Discovery Wheel & Multiple Intelligences Essay

Discovery Wheel & Multiple Intelligences Essay.

While evaluating the data from the discovery wheel, it was noted that for the most part all of the team fell into the same range. Most of the team appeared to score above average in all of the categories on the discovery wheel. All six of us scored high in attitude and purpose and all six of us scored low in tests and time. Money was split. For three of the members it was in the top half of the list and was in the bottom half for the other three.

Communication, diversity, and memory are in the top half for two team members and in the bottom half for four members.

Reading, notes, and health were in the top half for four members and in the bottom half for two members. We all have a great attitude and know our purpose in life but we all have little time and hate taking tests. After seeing the results for all six of us combined, we all have some the same great qualities and each has their own unique qualities to share which makes the six of us one great team.

The information on intelligence shows that the group learns through a variety of methods. Some of these methods are interpersonal, mathematical/logical, bodily/kinesthetic, visual/spatial, rhythmic, and intrapersonal.

This data shows that the group is a diverse group of people, whereas the discovery wheel shows that the team is relatively in tune and has close to the same score in all areas. Advantages/Challenges of Diversity A successful diverse team can be achieved by bringing people of varying walks of life and geographic areas together so we can blend ideas and experiences to make an interesting and intriguing final product. Every person is different and brings inherent talents to a team. People are from different places and believe different things.

People have different opinions and thoughts on numerous issues. These different ways of thinking can often create conflict in a situation. We believe that individual diversity can create different points of view, both culturally and environmentally, that can be utilized to make a much better and more creative final product for the team. The blending of different learning styles can lead to some amazing discoveries and help a group to think outside of the box. If everyone thought the same and had the same strengths, then nothing new or exciting would be accomplished.

As long as the eveloping team can agree and establish good rules for communication and conflict management, determine a team leader, and be able to respect and accept constructive criticism from each other, the end result of the team should be an amazing collaboration of ideas. Cultural issues are another challenge of diversity that can affect team interactions through a different understanding of communication. Culture and life experiences have a great influence on how individuals react to feedback. Age creates the potential for communication problems based on different levels of experience and for prejudicial treatment based on age.

Gender can also bring different opinions and perspectives that can often lead to problems. Affects of Diversity, Attitude, Learning, and Work Attitude is the key to any team building. Let’s say that a person on a team has a rotten attitude about an assignment, he or she will not be willing to be a team player and complete the task they are supposed to do. If they do their part with a bad attitude, it will not be done properly. However, if everyone in a group has a good attitude and is enthusiastic about an assignment, we will all pass with flying colors.

Diversity is very important in a group effort. We all have different points of view. If we have a whole group from different backgrounds, then we can teach each other different ways to look at the world. Sometimes this can cause problems among the group. We don’t always see eye to eye. Having an open mind is very crucial in teamwork. A person with a different outlook on life will have opinions about someone else’s work that they may or may not like. Being open to criticism will help each of us along the way in the journey to our future. The discovery wheel was very beneficial.

It helped us learn that we all have different learning and work styles. Some of us are better at researching while others are better and constructive and fluent papers. Working in a team brings out the best of these in all of us. It is constructive when an assignment requires each of us to do a part. When we all do the part that we are best at, we can’t possibly go wrong. Career Interest Profiler and Competencies The results from the Career Interest Profiler show that Team B is Conventional and Enterprising. Out of the three that were listed, Conventional and Enterprising were amongst the list for all team members.

The results also showed that two were Investigative, two were Social, and two were Realistic. Team B likes to work with data and details more than ideas. We prefer having a chain of command in place. Enterprising means we like to lead people and are usually the decision makers. With that being said, we move along to the Competencies results and it was no surprise what answers took the top three. All members of Team B take initiative, can cope with pressure, and follow instructions. The team is comprised of people that can research, write, strategize, and deliver results.

Half of the team is goal focused and the other half is innovating. Although the competencies are similar amongst the group, each person has their own unique competencies they bring to the table to help make the best team possible. No two team members has the exact same results but it was good to see out of six team members, all six of us had a lot in common. Using Knowledge for Improvement As we come together as a learning team and begin to develop strategies for completing assignments, having the knowledge gained from experiences like the Career Interest Profiler and Career Plan Building Competencies will be very valuable.

For the individual, the results can give us confidence in our strengths as we accept assignments and responsibilities within the learning team, as well as knowing the areas where we may need assistance by other team members. This is the first step in becoming a productive team member. That knowledge is then extended to the learning team and we begin to see the value in each individual. The hope is that the combined competencies and varied interests of the group will overcome any weakness we have as individuals.

Even more than just overcoming weaknesses as a team, we can also use the strengths of each member to teach, learn, and grow as individuals, which will impact the quality and performance of the team. Each project we take on as a team will require different skills, learning processes, thought processes, and levels of creativity and innovation, which is the basis for developing teams. The more we understand about ourselves and each other, the more cohesive the learning team will become which will lead to better overall performance. Obstacles from Ethical Perspectives

While different ethical perspectives provide the team with diverse strengths, weaknesses also exist. Obstacles may arise from these weaknesses and diversity among the team members. Since team members may be driven by different ethics, the inability for members to understand each other’s motivation may become prevalent. While one team member may be motivated by long term results and successes, another may be driven by what is happening immediately, in the here and now. Along with motivation, differences in priorities between ethical perspectives may arise.

There may be several members on the team whose priority primarily involves themselves as an individual while other team members may be driven by what is a priority for the team as a whole or the community in which they are a part. Different ethical perspectives also rely on different tools to solve complex problems. Since team members may rely on different tools, there could be conflict about the best way for the team as a whole to resolve an issue or solve a complex problem. Each ethical lens uses a different process to determine the right action. This different use of processes could be perceived as an obstacle.

Ethical perspective also determines how team members interact with each other since each different ethical perspective operates under a different set of values. The differences in values can create huge conflicts between team members. These conflicts can inhibit a team’s ability to be effective in working together, agreeing on the right course of action, and ultimately, the team’s overall success. By understanding their own individual ethical perspectives and those of their team members, the team can mitigate or overcome obstacles that arise. Using Factors to Resolve Conflicts

Just as diversity, attitude, learning and work styles, and ethical perspective of the learning team members are applied to collaborative assignments, they can be applied to conflict resolution. We all have different ideas of what conflict is. To some a misunderstanding or comment might appear very serious, when another team member doesn’t even notice it at all. These factors also allow us to draw on each other’s strengths when there is conflict present. One team member may be extremely goal and results driven and can help resolve a conflict by bringing other team members back to being focused on completing the task at hand.

Another team member may be focused on enhancing relationships and be able to soothe the tension and pressure created by the conflict. Understanding our differences can be used to create a positive environment just as they are used to create negativity during a conflict. Ethical perspective can help each of us remember how the other team member views the world and will help “bring the person around” when there is conflict. By understanding and accentuating that all of these things make us individuals and having individuals on the team working together, makes the team successful and conflicts can be resolved.

Discovery Wheel & Multiple Intelligences Essay

The Incredibles Conflict Theory Essay

The Incredibles Conflict Theory Essay.

A movie by Pixar, The Incredibles was very well thought of by audiences. In 2005, it won an Academy Award for “Best Animated Feature Film of the Year” beating the movies “Shark Tale” and “Shrek 2”. The film starts off as an interview with three superheroes known as Mr. Incredible, Elastigirl, and Frozone talking about why they have secret identity. They all love their role as superheroes and enjoy helping people.

While the start doesn’t necessarily show conflict it does provide the audience of some tension by having Elastigirl mention that she fights crime because it’s typically a male only thing, and she doesn’t believe that men should be the only ones able to save the world.

When asked about settling down she goes on the defensive by asking “Are you kidding? “. In this paper however the main relationship and conflict will be between Robert (Bob) Parr also known as Mr. Incredible and Buddy also known as Incrediboy in the first and original conflict or Syndrome in the later years of the conflicts.

The official synopsis of “The Incredibles” as described by Moviefone. com is “Directed by Brad Bird, The Incredibles revolves around former high-profile superhero Bob Parr (aka Mr. Incredible), who has not-so-successfully settled into suburban life along with his wife and kids under the watchful eye of the Superhero Protection Program. A far cry from the “glory days” during which “supers” were a welcome addition to society, the Parrs’ living situation was brought on after a series of superhero-related lawsuits forced them into hiding.

When not trying to fight small-time crime undercover with fellow former superhero Frozone (Samuel L. Jackson), Parr (voice by Craig T. Nelson) is muddling through the corporate world as a paunchy, emotionally unsatisfied insurance claims adjuster. His family is like any other with some notable exceptions — his daughter has the uncanny ability to become invisible and create impenetrable force fields at will; his son, Dash, can run at incredible speeds; his wife, Helen (Holly Hunter), is known in super ircles as Elastigirl, one of the most respected (and pliable) superwomen of her time. Just when it looks as if things can’t get any worse for Bob, he gets a summons to show up at a remote island to receive instructions for a highly classified assignment, which he promptly accepts. Thrust back into the world of fighting crime, the Incredible family is back in familiar territory — saving the world from Syndrome, a jilted former fan of Mr. Incredible. ” The film is rated PG by the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA).

The film runs 115 minutes and is filed under the Action, Animation, Comedy and Family genres. One of the first conflicts in the film causes a bigger conflict in later years and later in the plot between the same characters. A conflict is defined as “Con? ict is a fact of human life. It occurs naturally in all kinds of settings. Nations still struggle, families fracture in destructive con? icts, marriages face challenges and often fail, and the workplace is plagued with stress. ” in the textbook “Interpersonal Conflict” by Wilmot.

Meriam-Webster defines conflict in three ways. Firstly a war, fight or battle. Secondly “competitive or opposing action of incompatibles :antagonistic state or action (as of divergent ideas, interests, or persons)” or “mental struggle resulting from incompatible or opposing needs, drives, wishes, or external or internal demands”. Lastly “the opposition of persons or forces that gives rise to the dramatic action in a drama or fiction” The conflict starts with Mr. Incredible getting in his car to find he has a passenger, a young boy, wanting to join him and fight crime.

This conflict is very much related to power and power currencies as Mr. Incredible has the power. The boy claims he is Incrediboy and wants to be his sidekick. After admitting he knows all his moves, crime fighting style, favorite catchphrases, and also is his number one fan, the young boy is ejected from the car and Mr. Incredible flies off down the street telling him he’s just a fan boy. While it is a short conflict, power is a clear perspective that starts the plot of the movie.

“Just as energy is a fundamental concept in physics, power is a fundamental concept in con? ct theory. In interpersonal and all other con? icts, perceptions of power are at the heart of any analysis. Hundreds of de? nitions of power tend to fall into three camps. Power is seen as (1) designated (power given by your position), (2) distributive (either/or power), or (3) integrative (both/and power). Designated power comes from your position, such as being a manager, the mother or father of a family, or the leader of a team. Your power is conferred by the position you hold. ” (Wilmot, p. 103) By this definition Mr.

Incredible got his power in a designated way, as he is looked to as a leader and as a role model to many especially to the younger boy. He essentially gave Mr. Incredible power over him simply by admiring him so greatly and admitting that he was his biggest fan. One of the ways that the younger boy could of resolved the conflict in a better way was to ask Mr. Incredible if he could see some crime fighting action on a slower day instead of jumping in the passenger’s seat during a robbery situation startling Mr. Incredible.

Typically it’s better to ask rather than to just do something first that involves another person. Then again Mr. Incredible could of been a little more politer when addressing his mega fan. Both characters could have changed the ultimate outcome of the film but as the conflict escalades in the plot as shown in the rest of the essay if the conflict had been resolved, there would be no film to watch. After the original incident, Mr. Incredible has given up his super suit several years later and is working at an insurance company.

He then is fired and offered a job by a mysterious blonde who won’t name who she exactly works for, but wants him to relive his super hero days on a volcanic island doing missions, mostly fighting robots. Finally there is a robot that Mr. Incredible is unable to defeat and the younger boy from the original conflict is show to now be older and quite insane trying to gain power over Mr. Incredible by creating something that he is not able to beat. Those hurt feelings from the original conflict have been built up and are now revengeful and trying to save face to show Mr. Incredible that he is not Incrediboy anymore he is advanced, gained significant wealth as shown by the private island, and improved to a new super name, Syndrome.

As the plot goes on Syndrome is defeated in a super hero style, finally noting that holding a grudge for many years did him no good in the end. He finally realizes that he isn’t happy as he may have money but he’s truly alone in the world, and the man who he despised has what money can’t buy, true happiness and a family. Although he does try to steal Mr. Incredible’s youngest son, Jack Jack, to get even and again is defeated whilst finding out Jack Jack’s super power.

The Incredibles Conflict Theory Essay

Role conflict Essay

Role conflict Essay.

Beginning from the smallest unit of society, which is the family, everyone has already given his own roles as defined by their given specific status. The father of the family is expected to be the protector and breadwinner of the family. That role or responsibility is given or assign according to existing social norm (G. Elliot). I said so because there are societies that place the burden of breadwinning on the mother of the family, as with other Asian and African societies.

A mother generally has the role of taking care of the house and the kids.

However, there are situations wherein role conflicts exist because of the fact that these members of the family are also members of other social groups, such as the academic, church and professional groups. Role conflicts arise when someone becomes a member of another group wherein their roles are somewhat different, or may also be exactly different with what they hold at home (T. Cravens). Role conflicts begin when someone starts wearing two hats (R. Brenner). Wearing two hats is a common representation of having more than one role.

One perfect and common example is the conflict of role of a family member and an employed individual. Let us use the example of a person who is a father in a family and as a supervisor in his job. As a father, his responsibilities are to work to earn money to provide for his family’s material needs. As a father, he has also the responsibility of supervising his children as with their discipline, their moral behaviors and miscellaneous things as socializing with his children after work or usually at weekends. As a father he has also the role of doing the heavy tasks at home.

Defined by his physical strength and courage, the father has generally the role of a protector of the family. At work, he has different set of roles, being a supervisor. As the supervisor, his role is to look over the general situation of his area of responsibility. HE has to roam around and look at the individual jobs of his subordinates, how they perform, are they on the right track, are they meeting deadlines, are they meeting the expected results of the job? His role is to make sure that everything is fine and if something goes wrong; his role is to do immediate and appropriate action.

He does all of this because these are what is expected of him by the company. At first glance, there seems to be no role conflict existing here. Conflict begins when time and attention between family and work overlaps. It happens when the father gets lesser time with his family at dinner and weekends due to longer working hours, series of work problems and added workload. The role of the father as a breadwinner can still be met in this situation. However, the moral, spiritual and social responsibilities of the father to his family can no more be met because of time.

As a supervisor, he is able to play his role well being a hardworking and dedicated employee, as what is expected of him. To reconcile the conflict, the father has to do some balancing of his time in order to play both roles. However, this is not really an easy task. This is true especially to those whose have two roles to consider and balance. Situation is worse with for example, a man who play as father to his family, a supervisor to his job and leader of a social or political organization, let say as a club officer. Prioritizing one or the other may not be the best solution to relieve the conflict.

In this case, the social groups and the society, especially the government has been playing a big role in diminishing role conflicts. The members of the family can adjust to situations like the one described above. The father can explain how difficult the situation is for him. The wife can always make herself adjust to the situation and let the children also understand the situation. Companies also are doing something to ease the situation. For example, there are companies who make longer working hours on weekdays in order enough to cover the eight working hours on weekends.

Thus, their workers can have time with their personal lives on Saturdays and Sundays. The government also has developed several programs to help those who have common role conflicts. One common example is distance learning, designed especially for those non-traditional students. Weekend and evening classes are also of great help. Such program gives mothers, working students and even professionals to avail of education without totally giving up their current roles. Churches also developed the system of having multiple schedules for mass or church activities in order to give the others the opportunity to join them.

Those who have regular working hours (daytime) can attend church activities at night and vice versa. Those who still work on Sundays can still attend to evening mass schedules. The government also provide for small enterprise and work-at-home trainings in order to give housewives the opportunity to help their husbands earn for the family or singles parents to raise their children. Thus, nothing is given up, but rather their roles are being balanced. WORKS CITED Brenner, Rick. “Who’s Doing You Job? ” Retrieved on June 10, 2007 from http://www. chacocanyon. com/essays/whosdoingyourjob. shtml Cravens, Tom.

“Status and Role” Retrieved on June 10, 2007 from http://www. tomcravens. com/index. html Elliot, Gregory. “Social Structure” Retrieved on June 10, 2007 from http://www. sociologyindex. com/social_structure. htm Wood, John Andy. “Interrelationships of role conflict, role ambiguity, and work-family conflict with different facets of job satisfaction and the moderating effects of gender” Retrieved on June 10, 2007 from http://www. allbusiness. com/sales/852943-1. html? yahss=114-2974554-852943 “Role Conflict” Retrieved on June 10, 2007 from http://www. webref. org/sociology/R/role_conflict. htm

Role conflict Essay

Workplace conflict Essay

Workplace conflict Essay.

Introduction:

Conflict is an inevitable part of our workday life as different values and points of view can create tension among peers. Conflict is defined as the disagreement among two or more individuals, groups, or organizations. This disagreement may be relatively superficial or very strong (Ventrice, 2000) . It may be short-lived or exist for months or even years, and it may be work-related or personal.

In the Chinese society, traditional culture makes the people trying to avoid conflicts habitually. Furthermore, most Chinese enterprises do not encourage conflicts in the organization.

Keeping peace is the only solution. As a result, it is easier to hide our anger than to address the problem directly. It is easier to dismiss the anger in others with, “They’ll get over it sooner or later.” The Chinese people are used to avoid or ignore the problem because they do not want to “stir up trouble” (Chen, 2001).

However, when we, the Chinese people, hide our anger, we tend to relive frustrating situations over and over in our heads, and see ourselves as victims (Wu, 2001).

When we see ourselves as victims, we begin to look for ways to retaliate. “She didn’t cover for me when I was out sick. She had better hope she doesn’t get sick right before a crucial deadline!” Thus, when we ignore the small frustrations our coworkers have with us, those frustrations grow.

Hence, unspoken conflict destroys camaraderie, and cooperation, damages trust, and impairs work teams. It creates an uncomfortable workplace (Hart, 2000). Ironically, by avoiding confrontation, we create greater discord. As a manager, what you have to do is not to avoid conflict, but valid management conflict, make use of the different opinion of the conflict exhumation, stir up more creativities.

What Causes Workplace Conflict?

Conflict may manifest itself in a variety of ways. Conflict may arise in both interpersonal and intergroup relationships. Interpersonal conflict is when people’s ideas, decisions or actions relating directly to the job are in opposition, or when two people just don’t get along. Intergroup conflict is conflict occurs between two or more organizational groups. Occasionally, conflict between individual and groups may be caused by particular organizational strategies and practices (Hart, 2000). A third arena for conflict is between an organization and its environment.

However, I will be focusing on the interpersonal conflict and use the following story as an example for I will be providing my solutions to manage this conflict.

A usually calm and collected employee storms into his manager’s office, and the manager is thrown into the middle of a conflict, without warning. Charles, normally a rational person, is shouting, “I can’t believe you didn’t do anything about Angela! She’s been telling everyone that I have been stealing toilet paper! They are starting to refer to me as TP Guy. You should have put a stop to this a week ago! You can’t even control your own employees. This is unbelievable!”

Understanding and Handling Conflict:

I think conflict is a powerful force in organizations, and has both negative and positive consequences. The best three methods I came up with for managers to manage conflicts are stimulation, controlling, and resolving and eliminating.

1. Stimulating conflict

In some situations, an organization may stimulate conflict by placing individual employees or groups in competitive situations. Managers can establish sales contests, incentive plans, bonuses, or other competitive stimuli to spark competition. Another useful method for stimulating conflict is to bring in one or more outsiders who will shake things up and present a new perspective on organizational practices. The last method is changing established procedures, especially procedures that have outlived their usefulness, can also stimulate conflict. Stimulating conflict can enhance some aspects of organizational performance, but this action also can provoke resentment from employees and destroy the cooperation of organization.

2. Controlling conflict

One method of controlling conflict is to expand the resource base. Managers should also try to match the personalities and work habits of employees to avoid conflict between individuals.

3. Resolving and eliminating conflict

First of all, the method of resolving and eliminating conflict is compromise which is striking a middle-range position between two extremes. The manager as a mediator convinces conflicting parties to compromise. Secondly, the confrontation approach to conflict resolution consists of bringing the parties together to confront the conflict and negotiate conflict. The parties discuss the nature of their conflict and attempt to reach an agreement or a solution. Confrontation requires a reasonable degree of maturity on the part of the participants, and the manager must structure the situation carefully (Creelman, 2001).

However, when I read the case, I thought about how I would deal with the case if I were the manager. I think I would take the third way to solve the problem. In my opinion, the best method to handle conflict is mediation. I would take six steps for resolving a conflict.

1) Listen

Calm the employee down first, so that you can have a dialog. Begin by listening to everything they have to say. If the upset employees are stopped before they finish, they won’t hear anything the manager has to say. If this manager wants resolution, he/she must listen.

In the case, to demonstrate that the manager is listening to Charles, she would maintain eye contact and a neutral expression. Tilting her head slightly to one side gives the message that she is listening. She shouldn’t nod her head, because Charles could interpret that as agreement.

2) Empathize

Demonstrate understanding of what was just said. It is important to realize that you do not have to agree with what has been said, in order to empathize with the employee. The employee needs to believe that you have a firm grasp of the situation, the facts, and how it affects them personally. Empathizing demonstrates to the upset employee that they have been heard.

Charles’ manager could recap his comments and empathizes, like “You are obviously angry about this rumor. You believe that Angela has been spreading a rumor about you and you think I need to take action. I understand how frustrating that must be.” She couldn’t use his exact words. She should focus on the problem rather than the personal attack. Therefore, it is no longer Charles against his manager, but Charles and his manager, against the problem.

3) Apologize

Contrary to what we might have learned as children, an apology doesn’t have to mean we did anything wrong. Worded carefully, it can simply express your wish that the employee had been spared the discomfort. Remember, a heartfelt apology will go a long way towards reducing tension.

In the case, if the manager really wanted to diffuse the situation, it helped to apologize. She could use some appropriate phrase to show her apology. For example, “I am sorry that my not taking action against Angela caused you discomfort. I could not find anyone to confirm that Angela started the rumor.” or “I am sorry that you have been embarrassed. If I had been told about this situation earlier, I most certainly would have dealt with it.”

4) Know your options

Before you offer up a solution, know your options. Do the research. Ask for details; facts that back up the employees point of view. This will help to clarify the situation for everyone involved.

In the case, the manager could ask the employee what their solution would be. Good ways to phrase the question include, “How would you handle this if you were me?” “What would be a fair resolution?” and if she thought they can best handle the situation themselves, “What do you want to do about it?”

5) Guide

Unless you created the problem, your job is to help the employee clarify the problem and its consequences. Then guide them in creating their own solutions.

6) Educate

Once the conflict is resolved and the tension is gone, use the opportunity to help the employee develop better negotiation and conflict resolution skills.

In the case, the employee was insulting. The manager ignored the insult when she was trying to diffuse the situation. Now that the conflict has been resolved, she has an opportunity to discuss how they could use a more professional approach for communicating dissatisfaction in the future.

Conclusion:

Conflict is one of the most destructive behaviors in business and handling conflict in the workplace is one of the most challenging (Bowin & Harvey, 2001). When managers faced with conflict, it is important that they act, rather than re-act (Griffin & Singh, 2000). I believe the tendency is to become emotionally drawn into the conflict. It’s better to maintain a little emotional distance, and work through the six steps for resolving conflict.

However, this approach will not satisfy the needs you have to make your workplace a productive and pleasant environment. By better understanding how conflict arise, and practicing handling such conflict in an assertive way, it can become far less intimidating and be an aspect of work you can learn to manage rather than have it manage you.

Workplace conflict Essay

Conflict Resolutions, Cultrual Differences Essay

Conflict Resolutions, Cultrual Differences Essay.

The American way of dealing with conflict, according to the article, is arguing. This might not be the best way, and it’s definitely not the only way. The article serves the purpose of exploring the cultural differences in how others deal with conflict. It provides alternatives and different ideas in how to resolve conflicts, as oppose to arguing.

Arguing is a method of dealing with conflict. In the argument culture “nearly everything is framed as a battle or game in which winning or losing is the main concern.

” The pillars of argument rest on this win-lose idea. Argument is expressed through “polarized”, two sided, debates and battles. The result elicits a winner and a resolved conflict.

This method is commonly used in the “Western culture in general, and in the United States in particular”. It is also used by “individuals of Eastern European background”, “Jewish tradition”, and in some Indian cultures.

Joanna Repczynski, for example, had an experience in her visit to France.

Her host kept initiating “a heated intellectual debate over dinner.” When Joanna agreed, another argument would be on its way. Another example is Andrea Talarico. When her “Italian-American family” argues, their “voices would raise and objects would be thrown in an intense discussion”. Another example is the Japanese woman who is married to a Frenchman. The Frenchman started arguments with his wife. Finally when she argued back, “he was overjoyed” rather than getting upset.

The advantages of arguments are various. In the case of Joanna and her host, the host felt as if arguing would “keep things interesting”. Agreement was just to boring. “Andrea sees advantages to her Italian-American family’s style: “We always know how each other feels at all times.”” This is a sign of her family’s closeness. The Frenchman was overjoyed that his wife argued back because it was a sign of “showing interest” and showing respect for each other’s intelligence. To him “disagreement was a sign of a good relationship.” There are disadvantages of arguments. It can be upsetting and it can turn violent. The Japanese women “found it so upsetting” and Andrea’s family threw objects. For people who aren’t used to the argument culture, arguing can come off to be a “surprise, confusion, or alarm” and be very offensive. The disadvantaged result of an argument or debate is that there is always a loser.

Another method of resolving conflict is ritual vituperation. This method works by the means of screaming insults and song lashing. It was created by traditional societies; the rules are culturally agreed upon, which gives this method a ritual context. It is used by “Women in Gapun, Papua New Guinea” and in traditional Nigerian villages.

“Women in Gapun Papua New Guinea, when angered by husbands, relatives, or fellow villagers, can erupt in a kros, shouting insults and obscenities loudly enough to be heard all around.” The shouter waits near or in her home and waits for her offender to go far enough away. The villagers, then, watch up close as the women shouts. In Nigeria, a very similar method is used, song lashing. It “consists of familiar proverbs or original verses” that implies insults. Like kros, onlookers also watch. It’s different in the way that the target is referred to indirectly.

An advantage of this way of managing conflict is that it provides “outlets so aggression can be expressed”. It’s their way of relieving anger. The advantages stem from it’s ritualized, structured rules. The onlooker’s role is to prevent any physical violence. The onlooker’s provide the speaker with the satisfaction of listening. The speaker provides the onlookers with entertainment. “Effective song-lashers are admired for their verbal skill”. The target is relived of any direct abuse.

There are two major disadvantages to this method. The conflict doesn’t get resolved and the children in the surrounding area are subjected to this inappropriate verbal aggression.

An alternative to the idea of winning or losing is “victors without vanquished”. This method of dealing with conflict is to honor the winners as well as the losers. There is more emphasis on harmony “rather than winner take all.” This method is used in the Asian culture and has a historical significance in Japan.

An example of this method is the 1868 Asian revolution. The two sides of the conflict were the supporters of the Western government model and the old, Chinese model. “The people who had fought for the old regimen were not punished but invited to join the new government (and most did).” The Western supporters won, but the supporters of the traditional, Chinese model maintained their respect and dignity; they were “allowed to remain in existence.” The main advantage of this method is that the loser gets recognition, “retaining a large measure of respect.” According to Ben-Ami Shillony, an anthropologist, this method “helped Japan avoid disastrous internecine ethnic and religious strife.” The advantage of this method is that it resolves conflicts without disastrous escalation.

The disadvantage of this method is that “social pressure to maintain harmony can actually cause conflict.” The actions of people on conflicting sides are altered by the interference of harmony. For example, a person in disagreement with another might want to take action, but the emphasis on harmony might yield that action, which can cause frustration or even anger. Another disadvantage is that in a society that emphasis harmonic competition, competition “tends to become more fiercer” than in a society where competition is normal.

Another way of dealing with conflict is by the use of intermediaries, third parties. This method rests on the idea that “community pressure takes the place” of direct conflict.” “This reflects an emphasis on harmony and interdependence”. The conflicting sides are dependent on a mediator, or peacemakers to resolve a conflict. This method can be “formally ritualized”, or informal. This method is used in Asian societies and in many Pacific cultures.

An informal example of this method is the use of “matchmakers or marriage brokers”. Another example is “when neighbors pressure a son or a daughter-in-law to stop neglecting a parent or parent-in-law.” There are no ritualized rules in these examples, only third parties that take the place of direct confrontation. The use third parties can be ritualized or formal. For example, the use of “standard structures or rules” and “hierarchical relations to maintain harmony.” In the Solomon Islands, fa’amananata’anga is the way that conflicts can be resolved. The event is held over a family dinner, speaking is serious and formal, and the most senior person is the peacemaker, all making this ritualized. In Tannan, a South Pacific island, “Conflicts among villagers or between villages are discussed publicly by groups of adult men at special meetings that last all day.” The people present are the go-betweens and the most senior people hold hierarchy positions within the group.

Rather than resolving the conflict, these meetings are a way of taking part in a “joint journey” that results in “consensus flowing from the interaction of all.” They accomplish harmony of the minds and general understanding out of group effort. Another example is the Fijian Indians. They set up committees, third parties, which interview the opponents before a formal meeting called pancayat. The Japanese use a similar method called nemawashi. It rests on the idea that “there are two wrongs and now it is right.” Neither opponent is blamed as being the only wrong and “seriously at fault.”

An advantage of intermediaries is that they “offer the needed apology without the principal losing face and can absorb rejections without taking them personally.” In the case of the matchmaker, the groom avoids the risk of rejection from the potential bride. The groom is then saving face, keeping his dignity and pride. Another advantage of using intermediaries is that the third party offers motivation. The third parties also play a role in maintaining peace and help to avoid potential violence. The idea of pancayat and nemawashi “seems a much better way of gathering information than forcing people to speak in a high-pressure public event.” The committees take the pressure off of the opponents.

A disadvantage of using intermediaries is that the third party is placed in potentially “unhealthy and inappropriate” circumstances. The third parties are subjected to others conflicts, anger and possible violence. The third parties have a chance to get hurt. The cultures that use intermediaries form a dependence on them to handle their disputes. “Even some psychologists tend to regard” handling your own conflicts is “a sign of maturity”. The use of third parties can be a sign of interdependence and immaturity.

Another idea of resolving conflict is ritualized fighting. The fighting has specific rules and culturally inclinations. This method is the “expression of opposition.” The opponents do not gage in physical contact, only express it. It is used in Bali, Indonesia and in Tori, Ireland.

In Bali, Indonesia ritualized cock fighting is a fundamental way of dealing with conflict. In Tori, Ireland neighborhood street fights are ritualized ways of dealing with conflict. The rules are not “in the sense that the players could recount them”. They are just normal and taken for granted. The fighters come out in public and threaten each other. “Everything about the fight was structured so that the two men could seem eager to exchange blows without ever landing one.” No one gets hurt because no physical contact is actually exchanged. Finally, the mothers, or a female relative, of the fighters would break it up. “She would implore the fighter to come home and stop fighting.”

An advantage of this method is that no one gets hurt. “The fighters could rely on their kin to restrain them, preventing them from hurting each other.” The onlookers, especially the kin take the role of stopping any physical contact. Another advantage is that the fighters provide the audience with entertainment and “excitement for both participants and onlookers.” The fight also provides outlets for the fighters and a way they can show their manhood and get more respect. These ritualized customs “reinforce social bonds and alliances”. The interactive part and support of the society helps to bond them closer together.

A disadvantage to this method is that if the kin of one, or both, fighters are not present during the fight, physical contact might occur and someone can get hurt. Another disadvantage is that some of the onlookers may be children. The children are then subjected to cursing and threatening. They might look up to the manly fighters and want to mimic them. A major disadvantage of this method is that the conflict does not get resolved.

Comparing the argument culture to ritualized methods of dealing with conflict, it seems that arguing overemphasizes winning, loosing and “war and sports metaphors”. Too much concentration on polarized views and not enough on harmony that “discourages confrontation”. The cultural, ritualized rules provide that culture with boundaries, values, and “controlled ways to manage” conflict. “We cannot simply adopt the rituals of another culture, but thinking about them can give us pause and perhaps even ideas for devising our new ways to mange conflict.” The article provides insight on many ideas how to manage conflict. These new ideas can influence an individual, perhaps myself, to manage conflict more constructively.

Conflict Resolutions, Cultrual Differences Essay

International Water Conflict Essay

International Water Conflict Essay.

Water is one of the most precious commodities for human beings. To some, it is the very lifeblood of the world. From time immemorial, the availability of water has determined the rhythms of daily life in many regions. The critical importance of water to the survival of the human race can be seen in the earliest civilizations whose growth and sustenance were closely tied to its water distribution systems. Many authors have located the importance of water in different religious observances.

In Hindu and Buddhist traditions, the rivers of the earth, including the Indus, the Ganges and the Brahmaputra, originate from the mythical Mount Meru, the living place for the gods. In the Christian tradition, the waters originate from the Garden of Eden, and that divides the world into greatest streams: the Nile, the Tigris, the Euphrates, the Indus and the Ganges. Islam also gives water its due importance. The holy book Koran describes that every living thing is made from water.

As Caponera points out, it seems that in the Koran, the most precious creation after humankind is water.

There is a water crisis today. Water is not only a ‘commodity’, it is synonymous with life. All life on earth is dependent on water. If water is life, its possession bestows power. Water has crucial economic value, and it is a subsistence resource. Also, water has an emotional and symbolic value for certain countries and communities. The scarcity of water is increasing worldwide and its quality is continuously deteriorating. Water shortages reduce food production, aggrandize poverty, amplify disease and force people to migrate.

The scarcity of water also undermines the state’s capacity to govern. Nearly half of the world’s population lives in international river basins. Sharing of the international rivers can therefore be a serious object of contention between riparian nations. For the last few years, ‘water war’ has been a topic of widespread debate. However, wars over river water are likely only under a narrow set of circumstances, as there are also more examples of water cooperation than water conflict among countries.

Nevertheless, the increasing scarcity of water raises doubt about the sustainability of these cooperative agreements over the international rivers. Water scarcity is particularly severe in Asia, Africa and the Middle East, owing to population growth, urbanization and industrialization. Whether the water crisis intensifies the dispute over the shared waters or whether it can be turned towards sustainable cooperative management of river resources, depends on many interacting processes.

In this book (International conflict over water resources), after analyzing the existing sharing mechanisms of the major international river systems in these regions, argues that the real solution lies in a comprehensive approach to river basin management. The scarcity of water is increasing worldwide and the quality of the water is continually deteriorating. The growing global water stress poses a threat to the survival and prosperity of present and future generations. The gap between the needs of the growing population and the diminishing fresh water resources is widening every day.

In the arid and tropical regions, where countries possess a very limited supply of water, it is not difficult to perceive the consequences. Water, a key necessity of life, can also cause friction between communities and countries, particularly in climatic zones where it is hard to come by. The over-exploitation of water resources might result in an acute shortage. From this perspective, it will be impossible for all the social actors to remain comfortable with the present or future prospects of the availability of the resource.

These actors will work purposefully and consciously for their own interests. Increasing competition can potentially destroy the existing social arrangements for water distribution in the society. Newly organized actors with conflict behaviors might emerge in the future or the incompatibilities between existing actors might grow in societies with a weak administrative structure and laden with ethnic and social dichotomies. Scarce water resources can potentially trigger conflicts between the state and its internal groups.

The development of water resources by the state by building dams, irrigation infrastructures, or industries in a particular region might be perceived by the local population as exploitation for the interest of others. Regional parties may be activated or environmental groups may be formed to challenge the actions of the state. If a particular group is involved in exploiting more than its ‘perceived’ share of water with the backing of the state, then this inter-group conflict may escalate into conflict between the exploited group and the state itself.

As discussed earlier, the construction of large dams for the ‘efficient’ use of water resources has created tension between the state and a group of its own citizens in the past few years. The growing demand for irrigation and energy activates the state agencies to plan and build mega hydro-projects, which displace large population and inundate vast areas. In many places, the project affected population takes up of the struggle against the state. The list of mega dams that have witnessed this sort of protest is very long.

The major ones include: Sanmenxia and Three Gorges in China; Madur Oya and Mahavali Project in Sri Lanka; Mangla, Nanela and Tarbela in Pakistan; Kaptai in Bangladesh; Arun in Nepal; Akasombo in Ghana; Kossou in Ivory Coast; Tana and Athi in Kenya; Itaparica and Tucurui in Brazil; Kainji and Niger Dams in Nigeria; Ataturk and Keban in Turkey; Lam Pao and Nam Pong in Thailand; Kedong Ombo and Batang Ai in Indonesia; Upper Pampanga in Philippines; Manantali in Mali; Savajina in Colombia; Brokopondo in Suriname; Caracol and Netzahualcoyotl in Mexico; and Nam Ngum in Laos.

India, currently in the forefront of dam construction, deserves a separate list of its own. The Indian hydro-projects that have recently led to protest movements by the displaced people are: Pong Dam, Subarnarekha Project, Nagarjunsagar Project, Srisailam Project, Lower Manair Dam, Upper Krishna Projects, Tehri Dam, Narmada Projects and Ukai Reservoir Project. Sometimes disagreement over the development and sharing of water resources may begin with competing groups inside a state, but the state’s perceived favour of a particular group brings the state as a party to the conflict.

Similarly, if the water source exploitation is perceived as the state’s intentional act on a particular region or people, a group identity may form, leading to conflict with the state. The construction of dams for hydropower generations in the northern part of Sweden to provide energy to the industries and factories in the South has become an area of disagreement between the Sami people of the North and the Swedish state. The Samis, who live in the forests in the Arctic Circle, accuse the state of favoring city dwellers at the cost of their livelihood and welfare.

Even though this dispute has not transformed into a violent separatist movement, the reactions to similar issues in South Asia have been quite different. Disagreement over the sharing of river water from the Indus river system has been one of the major causes of violent secessionist movement in the Punjab province of India in the 1980s and 1990s. This Sikh-dominated province has been traditionally provided with a water supply from the Beas, Sutlej and Ravi Rivers.

The demands of the downstream provinces of Rajasthan and Haryana persuaded the Indian government to construct canals and divert 60 per cent of Punjab’s water and energy to those Hindu-majority regions. This became one of the major motivations for the Sikh Party (Akali Dal) to ask for autonomy in the 1970s, which subsequently transformed into an extreme violent secessionist movement in the 1980s and 1990s. On the other side of the border, the dispute over the sharing of the same Indus river system water has also played a critical role in a major separatist movement in Pakistan.

The Pakistani part of Punjab, which is economically and politically the most powerful province in the country, takes advantage of its upstream location and consumes most of the waters of the Indus river system through the help of barrages and dams, ignoring the demand of the downstream Sind province. The perceived close tie of the federal government with the Punjab province has escalated this conflict between the Sind province and the Pakistani government. The link between fresh water resources and international conflicts can be investigated at least in two different dimensions.

First, in an interstate conflict, the deliberate targeting of water storage facilities may be directly responsible for inducing water scarcity or reducing the water quality of the opponent. Thus, water scarcity becomes part of a military strategy and military behavior. The British Royal Air Force damaged a few German dams in the bombing runs of 1943. Dams and dykes were destroyed during the Korean and Vietnam wars by the US bombing. Iran claimed to have hit a hydroelectric station in Iraq in July 1981, as part of the Iran-Iraq War. Dams, water storage and conveyance systems were targeted by the warring sides during the 1991 Gulf War.

Allied forces even had thought of a plan to shut off the flow of water to Iraq by using the Ataturk Dam in Turkey. Armies in Yemen (in the 1994 war) and former Yugoslavia (1991-95) used the water storage facilities as targets to create problems for their adversaries. In January 1993, the Serbian militia seriously damaged the Peruca Dam in Croatia. There are cases where in fact a human population is held hostage to political and military leaders. Manipulation with such basic human supplies in times of war should be an urgent issue for international humanitarian law, and it certainly would be unacceptable under conditions of peace.

However, the aim here is to concentrate on a second dimension of the relationship: the likelihood of changes in fresh water resource supply to cause or contribute to the emergence and/or escalation of conflicts among states. As discussed before, there has been a general decline in the quantity and quality of global fresh water resource. This leads us to consider scarcity of resources as a cause of conflict, in conflict theory language: an incompatibility between already existing parties. A common starting point in the analysis of many inter-state conflicts has been sought in the desire of the leaders of states to acquire territory.

In the post-Second World War period, it has become unfashionable and immoral to conquer territories of others. Nevertheless this has happened repeatedly, for instance, in the Middle East, in South and Southeast Asia and lately in Europe. Huth characterizes territorial dispute as ‘one of the enduring features of international politics’. But, why do states fight for each other’s territory? As Toset, Gleditsch and Hegre explain, ‘territory can be a symbol of self-determination and national identity, but it can also be a proxy for tangible resources found on the territory’.

Thus, access to water supply can be a motive of waging war. Under special circumstances it is a possibility that scarcity of fresh water resources may give rise to serious armed conflict. “Water is not transported across large distances, as is the case with oil or minerals, for instance. In the post-Second World War period, political actions are taking place more in order to satisfy the demands of the majorities of a country. ” (Barrett, S. 1994, p. 24) This means that stronger nations might be more in need of natural resources on the territory of other states, to meet the growing needs and desires of the home population.

In this way, ‘development’ might be seen to require the acquisition or exploitation of a larger share of jointly owned fresh water resource. The water on the surface of the earth is naturally organized within river basins. The river basins are the fundamental units of the fresh water world and the central feature of the ecology of the planet. Moreover, the river runoff is the most important source of available fresh water for human consumption. However, the rivers do not follow the political boundaries; nearly 260 rivers flow from one country to another.

More than 40 per cent of the world’s population is directly dependent upon the fresh water from these international rivers and about two-thirds of these people live in developing countries. The use or misuse of water in the upstream countries affects its quantity and quality in the downstream countries. Downstream nations can affect the flow of water by building large-scale dams, with effects spilling over the borders. The International Water Management Institute in Colombo projects that in 2025, 3 billion people will be living in countries facing water stress.

Water tables are increasingly falling in every continent. Many developing countries already face serious problems in meeting rapidly growing water demands. In order to meet such demands, further pressure is being placed on these ‘blue’ water resources, this over-exploitation resulting in acute shortages. Faced with such scarcity, water has increasingly become a source of social tension, bringing further competition and creating conflict which, together, have the potential to destroy the existing arrangements for water distribution.

Even though such tensions are omnipresent, they tend to be more complex and difficult where international rivers, lakes and aquifers are concerned. The Centre for Natural Resources, Energy and Transport (CNRET), now a defunct UN unit, brought out a Register of International Rivers in 1978. In that it listed 214 internationally shared rivers and lakes: 57 in Africa, 40 in Asia, 48 in Europe, 33 in North America and 36 in South America. The CNRET study has become dated because of significant changes in international geopolitical borders and names of countries and rivers in the last 25 years.

The names of some countries and rivers have also changed in this period. The disintegration of the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, Ethiopia and Czechoslovakia has helped to increase the number of internationally shared rivers and lakes, and also the number of basin countries. For example, the Volga River is now international, and the Aral Sea is shared by at least four independent states. The re-unification of Germany and Yemen has made the Weser basin and the Teban basin national, contributing to a decrease in the number of international fresh water resources.

International Water Conflict Essay