Intercultural Communication: Investigating A Culture

Intercultural Communication Final Research Project Investigating a Culture


The Communications Department at CSM requires this final research project for all COM 1350 students. Use the Grading Rubric, follow the steps below, and respond to the following questions:

1. Find sources: Your primary source for this project is a person from the culture or co-culture you are exploring. However, you must use at least 3 secondary sources, including your textbook. Be sure to note any discrepancies you may find between your primary and secondary sources in your essay. You may use books, periodicals, class lectures, maps, the Web, library databases, and other credible sources.

2. Interview your primary source: To gain information about the culture you are investigating, interview your primary source. Explain how you know your interviewee and what their culture is. Use the questions below to guide you. If the person you are interviewing does not know the answer, you must research to find the answer. Remember that the person you interview may not understand the terminology we are using in class, so you must explain it. Also, consider that your interviewee is giving his/her perception of the culture and this perception may not reflect the entire culture.

3. Include these topics. The following topics should be covered in your project in the order listed.

I. Background of Culture. (Use primary and secondary sources for this information. (1-2 paragraphs)

How you know your interviewee and what is their culture?

Talk briefly about the history of the culture.

What major historical events shaped the present? (Go beyond describing the events. Explain how those events influenced the present)

What major events shaped the character and perceptions of the people?

What is the worldview orientation of the culture?

II. Cultural Taxonomy.

What are the value patterns of this culture? Explore the culture values of individualism-collectivism, small-large power distance, weak-strong uncertainty avoidance, and masculine-feminine sex roles. Use information from the Hofstede Website* and be sure to include examples from your interviewee for each.

Consider the culture’s additional value orientation patterns including meaning, destiny and time.

*If necessary paste into your browser:

III. Cultural Identity.

What is your interviewee’s cultural identity salience?

What are his/her social, personal and ethnic identities?

Does your interviewee face discrimination based on his/her identity?

IV. Intercultural Interaction.

How do members of this culture communicate verbally? What are the communication norms? What rules about language are used? Is there language that is specific to the culture? How does the language reflect the culture? Discuss high context vs. low context, direct vs. indirect, self-enhancement vs. self-humbling style, talk vs. silence, and self-disclosure.

What are the rules for nonverbal communication? Discuss how the various channels of nonverbal communication are used. Is it a high-, moderate- or low-context culture?

V. Culture Shock.

Describe the stages of culture shock your interviewee went through when moving to a new culture. If your interviewee did not move from one country to another, consider movement to a co-culture or new experience. Use specific quotes and examples from your interviewee.

VI. Group Membership.

What is the family structure and what roles are played within the family?

What rules govern friendships and romantic relationships?

How does the culture regard strangers and acquaintances?

What social roles exist in this culture?

VII. Biases

How and to what degree is this group affected by ethnocentrism or racism? Describe any injustices your interviewee or their cultural group has faced.

What stereotypes, positive or negative, are used to describe this culture?

How is this culture portrayed in the media?

Discuss how prejudice, discrimination and racism affect this particular group.

VII. Improving Intercultural Communication.

Overall, what problems do members of this group and/or your interviewee face within the dominant culture of the United States?

How can communication with the culture be improved?

VIII. Self-Reflection.

To conclude your essay, reflect on your experience as you conducted your interview.

Discuss how the elements of the model of intercultural cultural communication from Chapter 2 were evident in your interaction. Be sure to discuss how you adapted to any cultural barriers in your answer.

How did you adapt your communication based on relational, psychological and physical contexts of the interaction?

On what step of the staircase model would you place yourself during the interaction and why?

4. Essay format. Your essay must be 6 -7 pages long, in 12-point font, double-spaced and uploaded into myLearning. Terminology that you use from class should be underlined or boldfaced. Throughout you must document your sources following MLA or APA style. An excellent source for information about using MLA/APA style can be found at:



5. Grading. You will be graded on your ability to apply the terminology and concepts from the semester and illustrate them through examples from your interviewee. You should apply at least 50 terms/concepts. In addition, you should provide stories and specific examples that you receive from your interviewee to support your points. Finally, be sure to use proper grammar spelling and MLA/APA formatting. See the grading rubric posted in myLearning for more details.

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CIS Management Information Systems

· You will assume you own a (BASEBALL SHOP) small business that needs an influx of technology to grow.

· For example: assume you own a small (baseball shop) flower shop.

· This flower shop is still stuck in the 1980s. Assume it is not technology driven.

· Ask yourself some of the following questions and answer them in the first part of your paper.

· How do customers currently contact you with questions?

· How do customers contact you to place orders?

· How are orders documented?

· How are orders tracked?

· How do you know an order is ready?

· How are customers notified their order is ready?

· How do customers get their orders?

· How do you know how much inventory you have?

· What process do you use to order more inventory?

· Ask yourself the following questions and answer them in the next section.

· Can technology help solve any of these issues?

· What technologies would you use to solve the issues?

· How would these technologies work together? Answer this in the next section.

· How would you tie these together?

· What have you learned in any of the case studies we have done that might apply?

· When you are done with this section I should be able to see a logical system in place that improves the flower shop’s processes.

· End with a conclusion section.

· Sum up what you did

· Your PowerPoint will summarize all that you accomplished for the business.

· Also, please do not take your small town flower shop from a one-person operation and try and turn it into 1-800-Flowers.

· This isn’t realistic.

· Pick simple, proven technologies and describe how they will work together to improve the operation.

· For example: do not hire out a 24-hour a-day call center to take orders 365 days a year around the world….

Some of you will ask, “Can I choose a different kind of business?” Yes, you can. However, it must fit the same type of parameters.

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The Future Of Voice Over Technology: Trends And Predictions

The future of voice-over technology is rapidly evolving with advancements in artificial intelligence and machine learning. One trend that is expected to continue is the integration of voice-over technology into everyday devices, such as smartphones, cars, and home appliances. This will make it easier for people to interact with technology using natural language.

Another trend is the use of synthetic voices that are indistinguishable from human voices. This will be achieved through the use of deep learning techniques that analyze and replicate human speech patterns, tone, and intonation. These synthetic voices will be used not only for entertainment and commercial purposes but also in industries such as healthcare and customer service.

With the growing popularity of virtual and augmented reality,  voice over service  is also expected to play a significant role in creating immersive experiences. Virtual assistants will become more sophisticated and capable of understanding complex commands and responding in natural language.

Overall, the future of voice-over technology is exciting and full of possibilities. As AI and machine learning continue to advance, we can expect to see more innovative applications of voice-over technology in various industries and settings.

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Simple communications systems

  1. Multiplexed displays
  2. Logic function generation
  3. Simple communications systems

Multiplexers are devices that take multiple inputs and route them to a  single output.  The output is determined by the data select input.  The  binary input selects which device signal is put through to the output.

Multiplexed displays like the 7-segment display use a mux to send the  data to all displays on a timed sequence of a data select signal.  The  data select signal will also be used by a decoder to select which  display to activate.  The activation of the individual displays  sequences with the data from the multiplexer at a rate that, to the  human eye, looks like all displays are activated simultaneously with the  correct display on each. 

Logic function generation with a multiplexer is done by setting the  data inputs to the desired logic table output then the data select input  is used to select the desired logic/input to send to the output.  So,  if you wanted an output of 1 for binary inputs 001, 011, and 101, you  would connect VCC to the input contacts for decibels 1, 3, and 5 to be  routed to the output when that data input is selected.

Communication with multiplexers can be simple for a small system like  a security system switching from one camera to the next every few  seconds or recording all at the same time but in different files.  It  could use a multiplexer to select which camera is recorded and the  demultiplexer to select the correct file for that specific camera.  It  can switch from one to the next at such a rate that it seems that it is  all being done at once.  I know from my experience working on F-16s that  every system on that jet communicates through multiplex buses.  Each  system will communicate back to a central processor that uses  multiplexers and demultiplexers to talk to several systems at the same  time switching from one to the other.  Radio communication is similar,  jumping from one frequency to another.  The frequencies are being  changed so fast that a radio on a single frequency only hears Decepticon  sounds, but the guy on the other radio switching the same frequencies  at the same time hears everything.

Floyd, T. L. (2014). Digital Fundamentals (11th ed.). Pearson Education (US).

Multiplexors are also known as data selectors. These devices take an  analog or digital input signal and send it to a single output line. Thes  signals are transmitted through a single output line at various speed  and frequencies. These devices act as a multi position switch that take  one input line and transmits to the output. imagine a flashlight with  various brightness levels. these levels are controlled by a resistive  circuit and switched with a manual device that has the same function as a  multiplexor. However, these devices are very fast and efficient.  Typically, the data selection of a multiplexor is controlled by a second  set of input signals called control lines. The binary input of these  control lines will determine the orientation of the output signal. the  advantage of multiplexed displays is that we greatly reduce the amount  of wiring that is necessary. image.png

As seen in the display, input signals S2 and S6 are closed.  Therefore, all of the LEDs in between the two are illuminated. this  indicated the multiplexors completed output circuit. Logic for  multiplexors will be in binary terms indicating a simple on/off for each  input to create a chosen output. Thes work well in timed light displays  to automatically switch outputs based on timed demands. Thes simple  multiplexors circuits can also be used for color changing lights to  determine what signals need to be on to reach a certain output color. 

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Good leaders are limited in many circumstances of life.

Good leaders are limited in many circumstances of life. To become a good leader an individual need to learn several interpersonal skills from the environment that they associate. Many theorists have come up with a general conclusion that most excellent leaders are molded by situation they find themselves in and not inheritance as many may conclude. Many leadership concepts are used to determine an excellent leader’s skills and competence. In addition, the concepts are mainly based on the ability of the leader to lead and command others as wells solve the problems in any specific group effectively. The majority of the concept applied in the different context of the society is the same. In media, leadership and problem-solving concepts are also applied since most media genres talk about the society. The theme of leadership in different media portrays how leadership concepts are used in the real life situation. The paper will focus on the leadership and problem-solving concepts on the CW television show “The Flash” as an example of a media genre. The director of “The Flash” TV shows integrated various leadership concepts in uniting and integrating the different characters in the show. Among the common leadership and problem, solving values that are used in the show are teamwork, effective communication, and excellent problem-solving techniques, effective monitoring, and evaluation of the situation. The paper will focus on how these values are used by different characters in the in various scenes of the show.

“The Flash” is an action movie that is produced in America; it is developed in the form of a series, and currently it has sixty-nine episodes up to the season three already aired. There is a determination to air season four in October 2017 that launched in January this year. The show is currently aired on CW. The producers of the show are Geoff Johns, Greg Berlanti, and Kreisberg Andrew. The flash has the majority of its characters using comic and supernatural power to perform their crime and anti-crime activities. The main theme in the show is fighting against the crime activities that exist in a fiction universe. The main character Barry Allen depicts to possess supernatural power that enables Him to be able to fight the crime that exists in fiction universe. As the serious, continuous other characters such as crime investigator can gain supernatural power that enables them to fight crime. The characters use a supernatural weapon, and they have superstitious speeds that enable them to detect and fight crime activities effectively. 

Barry Allen who is the main character in the series is the first person to gain the supernatural power where the rest of his teammates can learn from him from the extraordinariness that he performs. In the premiere of the first season, Barry serves as normal forensic science crime assistance in the police department for the central city. In one juncture, Barry was stricken by the lightening and went into a coma. Through the help of Doctor Harrison Wells, Caitin Snow, and Cisco Ramon, he was able to revive. The three doctors stimulated the lightning particles present in Barry’s body after the incidence using S.T.A.R labs explodes. The explosion makes him a superhuman moving with unrealistic speed. In spite of being the main beneficially of the explosions, he learns that there are some of the metahuman the formed. The metahumans are a threat to the security of the city since they have extra power to control and commit a crime and not arrested by normal police.

The metahumans like Clyde Mardon can control the weather and rob the banks at will. To stop him Cisco designs a suit for Barry so as to increase his speed to bring him down. Detective Joe West gains an opportunity to learn Barry’s abilities in the process of tracking down Mardon. Barry is overpowered by Joe action since he can kill Mardon after stopping him. The action of Joe made them be partners in the war against criminal activities as well as metahuman who are the main threats to their lives as well as the security of the city. After the incident, Barry joins in helping the citizen fight the petty crimes in the city. He chooses Joe as his guardian, but he never allowed him to visit his father. After Barry killed Black, whom Stagg clones due to criminal activities he vowed to destroy Flash but Wells kills him before he completes his mission. Barry learns the secret behind his survival. He includes Leonard Snart to do an investigation on his behalf.

The concept of teamwork as a leadership quality is well seen in various scenes and episodes in the show. The flash is successful to fight against crime committed in the city because they work as a team. If Barry is alone, in the various mission, he could not be successful to fight against metahumans where the majority of them are powerful, and they require close investigation and high speed so as to bring them down. In the first episode, the teamwork concept in leadership is seen in the group of forensic crime investigation in the police department in the city. The police officer they worked together and believed in the potential of Barry to lead them in fighting against crime in the city. After the accident, it is a setback to the town security to lose Barry who offers great help to the city security. Three doctors corroborate as a team in the process of making Barry survive under the leadership of Dr. Wells. Flash worked with all the other team members to ensure they can be successful in their missions. One of the best examples of the most successful missions is when they destroy Mardon and Black who are the main threat to the security of the city.

Effective communication is the concept of leadership that is well seen in the show. Effective communication enabled various parties in the show able to corroborate well and eventually emerged victorious in their mission. The communication is seen in the police department where the detectives were able to corroborate with the officers on the ground in the fight against the criminal activities that are widely spread in the city. The Flash team show effective communication that exists among them that determines their success. During the war against crime in the city doctors learn that Barry was so determined and eventually become hypoglycemic much time and because of communication with the flash team, they can correct the situation. Effective communication is also seen between Barry and his other teammate every person is given a chance of providing necessary information in the war against the criminal activities.

Effective problem-solving leadership concept is well illustrated in the show. It is seen in various occasion of the show that enables the various character to relate harmoniously and disregard their differences. One occasion where problem-solving is seen is between Barry and his father, Henley. After Barry learning that his father is not the one who assassinated his mother, he forgave him and visited him regularly in prison in spite of his murder changes.

The other leadership concept seen in the show is an effective evaluation. The forensic investigations are seen correcting all the required information before charging any person with the crime activity. After the doctors learn that Barry could be unable to control Mardon, Cisco made him an outfit suit and included Joe in operation as a result of the effective evaluation. Barry involved Snart in evaluating what happen for him to live so that he could do his self-evaluation

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Roles of Different Forms of Communication in Community Exercise and Personal Conduct

Roles of Different Forms of Communication in Community Exercise and Personal Conduct

Individual conduct is a narrow version of the community exercise. Society practices greatly determine the conduct its members. According to Mead 136, when a person is born does not have self-actualization; after interacting with others, they can learn self-identity from community norms and practices. The individual personality is because of the influence of the community practices that they come from. Different forms of communication used in media play an important role in determining individual conduct since they influence community practices. Communication is the practice that encompasses the exchange of information between different parties. Many forms of communication interact directly or indirectly with personal perceptions, which may change the behavior and reasoning of an individual. The major types of communication comprise; verbal, non-verbal, visual and audiovisual communication. These forms of communication are common in the media, creating different impressions to the audience. The media mainly affect the society, and in the process of influencing the community, it affects the individual conduct in greater extent.

The most important role of forms of communication is fostering community development programs. The development programs promote the success of the life of society at both community and personal level. The majority of the community development programs undertaken in various grassroots levels they mainly rely upon on effectiveness of forms of communication. Communication enhances community understanding the benefits and the need for development programs hence they support the accomplishment of such program (Foster-Fishman 250). Without effective communication community and it member will not have required knowledge to support a development program. Communication leads to the spread of nationalism and capitalism which started as an idea in a small group of the individual but later spread to the whole world. The spread of nationalism was as a result of the effective communication that took place among communities in various nations across the globe after the Second World War in 1945. USSR was able to spread Marxism to many countries across the globe by use of effective forms of communication. Media played an important role in spreading Marxism ideology, and as a result, a good number of communities started practising socialism, which affected the political and economic growth of the community and its members. The communism idea started as a word in 1848 but later affected the life of many individuals (Williams 73). The impact of communism is well felt during the cold world war where the capitalist find it difficult to stop communism since it was deep rooted. The revolution realised in China and Vietnam was due to effective communication in community level. The success of the China revolution has led to the effective growth of many communities living in the country (Anderson 2). Currently, the socialism has transformed to individualism where forms of communication have to transform community focus development to personal development. Varied forms of communication have changed personal life in many aspects of development. The major affected aspects are social, economic status, personal competence, attitude, and self-conception (Erving 420).

Gender realisation and practices are the most fundamental community exercise, which influences personal conduct substantially. Initially, the issues of gender sensitivity were not rampant due to ineffective forms of communication and campaigns concerning gender were not beyond community perspective. Every community had its norms, cultural practices, and positions, which were specific to gender. In many communities, masculinity occupied a superior position where they received special obligations compared to the feminine for a long time. Before mid 20th-century feminines have been oppressed and were not recognised as members of the community by many cultural beliefs and practices. In the majority of the communities, female accepted their position no matter the danger posed to their lives without question. With rising of media and other forms of communication, women were able to actualize their real identity as well as their obligations. They were enlightened by increased forms of communication hence involved in the fight against gender prejudice and oppression. The majority of the feminist movements started in the 1960s with the aim of fighting for equality between the male and the female gender (Cott 53). The feminist were successful at this time due to effective forms of communication and the growth of media technology. Feminism revolution was seen active during this period where many women across the globe claimed for equal rights and impartiality in all aspect. Media played a very important role in ensuring women received the adequate information concerning their political and civil rights. Communication of this information enabled women to join in ensuring the success of the female movements. To rebuke against this social prejudice toward the female gender, the feminist leaders hold various community activities in the process of ensuring the information can reach a considerable number of the target population. The common community activities used to spread information was things like peaceful demonstrations, rallies, and meeting to confront anti-feminist. Feminism theory enables women to understand the meaning of their social existence, which changed their perception of their moral obligation (Butler 520). Women changed their discernment on incarnating social, cultural involvement when they become aware of the theory. They clinched on personal potential, which made them change the way they conduct themselves and eventually become successful.

Forms of communication play a vital role in shaping the political reality in personal and community life. The political leaders and group usually use varied forms of media such as newspapers, broadcasting stations, magazines among other in spreading their political ideology to the target population or group. Mass media makes the political leaders to directly involved in the community exercises where they can reach a large number of individual instead of individual targeting (McCombs and Shaw 177).Leaders can pledge and promise voter easily through the mass media in an effective and efficient way. The editorial tactics of the news article can easily influence the voting decision of voter due to their impressive nature. Moreover, through the mass media communication, a private citizen can get vital information on political organisations and practices in a particular nation. The information they get from the mass media enable them to make their judgments and arguments although they may not have a chance of speaking them out or sharing with others. According to Lippmann 36, private citizens can recognise what is going on in the nation and predicts the different occasion from the information they gain from the mass communication. Private Citizens, they can get information in parameters like current rules and regulations, tax charges, political stability, economic growth and war occasions. This information may provoke a response in private citizen which in turn determine their attitude toward the nation.

Media communications are very important in representation world activities. Media articles and the news editorials usually indicate what is taking place in the whole world or show the most recent events that happen in a period of 24 hours. In doing so, the media affects the personal decision on issues concerning various activities that they could involve in or practice. In recent time’s media have plays vital role in the growth of the corporate world. Most business and executives they greatly rely upon on the information they get from the media channels so as to plan how to do their transactions with the aim of maximising the profit. The stock marketers depend on news concerning the stock exchange, which is important in profit prediction (Schudson 33). The information concerning various community practices as provided by mass communication enables the investors to make a decision on the most profitable venture to invest. The media provide vital information to the suppliers of various products (Duncan and Sandra10). The information relating to the demand, supply, price, and market provided by media is very vital in determining the response of the supplier of the specific product. Information from mass communication enables them to predict the demand for their product thus coming up with the conclusive decision whether to supply their product or not to supply their products in a specific market.

Communication is one of the fundamental pillars explain the interrelationship between the community exercise and personal conducts. Different forms of Communication plays many roles in determining community activities as well as personal conduct. Forms of communication are important in aspects such as fostering community development programs, the spread of nationalism, gender realisation, and development, shaping political reality and enhancement of the corporate world.

Works Cited

Anderson, Benedict. Imagined communities: reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism.              London: Verso, 2004.

Butler, Judith. “Performative acts and gender constitution: An essay in phenomenology and          feminist theory.” TheaterJournal 40.4 (1988): 519-531.

Cott, Nancy F. “Feminist theory and feminist movements: The past before us.” What is feminism  (1986): 49-62.

Duncan, Tom, and Sandra E. Moriarty. “A communication-based marketing model for managing             relationships.” The Journal of Marketing (1998): 1-13.

Erving, Goffman. “The presentation of self in everyday life.” Garden City, NY: Anchor (1959).   

Foster-Fishman, Pennie G., et al. “Building collaborative capacity in community coalitions: A     review and integrative framework.” American journal of community psychology 29.2   (2001): 241-261.

Lippmann, Walter. “The Disenchanted Man.” Mass Communication and American Social                         Thought: 36-42.

McCombs, Maxwell E., and Donald L. Shaw. “The agenda-setting function of mass media.”         Public opinion quarterly 36.2 (1972): 176-187.

Mead, George Herbert. Mind, self, and society. Vol. 111. University of Chicago Press.: Chicago, 1934.

Schudson, Michael. “The sociology of news (contemporary sociology).” (2003).

Williams, Raymond. Keywords: A vocabulary of culture and society. Oxford University Press,     2014.

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Naif Communication

Naif Communication

Selective Perception

This entails what individuals perceive that they want while ignoring opposing viewpoints. The Gaffneys’ lives changes when their new neighbors arrive. The Gaffneys feel like these new neighbors are more than just their stunning looks and thus believes there is a story behind their worldly sophistication. The couple plays the role of a suburban couple, who sent their kids away camping and have to live their lives alone, bored and dealing with how they have changed. The Joneses, on the other hand, seem like the perfect couple, and their neighbors hold this thought about them. This portrays the thought of selective perception, the neighbors choose the picture or thought they want to have the Joneses and sticks with it. Jeff wants to be friends with the dashing Tim Jones, while his wife feels like the couple is hiding something and thus keeps following Natalie Jones. The husband feels like they are a perfect couple while the wife feels they are keeping a secret.


The Joneses have their motives when approaching the Gaffneys; their cultural aspects are seen when the two men go out for a Chinese lunch in a place that specializes in offering and serving freshly killed snakes. This shows their cultures in the type of food they eat. They also show the idea of family and living together. The Joneses are supposed to be a happy and loving couple showing the perception of culture. Marriage is the central theme in the movie as it concentrates on two couples with issues. The Gaffneys at one time invites the Joneses to a neighborhood party they refer to as ‘junetoberfest’ showing another example of culture.


The film has a sense of humor and requires one to be attentive. However, it is easy to understand, the couple Tim and Natalie are used to listening to each other and understanding each other without having to stipulate every word. The film is people oriented; it starts with the Gaffneys talking to their neighbors who have sold their house to a couple which did not even see the house at the time. Later when Tim and Natalie arrives, Karen goes to talk to them, and her husband brings a gift to the new couple trying to understand them.


The film has a diverse view to different people. In the beginning, the Gaffneys find the new couple attractive and dashing. However, Karen finds Natalie sneaking around and starts doubting her. Therefore, the issue of perception arises, as to what they think about this couple and the message the movie is supposed to send about the overall goal of the movie. The Joneses are a couple in the middle of a crisis but they act like a complete and happy couple. One cannot see their stories simply by judging on how they behave and react.

Nonverbal Cues

During the party, Natalie manages to distract the guards at MBI, and Tim interprets this and sneaks in and goes through Jeff’s computer. Natalie at some other instant plays dart while Tim sneaks around. However, Tim is caught by Karen, but he acts surprised arguing that he was lost looking for a bathroom.


This refers to the ideas that a person has about him or herself. The Joneses regard to themselves as efficient spies and do not think that they will be caught while spying on their neighbors. Karen on the other hands believes that the Joneses have secrets and she has a belief that she cannot be wrong on such a thing. She is right, as she finally discovers that the Joneses have been spying on them.

Blind Pane

The Joneses and the Gaffneys alike, have questions and thus they use the dinner meeting to question each other and try to gather more information. The Joneses tries to question the Gaffneys so that they can get more information to use for their spying activities. On a separate occasion, Tim tries to question Jeff at the Chinese restaurant hoping he would spill information that would be essential for his investigations.

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Prepare A Memo On Topics Of Privacy And Data Protection

You have landed a position as an intern (paid) for the governor of the state of Númenor, Governor Tar-Míriel.

Númenor has not enacted any privacy laws to protect the personal information/data of its citizens. Hearing about recent incidents of thefts and misuse of personal information/data, Númenoreans have been calling Governor Tar-Míriel’s office to complain angrily about the lack of protection of their personal information/data. A large number of the callers believe that their privacy is being violated. As it stands, their personal information/data is being collected and used by people and organizations – sometimes without their consent. Some citizens express concern about the collection and use of their “biometric data”; others mention something about “PII”; and others call for Númenor to enact a law like the “GDPR”. Governor Tar-Míriel wants to understand the problem better and perhaps propose legislation (she is up for re-election in November). She learned that you are taking a Cyber Law course so she has turned to you for help.

Governor Tar-Míriel does not know much about privacy and personal information/data protection issues, so she tasks you to write a memorandum answering the questions below in plain English. Be sure to first review chapter 12 of the textbook, related course materials, and conduct some of your own additional research. Then answer these questions in your memorandum to her.

  1. Provide a one paragraph overview for the governor that discusses: (1) what is privacy; (2) what are personal information/data protection concerns all about; (3) why protection of personal information/data protection is important to citizens (i.e., what bad things can happen without protection?)
  2. Provide a paragraph that defines and gives examples of biometric data and PII.
  3. Provide a paragraph that describes the GDPR: who is covered; what areas does it encompass (broadly speaking) – for instance, the data protection principles it sets forth.
  4. Provide a paragraph on what other states are doing to protect privacy. Give a specific example of a law enacted by another state.
  5. Provide a paragraph giving your opinion whether Governor Tar-Míriel should push to have Númenor enact a personal information/data protection law or whether she should focus on trying to get the Federal government to pass such a law. Identify and discuss the pros and cons of each course of action.

Use common memorandum format:

To: Governor Tar-Míriel

From: Your name




The paper is worth 25 points (5 points per paragraph). I will evaluate your paper based on these criteria:

  1. You fully answered all five questions.
  2. The quality, clarity, and thoroughness of your analysis.
  3. The quality and clarity of your writing (including grammar and punctuation, so please proofread.) **I’ve been lenient as to grammar, syntax, spelling, etc., on discussion boards, but I expect this written product be of the quality you would submit to a (demanding) supervisor at work.

Other Requirements

Be sure to include a cover page with your title, name, class, date, and a reference page (if other references are used).

The paper should be a minimum of 700 words – not including the to/from/subject/date information.

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Are there any ethical considerations to be a whistleblower

It certainly can be a huge risk for someone to be a whistleblower. You mentioned family and this made me think that Dr. Wigland could have exposed his own family and coworkers as well. Are there any ethical considerations involved in these actions as well? 

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Communication Strategies

Communication Strategies

Communication involves receiving or sending information from an entity or group of people. The methods of information transfers are usually mutually understood semiotic rules, symbols, and signs that are easy and adaptable. However, the strategies involved in communication determine the main objectives that need to be achieved.  According to Dolan, Conduit, Fahy & Goodman (2017), communication strategy refers to communicating a process, concept or information that satisfies long term goals of an organization through allowing exceptional facilitation of advanced planning and categorization of issues.  In the communication system, strategic communication has four main components such as communication plans and channel, goal, audience, and target.  While communication involves the transfer of information from one person to another, strategic communication determines the significance of the concept or process deployed for the entire planning.

Communication Strategies

Active Listening and Recognition of Emotions: According to Wood (2018), communication strategy acts as a plan that aims at achieving numerous communication goals and objectives.  Essentially, communication strategy validates the type of communication to address as well as the main concepts that need to be addressed based on the rationales that determine its significances. Practicing active listening is one of the best communication strategies that need to be embraced by many. The rationale allows proper internalization of the spoken words before actions are rendered. For instance, regardless of the method adopted, either verbal or written, communication strategy determines the quality concerns and issues that need to address by the media (Wood, 2018).  Similarly, n most conversations that might cause one to feel emotionally elevated, it is essential to call out such words verbally or speak with empathy. The rationale allows one to convey his or her perspective. Recognition of emotions in communication allows one to have an opportunity for true feelings. As a result, it allows one to evaluate his or her emotions based on the results needed in a communication platform. 

Visual Information: Communication involves various methods and in most cases, the adopted one might be omitted by the target audience due to some complexities that are associated with it. Therefore, presenting information visually allows many people to be accommodated in the learning process. Similarly, presentation enables others to better wrap their minds are what is being said. The use of colorful charts and graphs distill complicated ideas to images that are easy to understand. This approach also allows multiple communication processes because the images act as backups of what is being said or presented.  Notably, the visual presentation allows proper articulation of ideas without the use of jargon that might hinder the process. 

Sense of Humor: All serious communications that are common between managers and teams can lead to setbacks if not adequately presented with a certain amount of humor. A well-placed joke can easily lighten the mood and once the audience is elevated, they will follow the speaker throughout the presentation. As a result, having a sense of humor in communication relaxes the situation amicably without undermining the importance of the information being passed. It also lightens the mood in stressful and tense environment. 

Asking for Feedback and keeping Schedule: Communication involves at least two parties. As a two way street, feedback is necessary especially when orders are given and there is a need for them to be followed. Therefore, asking for feedback in a communication process allows possible solutions or inclusions to be made in the process. Feedback as a strategy helps in clarifying the concepts being said. On the other hand, keeping a schedule make the target audience aware and ready for what is being said.

In conclusion, communication acts as a way in which information is being passed from one person to the other. However, the strategies adopted for the processes determine its quality and significance. For instance, asking for feedback enables one to clarify his ideas.


Dolan, R., Conduit, J., Fahy, J., & Goodman, S. (2017). Social media: communication strategies, engagement, and future research directions. International Journal of Wine Business Research.

Wood, R. B. (2018). Effective communication strategies for nurses to discuss infant feeding with new mothers during postpartum hospitalization. MCN: The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing43(4), 218-224.

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