Sociology – Crime in Trinidad and Tobago Essay

Sociology – Crime in Trinidad and Tobago Essay.

In Trinidad and Tobago, crime has always been a major topic of public and political debate. It is often seen as a sign of underlying problems in society which is related to inequality, social deprivation, social class, gender and age. Although Durkheim (1938, first published in 1895) argued that crime is an inevitable and normal aspect of life, people continue to perceive the Caribbean as a place that is growing increasingly dangerous, and these fears can have devastating consequences on citizens regardless of age or sex.

Over the past few decades, crime has continued to increase in every category including murders, rapes, assaults, robberies, burglaries and thefts. These crime rates in the Caribbean have been found to be higher than in any other region of the world, and are significantly above the world average. The media is one of the main sources of mass communication which provides us with information. Advances in technology and globalization have brought the world to one’s fingertips with easy access to the internet and other forms of mass communication.

However, this rise in the development of the media has coincided with the rise in popularity of ‘criminal’ television programs, access to cable, electronic games and the internet. As such, individuals are connected to more violence and this increases fear among people based on what they have observed via the media. This is supported by O’Keefe (1987), who indicated that greater attention to televised news was related to subsequent increased fear, concern and avoidance behavior.

In this situation, the public’s perceptions of behaviors or groups of persons are tainted as the media coverage greatly exaggerates their potential for harm to the larger society. This generates further anxiety and fear of crime among the population and may result in people altering their ways of life. Fear of crime is defined as an emotional reaction characterized by a sense of danger and anxiety produced by the threat of physical harm.

Reed (1998) emphasizes that it is a serious individual and community level problem, influencing people’s ability to move freely from place to place on a regular basis. Generally, for a person to experience fear of crime, that individual had to be a victim of crime. However, one can also encounter fear of crime if one’s spouse, family members, friends, colleagues or neighbors had experiences of criminal victimization, as the opinions of ‘significant others’ are important in shaping an individual’s lifestyle (Moriarty 1988).

Stafford (2007) argues that fear of crime impacts the quality of life of the individual and results in a restriction of one’s lifestyle. This poor quality of life causes people to alter their routine or the way they live their daily lives. Hence, persons may limit how many times they leave their home, the places which they visit and the time when they go about their business. As such, individuals who experience a greater fear of crime tend to adopt a constrained lifestyle in an effort to reduce their probability of being victimized.

As a result of avoidance and restriction in response to fear of crime, people also tend to limit their physical activity, take less exercise and limit their social activities (Stafford 2007). Therefore, they are less likely to engage in outdoor activities such as walking and cycling and this ultimately reduces the number of opportunities for them to form social ties within the community.

Furthermore, the inactivity that results when persons change their lifestyle in respond to crime, impacts their physical and mental health increasing their risk of cardiovascular disease, and their overall psychological well-being and mental functioning. Crime in a community can affect the economic growth of society and can prevent both domestic and foreign investments to the economy. Within a community, employers who fear crime may close their businesses earlier to ensure the safety of both themselves and their customers and people may restrict entertainment at night for the same reason.

Since the curfew has been implemented for a specific time period in Trinidad and Tobago,many businesses in the heart of Port-of-Spain like night clubs and food outlets have had a great lost of income. This have causes businesses to lose out on sales and their profits will be reduced. Crime also results in great costs to the public resulting in stolen goods, loss of lives, security spending, pain and suffering. As such, fear of crime motivates people to invest time and money in defensive measures to reduce their vulnerability.

Sociology – Crime in Trinidad and Tobago Essay

Forensics as a Crime Scene Investigator Essay

Forensics as a Crime Scene Investigator Essay.

Thesis Statement

Forensic is a field of that deals with psychology and the law. Forensic is defined as the intersection of psychology and the law. Forensics is the application of science to questions which are of interest to the legal system. For example, forensic pathology is the study of the human body to determine cause and manner of death.

Introductory Paragraph

Forensics will be my area of study where I will have to determine the cause and manner of death. As a Crime Scene Investigator, I will be scouring a crime scene for evidence.

This is a science, and a field that has a growing in importance. Michigan State University has the nation’s oldest and largest forensic science program. As a Crime Scene Investigator you have to collect, analyze, walk through a virtual crime scene where a murder has occurred, and estimate when the victim was murdered. Then construct a report dealing what I have uncovered and offer an estimated time of death.

After I graduate from EVC University I will pursue a career as a Crime Scene Investigator. I will be in charge of investigating Crimes scenes, collecting and analyzing evidence and testifying in court in when needed. I will have to go through law enforcements organizations that have been trained or gone through special certification courses. As a CSI investigator I will be specializing in areas of forensic science. Crime Scene Investigators have to be able to collect and analyze evidence. CSI have to be able to work in a stressful environment hazardous work conditions. You must be available at all times no matter what time of the day.

CSI have to perform technical forensic analysis. I will have to be thorough and accurate to document a crime scene including evidence that I have collected so that officers and attorneys can use that evidence for solving and prosecuting crimes. CSI has to work regular hours sometimes they have to work longer hours if not overnight to solve a crime scene. (Hineman, 2011) Crime Scene Investigators annual salary $55,040 which means they make $26.46 hour. Some agencies offer bonuses which mean that another $5,000 can be added to your salary. Some agencies require a four year degree but not all. CSI requires educational requirements in chemistry, and anatomy, and criminal law. (Hineman, 2011)

Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary with Thesaurus. (n.d.). Zane . Zane Publishing. Google. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Hineman, G. (2011, July 10). MSN. Retrieved from investigator-job description

Forensics as a Crime Scene Investigator Essay

Racial Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System Essay

Racial Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System Essay.

It is generally agreed that discrimination based on racial or ethnic origin is morally wrong and a violation of the principle of equality. Race refers to groups of persons who are relatively alike in their biological inheritance and are distinct from other groups. Ethnicity is a cultural phenomenon referring to a person’s identification with a particular cultural group. Racism in its most general sense can be defined as “social practices which (explicitly or implicitly) attribute merits or allocate values to members of racially categorized groups solely because of their ‘race’”.

The issue of racial discrimination in the criminal justice system is controversial because there is substantial evidence confirming both individual and systemic biases. Although, many people believe there is no systematic racism in criminal justice; research in the past and present displays racial minorities are treated unfair and unjust in all aspects of the criminal justice system. African Americans and Hispanics for decades have accused law enforcement officers of racial profiling (Banks 66).

Solid evidence of discrimination exists in many stages of the criminal justice process, including the police use of deadly force and the application of the death penalty.

There are at least three aspects to racism: personal prejudice; ideological racism, where culture and biology are used to rationalize and justify the superior position of a dominant culture; and institutional racism, where the policies and practices of institutions operate to produce systematic and continuing differences between racial groups (Banks 67). To determine whether racial discrimination exists within the criminal justice system, criminologists have conducted research studies that have examined the major decision points within criminal justice systems in the United States (Banks 68).

Many report suggests that racial discrimination does occur at some points in the criminal justice system. Following the Rodney King incident, the report of the Independent Commission on the Los Angeles Police Department (also called the Christopher Commission) (1991) found that there was excessive use of force by LAPD officers and that this was compounded by racism and bias (Banks 69).

An agreement about racism exists among criminal justice administrators, policymakers, and academics. The conclusion that racial discrimination is proven to be in the justice system certainly does not follow from the research on the subject. But a majority of scholars would certainly agree that there is a substantial body of evidence proving that racial bias inheres in certain practices and policies of both the criminal justice and juvenile justice systems.

The controversy about racial discrimination in the criminal justice system remains unresolved. While most research proposes an absence of systematic racial discrimination, there is agreement among researchers that acts of discrimination does occur at specific decision-making points. Regardless of the conclusions of research studies, there is a widespread belief among minorities that the system discriminates against them and is therefore unjust (Banks 84).

Works Cited
Quigley, Bill. “Fourteen Examples of Racism in Criminal Justice System.” The Huffington Post., 26 July 2010. Web. 15 Apr. 2014.

Banks, Cyndi. Criminal Justice Ethics: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, 2013. Print.

ABC 20/20 What Would You Do Vandals Racism In America Pt. 1
ABC 20/20 What Would You Do Vandals Racism In America Pt. 2

Racial Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System Essay

Models of Organized Crime Executive Summary Essay

Models of Organized Crime Executive Summary Essay.

There are two types of organizations within the criminal justice field they are bureaucratic and patron-client organizations. The bureaucratic organization is an organization that enforces the law. However, the patron-client organization chooses to break the law. There are many differences between the groups, but there are a few things that they have in common. This paper will describe the difference between the main models of organized crimes and explain why the models are necessary for understanding crime.

Models of Organized Crime Executive Summary

The patron-client organization is an association of criminal clients who exchange material and assemble a successful system between the main bosses and prominent political figures.

The organization is structured using its hierarchy system that contains one main boss, an underboss, an advisor, Captain, and members (Lyman and Potter, 2007). The organization has a tight bond between the members that exhibits loyalty to each other. As a result, the boss provides protection to their members.

The main boss delegate duties to the underboss.

The underboss then provides that information to his captains. The captains have members who carry out the tasks also known as doing their dirty work. These commands allow the bosses to stay clear of law enforcement evade apprehension and continue to conduct business as usual. (Lyman and Potter, 2007)

Bureaucratic and Patron-client Organizations

Bureaucratic organizations are more formal than the patron-client organization. The bureaucratic structure consists of tougher rules and regulations, and no decisions exist without prior approval. In the patron-client organization, decisions can be made by other members as long as it benefits the organization. Bureaucratic organizations hold the administrators responsible for financial troubles. The patron-client organization holds everyone financially responsible because it involves all members of the success or failure of the organization (Lyman and Potter, 2007).

Similarities and differences

Criminal organizations resemble the same comparisons. The main purpose is for law enforcement to understand the development of these organizations. According to Mallory (2007) Expert psychologists, sociologist, and criminologist basis models on supporting research, statistics, facts, and information gathered. The information collected focuses on the organizational structure, purpose, cause, members, and its clientele. Each model has incorporated detail specific unique features.

Why the models are necessary for understanding organized crime

Models are of importance because it recognizes the organization by providing a wide-range of information. This information is very useful to law enforcement because it allows them to invent new strategies of how to deter, prevent, detect and arrest these individuals involved in these organizations. (Lyman and Potter, 2007)

The patron-client and bureaucratic organization has one main purpose that is profit. This organization whether legal or illegal has similarities and differences. The structure in both primarily exists with one person in charge of monitoring the success of the organization. These models provide useful information the same as theories. (Lyman and Potter, 2007) Law enforcement uses these tools to allow them, to protect assets while detecting, preventing, apprehending, and deterring the individual’s wrongdoers or a highly developed criminal organization. (Lyman and Potter, 2007) Organized crime is considered as a legitimate institution that makes it harder for its members to be caught by law. Although these organized crime units are sworn to secrecy, police enforcement is continuously looking for ways to apprehend and take down these organizations.

Lyman, D., & Potter, G. (2007). Understanding Organized Crime (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Mallory, S. L. (2007). Understanding Organized Crime. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Models of Organized Crime Executive Summary Essay

Crime Does Not Pay Essay

Crime Does Not Pay Essay.

Chris Paciello could be aptly described as a violent nice-looking hoodlum and lover. There was not much account on Paciello’s childhood life. However, his real name was Christian Ludwigzen and he was identified as a “thug wrapped up” in New York’s mob scene prior to his reinvention of himself in Miami. From 1987 to 1993, he was engaged in various robberies and theft cases, robbing establishments such hardware stores, video shops and pharmacies, and even pet store. He was also involved in some club and bar brawls and became in touch with the notorious gang of violent Brooklyn mobster.

However, when things got rough with him, he fled to Miami to start a fresh new life. He reinvented himself, and transformed the Miami Beach area into a prime nightlife destination through his club Liquid which became the hottest place in America, using ill-gotten funds which he extracted from his robbery activities and his connection with the gang of violent mobster back in Brooklyn.

Thus, Paciello was making legal money from his illegal funds, and making good reputation in the eyes of the public out of his relationships with famous women.

In other words, he became a better person for being a womanizer. Pacillo’s connections with very popular people worked best for him as he quickly complete his own transformation. From a notorious robber connected to a dreaded gang of violent mobster, he is now a respectable, rich businessman, and lover of highly socialite women. His past crimes were already covered by the make-over he had made. He is now somebody who is greatly contributing to Miami’s economy. The question therefore is, if a person is contributing significantly to the economy, can he find favor in the law?

Perhaps this could be the reason that many of his previous court cases were either dissolve or he got acquitted. But as the saying goes “Crime does not pay,” justice never sleep. His connection with outlawed mobsters leads to his own downfall as various cases sprang up against him including a homicide case. According to one law enforcer, Paciello was facing 30 years to life in jail but this was commuted to seven years imprisonment because he gave information about the bigger bosses of the violent mobsters. Could this be a form of bribery? I do not know, but it surely does him a great deal of favor.

Crime Does Not Pay Essay

Cyber Crime Research Paper Essay

Cyber Crime Research Paper Essay.

Can anyone who uses a computer be a victim to cybercrime? Yes, anyone who uses a computer has a chance of being a victim of cybercrime. Cybercrime has become a big issue in today’s society. Cybercrime is defined as crimes committed on the internet using a computer as either a tool or a targeted victim(Razali). Cybercrime can be committed by many people like computer geeks looking for bragging rights to businesses trying to gain an upper hand in the marketplace by hacking competitor websites, Rings of criminals wanting to steal your personal information and sell it on black markets, or spies and terrorists looking to rob our nation of vital information or to launch cyber strikes(Computer Intrusions).

Cybercrime can be used many ways.The two main cause of cybercrime are identity theft and internet stalking. Cybercrime is very bad and and can hurt many people physically and mentally, people need to be more aware of the ways to get around cybercrime.

Identity theft is one of the main cause of cybercrime. Identity theft, also know as ID theft is a crime in which a criminal obtains key pieces of personal information, such as social security numbers or driver’s license numbers, to pose as someone else(Razali).

There are many kinds of identity theft. There is Criminal identity theft(posing as another person when apprehended for a crime), Financial Identity theft(using anothers identity to obtain credit, goods and services), Identity cloning(using anothers information to assume his or her identity in daily life),Medical identity theft(using anothers identity to obtain medical care or drugs), and Child identity theft(Wikipedia). Many people out in the worlds try to steal peoples wallets, phone, purses and other belongings in plain site or while you are away from your belongings, But what are people trying to steal from you on the internet. Identity thefts on the internet can be stealing many of things. They can be taking bank accounts, credit card numbers, or anything else that is someones personal information. Identity theft is bad and shouldn’t be committed. There are many ways of obtaining this information.

People will rummage through rubbish for personal information(dumpster diving), Retrieve personal data from redundant IT equipment and storage media including PCs,servers,PDAs, mobile phones, USB memory sticks and hard drives that have been disposed of carelessly. They are many more ways to also do this. Identity theft is bad because it can cause many people harm. The victims of identity theft can suffer from adverse consequences if they are held responsible for the perpetrators actions(Wikipedia). They could be sent to jail, prison or if it is really that bad they could die over identity theft. If you were associated in takeover identity theft, than the imposter just used stolen information to gain access to the persons existing accounts(Razali). If you were associated in true name identity theft then the imposter used personal information to open new accounts( Razali). The imposter might open a new credit card account, phone account, etc.

Some may however say that Identity theft is good, and they would be right. Identity theft is good for the government, police and FBI. They could use identity theft to catch a imposter causing a lot of harm. They could use it to take down another country that is doing ours harm. They could even make themselves look like a identity theft to see what other are planning. This could help stop it and save many people lives, money, homes, families and mainly their identities. Cyberstalking in the second biggest cause of internet crime. Cyberstalking is the use of internet or other electronic means to stalk or harass an individual, a group, or an organization(Wikipedia).

A number of key factors are in cyberstalking: False accusations, Attempts to gather information about victim, monitoring their targets online activities, encouraging others to harass the victim, false victimization, attacks on data and equipment, ordering goods and services, and arranging to meet. It is so easy to accomplish cyberstalking with all of the social media sites today like Facebook, Twitter, Myspace, etc. There are many types of cyberstalking. There is Stalking by strangers which means the cyberstalker could be a stranger or someone who has had a former/present relationship with the victim. There is Gender based stalking which is harassment and stalking based on the victims gender.

Cyber Crime Research Paper Essay

The effectiveness of the criminal justice system Essay

The effectiveness of the criminal justice system Essay.

“Access the effectiveness of the criminal justice system in dealing with young offenders” The criminal justice system’s aims to be effective in dealing with young offenders. Youths have the highest tendency for rehabilitation and most continue there lifestyles obeying the law as they mature. There are several factors prompting juvenile crime. These are psychological and social pressures which are exclusive to teenagers. This leads to an increase of young people diobeying the law and running into the criminal justice system.

The effectiveness of dealing with young offenders will be assessed on firstly, the effectiveness of the age of criminal responsibility, Secondly, the effectiveness of how young offenders are treated differently in the criminal justice system and thirdly, the current approach to youth in jail, will be examined to regulate whether the best outcome is being met for offenders and society.

Crime is committed excessively by young people.according to the australian institue of criminoloy “Persons aged 15 to 19 years are more likely to be processed by police for the commission of a crime than are members of any other population.

In 2010–11, the offending rate for persons aged 15 to 19 years was almost three times the rate for all other offenders”. Youth Offenders are generally trialed in the Children’s Court, except for serious indictable offences such as murder. Sentencing Options under the Children’s (Criminal proceedings) Act 1987 include Dismissal Adjournment, Good behavior bonds, Youth justice conference, Probation, Suspended/ Control order (maximum two years), Reform in the juvenile justice system – Young Offenders Act 1997, Youth Justice Conferences.

These sentencing procedures are effective because they encourage rehabilitation over punitive measures. In more serious offences the young offender is obliged to consider the consequences of their actions. A custodial sentence is a judicial sentence, imposing a sentence consisting of mandatory custody of the offender, either in jail or in a closed therapeutic and/or educational institution. This form of sentencing has shown a significant decrease in reoffending rates. Youth offenders high inclining rate of rehabilitation should produce more funds to be used on rehabilitation rather than spendng the money on a repeating offender who will serve time forever in jail.

The effectiveness of the criminal justice system Essay

Cultural Masculinity and Crime Essay

Cultural Masculinity and Crime Essay.

Masculinity is a fact that is conceptualized in Goliath in various ways and to a number of argumentative ends. On the other hand, there is a unique culture of masculinity which is identified as a connection between the ‘tough’ and ‘rough’ males and the law enforcers. Other connections include the nature of significance that is attached to homosocial bonding as well as the masculine camaraderie and familiar social concerns of the youth. This is a common masculine culture that maps well onto the cultural traits of hegemonic masculinity that is depicted elsewhere within the literature on crime and masculinity.

Therefore, masculinity is to some extend, used in the description of a given culture together with a series of activities that are ideologically and empirically allied to men. The fact that men are vilely overrepresented in almost all major violent events is not unusual. This kind of prevalence of male’s takes place in the arrest, character report as well as victimization data.

Therefore, lack of attention paid to what it is being male that causes sadistic behavior is not anything surprising.

However, recent work has recommended that masculinity is a crucial construct when it comes to understanding both crime and violence. Toughness, coupled with eagerness to resort to vicious behavior to be in position to resolve some of the interpersonal disputes are central characteristics of mannish identity. Conviction that gender roles are constructed socially is highly approved in the social science context. Basing on this construction, it is important to note that not all men posses the same levels of masculine traits.

Primary differences in gender roles are highly inclined to be crucial variables in the comprehension of violence (Vold, 2002). Consequently, any form of male-to-male violence examination without fully understanding and unfolding the influence as well as the meaning of masculine gender is incomplete. Moving towards the relationships that exist between crime and masculinities, various criminologists have highly centered on men and boys but fully ignored women and girls. The main reason behind this is that there exists a considerable realism that the male dominate crime.

For these criminologists, women are most subjected to exhaustive as well as all- embarrassing criminological gaze. Specifics of men are disgraced. Each in his own way has generally contributed to what has become a traditional criminology. Therefore the investigator needs to inspect and examine women and not men, to be able to examine the high gender ratio in crime. Men have a implicit monopoly on the charge of syndicated corporate and opinionated crime. Criminologists have continuously advanced gender as the main analyst of criminal occurrences.

Historically as well as contemporaneously, criminologists have related masculinity purely with men and boys. Criminology is therefore dualist; it concentrates mainly on gender differences in crime eschewing an assessment of gender similarities in crime (Messerschmidt, 1993). Pre-feminist criminology The earliest theories of criminology relied mainly on indispensable ‘sex roles’ frame work to be able to explain the relationship that exists between crime and masculinity. These sex roles were used to find out the various types and range of offenses committed by both male and female.

Therefore for sex-role theorists, criminological theory is termed cryptically as biological differences that exist between men and women. Criminal behavior is learnt in the same manner as conforming behavior. Therefore various people may come to engage in criminal behavior due to the excess of definitions that are favorable to the violation of the law compared to the definitions which are unfavorable. Boys get involved in crime to a great extent compared to girls. Higher levels of criminal acts among the boys may possibly be explained through differences in care as well as supervision of the male and female.

In as much as boys and girls exist within poverty-stricken neighborhoods, the nature of social setting does not explain the rate delinquency among the boys as well as girl delinquency which is always low. The main difference comes about because girls are supervised a little bit more carefully in their behavioral traits in accordance with the known social codes. This takes place with greater care and consistency compare to boys. They are taught to be nice while the boys are taught to be ‘real men’, meaning they have to force themselves through situations.

Boys whose behavior closely related to girls were considered ‘sissy’. The issue of masculinity and the connections it has to criminal traits in male has been discovered in both the past as well as the present criminological contemplation discussions. An attempt to link the issue of masculinity with felony was brought about by (Sabo & Kupers, 2001) He alleged that masculinity was internalized mainly during adolescence. Boys engage in highly delinquent forms of behavior compared to girls. Boys are taught to be both ‘tough’ and ‘rough’.

The common traits associated with masculine behavior like toughness and dominance that are termed essential in asserting a strong reputation in masculinity, are acquired through these contacts with older males. Sabo and Kupers view the family as a structural conformity that has biological demands, working well for the society when the role of women is emphasized mainly in the internal affairs of the family; a wife being the manager of the household and men providing income-earning function in the society

Masculinity within patriarchal society is stereotypically referred to as independent, aggressive, dominant, competitive as well as unemotional. It represents characteristics which are direct opposition to femininity. Sex roles differentiate some of the behaviors that are appropriate for men and women. The characteristics of masculinity are closely related to both positive and powerful terms of social identity (Vold, 2002). When gender roles are over exaggerated and their terms barely defined, negative consequences can easily occur.

For instance, certain behaviors tend to be viewed positively, like independence. Conversely, assistance from others is required to overcome some of the personal problems like drug and alcohol addiction or even financial hardships. Independence can get in the way of potential remedy and behaviors that are productive. In addition to that, aggressiveness and high level confrontation can be of great use in various circumstances; on the other hand, they can be counter productive when trying to promote compromise.

Fascinatingly, criminologists have persistently identified gender as the key predictor of behaviors associated with crime whereby men and boys commit disproportionate amount of crime. Masculinity is developed through learning and imitation whereby organizations, peers, and society as well as parents tech and train patterns that are appropriate as far as behavior is concerned. Those kinds of support and peer networks maintain and encourage the existence of ideas about masculinity.

In many situations, if men decline to adhere to the stringent guidelines that are masculine gendered, or publicly express attributes of feminine, they are usually considered weak and also vulnerable. There are existences of theories which try to argue out that using criminal male accomplishment in reference to status achieved by the toughness as well as courage which it takes to perpetrate the level of crime. This is likely to be there when the masculinity of an individual is questioned. There is lack of traditional outlets that can be used to prescribe the stereotypical masculinity.

Various forms of violence incidences were highly likely to include men who are highly masculine who had few outlets to affirm their level of masculinity. Prison environments are usually designed to restrict substitute modes of adaption that is separate from hypermasculine responses to both the prison as well as other inmates (Messerschmidt, 1993). On a stronger note, prisons are meant to socially castrate males together with their ability to adhere to good definitions of masculinity allowing for multiple modes of responding to their ability for success and incarceration.

Rational outlets of Masculinity Explanations as to whether the outlets for traditional masculinity are essential only in a sense of dichotomous sense are not common and whether the quality of every single outlet play a crucial role too is not also clear. Therefore the operationalizations of what are commonly known as masculine outlets, for that reason are poorly constructed. Though the idea of proper traditional outlets addresses the subject of perceived status, satisfaction on a personal level may play a crucial role in how an individual others view them.

For example, being married during the time of an offense is likely not to be important like being married happily at the time of an offense. The condition of being married is bound to be crucial; the quality of the affair may play a similarly important role in masculine accomplishment. Incase success within a marital affiliation is a desirable position; men with similar position can uphold their desirable success. On the same note, knowing whether a man has children or not is likely to be different from knowing whether a man is living in the company of his children.

Fathering a child is different from being the father of a child. Successful parenting is an enhanced traditional outlet than simply having a child. The quality of the relationship between a parent and a child is likely to bring about a sense of pride that in turn can form a positive outlet for the display of masculine nature. Any given position that can be envied by other males would be an affirmative arena for masculine behavior. One other problem concerning customary outlets is the use of just the traditional outlet to emphasize masculinity. Some other alternative outlets may play a fundamental role.

The use of violence is seen as an alternative incase legitimate means for the display of masculinity are not available. What is not a there in most cases is, however, the discussion about other means of legitimate masculine display apart from violence. For example, the number of sexual associates of the past can be. The show of one’s manhood through various sexual encounters has been highly theorized as an essential feature of masculinity. As an extension of the idea, literature about anthropology show that a number of children that a man can father are likely to play a crucial role.

More numbers of express the virility of the man (Popay & Jeanette, 1998). The past displays of violence are an additional area that is likely to be important in the acquisition of the knowledge about masculinity. Incase a man has proven his level of masculinity in the past several time; then he has the ability to draw from those experiences to affirm his masculinity in any given occasion. The existence of quite a number of less appropriate outlets for a man to be able to demonstrate his masculinity is an essential area to explore in future.

The idea of traditional outlets needs to be reconceptualized then broken down into two separate categories. Tog start with, a category that has positive social outlets, for instance, successful parenting and job satisfaction would be the most appropriate ways of assign successful masculinity. Addition of less appropriate outlets like number of past sexual partners, children as well as successful violent encounters can tap into different way than the way a man can assert some level of masculinity without necessary involving violence within the existing condition.

Due to the fact that the determination of masculinities and femininities can not be done biologically, it makes meaning to identify and also examine some of the possible masculinities by the females (femininities by both men and boys) and the nature of relationship that exist between them and crime. Masculinity is evoked by a way of clarification of the various activities of the male, especially the young and strong. The actions of both the police and the youths can be described as assertion of masculinity (Campbell, 1993).

Masculinity is viewed as being ‘accomplished’ through engagement in rioting, violence as well as a variety of displays of machismo by the young men. It is Campbell’s argument which, upon being faced with the problem of the reconstruction of a male identity in circumstances of social immobility and expanded levels of adolescence in which importantly, traditionally empowered masculine qualities is absent. These young and lower working group men find other highly destructive forms of masculine expressions. The consequential mode of masculinity is in some ways, not dissimilar from that of sub-cultural accounts that are usually experienced.

Within the face of justifiable opportunities that are ‘blocked’, a means of being victorious ‘as a man’ is usually associated with engagement with crime or delinquency. Men and women have got different experiences in life based on the present social and economical marginal communities (Burke, 2005). The interaction of race as well as class with gender puts in some different dynamics to the masculinity that is negotiated (Popay & Jeanette, 1998). Though doing gender is one way of looking at the accomplishment of masculinity, some of the imposed characteristics are likely to play a fundamental role in gender display.

The examination of masculinity the way it is constructed for the male through political, cultural and class can lead to varied results compared tog the examinations of masculinity which are believed to be constructed by men (Burke, 2005). Factors which are not within the realm of masculinity need to be discussed when it comes to understanding the causes and effects of masculinity as a source of criminality. Situational variables are likely to essential where the issue of violence is concerned more than just the personal level traits of masculinity.

Other than the types of masculine traits that are highly intrinsic to violent men, the forms of situational variables, for instance, location, time of the day as well as presence of others are highly likely to take place in a male-male situations of violent. Hegemonic Masculinity Males who try to exhibit higher levels of masculine traits and who posses fewer acceptable outlets to fully affirm masculinity are highly like to get involved in events that are violent. This confirms the notion that men who do not have masculine resources are more likely to resolve to criminal acts.

To add on that, traditional situational variables like presence of third party, use of drugs and alcohol, physical location among other factors are likely to cause some level of impact to the outcome of the events that are usually associated with violence and crime. At the same time, the unfolding actions such as the use of character attacks as well as sequencing of various actions have to be highly considered (Messerschmidt, 1993). These contexts can easily strengthen or even change the brunt of masculinity on both violent as well as non violent events.

Females are more liable to experience the strains, for instance the burden of family members and restrictions on their behavior. Female are highly restricted to the confidential sphere. This form of strain involves restraint of the available opportunities of criminality as well as the excessive social control. It is a little bit hard to participate in serious violent as well as property crime incase someone spends a little time in public and is burdened with the demands of the family. The chances of men being in public is higher compared to that of women, therefore they go through conflicts with others as swell as criminal victimization.

Therefore they are more likely to be involved in violence. On this thread, the various forms of strain which are experienced by men and women lead to higher rates of crime done by the former (Collier, 1998). Male and female also differ basing on their response towards strain emotionally. Strain leads to certain forms of negative emotions for instance anger. In turn, this creates a considerable amount of pressure to take corrective action. Though they both respond to anger, male and female have different experiences in anger. Female anger is usually accompanied by high levels of emotions such as fear and depression.

Male anger on the other hand, involves moral outrage. Women learn to blame themselves for negative treatments by others and are ready tog view their anger as inappropriate and some failure of self control. Conversely, men tend to b lame others for their negative conduct and view their fury as an assertion of their masculinity. As a result, men are more likely to commit property and violent crimes while women tend to resort tog self destructive forms of deviance like the use of drugs and eating disorders (Pease & Camilleri, 2001). Beyond Dualism

A result of exclusive concentration of the differences in gender has been aimed at directing the theory in criminology away from factors that seriously complicate gender differences, for instance when the female engage in what has been traditionally and culturally been defined as “male crime”. Such forms of approaches lead tog a full as well as complete situational appreciative of what really gender and crime is. Abstracting gender from within its social context as well as the insensitivity to issues of agency like perspectives masquerade the possibility that gender patterns of crime may vary situationally.

The dualism that exists between individuals as well as social and the split between psychology has remained focal to sociogenic criminology. But the problem with criminology, as pointed out by the feminists has not been due to the fact that a range of experiences have been unified, the result being ways in which both men and women are likely to exist within different relations to the notions of community. Criminology has failed in trying to engage with the ways upon which the subjects that are under scrutiny have been produced within discursive limits.

In trying to conceptualize individual as well as historical form of subject positions, the approach exposes itself to analysis of the various ways in which criminal boys as well as men have themselves been produced through a set of apparatuses of social regulation together with management (Messerschmidt, 1993). The framing of debates around boys, schooling as well as urban disorder through making a reference of the catastrophe of masculinity transcends the specialty of crime and criminality. The masculine group in this context is can be referred to the outlaw, a figure produced by the cultural construction of the socially powerful.

Literary, a sub-cultural criminology outlaws represents the joy riders, the urban trash scroungers and the gang members who engage in what they do with a destructive mind in operation. They are deemed to move within space of everyday as a fully absorbed body of experience. It involves a subject without a topic, a body of wrongful desires colliding with others along its teleological route (Burke, 2005). The sub-cultural theme lacks the common ethical part due to the conception of everyday as a series of the symptoms that are idiosyncratic; this form of criminality becomes rendered as a set of lifestyle of choice.

(Arnot, & Cornelie, 1999). It is long been a truism that girls are fond of internalizing and boys tend to externalize their pain and despair. For that reason, boys are highly likely to be arrested for serious crimes of all sorts. The fact that a large number of boys and girls are brought up in dysfunctional families can act as a proof as to why the habit is rampant and provides with reasons as to why criminal ways and cultural constructs of masculinity contribute to the prevalent behavior.

In many occasions, boys are locked up for exhibiting some sort of behaviors which are contrary to the expectations (Burke, 2005). In most cases, these behaviors take place in the inner city where effects of racism as well as poverty often cause young, poor and black males strike as a way of exhibiting compulsive masculinity to be in position to compensate for the feeling of shame, frustration. And in compulsive masculinity, the masculine values tend to be rigid prescription for toughness, thrill-seeking as well as a willingness to use violence to iron out interpersonal conflict.

Nevertheless it is usually recommended with great dismay that the reform about feminism refers to turning men into women; making men ‘soft’, emasculating them so that they unable to battle or stand with fulfillment in the world. Solving the problem of violence as well as building the culture of certainty of peace needs change in masculinities. However, this does not mean that should become weak or incapable. On the other hand, violent usually takes place due to masculinities that are constructed to make violence an easy option or simply the only option to be considered.

Building peace is a highly complex and arduous undertaking and it is worthy of heroic effort both from men and women. This understanding of competence essentiality to some masculinity can be connected to equality other than exclusiveness: democracy requires skilled practitioners. Education can not easily re-socialize both boys and men to the extent of pressing them into a non-violent mould but it can open up a varied diversity of pathways so that the boys and men have an ability to use broader scale of their capacities such as the nature of communication, emotions and politics.

Education has the ability to show boys and men quite a number of ways of being a man. It can enable them to familiarize this kind of diversity. It can inculcate in them the capacities for actions that are non-violent and train them some of the techniques that involve peace because of the acquisition of the techniques of combat (Collier, 1998). Efforts in education in this line cannot produce considerable results in isolation.

There is need for a strong support through action in some areas of life that are likely to make greater range of experience possible for men as well as non-violent conducts which are easier for them. This involves actions that are aimed at reducing gender hierarchies together with antagonisms within the spectrum of social life. To achieve this fit, they should be addressed in the recommendations from the meetings, media, work places, public arena and other spheres of life including both private and public institutions.

An example of the need for change is the important social mission of peacekeeping. This is presently performed by the organizations like police as well as international peacekeeping forces that are overwhelmingly staffed by men who are perceived to have a profoundly masculinized cultural behavior and are highly liable tog acts of confrontation. In this case, there is need for organizational change both in culture as well as in the femininity division of labor.

The effective and a long term strategy aimed at reducing adolescent male crime would need to confront the highly daunting challenges of trying as much as possible to change the patriarch gender order, together with oppressively hierarchical group structures and their attendant masculine social construction. Conclusion Masculinities and crime are terms of conceptual revolution within the social life and they reflect the various changes within our understanding of the real world as factors that that are present within our midst.

Questions about femininity and masculinity should be given an upper hand due to the fact that they influence our lives directly. References Vold, G. B. , Bernard T. J. , & Snipes J. B. (2002). Theoretical Criminology. Georgia: Oxford University Press. Messerschmitt, J. W. (1993). Masculinities and Crime: Evaluation and Reconceptualization. New York: Rowman & Littlefield. Sabo, F. , & Kupers, T. A. (2001). Jail Masculinities. U. K. Temple University Press. Burke, R. H. , (2005).

A preamble to Criminological Theory. New Jersey: Willan Publishing, 2 Collier, R. (1998). Masculinities: Acts of Crime and Criminology. New York: SAGE Publishers, Arnot, M. L. , & Cornelie, U. (1999). Gender & Crime in present Europe. London: Routledge Publishers. Popay, J. , & Jeanette, E (1998). Men, femininity Divisions and Wellbeing. U. K. : Routledge Publishers. Pease, B. , & Camilleri, P. J. (2001). Performing with Men within the Human Services. New Jersey: Allen & Unwin Press.

Cultural Masculinity and Crime Essay

Two Examples Of Capital Crimes Essay

Two Examples Of Capital Crimes Essay.

1. NAME TWO EXAMPLES OF CAPITAL CRIMES.- Murder of a police officer and sexual abuse of a minor. 2. NAME TWO EXAMPLES OF FEDERAL CRIMES – Possession of a controlled substances. 3. EXPLAIN THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN JAILS AND PRISONS – Jail is a smaller facilities and have a certain sentences and been adjusted a bail set. And who is being detain for awaiting trails for small crimes. Prison is a larger facilities for much serious crimes, and exceeded for a longer period of year. And no bail.

4. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PROBATION AND PAROLE – Probation is minor crimes have been served probation instead of getting sentenced in jail or prison. It’s like a testing kind of way to see if you can be trusted by following the law after probation you have certain kind of requirements. Parole is getting released after prison is getting legal supervision from an officer for how much you served or how much the court tells you how many years you’ll be on parole.

5. WHAT ARE 3 FACTORS JUDGES CONSIDER WHEN SETTING BAIL – 1. How serious the alleged crime is. 2. The amount of evidence the prosecution has. 3. The likelihood that the accused will attempted to flee the area.


1. Do you agree that incarceration is a better method of correction than corporal punishment? Why or why not? No I don’t agree with that statement because if criminals have already life in prison there is no point of having incarceration because they will be in there till they are passed away. 2. How are school rules similar to state and federal laws? What would the typical American high school be like if there were no rules or consequences for breaking them? Explain. It’s very similar because if you get in trouble you get a consequence. You get in a major trouble you get suspended.

An normal American high school without no rules will be very disturbing and very bad It would have had got out of control and someone can get hurt…or it can be a big situation. Anything can happen in school, people get mean and mad and angry…Fighting…etc. school needs rules! 3. Do criminals benefit more from community service or house arrest? Explain. I believe criminals benefit more from house arrest they get more time to think about what they have done. Community service you do what they tell you for like 4-5 hours and then go on with your day and mostly continue what you do.

Two Examples Of Capital Crimes Essay

Approaches To Crime Prevention Essay

Approaches To Crime Prevention Essay.


Crime prevention can be influenced by many things like social work, sociology, community, urban planning and design, criminology and even education. This paper will focus on the dominant approaches to crime prevention that is used by law enforcement, courts and corrections. It will compare and contrast all the dominant approaches and then analyze which are the most effective.

Dominant approaches to crime prevention

The dominant approaches to crime prevention for law enforcement is situational, social developmental, community, policing. Situational is to reduce the number of crime events by focusing on limiting the opportunities for crime to occur.

This approach normally assumes that the offender makes decisions that are broadly rational. They use five techniques to make it harder by increasing the effort that is required to commit a crime, target hardening, controlling access to targets, tools required to commit the crime and increasing levels of formal surveillance or guardianship. Social developmental crime prevention favors the struggle against the underlying cause of criminal activity and victimization.

This is considered a long term approach which requires the mobilization of dynamic forces within a community.

Criminal activity has many causes that can be complex. But there are several factors that can bring someone to commit a crime. These things are called risk factors: Poverty, Drug addiction, Bad acquaintances, Abusive treatment, Weak self-esteem, School dropout, no parent skills. Community is strategies and programs based on targeting changes in the community’s infrastructure, culture, or the physical environment in order to reduce crime. Some of these diversity approaches maybe neighborhood watch, community policing, urban or physical design and comprehensive or multi-disciplinary efforts.

Policing researchers and police have developed different policing strategies, philosophies, and methods for dealing with crime. Hot spot policing is one that identifies and formulates a strategic response to hot spots within the high crime area. This can help in reducing crime in both the hot spot and surrounding areas. Information led policing should be the heart of every police department. This type of policing is more effective when multiple agencies access, share and analyze intelligence and other data.

Courts and Corrections

The court and corrections look at crime prevention different than law enforcement does. They have six categories they go by Incapacitation, Deterrence, Rehabilitation, community restraints, Structure, Discipline and Challenge, Combining Rehabilitation and Restraint. Incapacitation is the concept that as long as the offender is incarcerated they cannot commit a crime outside of prison. This will reduce crime in the community as long as they are serving time. This can also deter crime by the thought of spending time in prison. They hope it will help the offender serving time to not commit a crime after their released. Deterrence is a strategy used in early criminological theory that repugnant punishments will keep people from committing crime. Some of the deterrence maybe programs like scared straight, chain gangs and shock probation.

These programs major emphasis is on the punitive nature not reducing crime through restraint, discipline or challenge. Some others could have to with fines that fit the crime. Rehabilitation and treatment this focuses on changing the individual offender in hopes they will not continue their criminal activities by using programs such as therapy and consoling. Community Restraints this refers a group of alternative punishments to increase the amount of surveillance and control over offenders when they are in the community. These programs could be referred to as semi incapacitation because it should reduce the offender of committing a crime.

Some of the programs are house arrest, electronic monitoring, halfway house and intensive supervision. Structure, Discipline and Challenge this refers to programs such as boot camps for juveniles and adults and even wilderness programs. These programs focus on structure and discipline and physical or mental challenges. The different experiences the offender goes through during the program should change them in a positive way as to not commit any more crimes. This should increase their self-esteem and increase their bond with other people involved in the program. Combining Rehabilitation and Restraint this is a combination of programs such as boot camp and rehabilitation some may take drug testing and consoling classes. These type of programs have shown some promise on being successful.

Compare Both Law Enforcement and Courts, Corrections

If we look at the dominant approaches of crime prevention through law enforcement they concentrate on programs that will stop or prevent the crime from taking place. The courts and corrections take the offender after committing the crime and try and find ways to prevent them from reoffending. While deterring others from committing the same crime. I believe in the law enforcement area I would pick community programs over most of them. These programs go after the involvement of the public and police working together to solve issues in their own neighborhoods. This strategy works the best because no one knows their neighborhood better than the people living in it.

This will also bring the police department closer to the public as to gain working relations and information on other crimes in the community. Looking at the courts and corrections I would have to pick two of them. The first being incapacitation because some offenders need to be locked up and receive treatment while being in prison. The other program I would pick is the combining rehabilitation and restraint. I believe this program gives you more options to combine the programs that fit the offender’s needs. This program also works on their self-esteem and their bonding with other people that can make a example for them.


Andrews, D. A., & Bonta, J. (1994). The Psychology of Criminal Conduct. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing CO. Harland, A. T. ed. (1996). Choosing Correctional Options That Work: Defining the Demand and Evaluating the Supply. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Sarat, A. (2009). New Perspectives on Crime and Criminal Justice. Bradford: Emerald Group Pub. Sozer, M. (2010). Crime and Community Policing. El Paso: LFB Scholarly Pub. LLC. United Nations Office on Drugs and, C. (2010). Handbook on the Crime Prevention Guidelines: Making Them Work, New York: United Nations.

Approaches To Crime Prevention Essay