Generations of Computer Essay

Generations of Computer Essay.

The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of computers. Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers. A chip is a small piece of semi conducting material(usually silicon) on which an integrated circuit is embedded. A typical chip is less than ¼-square inches and can contain millions of electronic components(transistors). Computers consist of many chips placed on electronic boards called printed circuit boards.

There are different types of chips. For example, CPU chips (also called microprocessors) contain an entire processing unit, whereas memory chips contain blank memory. Computer chips, both for CPU and memory, are composed of semiconductor materials.

Semiconductors make it possible to miniaturize electronic components, such as transistors. Not only does miniaturization mean that the components take up less space, it also means that they are faster and require less energy. Instead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system, which allowed the device to run many different applications at one time with a central program that monitored the memory.

Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience because they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors.

Fourth Generation – 1971-Present: Microprocessors

The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits we rebuilt onto a single silicon chip. A silicon chip that contains a CPU. In the world of personal computers, the terms microprocessor and CPU are used interchangeably. At the heart of all personal computers and most workstations sits a microprocessor. Microprocessors also control the logic of almost all digital devices, from clock radios to fuel-injection systems for automobiles. Three basic characteristics differentiate microprocessors:

* Instruction Set: The set of instructions that the microprocessor can execute.

* Bandwidth: The number of bits processed in a single instruction.

* Clock Speed: Given in megahertz (MHz), the clock speed determines how many instructions per second the processor can execute. In both cases, the higher the value, the more powerful the CPU. For example, a 32-bit microprocessor that runs at 50MHz is more powerful than a 16-bitmicroprocessor that runs at 25MHz. The CPU is the brains of the computer. Sometimes referred to simply as the processor or central processor, the CPU is where most calculations take place. In terms of computing power, the CPU is the most important element of a computer system. On large machines, CPUs require one or more printed circuit boards. On personal computers and small workstations, the CPU is housed in a single chip called a microprocessor. Two typical components of a CPU are:

* The arithmetic logic unit (ALU), which performs arithmetic and logical operations.

* The control unit, which extracts instructions from memory and decodes and executes them, calling on the ALU when necessary. In 1981 IBM introduced its first computer for the home user, and in 1984 Apple introduced the Macintosh. Microprocessors also moved out of the realm of desktop computers and into many areas of life as more and more everyday products began to use microprocessors. As these small computers became more powerful, they could be linked together to form networks, which eventually led to the development of the Internet. Fourth generation computers also saw the development of GUI’s, the mouse and handheld devices.

Fifth Generation – Present and Beyond: Artificial Intelligence Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today. Artificial Intelligence is the branch of computer science concerned with making computers behave like humans. The term was coined in 1956 by John McCarthy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Artificial intelligence includes: * Games Playing: programming computers to play games such as chess and checkers

* Expert Systems: programming computers to make decisions in real-life situations (for example, some expert systems help doctors diagnose diseases based on symptoms)

* Natural Language: programming computers to understand natural human languages

* Neural Networks: Systems that simulate intelligence by attempting to reproduce the types of physical connections that occur in animal brains

* Robotics: programming computers to see and hear and react to other sensory stimuli Currently, no computers exhibit full artificial intelligence (that is, are able to simulate human behavior). The greatest advances have occurred in the field of games playing. The best computer chess programs are now capable of beating humans. In May, 1997, an IBM super-computer called Deep Blue defeated world chess champion Gary Kasparov in a chess match. In the area of robotics, computers are now widely used in assembly plants, but they are capable only of very limited tasks. Robots have great difficulty identifying objects based on appearance or feel, and they still move and handle objects clumsily.

Natural-language processing offers the greatest potential rewards because it would allow people to interact with computers without needing any specialized knowledge. You could simply walk up to a computer and talk to it. Unfortunately, programming computers to understand natural languages has proved to be more difficult than originally thought. Some rudimentary translation systems that translate from one human language to another are in existence, but they are not nearly as good as human translators.

There are also voice recognition systems that can convert spoken sounds into written words, but they do not understand what they are writing; they simply take dictation. Even these systems are quite limited — you must speak slowly and distinctly. Today, the hottest area of artificial intelligence is neural networks, which are proving successful in a number of disciplines such as voice recognition and artificial intelligence.

Generations of Computer Essay

Automated Grading System Essay

Automated Grading System Essay.


Letter grades were first used in the United States in the last part of the 19th century. Both colleges and high schools began replacing other forms of assessment with letter and percentage grades in the early 20th century. While grading systems appear to be fairly standardized in the U.S., debates about grade inflation and the utility of grades for fostering student learning continue.

Automation has had a notable impact in a wide range of industries beyond manufacturing (where it began).

Once – telephone operators have been replaced largely by automated telephone switchboards and answering machines. Medical processes such as primary screening in electrocardiography or radiography and laboratory analysis of human genes, cells, and tissues are carried out at much greater speed and accuracy by automated systems. Even elections have gone automated. Applying automation to Grading systems wherein it will also make a task easy and accurate.

1.1 Background of the Study

The group’s system named “Automated Student Evaluation System” is effective on inputting and storing data.

And the excellence and efficiency of this system is assured. The group has taken this opportunity as a challenge and pushed our ideas into reality and has considered many aspects and ideas in making this one of a kind project. The group hopes that the readers of this documentation would be inspired as they and believe that the primary goal of grading and reporting is communication. Effective grading and reporting systems promote interaction and involvement among all stakeholders (i.e., students, parents, teachers, and administrators) in the educational process.

Grading promotes the attainment of defined, content-specific learning goals and identifies where additional work is needed when it is directly aligned to the curricula. Grades serve a variety of administrative purposes when determining suitability for promotion to the next level, credits for graduation and class rank.

Computerized grading makes the grading process fast, more consistent, and more reliable than traditional manual grading. With the use of today’s advanced computers and other technologies in academic industries, the technologies will not just help the establishment but also everything that covers it; from the Professors to the students. Using the new programming languages that are present today the proponents will use this technology to help the school enhance its system. But despite of having a great system there are still some point in it that needed to be replaced or enhanced.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The old system was using Microsoft Excel only for inputting and storing the grades, the grades can only be accessed in one computer and also has a chance of data loss or the files are not secured enough.

Many things in this school have gone from manual to automate. The group noticed that this system does not exist in this school. We all know that making an Automated Student Evaluation System means making the task for professors in computing and calculating grades will become easy and not only that the professors will have an advantage but the students will also get a gain, because it will also improve accuracy of calculations thus making the what we call “Hula of Grades” will become non – existent in the future of Sta.

Cecilia College.

1.3 Statement of Objectives

The system aims to lessen the time in searching student’s records and processing of grades and to provide accurate facts to lessen errors. One of the tangible benefits of this system is cost reduction and avoidance due to facts searching of students records and processing of grades.

1.3.1 General Objective

The system’s to improve more accurate information for reduction of errors. By simply exploring of student grades information needed. It will increase flexibility because this is completely packed with adequate information for grade of the students. And also to secure the students grades.

1.3.2 Specific Objectives

This study aims to:
❖ The grades will be properly arranged and organized.

❖ It will speed up the activity of grade transactions of students.

❖ It will lessen the time they consume that will promote good aspects of the school through excellent service.

Nowadays, and other computerized applications for the improvement of their services. It is a necessity for this institution to follow what is in today’s world, Perhaps it is a necessity to change its image from a low technology school to a high standard facility equipped. Sta. Cecilia College offers computer courses and having a system like this will promote better learning for students because they could have interest to learn in database handling, programming and system analysis.

1.4 Significance of the Study

Getting involved in this kind of study is important to be aware of the modernization of technology particularly in computer system that can be useful at present and for the future use which is necessary in order to keep track with advanced technology being in the global technology competition. The proposed study would also assist to develop the proponent’s skills, especially in terms of system analysis, system design and programming. This study will create an Automated Student Evaluation System with student information system. This will also help the company to cope up with the long work flow of their previous system.

1.5 Scopes and Limitations


❖ The system can perform specific task as inputting the grades of the student and convert it to its equivalent. ❖ The system can also hold the information of the students, adding, editing and saving it to the database. ❖ Calculates individual student grades


❖ The grades can only be accessed by Professors by the use of the log in user module. ❖ The Registrar can only access and modify the Student information.

Student evaluation is a very complex process that should take many factors into account. Recognizing the limits of various grading practices and balancing them with common sense and good judgment is an important part of the work of professional teachers.

Automated Grading System Essay

Antivuris Programs Essay

Antivuris Programs Essay.

Today, people rely on computers to create, store, and manage critical information, many times via a home computer network. Information transmitted over networks has a higher degree of security risk than information kept in a user’s home or company premises. Thus, it is crucial that they take measures to protect their computers and data from loss, damage, and misuse resulting from computer security risks. Antivirus programs are an effective way to protect a computer against viruses.

An antivirus program protects a computer against viruses by identifying and removing any computer virus found in memory, on storage media, or on incoming files.

When you purchase a new computer, it often includes antivirus software. Antivirus programs work by scanning for programs that attempt to modify the boot program, the operating system, and other programs that normally are read from but not modified. In addition, many antivirus programs automatically scan files downloaded from the Web, e-mail attachments, opened files, and all types of removable media inserted in the computer (Karanos 201-205).

One Technique that antivirus programs use to identify a virus is to look for virus signatures, or virus definitions, which are known specific patterns of virus code. According to Shelly and Cashman (Antivirus Programs), many vendors of antivirus programs allow registered users to update virus signature files automatically from the Web at no cost for a specified time. Updating the Antivirus program’s signature files regularly is important, because it will download any new virus definitions that have been added since the last update. Methods that guarantee a computer or network is safe from computer viruses simply do not exist. Installing, updating, and using an antivirus program, though, is an effective technique to safeguard your computer from loss.

Antivuris Programs Essay

Antivirus Programs: Methods and Benefits Essay

Antivirus Programs: Methods and Benefits Essay.

Today, people rely on to create, store, and manage critical information, many times via a home computer network information transmited over networks has a higher degree of security risk than information kept in a user’s home or company premises. Thus, it is crucial that they take measures to protect their computers and data from loss, damage, and misuse resulting from computer security risks. Antiirus program are an effective way to protect a computer against viruses.

An antivirus program protects a computer against viruses by identifying and removing any computer viruses found in memory, ontorage media, or on incoming files.

! When you purchase a new computer, it often includes antivirus software . antivirus program work by scanning for programs that attempt to modify the boot program, the operating system, and other programs that normally are includes antivirus software . antivirus program work by scanning for programs that attempt to modify the boot program, the operating system, and other programs that normally are read from but not modified.

In addition, many antivirus programs automatically scan files (Bulowski) (Bulowski) (Bulowski, Protection and Precaution Keeping Your computer Healthy, 2008)download from the web, e-mail attachment, opended files, and all types of remoble media inserted in the computer (karanos 201 – 205)

One technique that antivirus programs use indentify a virus is to look for virus signatures, or virus definitions, which are known specific patterns of virus code. According to Shelly and Cashman (Antivirus Programs), many vendors of antivirus programs allow registered users to update virus signarure files automatically from the Web at no cost for a specified time.

Updating the antivirus.

Bullowski points out that most antivirus also protect against worms and Trojan horse (55-61).Program’s signature files regularly is important, because it will download any new virus definitinion that have been added since the last update.

Methods that guarantee a computer or network is safe from computer viruses simply do not exist. Installing updating and using an antivirus program, though, is an effective techniques to safeguard your computer from loss.

Antivirus Programs: Methods and Benefits Essay

Computer Revolution Essay

Computer Revolution Essay.

Personal Computers

The personal computer revolution was a phenomenon of immense importance in the 1980s. What the average American commonly refers to as a PC, or personal computer, did not even exist before the 1970s. Mainframe computers had been the norm, and they were primarily relegated to business and scientific use. With the dawn of the personal computer all Americans were allowed potential access to computers. As competition and modernization increased, issues of cost became less and less of an inhibitor, and it appeared that a new technological “populism” had developed.

Companies such as Apple Computer became household names, and words such as software and downloading became commonplace. It was predicted that by 1990, 60 percent of all the jobs in the United States would require familiarity with computers. Already by 1985, some 2 million Americans were using personal computers to perform various tasks in the office. The impact of the personal computer to the average American has been enormous—in addition to its usefulness at the office, it has become a source of entertainment, culture, and education.


Founded in 1976 by Steven Jobs and Stephen Wozniak, Apple Computer was to be the spearhead of the personal computer revolution. Apple had achieved moderate success in the late 1970s, but in the 1980s the company developed its innovative vision of how computers could relate to the average person. By 1982 Apple became the first personal computer company to have an annual sales total of $1 billion. In 1983 Apple introduced the Lisa. Lisa was to be the successor of the Apple II and was the first computer to widely introduce the concept of windows, menus, icons, and a mouse to the mainstream. The Lisa computer was phased out by 1985 and sur-passed by the Macintosh in 1984. Macintosh was faster, smaller, and less costly than the Lisa; it retailed for around $2,500 and was packaged as a user-friendly machine that was economical enough to be in every home. Although the machine possessed less processing capability than IBM PCs, one did not need any programming capability to run the machine effectively, and it became popular.

Beyond Simplicity

Not satisfied to be simply “the easy PC,” Apple in 1986 introduced the Mac Plus, PageMaker, and the LaserWriter. The infusion of these three, particularly PageMaker, an easy-to-use graphics page-layout program, helped give rise to a new medium known as desktop publishing. Creating this new niche made Macintosh the premier, efficient publishing computer. Apple expanded its hold on the graphics market in 1987 with the introduction of the Mac II computer. Its color graphic capability fostered the introduction of color printers capable of reproducing the color images on the computer screen. By 1988 Apple introduced Macs capable of reading DOS and OS/2 disks, thereby closing some of the separation between Macintosh and IBM PCs.


On 12 August 1981 International Business Machines (IBM) created its first personal computer. Simply called the IBM PC, it became the definition for the personal computer. IBM was the largest of the three giant computer firms in the world, and the other two, Hewlett-Packard (HP) and Xerox, had previously attempted to make efforts into the new PC market but failed. IBM initially was not convinced that the American public was interested in computers, particularly for their own home usage, but after viewing the early successes of Apple they were determined to enter the race. In creating the software for the PC, IBM turned to a young company called Microsoft to formulate MS-DOS.

Market Success

IBM PCs were immensely powerful, fast machines, and their entrance into the market legitimized the personal computer and created a new cottage industry. In 1983 IBM introduced the PCjr, a less expensive version of the PC. Despite strong advertisement PCjr was not a success and cost IBM quite a bit in reputation and money. Undiscouraged by these results, IBM pressed onward. By the mid 1980s, IBM PCs had inspired many clones that emulated IBM’s functions at a lower cost to consumers. Constantly setting the standard, IBM in 1987 introduced the PS/2 and the OS/2, the first IBM 386 models. IBM also established agreements with software companies such as Lotus to develop sophisticated programming for their company. Attempts were also made by the company to launch a line of portable computers over the decade. The success of these various portable models was somewhat limited, due to size and cost, as well as improper promotion. Even with several marketing setbacks throughout the decade, however, IBM remained the largest computer firm in the world. By 1989 IBM was producing personal computers that dwarfed earlier models in speed, capability, and technology.


As the personal computer explosion continued to grow, it spawned more and more cottage industries. One of the largest new markets to develop was that of the software industry, and one of the largest companies in that industry was Microsoft, founded in 1975 by William Gates and Paul Allen in Redmond, Washington. In 1981 Microsoft created MS-DOS, short for Microsoft Disk Operating System. Although it was initially licensed only to the IBM Corporation, by the end of the decade it became the industry-standard operating software for all PCs. The ability to corner this lavish, fast-growing market solidified Microsoft’s software leadership position in the 1980s. Microsoft also began work late in the decade on Windows and OS/2 software programs for PCs and introduced programs for Apple Computer. Another growing software company was Lotus Development Corporation, who created its innovative 1—2-3 spreadsheet programs. Desktop publishing software was advanced greatly thanks to the growth of Apple Computer’s graphics capabilities. Countless other software programs, from playful (video games) to statistical (accounting programs), began to saturate the market, attempting to feed the growing desires of the American public.

Information Society

Computers have touched most aspects of how Americans function. Through their ability to link groups across great distances, they have made the world, at least theoretically, a smaller place. The computer was not the first technological advancement to impact the nation so greatly, but the speed in which it swept across the country and the pace in which change within the field continues to occur have been remarkable. As technology advanced, the cost of computers also significantly declined. Schools on all levels began to integrate computer literacy into their academic programs as it was seen that this knowledge would be as essential as reading in the next century. Sales for computer companies sky-rocketed as they rushed to meet demand. Computer magazines, such as Byte, PC World, and PC Magazine were either born in the 1980s or grew substantially as interest around the issue grew. Backlash regarding the growth of computers and their infiltration into society also occurred. Fear of an unfeeling technical society where human contact has been replaced by machines has been voiced by some extreme critics. On the more moderate side are criticisms that computer technology will only improve the lives of those who could afford the high costs of a PC. Thus, the computer, instead of unifying, could potentially increase the gap between the rich and the poor.

Machine of the Year

In 1983 Time magazine solidified the personal computer’s arrival into mainstream society when it named the PC its 1982 Machine of the Year. Time’s Man of the Year award was given to a prestigious man or woman that had made a significant mark on the world in the preceding year; by adapting the honor for a machine, Time acknowledged the immense contribution this technology had made upon society. Computers, once available only to trained programmers, now became increasingly commonplace in homes across the country. They changed the way the average American received and processed information at work and at home. Some critics scoffed at the fact that the magazine had bestowed a machine with such an important title, but Time defended the decision, stating, “There are some occasions, though, when the most significant force in a year’s news is not a single individual but a process, and a widespread recognition by a whole society that this process is changing the course of all other processes. That is why, after weighting the ebb and flow of events around the world, Time has decided that 1982 is the year of the computer.”

Computer Revolution Essay

Paper Critique: “Airavat: Security and Privacy for Mapreduce” Essay

Paper Critique: “Airavat: Security and Privacy for Mapreduce” Essay.

1. (10%) State the problem the paper is trying to solve.

This paper is trying to demonstrate how Airavat, a MapReduce-based system for distributed computations provides end-to-end confidentiality, integrity, and privacy guarantees using a combination of mandatory access control and differential privacy which provides security and privacy guarantees against data leakage.

2. (20%) State the main contribution of the paper:  solving a new problem, proposing a new algorithm, or presenting a new evaluation (analysis). If a new problem, why was the problem important? Is the problem still important today? Will the problem be important tomorrow? If a new algorithm or new evaluation (analysis), what are the improvements over previous algorithms or evaluations? How do they come up with the new algorithm or evaluation?

The main contribution of the paper is that Airavat builds on mandatory access control (MAC) and differential privacy to ensure untrusted MapReduce computations on sensitive data do not leak private information and provide confidentiality, integrity, and privacy guarantees.

The goal is to prevent malicious computation providers from violating privacy policies a data provider imposes on the data to prevent leaking information about individual items in the data.

The system is implemented as a modification to MapReduce and the Java virtual machine, and runs on top of SELinux

3. (15%) Summarize the (at most) 3 key main ideas (each in 1 sentence.)

(1) First work to add MAC and differential privacy to mapreduce. (2) Proposes a new framework for privacy preserving mapreduce computations. (3) Confines untrusted code.

4. (30%) Critique the main contribution
a. Rate the significance of the paper on a scale of 5 (breakthrough), 4 (significant contribution), 3 (modest contribution), 2 (incremental contribution), 1 (no contribution or negative contribution). Explain your rating in a sentence or two.

This system provides security and privacy guarantees for distributed computations on sensitive data at the ends. However, the data still can be leaked in the cloud. Because multiple machines are involved in the computation and malicious worker can sent the intermediate data to the outside system, which threatens the privacy of the input data. Even not to this extent, temporary data is stored in the workers and those data can be fetched even after computation is done.

b. Rate how convincing the methodology is: how do the authors justify the solution approach or evaluation? Do the authors use arguments, analyses, experiments, simulations, or a combination of them? Do the claims and conclusions follow from the arguments, analyses or experiments? Are the assumptions realistic (at the time of the research)? Are the assumptions still valid today? Are the experiments well designed? Are there different experiments that would be more convincing? Are there other alternatives the authors should have considered? (And, of course, is the paper free of methodological errors.)

As the author’s stated on page 3 “We aim to prevent malicious computation providers from violating the privacy policy of the data provider(s) by leaking information about individual data items.” They use differential privacy mechanism to ensure this. One interesting solution to data leakage is that they have the mapper specify a range of its keys. It seems like that the larger your data set is, the more privacy you have because a user affects less of the output, if removed. They showed results that were really close to 100% with the added noise, it seems this is viable solution to protect the privacy of your data input

c. What is the most important limitation of the approach?

As the authors mention, one computation provider could exhaust this budget on a dataset for all other computation providers and use more than its fair share. While there is some estimation of effective parameters, there are a large number of parameters that must be set for Airavat to work properly. This increases the probability of misconfigurations or configurations that might severely limit the computations that can be performed on the data.

5. (15%) What lessons should researchers and builders take away from this work. What (if any) questions does this work leave open?

The current implementation of Airavat supports both trusted and untrusted Mappers, but Reducers must be trusted and they also modified the JVM to make mappers independent (using invocation numbers to identify current and previous mappers). They also modified the reducer to provide differential privacy. From the data provider’s perspective they must provide several privacy parameters like- privacy group and privacy budget.

6. (10%) Propose your improvement on the same problem.

I have no suggested improvements.

Paper Critique: “Airavat: Security and Privacy for Mapreduce” Essay

Secondary Storage Devices Essay

Secondary Storage Devices Essay.

As we all know that the main memory stores the data in a temporary manner which means all the data will be lost when the power goes off. To keep our data safe we use secondary storage devices. These are used for storing the data in a permanent manner so that all the data will remain stored whether the power is switched on or switched off, the power will never affect the system. For storing the data in a permanent manner we use the magnetic storage devices.

Advantages Of Secondary Storage Devices

1) Non-Volatile Storage Devices: The non-volatile storage devices are non-volatile in nature which means they never lose their data when the power goes off. Thus, the data which is stored in the non-volatile storage device will never be lost when the power is switched off.

2) Mass Storage: The capacity of these devices are very high which means we can store huge amount of data in secondary storage devices. We can store data in secondary storage devices in form of Giga bytes and Tetra bytes.

3) Cost Effective: The cost of these secondary storage devices are lower as compared to the main memory. This makes them more cost effective. Moreover they don’t even get damaged easily, the data can’t be lost from them.

4) Reusability: Memory contains the data in both Temporary and Permanent manner. The secondary storage devices are always reusable. The data they contain can be easily edited or removed as per our requirements. It’s re-writable and we can also add data to it. We can also store that data in our computers or laptops.

5) Portable: The secondary storage devices are portable, they are small and can easily be carried anywhere. They don’t require much space.

Secondary Storage Devices Essay

Motherboard Essay

Motherboard Essay.

Before generation of Microprocessors i.e. in 1st, 2nd and 3rd generation computers, the computer was usually built in a card-cage case or mainframe with components connected by a backplane consisting of a set of slots themselves connected with wires; in very old designs the wires were discrete connections between card connector pins. But printed circuit boards soon became the standard practice in the late 1970s. The Central Processing Unit, memory and peripherals were housed on individual printed circuit boards which plugged into the backplane.

(A backplane is a circuit board that connects several connectors in parallel to each other, so that each pin of each connector is linked to the same relative pin of all the other connectors, forming a computer bus.)

During the late 1980s and 1990s, it was found that increasing the number of peripheral functions on the PCB was very economical. Hence, single Integrated Circuits (ICs), capable of supporting low-speed peripherals like serial ports, mouse, keyboards, etc.

, were included on the motherboards. By the late 1990s, motherboards began to have full range of audio, video, storage and networking functions on them. Higher end systems for 3D gaming and graphic cards were also included later.

Micronics, Mylex, AMI, DTK, Orchid Technology, Elitegroup, etc. were few companies that were early pioneers in the field of motherboard manufacturing but, companies like Apple and IBM soon took over.

Today, motherboards typically boast a wide variety of built-in features, and they directly affect a computer’s capabilities and potential for upgrades.

Today Intel and Asus are the two leading companies in the field of motherboard manufacturing.

A typical desktop computer has its microprocessor, main memory, and other essential components connected to the motherboard. Other components such as external storage, controllers for video display and sound, and peripheral devices may be attached to the motherboard as plug-in cards or via cables, although in modern computers it is increasingly common to integrate some of these peripherals into the motherboard itself. Few things that a motherboard nowadays include are:

• sockets (or slots) in which one or more microprocessors may be installed. • slots into which the system’s main memory is to be installed (typically in the form of DIMM modules containing DRAM chips). • a chipset which forms an interface between the CPU’s front-side bus, main memory, and peripheral buses. • non-volatile memory chips (usually Flash ROM in modern motherboards) containing the system’s firmware or BIOS. • a clock generator which produces the system clock signal to synchronize the various components. • slots for expansion cards (these interface to the system via the buses supported by the chipset).

• power connectors, which receive electrical power from the computer power supply and distribute it to the CPU, chipset, main memory, and expansion cards. • Additionally, nearly all motherboards include logic and connectors to support commonly used input devices, such as PS/2 connectors for a mouse and keyboard. Occasionally video interface hardware is also integrated into the motherboard. Additional peripherals such as disk controllers and serial ports are provided as expansion cards. • Given the high thermal design power of high-speed computer CPUs and components, modern motherboards nearly always include heat sinks and mounting points for fans to dissipate excess heat. [pic]

CPU Sockets

• A CPU socket or slot is an electrical component that attaches to a printed circuit board (PCB) and is designed to house a CPU (also called a microprocessor). • It is a special type of integrated circuit socket designed for very high pin counts. A CPU socket provides many functions, including a physical structure to support the CPU, support for a heat sink, facilitating replacement (as well as reducing cost), and most importantly, forming an electrical interface both with the CPU and the PCB. • CPU sockets can most often be found in most desktop and server computers (laptops typically use surface mount CPUs), particularly those based on the Intel x86 architecture on the motherboard. A CPU socket type and motherboard chipset must support the CPU series and speed.

Integrated Peripherals

• It is possible to include support for many peripherals on the motherboard. By combining many functions on one PCB, the physical size and total cost of the system may be reduced; highly integrated motherboards are thus especially popular in small form factor and budget computers.

Peripheral Card Slots

• A standard ATX motherboard will typically have one PCI-E 16x connection for a graphics card, two conventional PCI slots for various expansion cards, and one PCI-E 1x. A standard EATX motherboard will have one PCI-E 16x connection for a graphics card, and a varying number of PCI and PCI-E 1x slots. It can sometimes also have a PCI-E 4x slot. • Some motherboards have two PCI-E 16x slots, to allow more than 2 monitors without special hardware, or use a special graphics technology called SLI (for Nvidia) and Crossfire (for ATI). These allow 2 graphics cards to be linked together, to allow better performance in intensive graphical computing tasks, such as gaming and video editing.

• Virtually all motherboards come with at least four USB ports on the rear, with at least 2 connections on the board internally for wiring additional front ports that may be built into the computer’s case. • Ethernet is also included. Ethernet is a standard networking cable for connecting the computer to a network or a modem. • A sound chip is always included on the motherboard, to allow sound output without the need for any extra components. This allows computers to be far more multimedia-based than before. Some motherboards contain video outputs on the back panel for integrated graphics solutions.

Computer Cooling

• Motherboards are generally air cooled with heat sinks often mounted on larger chips, such as the Northbridge, in modern motherboards. If the motherboard is not cooled properly, it can cause the computer to crash. • Passive cooling, or a single fan mounted on the power supply, was sufficient for many desktop computer CPUs until the late 1990s; since then, most have required CPU fans mounted on their heat sinks, due to rising clock speeds and power consumption. Most motherboards have connectors for additional case fans as well. • Newer motherboards have integrated temperature sensors to detect motherboard and CPU temperatures, and controllable fan connectors which the BIOS or operating system can use to regulate fan speed. Some computers use a water-cooling system instead of many fans.

Bus & Bus Speed

• A bus is simply a circuit that connects one part of the motherboard to another. The more data a bus can handle at one time, the faster it allows information to travel. The speed of the bus, measured in megahertz (MHz), refers to how much data can move across the bus simultaneously. • Bus speed usually refers to the speed of the front side bus (FSB), which connects the CPU to the northbridge. FSB speeds can range from 66 MHz to over 800 MHz. Since the CPU reaches the memory controller though the northbridge, FSB speed can dramatically affect a computer’s performance. [pic]


• The speed of the chipset and busses controls how quickly it can communicate with other parts of the computer. The speed of the RAM connection directly controls how fast the computer can access instructions and data, and therefore has a big effect on system performance. A fast processor with slow RAM is going nowhere. • The amount of memory available also controls how much data the computer can have readily available. RAM makes up the bulk of a computer’s memory. The general rule of thumb is the more RAM the computer has, the better. • Much of the memory available today is dual data rate (DDR) memory. This means that the memory can transmit data twice per cycle instead of once, which makes the memory faster. Also, most motherboards have space for multiple memory chips, and on newer motherboards, they often connect to the northbridge via a dual bus instead of a single bus. This further reduces the amount of time it takes for the processor to get information from the memory. • A motherboard’s memory slots directly affect what kind and how much memory is supported. Just like other components, the memory plugs into the slot via a series of pins. The memory module must have the right number of pins to fit into the slot on the motherboard.

Form factor

• Motherboards are produced in a variety of sizes and shapes called computer form factor, some of which are specific to individual computer manufacturers. • The current desktop PC form factor of choice is ATX. A case’s motherboard and PSU form factor must all match, though some smaller form factor motherboards of the same family will fit larger cases. For example, an ATX case will usually accommodate a microATX motherboard. • Laptop computers generally use highly integrated, miniaturized and customized motherboards. This is one of the reasons that laptop computers are difficult to upgrade and expensive to repair. Often the failure of one laptop component requires the replacement of the entire motherboard, which is usually more expensive than a desktop motherboard due to the large number of integrated components.

Motherboard Essay

Digital Classroom Essay

Digital Classroom Essay.

I was really wondering what can I learn English when I came here. Because before I couldn’t go to course about English . I haven’t got an idea. After that we’ve seen two different classroom. Conventional and digital classroom. World is changing everyday. Person finds new technologies idea for everything. And I’m absolutely agree this statement what people learning English are able to make greater progress when using a variety of learning technologies within the classroom.

I really like digital classroom.

There are lots of advantages. In my opinion IWB is incredible . It looks like game and everybody like to play game. All word use to internet and computer because of this people can be to more interested with lesson. Some times we can want to speak with our friends and we can use to Synchron Eyes. I’m feeling comfortable to digital classroom. Pegasus is helpful for me. I can do some mistakes when I write by handed and after that maybe I can’t see my mistakes.

But if I use to Pegasus I can see all my mistakes end of the exam or homework and maybe I can forget my homework but if I look for in the Pegasus I can see my homework.

I used to conventional classroom for 23 years. Sometimes computers can’t work . there can be some digital problems. What can I do this time. I can use my book. We’re really old friends with my book. If I am in classroom I want to see my book and I want to use my pencil. This is really important for me. I want to write some notes on the book. As a result two different classroom has a good speciality. I feel confused but actually digital class is better than conventional class.

Digital Classroom Essay

Perform a Byte-Level Computer Audit Essay

Perform a Byte-Level Computer Audit Essay.

1. What is the main purpose of a software tool like WinAudit in computer forensics?

Answer: WinAudit is a great free tool that will give you a comprehensive view of the components that make up your system, including hardware, software and BIOS.

2. Which items within WinAudit’s initial report would you consider to be of critical importance in a computer forensic investigation?

Answer: Computer Name, OS, Security Settings for Windows Firewall, Drives, Running Programs, and Installed Programs and Versions.

3. Could you run WinAudit from a flash drive or any other external media? If so, why is this important during a computer forensic investigation?

Answer: Yes, WinAudit is a portable Application.

Because if you’re conducting audits on several computers, having the app on a Flash Drive can make the process much easier and more time efficient.

4. Why would you use a tool like DevManView while performing a computer forensic investigation?

Answer: DevManView is an alternative to the standard Device Manager of Windows, which displays all devices and their properties in flat table, instead of tree viewer.

In addition to displaying the devices of your local computer, DevManView also allows you view the devices list of another computer on your network, as long as you have administrator access rights to this computer.

5. Which item or items within DevManView’s list would you consider to be of critical importance in a computer forensic investigation?

Answer: Most likely the Hdrives and USB storage devices and/or any other computer hardware on the network.

6. What tool similar to DevMan View is already present in Microsoft Windows systems? Answer: WinHEX is similar to DevMan.

7. Why would someone use a HEX editor during a forensic investigation? Answer: To see if the files and data recovered from the hard drive are original and authentic.

8. What is the purpose of a software tool like WinHEX in computer forensics? Answer: It’s a tool that can recovery important and sensitive data that has been deleted. This tool is also used for editing or whipping the info from the drive.

9. What was the proper extension of the file you analyzed using WinHEX? How did you find it? Answer: ??

10. Why do you need to keep evidence untampered? In order to guarantee legal admissibility? Answer: For legal reasons. So, the evidence can be used in Court. If the evidence is not authentic, it can be thrown out of court.

Perform a Byte-Level Computer Audit Essay