5th) Amendment, protects individuals from coercion or compulsion or the use force a means have the person incriminate himself or herself.

The 5th Amendment achieves this by restricting the prosecution process, especially when the case is criminal. These restrictions go a long way in prohibiting any forms of self-incrimination, as well as double jeopardy by mandating the much-needed due process.

Besides the various protections under the 5th Amendment, states and the federal government also have laws that help with protecting a person from self-incrimination. Unlike federal law, the states remain permitted to establish and offer more self-inculpation-related restrictions.

Slide 3: Presentation Objectives

In response to the key role played by the 5th Amendment, especially the self-incrimination clause, this presentation seeks to achieve the following specific objectives:

  1. To identify eight (8) case laws, in order of their occurrence, which has so far defined the evolution of the self-incrimination laws in the U.S.
  2. To determine whether self-inculpation protections only apply to criminal cases or there are circumstances in which they can be extended to civil ones?
  3. To assess whether self-incrimination restrictions should be applied during the pre-trial proceeding or at trial.
  4. To conclude with a suggestion regarding what the future holds for the self-incrimination in the criminal justice system.

Slide 3: First Case

Griffin v. California, 380 U.S. 609 (1965)

The role of the self-incrimination clause when it comes to protecting the defendant’s decision to testify featured in this case. In particular, Edward Dean Griffin, the plaintiff, was convicted of murdering Essie Hodson. By the time of his conviction, the defendant had been convicted multiple times. However, he failed to give any forms of testimony at the trial. When the case was heard in the U.S. Supreme Court, the majority of the presiding justices held the lower court’s ruling, arguing that the accused’s silence does not mean an admission of guilt and that the 5th Amendment recognizes and protects his right not to testify.

Moreover, the court established the no-comment rule, which denies parties to the country’s judicial system, including the prosecutors and judges, from making adverse comments about the defendant’s failure to take a given stand in the whole process of a criminal trial. From this case, it is evident that the court stressed the importance of the self-inculpation clause during the pre-trial and at trial proceedings by forbidding anyone from drawing inferences with far-reaching negative effects from the accused acknowledgment and appreciation their right under the 5th Amendment.

Slide 4: Second Case

Malloy v. Hogan, 378 U.S. 1 (1966)

Before proceeding to the Supreme Court, Mallow was on probation for a gambling misdemeanor. However, he was ordered or compelled to present testimony before a state court-appointed referee, a demand that he refused, arguing that by testifying, he would self-incriminate. The state court convicted Mallow on the ground that he was not in a position to prove how the testifying before the said referee would for a long way in incriminating him. In contrast, the U.S. Supreme Court reversed the decision following a lawsuit against Hogan by Malloy, reasoning that “when it comes to determining if a law enforcement officer engaged in a proper collection of a confession, the Court or parties involved must prioritize whether or not he or she made the statements voluntarily.” Consequently, this case supported the premise of the self-incrimination clause that revolves around the prohibition of implied, as well as the direct influence on obtaining the perceived evidence (Allen & Mace, 2004).

Slide 5: Third Case

Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U.S. 436 (1966)

Besides the case pitting Malloy against Hogan in which the Supreme Court established the procedure to follow in obtaining evidence, focusing on the use of force, in Miranda v. Arizona (1966), the court introduced another rule that whenever the authorities have proceeded to take a person into custody or deprive him or her of their freedom by being subjected to questioning, then the authority figures are playing a leading role in jeopardizing the privilege provided by the 5th Amendment against self-incrimination. Under this circumstance, the individuals remain protected by the 5th Amendment. Most importantly, the authorities must make the person aware of her or his rights, such as remaining silent and access to an attorney. Failure to invoke these Miranda rights makes the self-incriminating statements made by the individual inadmissible in a court of law. In other words, the primary purpose of the goal of this notification involves preserving the admissibility of the accused statement during custodial interrogation.

Slide 6: Fourth Case

Schmerber v. California, 384 U.S. 757 (1966)

In this case, the court had to grapple with the question of unwarranted intrusion regarding personal privacy and dignity. In its ruling that convicted the petitioner, the Supreme Court narrowly interpreted an individual’s right to self-incrimination. Schmerber’s car caused an accident. When taken to the hospital, the police officer asked the hospital to draw the driver’s blood, which was tested, with the result showing Schmerber had drunk above the accepted or legal limit. Although the petitioner sought protection from the self-incrimination clause under the 5th Amendment, the court admitted the blood sample as evidence, arguing that it did not constitute either a communicative or writing act involving Schmerber. In other words, by upholding the ruling that convicted the petitioner or driving under the influence (D.U.I.), the court interpreted the self-incrimination clause as only protecting a person from compulsion or coercion to testify against themselves. In their view, the test conducted was reasonable and free from compulsion.

Slide 7: Fifth Case

Kastigar v. the United States of America, 406 U.S. 441 (1972)

The criminal judicial procedure followed in this case created a new dimension of the self-incrimination as the justices had to balance the concepts of contempt of court, according to 18 U.S.C. 6002-6002, immunity conferred to the accused and witness pursuant to 18 U.S.C. 6002-6003. Given the government’s understanding that the petitioners were most likely to invoke the privilege granted to them by the self-incrimination, it applied to the Central District of California, pleading with the court to subpoena the petitioners to appear and produce the much-needed evidence by answering questions. The petitioners responded by opposing the issued order, arguing that the immunity lacked the ability to supplant the protections under the self-incrimination clause. Although the court agreed with the fact that the petitioners have the right not to testify, it found them guilty of contempt of court for failing to adhere to the judge’s order even after been assured of immunity by the government. The outcome of the cases shows that an individual can be compelled to self-incriminate by the judge’s order.

Slide 8: Sixth Case

Beckwith v. the United States, 425 U.S. 341 (1976)

Although, over the years, there has been contention regarding the applicability of the self-incrimination clause in other matters, civil cases, such as tax-related issues, the Supreme Court’s ruling, in this case, proved otherwise. A non-custodial interview conducted by the Internal Revenue Service (I.R.S.) agents saw the petitioner, Beckwith, self-incriminate. As a result, Beckwith opposed the approach taken by the I.R.S. agents, citing harassment and coercion, which compelled her to make self-incriminating statements. The court established that the interview in question was not undertaken in a police-dominate environment, which means the safeguards that often apply in custodial atmospheres should not exist in this case. Despite this acknowledgment, the court argued that individuals are entitled to some protection when it comes to non-custodial tax and related matters. For instance, the court suggested that the I.R.S. agents should have given the accused appropriate warnings before the interview.

Slide 9: Seventh Case

Olevik vState, 302 Ga. 228, 806 S.E.2d 505 (2017)

As mentioned in the introductory part, states throughout the U.S. tend to grand more self-incrimination protections than does the federal law under the 5th Amendment. This fact manifested in Olevik v. State (2017) in which the Georgia Supreme Court established or found that the State does only protect testimony but also acts that are most likely to generate or produce incriminating evidence. Unlike Schmerber v. California (1966), in which the U.S. Supreme Court admitted blood samples as evidence, Georgia Supreme Court added additional protections by denying evidence that could have resulted from the petitioner blowing his deep lung air into a Breathalyzer.

Slide 10: Eighth Case

Chavez v. Martinez (01-1444) 538 U.S. 760 (2003)

This is one of the recent cases in which the U.S. Supreme Court reversed the U.S. Court of Appeals rulings. In this case, Ben Chavez, a law enforcer, allegedly coerced Oliverio Martinez to make incriminating statements. In its ruling, the Ninth Circuit of the Court of Appeals found that Chavez could not be granted immunity for violating the defendant’s constitutional rights. However, the Supreme Court opposed the decision, arguing that Martinez was not in a position to establish how Chavez violated his 5th and 14th Amendments rights. In reversing the previous ruling, the court reasoned that denying to deprive Chavez immunity was unnecessary because Martinez’s statements were never presented nor used against him in a court of law. The case’s outcome demonstrated that it is unclear when the self-incrimination rule begins, with the Court of Appeals suggesting that it can be invoked at pre-trial, while the Supreme Court was basing its decision on the applicability of the clause at trial.

Slide 11: Conclusion

The eight cases reviewed regarding the evolution of self-incrimination have so far played a leading role in shaping when to apply the clause, its scope, and procedures followed by law enforcers and key players in the judicial system. In particular, some suggest that a person’s right against any form of self-inculpation remains confined at trial. In contrast, others believe it applies in criminal and civil cases. At the same time, some of these case laws, especially Miranda v. Arizona (1966), require the law enforcer to inform the suspect of their right to remain silent and access to an attorney lest the statements the accused made would be inadmissible in the court of law. Moreover, several cases render an individual’s right to self-incrimination when they are found guilty of contempt of court. The various courts in the U.S. are inconsistent when it comes to their holdings. Consequently, the future of the self-incrimination clause would most likely involve the courts adopting its application to pre-trial, as well as at trial proceedings.

Slide 12: References

Allen, R. & Mace, M. (2004). The self-incrimination clause explained, and its future predicted. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 94(1), Article 1.

Duane, J. (2015). The extraordinary trajectory of Griffin v. California: The aftermath of playing fifty years of scrabble with the Fifth Amendment. Stanford Journal of Criminal Law and Policy, 3(1),

Miranda Warning Organization. (2020). What are your Miranda rights?

Tracz, E. (2019). Doctrinal evolution and the right against self-incrimination, 18 U.N.H. L. Rev. 109. The University of New Hampshire Law Review, 18(1), Article 29.

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Define and discuss Mens Rea and Actus Reus.

3-1 (200-250 words, 1 Reference, 1 in-text APA citation) Discuss the purpose of legal causation. How does legal causation assist in prosecuting criminals? What is dependent intervening cause?

3-2 (200-250 words, 1 Reference, 1 in-text APA citation) Discuss the distinction between the principle, the accessory before the fact, and after the fact. Describe how modern American law treats these individuals.

(This one needs to be put on the APA sheets attached, not on here.) In 750-1,000 words, do the following:

  1. Define and discuss Mens Rea and Actus Reus.
  2. Analyze why these fundamental principles of criminal law are necessary to create a crime.
  3. Discuss the difference between general intent and specific intent crimes.

Use two to three scholarly resources to support your answers.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Class Resources if you need assistance.

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How should investigators handle trace evidence that is stuck on an object found at the crime scene? Explain the exception to this procedure.

Law enforcement officers and crime scene technicians must use caution and protect themselves at all times from contracting AIDS or hepatitis. Bodily fluids must always be treated as though they were infectious. Crime scene technicians most often use dust particle masks or N-95 masks at routine crime scenes. They are considered the most common type of respiratory protection. These masks are considered to be disposable and should be discarded ­after one use.

It is imperative that all personnel involved in entering and processing the crime scene wear personal protective equipment (PPE). This consists of items of clothing that are non-porous, such as crime scene suits, nitrile gloves (double gloving recommended), face masks, and eye protection. These items will protect the CSI from exposure to blood-borne pathogens, most chemical and drug residues, and other contaminants that are health hazards. In addition, hair nets and booties over the shoes will help avoid contamination of the crime scene.

Research the following points, and write a 5–7-page paper fully explaining each point:

  • Identify and explain 4 exceptions to the exclusionary rule established by the U.S. Supreme Court that allow for the search and/or seizure of evidence without a warrant.
  • Patent medicines used to be dispensed by pharmacists in powder form using a pharmacist’s or druggist’s fold. Explain this method of packaging and why it has been adopted by Crime Scene Investigators for packaging trace evidence.
  • How should investigators handle trace evidence that is stuck on an object found at the crime scene? Explain the exception to this procedure.
  • When a motor vehicle, boat, or aircraft is present, what special considerations should the Crime Scene Investigator take?

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The Classical and Positivist Schools of Criminology

The Classical and Positivist Schools of Criminology

The classical and positivist schools of criminology are the two main approaches used to deal with criminal acts in modern society.  The main idea behind the two approaches is to create sufficient strategies to stop deviant behaviors considered dangerous in society.

The classical school of criminology sought to reduce the harshness of the 18th-century judicial systems. Bentham, one of the contributors of the classical theory of criminology, posits that punishment in the form of infliction of pain should always be justified in terms of the greater good.  According to Bentham, human behavior is directed towards maximizing pleasure and minimizing pain (Materni, 2013). Additionally, citizens are rational and logical being. Therefore, people make rational decisions to commit a crime. The offender thinks about the crime by considering the positive and the negative consequences of the crime (Materni, 2013). In the event that the immediate gain of the crime outweighs the consequences of the punishment, the offender will choose to commit the crime. Therefore, the best way to reduce crime is to impose harsh punishment to act as the deterrent. However, the classical criminology theory is guided by the principle that provides that the punishment should fit the crime.

According to the classical view, the punishment of an individual for a crime should be justified and justifiable only for its contribution to the prevention of future infringements on the happiness and well-being of others. Subsequently, quick and sure trials rather than severe punishments should be used to deter crime in the society. Beccaria accentuated that punishment should only be imposed only on those found guilty and punishment determination should remain strictly in accordance with the damage caused to society by the crime (Harcourt, 2013). Beccaria added that cruel laws act as an incentive to crime since they diminish human spirit. Similarly, Bentham was of the idea that the punishment should apply just enough pain to offset the pleasure gained from the offense.

On the other hand, the positivist theory of criminology posits that criminal behaviors have their own distinct set of characteristics. Subsequently, a person is predisposed to criminal lifestyle since he born a criminal and not made one. Unlike the classical theory that posits that humans have a free will, conscious and rational choice to commit a crime, the positivist theory posits that individual’s behaviors are determined by biological, sociological and physiological factors (Raine, 2008). Subsequently, the positivist proposes rehabilitation (treatment plan) instead of punishment for crime.

Despite the different views about crime from the two theoretical approaches, the positivist and the classical theory transmit the same idea that criminal behavior can be controlled and is as a result of human nature (Harcourt, 2013). However, the real school is centered on reforming the offender to eliminate the factors that cause the offender’s criminal behavior. On the other hand, the classical school proposes retribution whereby, crime is based on an individual’s free will.

The classical school is criticized for proposing the one-size-fits-all solution and quick fix to crime. It is also criticized for mandatory sentencing that adds billions of dollars to incarcerate offenders who would be better persons in the community through rehabilitation. Additionally, overcrowding in prisons, excessive taxation to sustain prisons and the use of billions of dollars in the process of law enforcement also undermines the effectiveness of the classical school of criminology.


Harcourt, B. E. (2013). Beccaria’s’ On Crimes and Punishments’: A Mirror on the History of the Foundations of Modern Criminal Law.

Materni, M. C. (2013). Criminal punishment and the pursuit of justice. Brit. J. Am. Legal Stud.2, 263.

Raine, A. (2008). The biological crime: implications for society and the criminal justice system. Revista de Psiquiatria do Rio Grande do Sul30(1), 5-8.

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Explain the difference between patrol and other roles within a police department

Imagine you are a police officer asked to give a presentation for new recruits to introduce them to patrol work and crime prevention strategies employed to maintain public safety.

Create a slide Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation in which you:

  • Explain the difference between patrol and other roles within a police department. What are 3 functions of patrol work? Provide an example of each.
  • Describe different types of patrol and how each affects crime and community relations.
  • Identify at least 2 improvements or innovations that have been incorporated to aid in patrol. How does each improve police patrol work?
  • State the difference between reactive and proactive crime prevention strategies used by the police.

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Criminological Theory Research Paper


· 4-6 pages in length – make sure the paper is at least 4 FULL PAGES! You will receive a ZERO if the paper is short.

· A minimum of 3 sources

· Citations in the paper – and a works cited page at the end



The importance of theory: This paper will be a reflective paper where you critically analyze the theory’s roots and develop a hypothesis as to why theory is important in studying the criminal justice system. This paper will be 4-6 pages in length.  Your paper must include (1) the name and theorist of your chosen topic, (2) a brief description of the important aspects of the theory, (3) how the theory can be useful to practical application, (4) why do you think the theory is useful and needed in criminal justice study?


Theory Topic

Anomie Theory

Developed by Emile Durkheim, the Anomie theory is a sociological theory that suggests that a lack of clear social norms often results in deviant behavior such as crime. This theory is based on the idea that when a society is in a state of change and upheaval, it can lead to a breakdown in the established social regulations and norms that define it. This can result in individuals feeling disconnected from their communities or feeling as though they have no clear purpose in life, leading to feelings of alienation and, ultimately, a lack of social control. There has been a lot of literature that addresses the topic. The annotated bibliography regarding Anomie theory will be discussed in detail.

Bernburg, J. G. (2019). Anomie theory. In  Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice.

This article addresses the origins of anomie theory and its relationship to classical sociology. It begins by briefly explaining Emile Durkheim and what led him to develop anomie theory. It provides meaningful insights on those pushing the theory, including individuals such as Robert Merton, who was responsible for re-formulating anomie theory and introducing particular malintegration of culture as part of the theory.

This article provides meaningful insights into the theorists responsible for the theory. This helps to provide context for the theory. One of the major challenges of sociology is that many of its practitioners do not accommodate the many different cultures and contexts associated with the application of theories. This is why this article is essential. It provides meaningful insights into the theory and the context in which its innovators brought it.

Waring, E., Weisburd, D., & Chayet, E. (2020). White-collar crime and anomie. In  The legacy of anomie theory (pp. 207-225). Routledge.

This article investigates what causes white-collar crime. This kind of crime is often associated with the affluent in society. The authors use anomie theory to explain it as one of the reasons why white-collar crime is prevalent in the current society. Many in sociology and criminology often argue that crime and poverty are linked, meaning that in areas where there are high poverty levels, there are often high crime levels. However, this statement is not true when it comes to white-collar crime. The fathers of the anomie theory, such as R.K. Merton, rejected theories that associated crime and poverty. This is why anomie theory is the appropriate theory to be used to explain white-collar crime.

This article helps to bring perspective to some of the uses of anomie theory in criminology. The over-reliance on one criminology theory often leads to a bias, which can affect the proper analysis and interpretation of a crime. Anomie theory provides an alternative to understanding crime. This article helps explain how the anomie theory is useful both in practical application and criminal justice study.

Williams III, F. P., & McShane, M. D. (2010).  Criminology theory: Selected classic readings. Routledge.

This book provides insights into several theories associated with criminology. One of these theories is the anomie theory. It provides insights into Durkheim’s thoughts on the theory and the heritage of the theory. The book also explains the theory and how it has been adapted. It details the theory and how it is applied in contemporary society.

This book provides insights into the important aspects of the theory. It explains that many of society’s members share common values, which teach them what they should strive for and the appropriate ways to achieve these goals. In the absence of the stressing of these means, an anomie condition is created. The book also discusses the dilemma between societies that place too much emphasis on stressing the goals, which puts stress on members of society, and the disorganization that comes with failing to have order in society. This book provides a description of important aspects of the theory.

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