During The Japanese Occupation Essay

During The Japanese Occupation Essay.

During the Japanese occupation, Filipino literature was given a break, as writing in English was consigned to limbo. Philippine literature in English came to a halt because of the strict prohibitions of the Japanese. Almost all newspapers in English were stopped except for “Tribune” and “the Philippine Review”; even American films were closed too. The drama experienced a lull during the Japanese period and the big movie houses were just made to show stage shows. After the tyranny of the Japanese, the Americans took over once again in 1945 and on July 4, 1946, the Philippines regained freedom and the Philippine flag waved joyously alone.

During the rebirth of freedom, the early post-liberation period was marked by a kind of “struggle of mind and spirit” posed by the sudden emancipation from the enemy, and the wild desire to see print. Filipinos had, by this time, learned to express themselves more confidently but post-war problems beyond language and print-like economic stability, the threat of new ideas and mortality –had to be grappled with side by side.

In 1970-1972 the youth activism was due to domestic and worldwide causes, this was according to Pociano Pineda. Activism is connected with the history of our Filipino youth.

The seeds of activism resulted in the declaration of Martial Law in 1972. Pineda also said that this was the time when the youth once more proved that it is not the constant evasion that shapes our race and nationalism; this was in the period of the Bloody Placards. The youth became completely rebellious during the Literary Revolution. This was proven not only in the bloody demonstrations and in the sidewalk expressions but also in literature. Campus newspapers showed rebellious emotions. The once aristocratic writers developed awareness for society. They held pens and wrote on placards in red paint the equivalent of the word MAKIBAKA (To dare!). The irreverence for the poor reached its peak during this period of the mass revolution. It was also during this period that Bomba films that discredit our ways as Filipinos started to come out. The period of the New Society started on September 21, 1972 The Carlos Palanca Awards continued to give annual awards.

Almost all themes in most writing dealt with the development or progress of the country-like the Green Revolution, family planning, proper nutrition, environment, drug addiction and pollution. The New society tried to stop pornography or those writing giving bad influences on the morals of the people. After ten years of military rule and some changes in the life of the Filipino which started under the new society, Martial Rule was at last lifted on January 2, 1981. A historian called this the Third Republic. The first he claimed was during the Philippine Republic of Emilio Aguinaldo when we first got our independence from the Spaniards.

The second was when the Americans granted us our independence. This period was the Third Republic when we were freed from Military rule. During this era, people seethed with rebellion and protest because of the continued oppression and suppression. This was further aggravated when former Sen. Benigno S. Aquino Jr., the idol of the Filipino masses was brutally murdered. After his assassination, the people’s voices could no longer be contained; this was the effect on our literature.

Personal Citation/Insight and Comment to the Global Demand in Technology and Political Literary Urgency

Before there was no freedom of speech, even the young people had to seek for the reforms because of the society disease. The youth engages in community organizing for social change. They have taken lead roles in public protest and advocacy around anti-war activism, anti-crime and government corruption, pro-sexuality education, anti-government restriction, expanded educational access, and public transportation access. It was also proven in the bloody demonstrations and in the sidewalk expressions in literature. Campus newspapers showed rebellious emotions. I could say that in the present times it’s different. Today, rallies still happen though but this time we are given the chance to express. We could express ourselves not only through newspapers but also with the help of the modern technology and the internet.

Technology and the use of digital media have changed the way youth participate in activism globally, and youth are more active in media than older generations. People nowadays aren’t just aware through reading but also watching videos and surfing in the internet. With technology information is disseminated faster and easier and the Internet helps to increase the speed, reach and effectiveness of activist-related communication as well as mobilization efforts, and as a result has had a positive impact on activism in general. The barrier between the writer and the world has become as thin as skin. It’s a skin that strokes and soaks but it’s also a skin that’s watched and recorded. Technology really plays an important role in our modern days. Groups involved in various forms of activism have been using technology to advance organizational goals.

LESSONS 1, 2 and 3
INSIGHT/REACTION

History has repeatedly taught us one universal lesson – adversity produces the best in human kind. The Filipino culture is complex as this has been exposed to continuous and various streams of culture. These influences were not passively absorbed in to the Filipino culture but adapted in a selective way, and this process of acculturation varied from region to region. Our culture is now a mixture of indigenous and foreign influences that had come to bear upon the people in varying degrees during the last centuries. The Filipino culture in the past was treasured and developed even before the colonizers. The rich culture of Philippine forefathers is evident in their social classes, home, manner of dressing, body accessories, education, music and dance, science, arts and literature, even their way to courtship and marriage, burial and mourning. Filipino forefathers valued education. The early Filipinos in the past had their own beliefs and ways of burying the dead, mourning and getting married. We, Filipinos today are completely different from Filipinos back then.

Before men had tattoos on their body which symbolizes their courage for slaughtering enemies while women used it to improve their beauties but nowadays people with lots of tattoos are recognized dangerous people and often labeled as “gangsters.” Women before were modest and give respect to their selves and teach people especially men to respect their existence unlike in the present women are becoming more liberated and aggressive. Its good women in the past to the present were accredited as equal of men, and both were given reasonable opportunities in the society. Our forefathers had a simple lifestyle. They lived in small, scattered communities based on kinship ties and relied mainly on primitive agriculture which provided barely enough for their needs. Religion was likewise primitive with no organized body of beliefs or priestly hierarchy. All these made physical conquest and cultural domination quite easy for the colonizers.

Other nations with advanced social structures and a firmly recognized culture are colonized; their past achievements establish the source of their separate identity which enables the conquered to challenge their colonizers with dignity and sometimes even a feeling of superiority. They do not easily lose their sense of racial worth. Unfortunately for us, we were colonized before our own society could develop sufficiently. We had not fully established our roots to society so our culture has been easily eradicated and replaced with a completely different culture. According to Prof. Landa Jocano, “Filipinos are unconscious about who we really are,” but I would disagree to this. We still know who and what real Filipinos are, how they lived, and how did its culture changed in the course of time. I believe we clearly know about this but this are gradually eliminating because “colonial mentality.” We often hear Filipinos complain that as a nation we are suffering with a colonial mentality.

By this they usually mean that we are excessively obedient to foreigners and overly impressed by foreign possessions. But an even more harmful aspect of colonial mentality and one that is less recognized is our failure to pinpoint our real national interests apart and distinct from those of our foreign colonizers. Despite of years of independence, this trait has not been removed. Colonial mentality has deep roots in our history: first, in the level of social and economic development we attained before colonization; second, in the nature of Spanish colonization; third, in the impact of American rule; fourth, the Japanese era and in the way we obtained our independence.

It may be hard but we should eliminate this mentality. Although we were influenced before our own society could ripen amply I can still say the Filipino customs and traditions are still diverse and exceptional because it holds upright qualities. These characteristics, traits, rituals and way of living of Early Filipinos only show that the original Filipino culture is rich and simple. And considering the advantage of colonization, despite the hardships from the oppressors we can say that it we are able to absorb innovative effects and they had even contributed to the civilization and innovation of our country. We can actually compare and see how far we have been developing. I do hope as we attain progress we wouldn’t forget to enrich our own culture too.

REACTION ON VIDEOS

In February 1945 Manila had been devastated. Many establishments such as churches, convents, and universities are ruined. Civilian population had been brutally raped and burned, starved and murdered, its women mutilated. No one can be saved, not even the babies were spared, and they were unjustly stabbed. The order that brought this about came directly from Tokyo. The Japanese air attack on December 10, 1941 at Cavite Navy yard. General Douglas MacArthur declared Manila an open city on the advice of commonwealth President Manuel L. Quezon to avoid its destruction. Manila was occupied by the Japanese on January 2, 1942. For the sake of historical accuracy, it must be commented that the destruction of the city of Manila was done in great part by US bombers and U.S artillery. Gen. Yamashita did not declare Manila an “Open City” which would have freed Manila from hostile activity. After he withdrew most of his troops to the mountain province, a large contingent of Japanese soldiers and sailors, and Korean Marines remained and secured the city. At this time Manila had to be liberated by fighting it out, street by street and building to building.

The joint American and Filipino soldiers had finally surrendered on April 9, 1942. MacArthur escaped to Corregidor then proceeded to Australia. The 76,000 captured soldiers were forced to embark on the infamous “Death March” to a prison camp more than 100 kilometers north. An estimated 10,000 prisoners died due to thirst, hunger and exhaustion. This was followed by three years of agony, torture and despair. They showed no mercy. Millions of people have died. A situation you’d never wish to be in. The city of Manila was in distraught and was liberated by joint Filipino and American troops against the Japanese.

It is estimated that over 100, 000 died in Manila within two weeks after the U.S Forces took over the city classical edifices of pre-war vintage such as the Metropolitan Theater, as well as the Post Office Building. The three identical Manila landmarks such as legislative, agricultural, and finance buildings that stood face to face were all completely shattered by 105 mm guns of the U.S military. The famous Walled City and the historic churches inside were also wrecked. 90 percent of the beautiful buildings in the Ermita, Malate, Pasay and Sta. Ana areas were all leveled and turned to rubble. Bloodshed and lives were cut off. The Philippines had suffered great loss of life and tremendous physical destruction by the time the war was over. Furthermore, the dark past that the Filipinos had experienced had aided us to become who we right now and for Philippines to establish its roots to society.

During The Japanese Occupation Essay

Why Did Texas Almost Fail as a Spanish Colony? Essay

Why Did Texas Almost Fail as a Spanish Colony? Essay.

Why do the ventures of man fail? The ventures of men fail primarily due to a lack of planning. In the case of Spanish colonies in Texas this holds true. The Spanish first set eyes on the Texas coast in 1519 and in 1821 they lowered their flag for the final time in Texas. The Spanish had about 300 years to try and colonize Texas and the attempt to colonize and settle Texas was not very successful. The initial boats that came to Texas were shipwrecked and only four people survived of the approximately 270 men that made the trip.

One of these four survivors was Cabeza De Vaca. These were the first Spaniards to live on Texas soil. Cabeza had a goal to settle Texas and befriend the Native Americans. In reality, Spain was more interested in gold than in colonizing Texas. Cabeza made his way back to Mexico City and because of the information he provided, Francisco Coronado, A Spanish conquistador, was sent back north to search for treasure.

All he found were Indians living in relatively meager conditions. By 1607 the Spanish had a settlement in Santa Fe, New Mexico and the first Texas settlement was established in 1682 near El Paso.

By 1690 the Spanish became nervous of the French that were coming from Louisiana in the east and encroaching into east Texas. Because of the concern of this encroachment by the French, the Spanish decided to set up a plan to colonize Texas. That plan consisted of establishing missions near Native Indians populations. Second, the plan was to establish presidios, or fortified bases, near the missions. Third, it was planned that the land around the presidio and mission could be safely settled and that the Indians would become Spanish citizens. This plan never really worked because the Spanish failed to plan for three things and these three things were the main causes of the near failure of the Spanish colonies in Texas. First, the Spanish failed to plan for the difficult geography encountered by the settlers. Second, the Spanish failed to establish strong missions for would be settlers to live near. Third, the Spanish failed to plan for the hostility of the Comanche and Apache Indians living in the area.

Thus, the difficult geography, the weak missions, and hostile Indians were the main causes of the near failure of the Spanish colonies in Texas. The geography, primarily the distances between settled areas in Texas was a real problem for the colonization of Texas by the Spaniards. The Spanish were well established in Mexico City in the south and in New Mexico to the north. However, the distance from Mexico City and the missions in San Antonio was about 700 miles (Doc A). Also, the distance from San Antonio to Santa Fe, New Mexico was about the same distance of 700 miles (Doc A). These were the two closest developed areas to the new colonies. In those days, travel was primarily by mule train and it would take around two months to travel these distances (Doc A). These vast distances made it difficult for trade and made it expensive to transport needed supplies to the newly settled areas.

The expense of transportation between settlements lead to very slow economic development and without a chance to make a living people were just not willing to move to the new settlements. In addition to the distances, the land in the area was characterized by very rough terrain and with very little water (Doc A). Since travel was by animals pulling wagons the availability of fresh water was important in order to water the mules and horses. Also, the rough terrain made it slow and difficult for the wagons to travel (Doc A). Furthermore, the shallow depth of the water near the coast line of Texas provided an additional geographical barrier for colonization. The water is just not deep enough to bring ships close to shore (Doc A). The lack of deep water ports slowed development in Texas by the Spanish. In summary, this difficult geography lead to very little population growth in the Spanish colonies. From 1777 to 1821 the population in Texas for non-Indians remained at about 3,000 people (Doc B). Clearly, the area was not growing in population and geography was a major reason.

The weakness of the Spanish missions was another cause for the near failure of the Spanish colonies in Texas. In a nutshell, the Franciscan Friars had high hopes to convert the local Indians to Catholicism and make them Spanish citizens. In actuality, the Indians had little interest in becoming Catholics or Spaniards. In total, the Spanish established 29 missions in Texas (Doc A). However, only 12 of these missions were in active operation at the same time (class discussion). The population of Indians at the missions established in San Antonio actually decreased between 1756 and 1790. In 1756 the missions in San Antonio had 1,300 Indian residents and in 1790 the number of Indians residing there dwindled to 495 (Doc B). The King of Spain sent an inspector, Nicholas de Lafora, in the year 1766 to check up on the missions and settlement activities. He sent a bad report back to the King. His inspections of Mission of Nacogdoches, the Mission of Los Ais, and the Mission Nuestra Senora de la Luz, indicated that the Friars had failed to convert the native peoples to Catholicism (Doc C).

The grand idea of building missions, converting the locals, teaching them to farm, and ultimately making them productive Spanish citizens just did not come to pass as planned (background essay). Based on the low number of Indians living in the settlements and lack of converts it is evident that the mission and presidio model for establishing colonies in Texas was just not working. The Indians were not interested in living in the colonies. Not interested in becoming Catholics and Spaniards and they were actually hostile towards the Spanish. The land areas to the west of the Rio Grande River and to the north east El Paso were inhabitated by the powerful and numerous Apache and Comanche Indians. There are numerous documented attacks on settlers around San Antonio and La Bahia in 1776 (Doc D). For instance, on April 23 of that year settlers were killed at both La Bahia and San Antonio.

The raids and attacks continued through October with many settlers killed and horses stolen (Doc D). The Indians outnumbered the settlers with approximately 23,000 Indians living in this area and only about 3,000 non-Indians in this region as settlers (Doc B and D). Clearly, having hostile neighbors that killed settlers and stole horses was a detriment to the Spanish colonies in Texas and lead to their near failure. Bad reports from Lafora certainly did not lead the King of Spain to feel good about Texas and the continued support of missions and presidios (Doc D). Unfortunately for the Spanish, the Geography of Texas, the weak missions, and the hostile Indians made it difficult to colonize Texas and bring it under Spanish control. The settlement of Texas by the Spanish was a poorly planned activity.

The Settlements were just too far from the well-established Spanish cities to make for good economic development. The geography was too rough, the Gulf of Mexico too shallow, and the lack of fresh water made it difficult to develop this land. The inability of the Franciscan Friars to establish strong missions and convert the Native Indians to their ways was also a hindrance for settlement. Finally, the hostility of the Comanche and Apache Indians towards the Spanish settlers proved to be just too much for the successful settlement of Texas by the Spanish. The Spanish just did not plan adequately on how to overcome these roadblocks to the successful colonization of Texas. In 1821 the Spanish gave up when Mexico claimed independence from Spain.

Why Did Texas Almost Fail as a Spanish Colony? Essay

Colonialism affected Kenya Essay

Colonialism affected Kenya Essay.

Background:

For almost 400 years the countries of Europe controlled as much of the earth as they could. By 1914 they controlled 85% of the earth surface. At the Berlin conference the Europeans drew up the map of African without giving any Africans a voice.

Stating the question with key terms defined:

Colonialism occurs when one country controls another country. How did Colonialism affect Kenya?

Thesis and roadmap:

Colonialism had a negative/positive (you must choose one or the other) affect on Kenya in colonial government, religion, education, and economics.

Paragraph # 2

Baby Thesis for bucket one:

Colonialism had a negative/positive (you must choose one or the other) affect on Kenya in colonial government.

Evidence: supporting details from documents with document citation (Doc 3.), (Doc 4), (Doc 5), or background essay

Before the British took over, the Kikuyu people elected councils which in turn made the laws for the people. The Kikuyu had a representative democracy before the English gave them a colonial monarch. (Doc 3)

(Use at least 8 documents in their correct paragraph, cite example (Doc.

5)

Argument: connecting evidence to the thesis.

The British brought a colonial monarch government to Kenya which gave no representation to the Africans and little freedoms. The Africans were second class citizens in their own homeland.

The paragraphs 3, 4, and 5 are the same as 2. The 6th paragraph, the conclusion is a restatement of the introduction. Example of the Introduction and 2nd paragraph put together:

Colonialism affected Kenya

Europe saw the continent of Africa as “Tabula Rasa,” a blank slate with land for the taking. (Doc 1) For almost 400 years the countries of Europe were in competition to control the earth. By 1914 they controlled 85% of the earth surface. At the Berlin conference the European leaders drew up their own map of Africa without a single African present. The European map of Africa did not take into consideration any of the ethnic groups or established territories. (Doc 2) Colonialism occurs when one country controls another country. Europe took control of Africa and the English took control of Kenya. How did Colonialism affect Kenya? Colonialism had a negative affect on Kenya in colonial government, religion, education, and economics.

First, colonialism had a negative affect on Kenya in colonial government. Before the British took over, the Kikuyu people elected councils which in turn made the laws for the people. The Kikuyu had a representative democracy before the English arrived. (Doc 3) The British brought a colonial monarch government to Kenya which gave no representation to the Africans and little freedoms. The Africans became second class citizens in their own homeland.

Essay, How Colonialism affected Kenya? Due on Friday, February 12, 2010, 100 points

You must cite the documents, Example (Doc. 1). The bucket activity, thesis statement – road map and outline, will serve as a rubric (set of instructions which the essay will be graded by)

Colonialism affected Kenya Essay

The Negative Effects of Imperialism in Nigeria Essay

The Negative Effects of Imperialism in Nigeria Essay.

Nigeria is a country with abundant resources and the potential to be a very powerful nation, but it is hampered by many problems. These problems are caused by Nigeria’s colonization by England. Because of this intrusion on their way of life, their future was altered dramatically. The nation of Nigeria as a whole has suffered greatly as a country because of this colonization, its problem is rooted in the way it was colonized and ruled.

The background of the situation is essential to understand its full impact From the way Nigeria was colonized, it was clear from the start that it would bode ill for the future inhabitants of Nigeria.

Beginning in the 19th century, the British started to make their presence felt along the coast. In earlier centuries, they had exported slaves from here and other places along West Africa, but this time they had a different goal. “European activities revolved around four major issues: exploration, Christianity, trade, and imperialism.

”

Consequently, all these were related, because one lead to the next. Therefore, in effect, all of these were roots of the problems to come. Gradually, in the 1850’s the British began to make their presence felt even more. Then, beginning in 1861, the British set up the policy of indirect rule. Using local chiefs and rulers, they were able to dramatically affect the way the nation was run. By 1905, virtually the entire country was under British rule. Despite the fact that they mostly ruled with indirect rule, they also set up some officials to govern the area, which the local chiefs obeyed.

The non-uniform approach of Western ideas into Nigeria affected its fate dramatically. In addition, the extent of the British’s impact, considerably increased tensions between the Muslims in the north of Nigeria and the Christians in the south. From the start of the European penetration, the missionaries who set out to convert the heathens of Africa were mostly concerned with the Niger Delta. Due to the “limited number of missionaries who spread themselves thinly”, the impact of the religion with the most followers in the world stopped short of the northernmost reaches of Nigeria. The Nigerians of the north, the Hausa-Fulani, did not have as much contact with the British as the Yoruba and Igbo did. “Change was to occur, but gradually; Hausa political systems and practices were to be modified, but without undue upset to Hausa society” Because of the difference in the amount of contact between the north and the south, the social divide between these people grew even more. This varying amount has caused much tension, because when one religion or ethnic group presides over the government, the other religion or the other ethnic groups feel they are under-represented and they cry for the situation’s resolution.

The Hausa-Fulani are especially this way, because of the fact that they were granted a small amount of autonomy during colonial Nigeria. Because of this, they naturally think they are better at ruling a government, and exhibit an air of hostility towards the other groups. This was showcased best when “the disputed use of Ibo and the perceived favoritism towards those who spoke it was the cause of a very bloody civil war in Nigeria.”The government of Nigeria is ineffectual and problematic, and this is the main cause of the strife there. The problems in the government stem from the lack of knowledge that they have in running it. During colonial rule, the north was governed indirectly, with the British mostly directing things without showing them how it was done correctly. This caused foolhardiness on part of the Hausa-Fulani, who believed they could run the government the best, and sometimes started military coups of power. These coups proved ineffective, however, because shortly after they happened the regular democratic republic was restored.

And, after a few years the new democracy became incompetent, so another coup became reality. This regrettable cycle of governments does nothing for the people of Nigeria, and only has negative consequences. While it promotes some political freedom, it does not allow for any advancement in the economy. Instead of focusing on diversifying, the leaders of the country focus on gaining power and standing in the government. “Nigeria’s most daunting challenge lies in overcoming the severe divisions among its competing religious and ethnic groups”.

Moreover, once they gain it, their problems do not end, since they must look over their back, never knowing how long they will hold on to the little power they have. Meanwhile, the common person suffers, as he is neglected by his government and must survive on his own. “The standard of living declined even further than before and external debts increased.” This neglect of the common man bodes ill for the government, as it is the common man who votes in the polls. However, the vote does very little, since corruption is rampant in Nigeria.

Two futures for Africa are possible-one with a democratic and stable Nigeria, and one with a Nigeria stricken by autocratic rule, corruption, and intermittent coups. An entire continent awaits the result of the Nigerian experiment with democracy. Nigeria has the resources and can provide leadership to foster greater regional and international cooperation, leadership that many of Nigeria’s neighbors need. A successful Nigerian democracy would provide hope for many of Africa’s other burgeoning democracies.

The biggest problem with the government of Nigeria in regard to its malpractice towards the people is the unchecked corruption. “A culture of “settlement”, or monetary gratification, ate into the social fabric, spreading cynicism, rewarding sycophancy(submissive flattery), and condoning corruption.” Corruption is everywhere in Nigeria. The corruption starts at the highest levels of government, with powerful officials and executives taking bribes from anyone and everyone. It has sunk into a pit of corruption, repression, and economic dilapidation. This insatiable desire for wealth then trickles down to the police, who are extremely corrupt in everyday matters, not to talk of even more important ones. Tensions between ethnic groups and unity between members of the same group complicate the situation even more. “

Gross mismanagement, widespread corruption, and continuing political and, ominously, increasing religious turmoil sent Nigeria into a spiral of economic decline” . The Igbo, Yoruba, and Hausa-Fulani see themselves as their respective ethnic group before they see them self as “Nigerians”. A country such as Nigeria, with 410 languages has a great divide that is caused by the language barrier. This shows the extent of the disunity throughout. Rather than helping their countrymen, they only aid their respective ethnic group. So, with this mentality, they see it as nothing out of the ordinary to ignore the rest of their countrymen and focus on improving the lives of the chosen few they feel related to.

Most of the negative effects of imperialism in Nigeria had been caused by one source. Overall, the lackluster governing body and its non-existent progress, the differences and misgivings between ethnic and religious groups, and the unbridled corruption all add to the problems of Nigeria. Though not all directly caused by the British invasion, most are rooted in the fact that the British dramatically altered the land known as Nigeria.

Works Cited

Falola, Toyin. The History of Nigeria. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1999.

Forrest, Tom. Politics and Economic Development in Nigeria. Boulder: Westview Press, 1995.

Maier, Karl. This House Has Fallen: Midnight in Nigeria. New York: PublicAffairs, 2000.

Miles, William. Hausaland Divide: Colonialism and Independence in Nigeria and Niger. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1994Obi, Cyril. The Changing Forms of Identity Politics in Nigeria under Economic Adjustment: The Case of the Oil Minorities Movement of the Niger Delta. Uppsala: Nordic African Institute, 2001Tsai, Thomas, “Africa’s Contradiction: Nigeria on the Path to Democracy,” Harvard International Review vol. 24 (2002): 1 page.

Wakerly, Veronique, “The Status of European Languages in Sub-Saharan Africa,” Journal of European Studies vol. 94 (1994): 1 page.

BibliographyFalola, Toyin. The History of Nigeria. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1999.

Forrest, Tom. Politics and Economic Development in Nigeria. Boulder: Westview Press, 1995.

Maier, Karl. This House Has Fallen: Midnight in Nigeria. New York: PublicAffairs, 2000.

Miles, William. Hausaland Divide: Colonialism and Independence in Nigeria and Niger. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1994Obi, Cyril. The Changing Forms of Identity Politics in Nigeria under Economic Adjustment: The Case of
the Oil Minorities Movement of the Niger Delta. Uppsala: Nordic African Institute, 2001Tsai, Thomas, “Africa’s Contradiction: Nigeria on the Path to Democracy,” Harvard International Review vol. 24 (2002): 1 page.

Wakerly, Veronique, “The Status of European Languages in Sub-Saharan Africa,” Journal of European Studies vol. 94 (1994): 1 page.

Ibhawoh, Bonny. “Stronger Than the Maxim Gun: Law, Human Rights and British Colonial Hegemony in Nigeria.” Africa 72, no. 1 (2002): 55+.

Abegunrin, Olayiwola. Nigerian Foreign Policy under Military Rule, 1966-1999. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003. Book on-line.

Davis, Thomas J., and Azubike Kalu-Nwiwu. “Education, Ethnicity and National Integration in the History of Nigeria: Continuing Problems of Africa’s Colonial Legacy.” The Journal of Negro History 86, no. 1 (2001): 1 page.

Dibie, Robert. “Local Government Public Servants Performance and Citizens Participation in Governance in Nigeria.” International Journal of Public Administration 26, no. 8-9 (2003): 1061 pages.

Onadipe, Abiodun. “Nigeria: In Suspended Animation.” New Zealand International Review 23, no. 3 (1998): 17 pages.

Biusdus, Ty. “Issue Surrounding Political Instability in Nigeria.” http://georgtown.edu. 1996. Georgetown University. 26 Oct 2007 https://www8.georgetown.edu/centers/cndls/applications/posterTool/index.cfm?fuseaction=poster.display&posterID=1223.

The Negative Effects of Imperialism in Nigeria Essay

The Effects of Imperialism Upon Indonesia Essay

The Effects of Imperialism Upon Indonesia Essay.

After studying the two cases of imperialism; one of India, and one of several countries in Africa, for my project I have decided to research the nineteenth century colony of Indonesia. I feel very motivated about researching this country, especially since I spend 3 years of my life living there. Unfortunately, while I was live there, I was both unable and too young to pick up o the local history, and I only managed to get a grasp of what had happened to this great country that I was living in.

That is why for this investigation , I have decided to research the colonization of Indonesia, using the internet as my main resource, along with one class period spend in the school library.

NARRATIVE:

The Dutch control in Indonesia started as early as the 17th century. However, for a long time there was a fierce competition, and later with the Chinese, and it wasnt until the 19th, and part of the 20th, century when the Dutch were able to run the colony like they really wanted, and to make the immense profits that were originally expected.

The English started to focus their efforts elsewhere, and the Dutch now had almost free reign to take control, and run this colony like they intended too.

Originally, during the period in which the British were still interfering with the plans of the Dutch, there were trading activities occurring under the control of a state-supported monopoly, which was the Dutch East Indies Company. Their original interest was in the trading of spices, which were abundant in this particular colony. Unfortunately, as they quickly started to realize, it was impossible to predict and calculate the supply and amount of spice available, which made it hard to assure the great profits which were expected. To compensate for this loss, the Dutch now started to focus their efforts on other valuable tropical spices, such as coffee, tea, and indigo. They started to concentrate their efforts on Java, which is an island very fortunately placed in between trade routes, and with a very fertile soil.

CHANGE:

As could probably be expected, the Dutch did barely any farming of themselves. Instead, they had decided to take control over several areas, and force the people who lived there to grow whatever the Dutch ordered them to grow. However, the Dutch control over this area was almost always indirect, using Janvanese nobles as middleman instead, which resulted in the Javanese peasants rarely ever seeing the traders from the Dutch East Indies Company, despite the amount of control they had over their lives. Along with that, any remaining intermediary jobs still left over were given to Chinese merchants to appease to the Chinese competition that was still present. This started the division between people in the Indonesian society.

This created a situation where, in the controlled areas, there was a very clear division between groups of people, and the un-controlled areas were unable to participate in the world economy, since the Dutch East Indies Company had undisputable control of the seas. In the parts under the Companys rule, natives were mostly left to live with their own laws and costumes concerning things such as religion or education, however they had to abide the demands for donations and tribute towards the Company, usually in the form of crops and produce. This left native Indonesians to live their lives like they always did, just in increased poverty.

After what had seemed like an eternity of time, finally the Dutch East Indies Company went broke, due too internal corruption. For some time it seemed as though the British would take control over Indonesia, however, the Dutch remained in control of these territories. This time around, however, the colony was to be run on behalf of the Netherlands, not any private investors. The returning Dutch abandoned the taxation system, and instead started something called the culture system. Instead of taxing peasants, all peasants were forced to set aside 20 percent of their land, and having to grow government specified crops on that 20 percent.

Unfortunately, this system was never implemented fairly, with most of the time peasants being pressured to commit way more then 20 percent of their land. Obviously, this system made less profit then the taxation system before it, so the Dutch started to cultivate larger and larger areas of Indonesia. At that current time the Dutch economy was in very poor shape, and by exporting the profits from Indonesia back to the Netherlands, the Dutch economy was being re-built, at the cost of the Indonesian economy. This resulted in very large parts of Indonesia living in extreme poverty. However, it could have been worse, seeing as how the Dutch allowed the Indonesians to keep their original laws and costums, which made the Dutch oppression a lot more bearable than it sounds.

Luckily, or unfortunately, depending on your point of view, the outside world soon started to put a stop to the damage being caused by this culture system. This response from external countries sparked another change in exploitation method of the Dutch. The Dutch East Indies, as Indonesia was called at that time, was now under a liberal regime, meaning that private investors were now also allowed to buy and trade in Indonesia. Supposedly, this would decrease the poverty in Indonesia, by now also allowing native Indonesians to profit from the trade occurring in Indonesia. Unfortunately, this change caused a flood of Dutch entrepreneurs to enter Indonesia, who established plantations, and bought up land, all over Indonesia, including places outside of Java.

The final result of this change was that, by 1914, all of Indonesia was under direct Dutch control. What first was supposed to be an effort to try and lessen poverty in Indonesia, had now turned into a catastrophic disaster, plunging nearly all native Indonesians into severe poverty. This complete exploitation continued all the way through the 1st World War, and it wasnt until the Japanese took over Indonesia in the 2nd World War, and afterwards being forced to return it, that the Dutch had no longer control over Indonesia, which finally brought an end to what seemed like an eternity of exploitation and colonization.

CONCLUSION:

It is, however, very unfortunate for Indonesia that they have had to be subject to such exploitation, seeing as the Netherlands has left nearly no positive footprint on Indonesia. It really is a shame that Indonesia was unable to profit from their own abundance of natural resources. If Indonesia had had the opportunity to exploit and trade their own resources to fill in their own needs, it is almost certain that Indonesia would be in a much better economical state then it currently is.

This makes it easy to conclude, that colonization had a negative effect on the overall development of Indonesia, and it would have been better for Indonesia if the Netherlands had stayed away. However, the Netherlands are very fortunate to have had access to such a rich colony, for their current economical prowess can mostly be traced back to the riches gained from this colony. In the end, it is once again the colonizer that ended up better, when looking at the situation of both countries today, and it is a pity that a great country like Indonesia had to be crippled so early on in its development, by an outside forced which was nearly impossible to fight.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Steve Muhlberger, The Dutch in Indonesia History of Islamic Civilization1999.

Peter Turner. Indonesia, Lonely Planet, UK, 1997.

The Effects of Imperialism Upon Indonesia Essay

History report Essay

History report Essay.

1. Life in the big cities of Europe when Columbus set sail in 1492 were unhealthy, unsanitary, and very brutal conditions. Many poor and people who couldn’t support themselves would starve to death and also many people were dying of diseases that were spreading through the cities. “For most of its people a land of violence, squalor, treachery, and intolerance. ” In-migration from the countryside was a vital part to if the cities were to be saved from going extinct. Conditions with famine were harsh.

“The rich ate, and ate to excess, watched by a thousand hungry eyes as they consumed their gargantuan meals. The rest of the population starved” The slightest fluctuation in food price could cause the sudden death of thousands. 2. If one ventured outside the cities of Europe to the countryside, the quality of life was no better. “Areas such as Castile and Andalusia were wracked with harvest failures that brought on mass death. ” With the harsh conditions people frequently turned on each other during witchcraft hysteria.

“Because of the dismal social conditions and prevailing social values it was a place filled with malice and hatred, temporarily bound by the majority in order to harry and persecute the local witch. ” 3. The wealthy of Europe were preoccupied by their need for foreign luxuries. The wealthy were after silver and gold, while on Columbus’s expedition that is what they were out to seek. “The crusades had begun four centuries earlier, had increased the appetites of affluent Europeans for foreign luxuries.

” Columbus had set on his expedition and reached The New Land but the native people he encountered did not have an abundance of gold like he had expected. Columbus came up with the system called the requerimento, to help encourage the Native Americans into finding gold. If they objected to the offer they would make war against the Native Americans and kill or taken slaves. 4. Columbus’s first impression on the New World was that it was filled with new opportunities and was beautiful.

He wasn’t used to the different ways of the Native Americans; many didn’t wear clothing and were not as progressed or as modernized. C Columbus’s landing in the new world was significant to the Catholic Church in Spain because, ”Each time the Spanish encountered a native individual they were ordered to read to the Indians a statement informing them of the truth of Christianity and the necessity to swear immediate allegiance to the Pope and to the Spanish crown. 5.

The requerimiento in a way was just an excuse to be brutal to the natives because the Spanish usually didn’t wait for them to even respond and they were put into chains, also they didn’t understand the language so they had no opportunity to reply. The disease that most likely killed the Native Americans on the second voyage was malaria. The reason Spaniards weren’t as affected was because the Natives hadn’t built up immunity to the diseases they were being exposed to.

“Samuel Eliot Morison diagnosed it as either malaria or something caused by drinking well water or eating strange fish. ” 6. Yes, I think these words in a way apply to what the Spanish did to the native people they encountered. I think this because they were being unreasonable and for no reason being very brutal to the natives and killing them and taking them as prisoners. They weren’t even given a fair chance; the Spanish invaded the native’s land and took everything from them because of their consuming greed for gold.

History report Essay

Short Biography of Mahatma Gandhi Essay

Short Biography of Mahatma Gandhi Essay.

Mahatma Gandhi was the true essence of a good man. He is most famous for his use of non-violent protest against British rule. Instead of using violence, peaceful things are used such as talking and protests. Born in India on October 2, 1869, Gandhi sailed from Bombay to England so he could study law. He became a lawyer and sailed to South Africa and became a lawyer for an Indian firm, after that he extensively helped fight for Indian rights.

Some campaigns, against the government, turned out to be very violent but were also very effective in Gandhi’s point of view.

One campaign was to make your own cloth. The British Government was making a lot of money from selling cloth, clothes, and Indigo which was used to stain the clothes. This was putting many Indian’s that did this for a living out of business. The government also outlawed selling certain things such as cloth and Indigo. Even though they were being beaten with clubs, they refused to give up and continued on their peaceful march without physically defending themselves.

Newspapers all over the world had articles about this and helped win worldwide support for Gandhi’s independence movement. More demonstrations like this took place and eventually, about 60,000 people including Gandhi were arrested.

After everything that Mahatma Gandhi did to help India gain independence by non-violence resistance, he was shot and killed by a Hindu man named Nathuram Godse while he was holding a prayer.

Short Biography of Mahatma Gandhi Essay

Causes of British Imperialism Essay

Causes of British Imperialism Essay.

Throughout history, countries have expanded their empires to create the largest and most powerful on the globe. Napoleon and Alexander the Great had two of the most controlling empires ever created, and Great Britain’s in the early 1800’s was another of the best. During this time, many empires started expanding to make greater and more commanding kingdoms. Great Britain greatly grew in the 19th century. India, Asia and parts of Africa joined with them to help expand their territory. Britain used an imperialistic government, which was made to take over other areas of the world to gain power to add to their own empire.

There were many different causes to British imperialism, some being political, social or economic. In addition, some of the British conquests were beneficial, yet some were not and left harmful impressions on the dominated areas.

Great Britain expanded their empire for many reasons. Mainly, their imperialistic motive was economic. The English exported goods to India mainly so they could gain money for themselves.

They primarily sold cotton, oil, yarn, Iron, steel, tools, machinery and locomotives. The British took advantage of the demand for raw materials in the world, and gained money off the market. In addition, the British took advantage of the longing for raw materials and tea. Africa had multiple gold fields and Britain saw the need to take over the land in order to improve their business. Britain also took over India, and it didn’t take long for the Indians to realize they were being taken over for money. Gaining Africa and India resulted in an expansion of the British Empire. The British also chose the right time to create this large empire, making tons of profits. At the time, labor was very cheap and there were many markets growing in the colonies across the globe.

Great Britain also had a humanitarian goal in mind when they were developing their large empire. When the British went into India and Africa, they had an intention to improve the living conditions of the two areas. They industrialized India, resulting in improved sanitation, a higher standard of living, irrigation, canalization and developed transport. The Indians were very grateful for all that Britain did for them because they got rid of famine, weakened the death rate and suppressed war, three things India had had much trouble with in the past. They also wanted to stop slavery and spread their ideas throughout the world. They used missionaries to convert as many as possible to Christianity, and it succeeded with the Africans.

The Malay states had lots of trouble in the early 1700s, and they needed a good deal of help. They asked the British to come help them organize their country, form them a government, and start a real society. The British did just that, resulting in a shared government. Britain took care of foreign affairs and defense, while the Malay states still took care of their domestic policies. Britain had outstanding nationalism, or pride in ones country, during this time period. They weren’t only expanding their nation for the money aspect, but they wanted to be the largest along with the best, and they believed that they could do it.

After obtaining these lands, the British had both positive and negative effects upon the ruled natives. Positively, Britain brought Christianity and an end to slavery in Africa. Also in Africa, an organizational education system was set up along with a federal court. In India, sanitation, standard of living, transportation and irrigation were all established. Also, they decreased the recurring high death rate and taught the Indians to grow better crops by taking better care of their land. The British also helped out the Malay states by creating railroads, roads and health, government, and irrigation systems. They also improved literacy, diminished the use of native practices such as sati, created a common language, and gained extensive amounts of land.

On the other hand, Great Britain had many negative effects on their colonial rule. Mainly, when the British took over areas across the globe they were taking land away from the natives along with many of their natural resources, and also forced labor upon many of the natives. The British government sent India into bankruptcy, and kept the Indians as slaves. In Africa, the British only allowed some to use hospitals or get an education rather than all, didn’t allow religious freedom, and public services were underdeveloped. Many environments, cultures and religions were also ruined because of British imperialism.

As you can see, the sun never sets on the British Empire. The British had conquered lands all across the globe, gaining more things politically as well as economically as they continued. They no longer were in need of anything, especially power. They had all the power they could get, and even helped out other countries while they received it. They improved transportation, spread their religion, created irrigation and government systems, as well as much more. A large goal when involved with imperialism is to reach sovereignty, and the British Empire in the 1800s definitely accomplished that goal. If the British did not have so much pride and devotion to their country they would not have reached this ambition, and they would not have succeed half as far as they did.

Causes of British Imperialism Essay

Robinson and Gallagher Compared with Cain and Hopkins Essay

Robinson and Gallagher Compared with Cain and Hopkins Essay.

As we all have hopefully already learned, Robinson and Gallagher’s main focus when it came to the study of the British Imperialism was the importance of continuity throughout Britain’s imperial age. While previous imperial historians mostly limited their attention to the fluctuations within the formal empire, Robinson and Gallagher argued that we must not only pay attention to where Britain maintained direct control over within the world, but also the area’s where they maintained a huge amount of political and economic influence, also called the informal empire.

According to their argument the best way to think about British Imperialism before the development of ‘New Imperialism’ is : “trade with informal control if possible, trade with rule if necessary”.

Robinson and Gallagher’s argument has had a large influence on most British Imperial historian’s, including Cain and Hopkins. While Robinson and Gallagher linked the growth of empire to the need for foreign markets and investment (before the age of ‘New Imperialism’), they did not specify what was the driving force behind the changing economy in Britain and the ever expanding need for foreign markets and investments.

Cain and Hopkins on the other hand while they appear to agree with Robinson and Gallagher on the emphasis of continuity, give a more detailed explanation as to what was actually driving the economic change that was occurring within Britain. This economic change was in turn, linked the expansion and the continuity of the British empire.

The main contrast between Robinson and Gallagher’s thesis and the thesis offered by Cain and Hopkin’s is in their explanation of the New Imperialism that began to occur after 1870. After 1870 the informal colonial system began to breakdown and their was a larger increase in the expansion of the formal empire. Robinson and Gallaghers explanation behind this was the increasing rivalry between the Great Powers of the time. They denied any sort of connection with the social and economic changes that were occurring within Britain. Cain and Hopkins on the other hand, agreed that the growing rivalry between the great powers did play a role the breakdown of informality, but felt that it was not the real cause of change in British imperial policy. Instead they felt that economic and social factors did played large role in the changes.

Overall Cain and Hopkins did not think that British expansion was the product of manufacturing interests but of a gentlemanly elite who used the empire as a means of generating capital, in a way which complimented their ideals.

Robinson and Gallagher Compared with Cain and Hopkins Essay

The British Empire and The British Industrial Revolution Essay

The British Empire and The British Industrial Revolution Essay.

During the 18th century, a great change occurred in Britain. Britain became an industrialized country and an empire. The Industrial Revolution can be regarded as a technological change in Britain when manufacturing began to rely on steam power rather than on animal labour or wind power. The overall economic shift towards large scale industry rather than small scale individual operations. The British Empire was expanding rapidly during the 18th century. An empire is a large, multi-ethnic state, whose political structure is held together by force.

The British colonised most of Africa, North America, the Pacific, India and parts of Asia and South America. There were British colonies all over the world. The Industrial Revolution and the British Empire are dependant on each other. There would not be an Empire without the Industrial Revolution and vice versa.

Industrial Revolution required a steady and constant supply of raw material Britain itself did not have many raw materials, its weather and landscape did not allow her to grow fine cottons or sugar which were in great demand and valuable back in 18th century.

This was a major obstacle in the way to Industrial Revolution but the British because of its huge empire could get these material through trade. Britain got most of its cotton by trading with India because the Indian cotton were in good quality and were way better than the European ones. Britain also traded with the West Indies for sugar. These raw materials were all manufactured by the factories back in Britain and exported it back to the colonies or other European countries.

Industrial Revolution also required markets for the increasing number of goods it produced and Britain had none of this problem since its Empire was so huge and the British were skillful at shipping. Manufactured goods were exported to nearly all colonies of Britain. In America, the British even set laws to restrict the colonies import non-British goods and the colonies must export goods to British merchants. This helped Britain to create a huge, world-wide market but it also led to the loss of the American colonies.

Building factories and buying machinese required a large amout of money but through trading with the colonies, most merchants were very rich and had plenty of money to build large scale factories. The merchants got riches from trades such as cotton, tobacco but most of them made big profits from the trade is slaves. This made sure there was enough financial support for the industrialisation.

Industrial Revolution made Britain the largest supply of most manufacture goods, most countries had to buy British goods. This strengthend the empire because countries relied on the empire. For example, India had the fine cotton but they still had to buy cotton goods from Britain because it did not have the technology and manufacturing skills. Once money was gained by exporting goods, merchants or factories owernes could buy more raw materials from the colonies and this cycle repeated itself over and over again.

Large scale factories required many labour which meant it needed more workers. The growth of population in the Empire provided enough workers. During the 18th century, 12 million people which was three quatre of the population were workers. Women and children that were only ten could also work in the factories. This lead to a major social issue which was child labour. Once again, the empire ensure one of the main factors for Industrial Revolution.

Industrialisation also increased the growth of population in the empire. As Adam Smith said in the book “Wealth of Nations”, self interested people are good for the economy because they lift the standard of everyone because wealth trickles down. Generally, the living standard in Britain increased and therefore people were willing and had the ability to raise children.

The empire also provided peace so that the industrialisation could prgressed so smoothly. The strong army and navy kept order in the colonies. It prevented any revolts because they knew that without the colonies, it was impossible to continue the Industrial Revolution. It would lost its raw material sources and financial sources. The army also kept Britain safe from the Napoleonic War. While all the European countries were struggling to defeat the Grand Army, Britain was safe because of its strong army and its landscape.

The British Empire and the Industrial Revolution are both connected and helped each other. The British Empire enhanced the Industrial Revolution while the revolution expanded and strengthened the British Empire. If either one of them failed then it would lead to the fall of the British Empire which did happen in the 20th century. The British Empire and the Industrial Revolution are dependant on each other.

The British Empire and The British Industrial Revolution Essay