Interpersonal Communication Essay

Interpersonal Communication Essay.

My name is Tralisa King and I am writing to inform you that I have received your letter and would first, like to congratulate and wish you, both well in your new ventures as a family in Holy matrimony. I understand that you would like my advice on producing a long – lasting and happy relationship. I do feel the need to advise you, that I am not a relationship therapist by any means. However, as you both are aware, I have taken a course in interpersonal communication and would be more than happy to provide you with as much knowledge as possible that I have obtained from this course.

I hope that based on what I have learned in class, the articles I have read, and my personal experiences you will find some of my advice to be informative or at least gain enough interpersonal communication skills needed to resolve any issues that may arise in your relationships in the future.

“Communication is not simply the exchange of words and information; it is the means through which we share knowledge, thoughts, ideas, and feelings with other people. Interpersonal communication is the way people connect with other people.” (Sole, 2011) Learning to communicate effectively can and most likely will be the foundation, you both will need in order to develop, maintain and/or keep a productive, calm, and strong relationship and/or marriage. Communication is a skill that is never perfected, I have been married for over twenty years and if it had not been for the grace of God and learning to build our marriage on the foundation of communication, I do not think our marriage would have lasted. Although we have found a way to communicate, communication remains a work in progress and there are times when our communication is not up to par. Recognizing how words have the power to create and affect attitudes, behavior, and perception:

Words are very powerful and if not used correctly can cause a physical as well as a mental drain upon one’s marriage. Words have a way of bringing out the best and/or the worst in a person. Even the Bible speaks of the power of words in several passages throughout the scriptures. . Sometimes it is not the word alone, it can be the way in which the word is represented that can bring out the best and/or worst in people. The word Ni—r for example, although I am a black female, I do not use this word nor do I allow it to be used in my presence without addressing my disapproval of the word. I have never based my life on what others say, think or feel about me.

However, I would be lying to myself if I did not admit that there are still things including certain words that create an immediate emotional and/ or physical reaction if approached to me incorrectly. My children on the other hand, use this word relentlessly while speaking with their friends but are ready to fight at the drop of a dime if called that of a Caucasian person. There are females that get offended by the word B—ch, however this is a word that does not offended me regardless of the presentation, not saying that it shouldn’t offend me; I’m just saying it don’t..

I remember as a child, when being teased by someone, my parents would say, “words never hurt anyone.” However, todays’ bullying is proving that words can kill. Words and the way in which we use them can have an effect on others behavior, attitude, and perception of not only you but also themselves. “Negative connotations often act as triggers to derail your interpersonal communication. We all have trigger word’s that create an immediate emotional reaction when we hear them” (Sole 2011)

By understanding the power of one’s words and learning away to use, those without offending the other can help to defuse any argument, misunderstanding or anything else that would eventually lead to hatred or possibility of divorce. Remember, one can apologize for the words they say but they cannot take it back; and being forgiven by your partner does not mean that your partner will forget.

Listening -develop strategies for active, critical, and empathic listening-Perceptions, Emotions, and Nonverbal Communication

One is generally born with some sort of interpersonal communication, such as a baby crying. Generally, a baby crying is their way of letting one know that they are displaying some type of discomfort. After a while, one’s way of listening allows them to decipher that baby’s cry, understand their need and/or discomfort and act accordingly. A baby also uses non-communication, such as responding to a familiar voice or sound, which they often associate with care such as food, warmth, or a touch perhaps. This is also true in a marriage, the longer you are married the more nonverbal communication, and you are likely to develop. “Nonverbal communication is defined as the communication of a message without words; which means that it encompasses a wide range of vocal and visual signs and behaviors” (Sole, 2011)

I am famous for rolling my eyes, walking off, or simply giving a person a blank stare when I don’t agree with them or simply just not wanting to be bothered. Misunderstanding is often due to one’s body language; although my body language often is a response to the situation at hand, this is not necessarily true for my husband. My husband has an annoying habit of sucking his teeth sarcastically when he does not agree, he does this so much, that at times I am not sure he notice he is doing it. Tammy it is important to decipher your husband’s intent of his body movement; because we as women have, the tendency of jumping into conclusion and like my husband it could be a simple habit, vice versa for you Bill.

It is also important that the two of you develop an effective strategy for active, critical, and empathic listening. “Researchers report that most of us spend more time listening than we do talking; however, most people have had little education on how to be an effective listener, which requires focus and attention.” (Sole, 2011) While most people think they are fairly good listeners, studies show that the majority of people listen poorly and inefficiently (Lee & Hatesohl, 1993) (Sole, 2011) Mr. and Mrs. Jones I have learned that, how one listens can and most likely will have an impact upon the way in which one communicates. At the same time, how well one listens’ can have an impact on the sincere qualities they develop in their marriage and/or relationship with others. It is the failure to listen that causes a lot of mis-communication and is one of the main factors of many divorces.

I also have learned in my studies how to distinguish four types in the way in which one listens. The first is comprehension listening, which is listening to obtain some type of knowledge, more likely to be done in a meeting, seminar, or group of discussion (classroom environment of some sort). The second type is evaluative listening; this is listening to someone who is trying to pre-sway another in complying with his or her thoughts, ideas and/or opinions. “In these conversations, it is important that you listen for the speaker’s main points and determine their strengths and weaknesses so that you can formulate an effective response such as countering the arguments or presenting important points that the speaker may not have included.” (Sole, 2011). Although this is good in some cases, I do not suggest you use this type of listening when it comes to communicating with each other because it may make the other feel attacked, which they will feel the need to defend themselves or cause them to become withdrawn when communicating.

The third type of listening is empathic listening, which I highly recommend for the two of you. This is something my husband and I practice a lot it allows us to connect and gives us a better understanding of each other’s thoughts without judgment for the most part… Last but not least , appreciative listening, I recommend this also because is show that you are interested in each other and interested in what each other have to say. Not only did I learn four types of listening, I also learned that there is a process that “requires six distinct components” (Sole, 2011) when it comes to listening, which are: “Motivating oneself to listen” (Sole, 2011) – This entails keeping an open mind, being attentive at all times, being aware of the nonverbal communication such as movements, eye contact, facial expression or anything else that is accompanied with the discussion at hand. “Clearly Hearing the Message” (Sole, 2011) – Make sure you can clearly hear what the person is saying and try to eliminate any noise that may be a distraction to you at that time.

“Paying Attention” (Sole, 2011) – try not to speak while the other is talking and focus on what the person is saying rather than focusing on your response. “Interpreting the Message” – “To correctly interpret a message, you must know what the symbols mean to the person who is using them, and we all interpret symbols differently.” (Sole, 2011) I believe this is more of a written message than it is for a fact to face conversation… “Evaluating the Message” – “When you have heard and attended to a message and then interpreted it, you must then decide what you think or feel about that information. The results of this evaluation usually determine how you will respond.” (Sole, 2011)

On a personal note, I am not sure how one can do this and remain attentive to the discussion because it would seem that one would be more focus on the response than they would the conversation. “Remembering and responding Appropriate” – This should happen at the end of the discussion once the speaker has finished expressing himself or herself. At this time the other should ask any question necessary to get a complete understanding, it is important to never assume anything because the inaccurate assumption is a sure way to bring confusion into your relationship. Once you have established the skill of effective listening, it becomes a little easier to solve and/or avoid communication problems. Trust and self-disclosure

Trust is another key element in one’s marriage. In order to build trust one must be willing to expose oneself to self- disclosure. I recently did a report in my class on an article “Can We Talk?” by Nara Schoenberg, which spoke about the importance of communication. In my report, I spoke of trust and self – disclosure. I stated, “I do believe that finding new ways to communicate can help to develop a stronger relationship. I also believe that the quality, as well as the quantity of communication is the foundation in which a relationship is built on. One also needs truth and understanding.

Knowing that the discussion one is having is based on pure truth is of great importance; being dishonest to spare another’s feelings or to cover up something is just as bad as not speaking at all. One must also have an open mind when conversing, being able to understand the difference of opinion and not focusing on who is wrong or right helps to establish a common ground and growth. With all this being said, I do agree that sharing one’s feelings, fears, doubts and perceptions can help to build a healthy and happy relationship of any kind. At the same time, it can also be dangerous placing this much information or trust in someone that may because you harm… Self- disclosure increases trust within the relationship because it provides “understanding of your inner thoughts and feelings will significantly impact how you see others, especially with your spouse, who will increase your ability to share your innermost feelings. (Sole, 2011).

However, I feel the need to advise you that I feel one must have complete trust with the other before taking this step. My marriage did not have this in the beginning, it took a little time for us to build this type of trust in each other because this consist of sharing one’s private feelings and sometimes secretes that only you know about yourself.

Once these feelings and secrets are exposed to the other, it leaves you vulnerable which depending on your partners’ intent could either bring you people closer or tear you apart. Do not get me wrong it was not that I did not trust my husband in the begging, I honestly felt uncomfortable with being vulnerable to anyone including him. Having said this, if you genuinely love each other, there is a strong possibility that you will begin sharing things you would never have shared before without giving it a second thought.

The discrepancy I had with the article was Orbuch’s advice was to “consider setting aside 10 minutes a day for quality conversations.” (Schoenberg, N. 2011, January 17). This suggestion may be good for couples that have been away from each other or if someone in the relationship had an event that has happened to them that, they would like to share with their spouse. However, I work at home and my husband does as well because of this, we are together for the majority of the day and although we love each other’s company, there are times we just like to share our time together in complete silence or talking about things that has no value, like a TV show or trashing talking while playing pool.

Most importantly there are times we just want to be left alone. Whatever the case may be, I feel that this approach varies depending upon the couple, the environment and/or the situation. I stated in that report, “In order to have the type of communication that the article speaks of, one must first have a full understanding of consistent quality communication because there are many ways one can define quality communication; there will never be a sure conclusion or a quick fix when it comes to communicating within a relationship.” (King 2012) Had I been talking to my sister or husband they would have understood this concept in depth. Due to the fact I was speaking in general my teacher advised me “I failed to include supporting details or examples to bring validity to my claim.” (Miller, 2012) In which I feel she was 100% right.

However, this proves that one’s approach varies depending upon the environment and/or the situation. Regardless of the impact or lack of this article had on me, I do recommend that the both of you read this article and share your thoughts it may have a different outcome, and give you a better insight on the importance of self-disclosure. Other articles I think can be beneficial in your marriage are; “Shared Talking Styles Herald New and Lasting Romance” (Bower, 2010) “speaks about conversation and the impact it has or can have in one’s relationship and/ or friendship. The article talks about a variety of studies done such as speed dating…. Within that experiment, they found that” (King 2012) “opposite – sex are more likely to express mutual interest when using similar speaking styles than those who differ.” (Bower, 2010)“

Another study showed that young couples in a committed relationship, whom used similar writing styles during 10 days of instant – messaging chats, we’re likely to stay together.” (Bower, 2010) and the article, “Close Relationships Sometimes Mask Poor Communication” (Health Day News 2011) show how one’s communication with others, lack of communicational skills. This article speaks of a study done on married couples that explored the amount of mis-communication or lack of communication one may have in their relationship. Although the researchers pointed out some valuable information they gained from their studies, they left much to be questioned when it comes to communication in one’s marriage.

Identify the barriers to effective interpersonal interactions…

Interpersonal communication barriers compose a negative impact in our everyday life on the way we interact with others; rather it is in our jobs, with our friends or our family life. Reason being, we are all different therefore we all have different personalities, emotions, our priorities differ as well as our emotions.

It is difficult to identify all the things that create Interpersonal communication barriers, however, I believe that the root of the problem when entering or within a marriage consist of personal emotions, lack of desire to participate and/or explore in conversation.

Emotional barriers in a marriage are the hardest thing to conquer. This is because one’s feeling and/or emotions are more likely the ultimate way in which one bases their decision. The problem with this is one’s feeling and/or emotions are comprised of the things that surround us, such as little sleep, anxiety, problems at work, or just generally having a bad day. That one bad day can lead to a bad decision or unintentionally building barriers to protect our feelings and /or emotions. Working on improving your interpersonal skills will allow you to identify each other’s barrier. Once you are able to identify the barrier of your significant other, approach them with it by asking questions to find the cause of the barrier.

In a relationship, it is important to break the barriers as soon as possible. The two other barriers you will want to avoid in your relationship lack of desire to participate and/or explore in conversation. The fastest way to ignite an argument and possible build permanent barriers between one another is when one is trying to communicate with the other and your partner is clearly not interested in what you have to say; one not being willing to explore is the other. The unwillingness to acknowledge the possibility of your spouse ideas, opinions, and priorities can cause them to feel belittled and guarded. Keep in mind this is what you are trying to avoid…

Remember, there is no permanent solution in obtaining a perfect marriage but as all things in life, a successful marriage requires patients, self-control, and determination and the more you practice the easier it becomes.

Interpersonal Communication Essay

Stages of Social Transformation Essay

Stages of Social Transformation Essay.

Communications drives everything and influences everyone. Society, organizations and individual transformation (change) happens as the result of communications. Nothing changes unless the who, what, why, when, where and how is communicated. Wall Street moves based on the communication of information. Organizations move based on what is communicated internally and externally. Religion moves people based on the communications and agreement of religious doctrines. People are influenced by communications and the subsequent actions create transformation of relationships, markets and the entire economy.

Stages of Social Transformation Social media influences group dynamics because of the reach and influence of communications.

We are all connected to “the human network group” which has become self aggregated into sub groups of interest and affinity. These “groups” are learning, sharing, collaborating and aiming at ways to make progress. Each individual and organization goes through “stages” that are all necessary and inevitable in order for them to grow into all things social, to face up to challenges, to tackle problems, to find solutions, to plan work and life, and to achieve individual and collective objectives.

The stages are: 1. Forming: In the first stages of “social groups”, the forming of the group takes place. The individual’s or organizational behavior is driven by the need to participate in the markets of conversations. When people begin to discover “social media” the first stage reflects learning, excitement as well as confusion. Trying to decide or discover who, what, where, when, how and why can seem overwhelming. Whether individually or organizationally the task at hand is learning about the different uses of social media and the implications.

The forming stage of any group is important because, in this stage,the groups learning curve is influence by those they choose to associate with or follow for the purposes of learning. Those that jump in without learning stumble and fall.

2. Storming: Every group will next enter the storming stage in which different ideas compete for consideration. The group addresses issues such as how social media can create or find solutions to relevant problems. Arguments on what ideas are the best and references to who to follow for the best information or knowledge ensue. In some cases storming can be resolved quickly.

In others, the group never leaves this stage. The maturity and knowledge inventory of group members usually determines whether the group will ever move out of this stage. Group leadership and intervention of new knowledge is needed to move a group to the next stage. The storming stage is necessary to the growth of a group. It can be contentious, unpleasant and even painful to members of the group who are averse to conflict. This phase can become destructive to the group and will lower motivation if allowed to get out of control. Some groups will never develop past this stage.

3. Norming: The groups knowledge grows and they come to a mutual plan for use of social media and how to accomplish the plan. In this stage, all group members knowledge domain grows and the group begins to comprehend ways it which social media can be used to accomplish specific objectives. The group obtains a “common” perspective on the systemic nature of social media and the group members influence grows outside and inside organizations.

4. Performing: Some groups reach the performing stage. These groups are able to create meaningful and significant change using social technology as the means to create innovation. Performing groups are motivated and leverage what they are learning to create new knowledge. The competency of these groups grows as the groups knowledge expands. These groups rely on the “wisdom of crowds” and their own creativity to advance their thinking. The group seeks innovative ideas aimed at solving existing problems and/or creating new markets from the collective intelligence gained from “wisdom and creativity”. They understand that social media are channels to learn, engage and share with markets, groups and crowds.

5. Transformation: Even the most high-performing groups will revert to earlier stages in certain circumstances. Many long-standing groups go through these cycles many times as they react to changing developments. Those that reach the transformation stages are the groups who create meaningful and significant change that positively impacts the entire human network. These groups are philosophically connected and grounded in a common set of principles that guide everything they think and do. Reflect on the history of mankind and you’ll recognize “groups” that changed our world.

Stages of Social Transformation Essay

Demonstrative Communication Essay

Demonstrative Communication Essay.

“Communication is an exchange of information, verbal pr written message and is the process of sending and receiving message”. () With communication there must be a sender and a receiver for it to take place. In this paper I will provide examples how effective and ineffective demonstrative communication can be positive or negative on situations. Also I will explain how demonstrative communication involves listening and responding.

Demonstrative communication is nonverbal and unwritten communication thought facial expression or body language. Effective ways for a sender and receiver to communicate in a demonstrative way would be to send the right message.

Sender would want to make sure the receiver comprehends and understands the sender. For example Kinesics: “refers to the many behaviors of the body”() these would include posture, gestures, and facial expressions. To make a positive gesture one could give the sender two thumbs up letting them know they did a great job. Letting the sender know they understand the message. A negative gestures would be a frown or to raise an eyebrow.

This would provide feedback to the sender letting them know you disagree. Effective communication is a two way street for the sender and receiver.

Ineffective ways for sender and receiver to communicate would be if the sender was demanding or ordering the receiver for something, and persuading or lecturing them. For example, using words like “you must” this may make the receiver think you are being demanding and they may resent you. Lecturing the receiver is another negative way to communicate with them. This may cause them to feel like they are wrong. Hepatic is a powerful form of communication. This would include giving the sender a pat on the back letting them knows you understand and everything was great. A native communication result would be a slap in the face. This would lead to many problems.

Demonstrative communication between the sender and receiver will be positive if the sender does not overload the receiver with to much information at one time. If the receiver provides active listening or reading, this will allow the receiver to engage in what the sender is trying to get across to them. Demonstrative communication can also be negative if the receiver has a lack of eye contact or crossing of the arms. Things like this tell the sender one may not be interested in their message they are trying to get across.

Provide feedback is a part of responding and giving the sender insurances that you are listening and understood what was being said. With demonstrative communication for example, one can respond by providing feedback like, “What I’m hearing is…” This lets the sender know you are listening to the message.

Demonstrative Communication Essay

Care Values and Communication in a Hospital setting Essay

Care Values and Communication in a Hospital setting Essay.

The care values are a set of rules and guidelines that every care practitioner has to follow in order to provide services to their clients. The overall aim of the standards is to improve client’s quality of life by ensuring that each person gets the care that is most appropriate for them as an individual. The three main care values are Confidentiality, Equality and Diversity and Individual rights and beliefs. By achieving these care values we can improve the quality of care and allow all patients to be treated as an individual with respect. (2012) (Accessed: 22 January 2013)

Confidentiality is an important principle in health and social care as it imposes boundaries on the amount of personal information and data that can be disclosed without consent. Confidentiality is where a person disclosing personal information expects their privacy to be protected, such as in a relationship of trust. However in some situations confidentiality can be countered, when there is public interest in others being protected from harm.

UCeL (2012_ (Accessed: 22 January 2013)

Confidentiality is very important because as healthcare workers our ability to correctly diagnose and treat our patients depends on getting a correct medical and social history, and having our patients trusts us. If a patients feels that the professional would share this information they may not give them the truth and without that important information they could make the wrong diagnosis and wrong treatment.

Yahoo answers (2012) (Accessed: 25 January 2013) Confidentiality can be used in oral communication in a hospital setting, For example if a patients approached their GP about a private and embarrassing problem they would be expected to show that patient respect and not to share the information given with anyone else. An example of a time where this could be shared is if their GP wanted to send them for tests and had to inform a specialist about their condition. Another type of communication is written this could be used to promote confidentiality as all paper based records must be locked away in a filing cabinet and only be accessed by those authorised to. Also to access your own records you must write a letter and wait approval for this.

Also for documents written on the computer there are various passwords and back up options for if the server goes down or a records is deleted. An example of how confidentiality can be used in computerised communication would be having passwords and automatic locks on staff’s computers and email accounts so only they can access their own patient’s information and no other members of staff or unauthorised persons. The last type of communication is specialist one example of how this can be used in confidentiality is if a person has hearing barriers and has to use sign language to communicate with their doctor. If their doctor is giving those results or information on their health and has to use sign language they may need an interpreter and the patients may want to use a quiet and enclosed room with the blinds shut just in case anybody else can see the sign language being used and understands it. Another care value is Equality and Diversity.

This means treating everyone equally regardless of their colour, age, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, disability etc. This is different to treating people the same as different people have different needs, so individuality should be taken in to account. For example, it would not be equal treatment to provide two different people with information about the services available written in English, if one of those people spoke another language and could not understand English. Wiki.Answers (2012) (Accessed: 22 January 2013) We live in an increasingly diverse society and need to be able to respond appropriately and sensitively to this diversity. Learners in the healthcare setting will reflect this diversity around gender, race and ethnicity, disability, religion, sexuality, class and age.

Successful implementation of equality and diversity in all aspects of work ensures that colleagues, staff and students are valued, motivated and treated fairly. London Deanery (2012) (Accessed: 25 January 2013) One example of how Equality and Diversity can be used in oral communication in a hospital setting is that a doctor would speak differently to a child than they would to an adult as children may not be able to understand some of the information they are being told if they used big words and medical jargon. Doctors should also use a slower pace and soft tone when speaking to younger patients and ask them regularly if they understand what is being said although they normally have a parent or guardian to accompany them. An example of how Equality and Diversity can be used in written communication would be if a patient cannot read or speak English they may have to produce leaflets in their language so they understand their condition or illness and what treatment is needed more clearly.

An example of how Equality and Diversity can be used in computerised communication would be having audio descriptions and talking pages on the NHS website so that people with sight barriers can still access the information they have to offer. The last type of communication is specialist and an example of how this can promote equality and Diversity is if a patient doesn’t speak English they may need a translator to assist the patient in talking to the doctor and to assist the doctor diagnosing the patient. This allows the patient to get the medical attention they require and are entitled to without them learning a second language which makes them equal but also individual.

Individual’s rights and Beliefs means being treated as an individual according to our own needs, every individual wants to be treated fairly, in the care sector it is of the utmost importance that a service user is treated fairly and also treated with love, care and respect. The individual rights are respect, choice, dignity, protection, and equality, access to information, non-discrimination, and effective communication. They also have the right to their own beliefs and a doctor must respect a patients beliefs and choice’s when treating them. Wiki.Answers (2012) (Accessed: 22 January 2013) When working within a health and social care sector based environment is to ensure that each service user feels that they can trust you as the service provider.

Care Values and Communication in a Hospital setting Essay

Causes of communication problems Essay

Causes of communication problems Essay.

It exhibits itself when team members always want to protect and defend own interests. There is no openness and communication is always argumentative with team members trying to outdo each other as regards explaining why they are right and their colleagues wrong (Peter, 1988). Different expectations: Divergent views on individual roles and responsibilities and authority structure results in tension and communication breakdown.

Confusion: Chaos over roles, processes and responsibilities resulting from inadequate or inaccurate information can lead to loss of productivity and communication breakdown.

Loss of momentum: Results when team members aren’t all working toward project success leading to a lag in project progress. Frustration ensues when some teammates feel they are being pulled back. The once smooth communication turns into one of finger pointing further aggravating the loss of momentum. Dissatisfaction: A project is headed towards doom when teammates find it is no fun going to work. Such a project is likely to be behind schedule and out of budget.

Communication among project team is strained. Lack of commitment: Poor communication could result when team members are not fully committed to the project success (Peter, 1988).

Unconscious incompetence: An inexperienced person in the team who doesn’t understand their limitations focuses mainly on the documentation aspect instead of dwelling on problem solving. This is because the team member should quickly learn to solve problems as they occur. Avoiding miscommunication Being receptive to mentoring: New job entrants should understand that they can benefit from learning from those who are older in the job. Managers should also avoid instructing new job entrants to do the difficult tasks as this is not conducive for one who needs to learn.

Stress management: Close monitoring and periodic management of stress levels among project team will do justice to the overall performance of the project. A Stress-free team exhibits good communication (Peter, 1988). Stimulate fun: Monitoring the level of fun in the team and working towards stimulating the same is of importance to the success of the project goals. Proper communication is more likely to result. Quickly resolve issues: This ensures timely restoration of diminished project momentum to allow for project progress. Mechanisms for resolution of disputes should be known and utilized by all (Ferdinand, 1978).

Make oneself a trusted leader: A leader who has 100% voluntary followers will initiate proper communication. The leader will offer a clear direction, decision making and problem solving if needed. Open communication: Holding a sober session to discuss decision making procedures, roles of team members and authority hierarchy among other pertinent issues will clear any doubts among team mates. Misunderstandings will be ironed out as well as trying to make expectations of team members alike. Build trust among members: This comes about when members honor their promises and perform their roles towards the project (Ferdinand, 1978).

Causes of communication problems Essay

Data Communications Essay

Data Communications Essay.

Differentiate between an analog and a digital electromagnetic signal. What are three important characteristics of a periodic signal. What is the relationship between the wavelength and frequency of a sine wave. Define fundamental frequency.

What is the relationship between a signal’s spectrum and its bandwidth. What is attenuation? Define channel capacity. What key factors affect channel capacity?


Figure 1 shows the frequency domain function for a single square pulse. The signal pulse could represent a digital 1 in a communications system.

Note that an infinite number of higher frequencies of decreasing magnitudes is needed to represent the single pulse. What implication does that have for a real digital transmission system?

Suppose that a digitised TV picture is to be transmitted from a source that uses a matrix of 480 x 500 picture elements (pixels), where each pixel can take on one of 32 intensity values. Assume that 30 pictures are sent per second. (This digital source is is roughly equivalent to broadcast TV standards that have been adopted.

) Find the source rate R (bps) Assume that the TV picture is to be transmitted over a channel with 4.5Mhz bandwidth and a 35dB signal-to -noise ratio. Find the capacity of the channel (bps). Discuss how the parameters given in part (a.) could be modified to allow transmission of colour TV signals without increasing the required value for R. What is the channel capacity for a teleprinter channel with a 300Hz bandwidth and a signal-to-noise ratio of 3dB, where the noise is white thermal noise? A digital signalling system is required to operate at 9600bps. If a signal element encodes a 4-bit word, what is the minimum required bandwidth of the channel? Repeat part (a.) for the case of 8-bit words.

Given the narrow (usable) audio bandwidth of a telephone transmission facility, a nominal SNR of 56dB (400,000), and a certain level of distortion, What is the theoretical maximum channel capacity (kbps) of traditional telephone lines? What can we say about the actual maximum channel capacity?

Given a channel with an intended capacity of 20Mpbs, the bandwidth of the channel is 3MHz. Assuming white thermal noise, what signal-to-noise ratio is required to achieve this capacity? If an amplifier has a 30dB voltage gain, what voltage ratio does the gain represent? An amplifier has an output of 20W. What is the output in dBW? Answers:

Short Questions

With guided media, the electromagnetic waves are guided along an enclosed physical path whereas unguided media provide a means for transmitting electromagnetic waves but do not guide them. A continuous or analog signal is one in which the signal intensity varies in a smooth fashion over time while a discrete or digital signal is one in which the signal intensity maintains one of a finite number of constant levels for some period of time and then changes to another constant level. Amplitude, frequency, and phase are three important characteristics of a periodic signal. The relationship is λf = v, where λ is the wavelength, f is the frequency, and v is the speed at which the signal is traveling. The fundamental frequency is the lowest frequency component in the Fourier representation of a periodic quantity. The spectrum of a signal is the frequencies it contains while the bandwidth of a signal is the width of the spectrum. Attenuation is the gradual weakening of a signal over distance. The rate at which data can be transmitted over a given communication path, or channel, under given conditions, is referred to as the channel capacity. Bandwidth, noise, and error rate.

Data Communications Essay

History of Communication Essay

History of Communication Essay.

The history of communication dates back to prehistory, with significant changes in communication technologies (media and appropriate inscription tools) evolving in tandem with shifts in political and economic systems, and by extension, systems of power. Communication can range from very subtle processes of exchange, to full conversations and mass communication. Human communication was revolutionized with speech approximately 100,000 years ago. Symbols were developed about 30,000 years ago, and writing in the past few centuries.

Petro glyphs The next step in the history of communications is petroglyphs, carvings into a rock surface.

It took about 20,000 years for homo sapiens to move from the first cave paintings to the first petroglyphs, which are dated to around 10,000BC. It is possible that the humans of that time used some other forms of communication, often for mnemonic purposes – specially arranged stones, symbols carved in wood or earth, quipu-like ropes, tattoos, but little other than the most durable carved stones has survived to modern times and we can only speculate about their existence based on our observation of still existing ‘hunter-gatherer’ cultures such as those of Africa or Oceania.

Pictograms A pictogram (pictograph) is a symbol representing a concept, object, activity, place or event by illustration. Pictography is a form of proto-writing whereby ideas are transmitted through drawing. Pictographs were the next step in the evolution of communication: the most important difference between petroglyphs and pictograms is that petroglyphs are simply showing an event, but pictograms are telling a story about the event, thus they can for example be ordered in chronological order. Pictograms were used by various ancient cultures all over the world since around 9000 BC, when tokens marked with simple pictures began to be used to label basic farm produce, and become increasingly popular around 6000-5000 BC. They were the basis of cuneiform and hieroglyphs, and began to develop into logographic writing systems around 5000 BC.

Ideograms Pictograms, in turn, evolved into ideograms, graphical symbols that represent an idea. Their ancestors, the pictograms, could represent only something resembling their form: therefore a pictogram of a circle could represent a sun, but not concepts like ‘heat’, ‘light’, ‘day’ or ‘Great God of the Sun’. Ideograms, on the other hand, could convey more abstract concepts, so that for example an ideogram of two sticks can mean not only ‘legs’ but also a verb ‘to walk’.

Because some ideas are universal, many different cultures developed similar ideograms. For example an eye with a tear means ‘sadness’ in Native Americanideograms in California, as it does for the Aztecs, the early Chinese and the Egyptians. Ideograms were precursors of logographic writing systems such as Egyptian hieroglyphs and Chinese characters. Examples of ideographical proto-writing systems, thought not to contain language-specific information, include the Vinca script (see also Tărtăria tablets) and the early Indus script. In both cases there are claims of decipherment of linguistic content, without wide acceptance.

History of Communication Essay

Communication and Young People Essay

Communication and Young People Essay.

1. Explain why effective communication is important in developing positive relationship with * Children * Young People * Adults Communication is the basis of any relationship, without it we could not obtain or relay information to overcome any conflicts or get anything done. To have effective communication we must treat everyone as individuals and adapt accordingly. Not just verbal communication but tone of voice, body language and eye contact are all important.

When communicating with children and young people it important to come to their level as this will make them feel more comfortable and that you are not dictating down to them.

It is important to listen to what the child or young person has to say, and if a question was asked respond correctly, as this allows them to feel accepted and valued. This encourages them to trust you and then they will more likely to confide in you. It is also important for kids that we model effective communication skills and we check are behaviour even at stressful times, this encourages them to behave the same way and helps them understand what is expected of them.

Positive relationships with adults are important to create good learning environment, and therefore obtain the children full potential. In order to create this the staff member must communicate with each other about lessons, activities and pupil’s progress; this will ensure each pupil receives the best possible care. Communicating with parents is essential as this enables you to obtain information that may affect the child .It is also essential to keep parents up to date with upcoming events with the school, great way to do this is weekly newsletter and more recently sending text messages as reminders. Also parents that have a positive experience in the school are more likely to give support.

2. Explain the principles of relationship building with * Children * Young people * Adults When building relationships with others it is important that they feel comfortable in our company, as they are more likely to communicate effectively. We normal build relationships without even thinking about it, a great way to undertake effective relationship building is to take time to listen to other people, show that you are interested in what they are saying and respond appropriately. Remember issues which are personal to them and always be considerate and show respect ensuring that you acknowledge their views.

Make sure that you be clear on key points when giving other information, but always maintain a sense of humour as laughter can be a great icebreaker and a good way to relieve stress. When building relationships with child and young people it is important we are good role models as positive interactions encourages the child to demonstrate positive behaviour also. These positive interactions also allow the child to feel settled and therefore will find it easier to learn. In order to create these positive relationships each child need to feel special this involves Security, Praise, Encouragement, Communication, Interaction Acceptance and Love. We must encourage children and young people to recognise and express their feelings in a constructive way. Children often have conflicting situations such as wanting the same toy or choosing team members, we must try and overcome these by being assertive as this helps children and young people understand how they would be able to resolve their differences amicably.

Building relationships with adults is important we must make them feel welcome and be approachable; we must be respectful of their cultural and religious differences and beliefs and use words and expression they understand and be considerate of any personal issues and always make sure that you take time to listen and respond appropriately.

3. Explain how * Social background * Professional background * Cultural background Affect relationship and the way people communicate.

When we are faced with a different situation we adapt our communication accordingly, most people do this automatically, and the more we deal with different situations the better we become at alternating our behaviour to help communicate positively and effectively. When communicating with others we have many factors and difficulties to overcome. We have to adapt our skills to overcome these difficulties; as if they were not conquered they may affect relationship building. Each relationship is individual, which is the reason why they take so long to form as they have to be worked upon to gain mutual respect and trust.

When outside factors within society affect communication, we need to respect the values and principles of each person, we must ensure we do not stereotype the individual regardless of their social professional and cultural background. Language is not the only form of communication, it the way we respond to others through electronic mail or phone messages, how attentive we are and also how we dress and present ourselves. When in a more formal setting for example attending a meeting we should use more formal language and behaviour. When communicating with other staff about pupils it must be given in a professional matter and in an appropriate place away from others.

Difficulties may arise when communicating with parent that have hearing impairment or physical disability that could affect their hearing ability, you should ensure that you face them and talk slowly and clearly so they can lip read or have a staff member that can sign language. Another difficultly that can arise is if the parent speaks little or no English, when communicating you must talk slowly clearly and ensure that you don’t use local dialects or expression that they may not understand, if that does not work having a bilingual staff member to translate so that they can feel included. If the area is multi-cultural we must consider their beliefs and norms which includes of eye contact, body language and gestures as these could lead to misinterpretation concerning cultural difference.

4. Explain the skills needed to communicate with * Children * Young people When communicating with anyone it is important that they are being treated as an individual and that their contribution is valued otherwise they are less likely to initiate a conversation. Some children and young people are lacking confidence when speaking to adults therefore finding sufficient time to allow them to talk.

We must use eye contact and actively listen, making sure they are getting attention. With young children it’s a good idea to come down to their level, use body language such as smiling and nodding and reacting positively to what they are saying.

We should encourage the children to keep talking by responding or asking questions, this will also show them how to have further two way conversations and may encourage them to ask more questions as this is how they learn. When communicating with children and young people we must ensure that we use appropriate languages; words and sentences they will understand. We must make sure that we are giving a clear message and check that they understand. If your asked a question you must answer to the best of your ability and to suit the age of the child or young person .Alternatively if the answer is unknown you could suggest alternative method of finding out for example internet or book, and you could help them to find it out.

5. Explain how to adapt communication with children and young people for * Age of the child or young person * The context of the communication * Communication differences When communication within the school you will deal with children and young people of all ages, cultures and abilities, they need to feel valued and your interaction should this. In order to accomplish this we must adapt our communication and behaviour, through positive communication and behaviour with classroom assistants and other staff member it shows them they are a part of the school community.

We are required to adapt our vocabulary depending on the age of the child or young person. The level of attention will vary with their age. With younger children, especially when starting school more reassurance is need, however as they mature they may need to talk through problems and identify feelings. When asked a question we must consider how simplified it must be for them to understand, the context of the answer will vary depending on this. The older they are the more technical answer is normally required.

In different situation the way in which we communicate will vary, when working on learning activity it is important to get children to focus, this will enable them to learn new things efficiently, any distractions need dealt with before they become an interruption. When in the playground or more social environment it can be used to develop positive friendly relationship while still maintaining professional carer to child relationship.

Children and young people may have some difficulties when communicating with others, we must ensure care and sensitively is used when dealing with these situations and the child or young person feels unpressured and they will take their time. If the child or young person has difficulties communicating we must find a way of dealing with it for example if they are hearing impaired, face them directly and talk slowly and clearly. If English is not their first language talk slowly and avoid using local dialect.

Communication and Young People Essay

Directness and Indirectness in Different Contexts Essay

Directness and Indirectness in Different Contexts Essay.

In modern life, people communicate with others in different ways; for instance, the way that directness or indirectness can affect the success or failure of communication. So, we wonder which way is better for human communications. The definition of directness is the character of being accurate in course or aim or straightforwardness , the quality of being clear, plain, or easy to understand . The definition of indirectness is not said or done in a clear and direct way or stating what a real or supposed original speaker said with changes in wording that conform the statement grammatically to the sentence in which it is included .

Speakers use a different register when speaking to different people, such as children, elderly people, peers, superiors, friends, strangers. So , when people talk to each other, they should consider the context, the situation, and then use the right way to communicate.. Position or social status is an important element of choosing whether directness or indirectness. When in a superior position, people tend to use more directness to their inferiors ,by contrast, people use indirect way when they are in a lower or subordinate position.

Subordinates usually are more mitigated—polite, tentative or indirect.

For example, in a company, as employees, they have to talk to their boss indirectly and politely; even their boss make mistakes, they cannot indicate directly if they do not want be laid off. Otherwise, bosses just talk to the employees directly. But the ones in power had the option of choosing which style to use. It was precisely because of his higher status that the boss was free to choose whether to speak formally or informally, to assert his power or to play it down and build rapport—an option not available to the subordinate, who would have seemed cheeky if she had chosen a style that enhanced friendliness and closeness.

In this spirit, if your boss request you something with indirectness,you should not only get the real meaning but also you should manage it, or you may in trouble. Another reason that affects communication is how people related to each other, or social distance, those who have closer relations tend to talk in a more direct way. For instance, they can talk to their parents directly anytime; talking directly is much better to parents; as a result, children should be honest to their parents. Moreover, as a close friend, they also need be honest to each other, so talk directly is a right way to them.

When their close friends make any fault, as close friends, they should indicate directly; that is a good way for both of them. On the other hand, people need to talk to their in-laws indirectly; moreover, people should be also respect to elder people. When in a special circumstances, or in emergency, people must use direct way of speaking, otherwise it will cause serious consequences, such as the conversations between the co-pilot and the captain in the text. If people in a urgent situation, they should speak directly even they are subordinates.

If not, the superior one would more likely to ignore hints from their crew members than the other way around. The use of indirectness can hardly be understood without the cross-cultural perspective. Communication in any culture is a matter of indirectness. Only a part of meaning resides in the words spoken; the largest part is communicated by hints , assumptions , and audience filling-in from context and prior experience. Americans as a group tend to ignore or even rail against indirectness. For Japanese, Arabian, or the Mediterraneans, “small talk” is big and essential in business dealings.

Non-Americans, and American women, more often realize that much of what is meant cannot be said outright. Cross-culturally it becomes a maddening guessing game that most entrants lose. Cultural differences in listening behavior can be categorized as direct or indirect. In direct listening cultures such as France, Germany, and the United States, people listen primarily for facts and concrete information. Listeners in these cultures also confront speakers directly and feel comfortable asking questions.

In indirect listening cultures such as Finland, Japan, and Sweden, people listen in a very different manner. Interruptions do not occur while the speaker is talking, and politeness is part of the listener’s behavior. Indirect messages allow you to express your desire with-out offending or insulting the one interacting with you, but often at the sacrifice of your own feeling. Instead of saying,“ I am bored with the conversation, “ you say , “ It’s getting late and I have to get up early tomorrow, “ or you look at your watch and pretend to be surprised by the time.

Instead of saying , “ This food tastes horrible ,”you say ,“ This food tastes different . “ Instead of saying ,“ You look terrible in this dress ,“ you are likely to say ,“ I like the dress you wore yesterday. ” However, different people have different ideas; some people think that talking directly can show the point clearly ; and others think that being indirect can be much more polite; otherwise, they think that talking directly is rude to people.

The ways that talking directly or indirectly are very important in our life. People should use these properly. These two systems can affect the communication success or failure. And sometimes the different culture also will affect the way that people talk directly or indirectly. Nevertheless, different situations and relationship are two of the most important effects. Therefore, learning how to use a right way to communicate to each other is a very important part in our life.

Directness and Indirectness in Different Contexts Essay

Persuasive Communication Essay

Persuasive Communication Essay.

When trying to persuade the boss it is important to state the facts and make sure to check the validity of these facts that will be presented before it is put forward. Remember to quote your credible sources, as you may be asked about where your data arrived from. Analyze the persuasive effectiveness in terms of its logos, pathos, and ethos, if applicable, on what you are trying to convince your boss on. Use statistics and data that are current and choose reputable publications.

Try to avoid logical fallacies. Presenting something that you want the boss to accept and give you the “wow” effect is important. You must make an effective entrance into a room. Walk tall and enter the room with a purposeful, confident stride. Give a firm handshake and smile. Having a positive attitude is a good way to start off a conversation.

You must first find common ground with your boss by sharing a common view of the problem, issue or goal.

Confirm with the boss that you are on their side and want this idea to help better the company. When trying to persuade a peer a mixture of facts and feelings may be used because you should have an indication of the person’s personality. This can benefit you to use what you know about how that your peer thinks when trying to persuade this person. Usually, a peer will listen to you much deeper than a person who does not you well.

When dealing with a challenging person it is important to use techniques to grab their attention. Challenging people have self-interest and may want to argue an issue. Use those self-interests to break down the facts and use sentiments to make them understand. If you are trying to persuade an open minded person you can explain your side of an issue by inflating the data. Open minded people are willing to listen to all sides of the arguments. Whether you are trying to persuade your boss, a peer, a challenging person, or an open minded person, all people think, and have personalities, that differ from you. Knowing who your audience is can be very important when it comes to persuasion.

Persuasive Communication Essay