The Petrov Affair Essay

The Petrov Affair Essay.

The “Petrov Affair” started in April 1954 when Vladimir Petrov and his wife Edvokia defected to Australia. The affair finally finished today, the 11th of December 1955; a day after the Federal Election in Australia when Robert Menzies was elected.

The Events That Saw It Unfold The Petrov Affair occurred around the 3rd of April last year, when Vladimir Petrov, who was the cause of the Petrov Affair, defected to Australia under top-secret conditions. On arrival in Sydney, he was taken to a safe house on Sydney’s north shore.

Only 3 or 4 Australian Security Intelligence Organisation, ASIO, officers knew about his defection to Australia, his wife Evdokia didn’t even know about this! Once the soviet embassy was aware of this defection, they accused the Australian Authorities of kidnapping him.

Reason For His Defection One of Petrov’s main reasons for defecting here to Australia was to secure Ron Richards’, ASIO Deputy Director, secret documents containing evidence of Soviet espionage and infiltration of the Australian Government agencies.

Richards was in charge of this operation and made the one of the possible code words for the defection “Cabin Candidate”. Another reason for defection was that he feared being arrested and killed by the Russian Government after he was associated with Beria and that if he went back to Russia, he would be purged as “Beria Man”.

What Menzies Did About It Robert Menzies, the Prime Minister of Australia at the time, caused a stir when he announced to the House of Representatives that Petrov brought with him documents that revealed Soviet Espionage in Australia. He called a Royal Commission to investigate these allegations. Herbert Evatt, The Opposition Leader at the time, accused Menzies of arranging the defections to coincide with the election. After this happened, Menzies ended up winning the election, even though everyone thought Labour was going to succeed. Menzies denied that he had advanced knowledge of Petrov’s defection to Australia, but he did not deny that he exploited it.

The Petrov Affair Essay

Khrushchev Genuinely committed to peaceful coexistence Essay

Khrushchev Genuinely committed to peaceful coexistence Essay.

In the years 1955­62, Khrushchev was genuinely committed to peaceful coexistence.

Peaceful co­existence is the idea that the two superpowers in the world, the USSR and the USA can accept each other’s ideologies and consequentially their satellite states in the interests of peace, whether Khrushchev was entirely committed to this notion is debatable due to his ‘behind the scenes’ actions between 1955 and 1962. The Austrian state treaty of 1955 seemed to show Khrushchev’s commitment to peaceful coexistence, but his aggression after the U2 spy plane incident of 1960 and the gamble with peace over the Berlin wall in 1961 and Cuba in 1962 suggest his commitment to peaceful coexistence was not genuine, but a delay tactic until opportunities to show the USSR system was superior to capitalism arose.

Khrushchev was committed to something more along the lines of ‘peaceful competition’ whereby the soviet union could gain an economic and without the need for a hot war, rather than peaceful co­existence where both global superpowers really engaged in tolerance for either ones ideologies.

When Khrushchev attained power in 1953 he advocated the de­Stalinization of the Soviet Union during a speech at the 20th congress of the soviet party. This political message of denouncing Stalinism seemed to advocate a new era of Soviet foreign politics based on toleration to the western bloc of capitalist countries. A political example of Khrushchev’s genuine attempts at peaceful coexistence is attending international peace conferences such as The Geneva summit in 1955 which conveys the initial attempts of bridging the gap between the fundamental ideological divisions of Soviet Russia and the United States. This may be an attempt by the Soviet Union to reduce the hostility of the Capitalist world as they were apprehensive of the foundations of Marxist­Leninist Russia which they perceived plotted a Global Revolution.

However this interpretation would have been incorrect as the fundamentals of  Marxism was to encourage internal bureaucratic revolutions through the working class in order to liberate themselves from oppression rather than direct military action. This may be in the military and social interest of preventing or at least reducing the possibility of Mutually assured destruction by means of Nuclear warfare which was a very strong possibility. This can be seen with the signing of the Austrian State treaty of 1955 that allowed Austria to become a neutral zone which expresses a serious attempt at diplomatic and peaceful methods by the SU. Furthermore it was these arguments that Khrushchev would use in the Geneva summit to convey the genuineness of his attempt to move away from intro­national warfare from one external Socialist state into a Capitalist one, and therefore rejected this Stalinist approach that occurred with the Satellite states of Eastern Europe by invasion of the Red Army.

However on the contrary, Khrushchev maintained the satellite states as a cohesive political and economic unit that further added to the bipolar international system. This was evident with the establishment of the Warsaw Pact on 14th of May 1955 was a collective defense treaty of Communist nations within the Soviet sphere of influence. This portrays the lack of commitment to true peaceful coexistence as it meant that Khrushchev created an adversary to NATO, whilst also being militarily aggressive in order to dominate in central and eastern Europe and this can be seen with the quelling of the Hungarian Uprising in 1956 as soviet soldiers lead to the death of 2500 Hungarians and an overthrow of the government.

This shows the imperialistic nature of the Soviet Union and not of truly peaceful cohabitation by clearly dividing the world on  the wider Cold War basis by intrusive political and military intervention. It seems contradictory to the previous peaceful concessions made by the Soviet Union at the Geneva Summit and this shows how the Soviet Union were still trying to maintain an advantage over the Capitalist world rather than accepting a diplomatic change. This can be deduced as an attempt to build on Soviet power whilst also trying to repress American power through far less than peaceful methods.

Furthermore tension was at it’s highest following the military actions of the Soviet Union prior to the Cuban Missile in 1962. For example Khrushchev created a physical and metaphorical barrier that divided Eastern and West germany yet also divided the Capitalist and Communist worlds. This was evident with the erection of the Berlin Wall on 13th August 1961. This was done in order to prevent the massive emigration of East German population that reached up to 3.5million before the wall was built. This socially would leave the Soviet Union short in man power of the working class that was an industrial city that provided much revenue and weaponry for the Red Army. Furthermore many educated members of the population left that left on the basis of political reasons rather than the materialistic reasons, such as poverty and poor living conditions.

This shows Khrushchev’s attempts at creating a politically divided Europe and represents the Soviets were determined in not allowing one inch of land to be won by their adversaries and may have prompted them, the US, to respond aggressively through military action. Also the deployment of missiles in Cuba also created an atmosphere of hostility and potential for mutually assured destruction through an aggressive geostrategic maneuver to gain an advantage over the USA whilst also trying to arm and strengthen a communist ally that was only miles away from the United States’ coastline. Many Historians have said this is the closest the world has come to nuclear warfare.

Khrushchev Genuinely committed to peaceful coexistence Essay

Essay The Last Circus Essay

Essay The Last Circus Essay.

We all go through different stages of development in our life, and some of these stages are not as easy as others. At some point every little child needs to leave his or her childhood and grow up, because no matter how much you want to, you can’t stay a child forever. The development from a child to an adult is an extremely sensitive and tough period. The things you used to know suddenly change and become something completely different.

It is this kind of development we see in the short story “The Last Circus” which is published in 1980 and writhen by Ray Bradbury. The development is shown through the main character and is brought up in many various ways.

The short story is based on the main character, Douglas, who lives with his father, his mother and his brother Skip. The family is an ordinary middle class family, which is shown because they don’t have any kind of extraordinary luxury.

The family fits right into the old traditions where the mother cooks, cleans and takes care of everyone. The father is more concerned about what is going on in the world and is not very involved in his two son lives. In the beginning of the story Douglas seems to be a normal young kid who loves spending time with his best friend, Red Tongue, but as the story goes on it is getting more clearly that Douglas is going through a development from being a child to becoming an adult.

The way Douglas is starting to mature shows the development, and is also the biggest difference between Red Tongue and Douglas. All the way through the circus show Red Tongue is amused and laughs, but that is not the way Douglas reacts to the show. To him the circus is no longer something he finds interesting or funny, and it is at this point that he has developed from being a young, childish and innocent kid to a more adult person who doesn’t think that circus shows are the meaning of life anymore. This makes Douglas a round character, and Red Tongue a flat. He goes through a development, witch Red Tongue doesn’t. Red Tongue’s name even symbolizes youth and that he doesn’t go through a development – (Page 81, line 1-2).

The story takes place during the Cold War in the 1950s. At that time there were atom bomb hysteria in America because of the nuclear war, which occurred at the end of World War II. The United States was at that time the only country that had nuclear weapons, but in 1949 the Soviet Union did a nuclear test on an atomic weapon, called RDS-1 and later in 1952 the USA tested the first hydrogen bomb2 on the Marshall Islands. After the testing the islands were turned in to toxic fumes and dust. This frightened the American people, because they were afraid that there would be a future nuclear war. This are reflected in the text. Douglas’s father is extremely worried and fears his own doomsday. He tells Douglas all his worries about the war, but children at his age shouldn’t worry about such serious matters. This is a part of what starts his development – propulsion of having to grow up fast.

The story is written with a single major character viewpoint and is therefore told with a first-person narrator whom is Douglas. The reader discovers everything in the story at exactly the same time as Douglas does. It allows the reader all the descriptive forces of the third person-narrator and almost as much intimacy as the first person-narrator. It can also be easier for the reader to identify with just one character, which in this story is the main character, Douglas. The narrator can be a bit untrustworthy because it is just told from one point of view, and especially since the narrator in this text is a child. It is written in the past tense, indicating that it is an experience Douglas already has had.

The structure of the text follows three main points – an exposition, a conflict and a resolution. In the first part of the story, which is the exposition, Douglas, RT, and their values are introduced – (page 81-82, line 21). The reader gets the necessary background information to understand the meaning of what happens later on in the text. The next part of the story is where the conflict flares up between Douglas and what happens around him. This happens because his father starts talking about the atom bombs, witch unknowingly starts the Douglas development – (page 82-85, line 34). This conflict is also the climax.

At the end of the story the resolution is given by the conflict being resolved. Douglas is finally starting to understand that he is going through a development, and also that things are beginning to change – (page 85-88). The story switches 7 times back and forth between him being at home and at the circus;. one: Douglas is at home – two: he is at the circus – three: back home – four: at the circus – five: at home – six: at the circus – seven: at home again. Because of the switching back and forth between the environments the story is not chronological.

The main theme of the text is the development from childhood to adulthood. In the beginning of the story Douglas is a happy, young, innocent and careless boy, but later his father unknowingly starts the development in him, by talking about the atom bombs. It is here Douglas realizes that there are other things in life than just the circus and cowboys. After this he starts maturing and loses his innocence.

Essay The Last Circus Essay

Was JFK A Great President Essay

Was JFK A Great President Essay.

During John F. Kennedy’s presidential term he had both many great moments, as well as some poor ones. His greater achievements included creating the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and avoiding a nuclear war with the Russians in the Cuban Missile Crisis and a more. But he had some major flaws such as the failed invasion at the Bay of Pigs. The plan was to train Cuban exiles by the CIA, they came up with a plan to sail into the Bay of Pigs and was ashore and go on with their plan to kill Fidel Castro, this was not the case.

Instead of washing ashore they hit a coral reef and started to swim ashore, when they got to the beach they were surrounded and killed. It is believed that some had previously tipped off the Cubans and the U.S. knew about it but went forward with the plan after all. Kennedy was a great president, he may have had his fair share of ups, and downs but at the end of the day, he was a great president.

Moreover JFK was a great president ever since the first televised debate to happen between John and Richard Nixon. Kennedy was calm, collected, and very professional, while Nixon was sick and looked pale due to him not wearing makeup.

Was JFK A Great President Essay

Bruce Dawe Homecoming Essay

Bruce Dawe Homecoming Essay.

Bruce Dawe is a famous and iconic Australian poet; his poems feature his numerous personal experiences and opinions about the futility and brutality of war. Bruce Dawe oft questions the need and validity of war; he talks about the dehumanization and utter brutality the young Australian men face. The poem “Homecoming” raises the public issue of military dehumanization and the futility of the men who enlist. This poem provokes us as individuals, and as a society to question why.

In Bruce Dawe’s “Homecoming”, he explores personal and public issue of lack of identity and the indiscriminate slaughter of young men in the Vietnam War.

Dawe refers to green bodies in “green plastic bags”, shows the lack of identity and invokes emotions from the reader. The dead soldiers are also being categorized as “curly heads, kinky-hairs, crew-cuts and balding non-coms…” this categorization further reinforces the idea of dehumanization and lack of identity. This certain technique gives us a detailed insight into the personal and public issues that families and the public would have faced.

Another technique used in “Homecoming” that helps us gain an insight into the personal and public experiences is the use of irony. The title homecoming usually implies a heroic or celebratory return with family and friends. It also invokes a sense of anticipation for the return of a particular individual, however the title is ironic as the “Homecoming”, is related to the mourning and death of a nameless soldier. Another affective us of irony would be the repetition of the suffix -ing; “picking”, “zipping”, “tagging”, “giving” and “bringing”. These words are the actions of the processors; they usually imply life and strength but are used ironically as the processors handle the cold, limp and lifeless bodies. This also gives us an interesting insight into the personal problems families and friends would have to endure.

Bruce Dawe explores different personal and public issues within his poems. In “Homecoming”, he talks about the futility and lack of identity these young soldiers face. He explores these different personal and public issues through a use of effective techniques such as irony, repetition, imagery, metaphors and rhythm. All of these techniques give us a compelling insight into the personal experiences and public issues of the Vietnam war.

Bruce Dawe Homecoming Essay

Theodore Roosevelt’s 3 Major Contributions Essay

Theodore Roosevelt’s 3 Major Contributions Essay.

Theodore Roosevelt began his presidency in 1901, and by the time he left in 1908, he had imprinted a significant mark in American history. Theodore, also known as Teddy and T.R., helped nurture a still young country into the magnificent nation it has become today. An incredible amount of work had to be completed before this transformation of a nation could be accomplished. T.R. devoted every minute of his presidency to prepare America for the turn of the century. America was indefinitely shocked by the changes the 20th century brought with it, but Teddy’s efforts helped reduce the effect of the shock.

The major three contributions of Theodore Roosevelt’s presidency are, in order of importance, his involvement in increasing the authority of the presidency in domestic affairs, his efforts in conserving the environment, and most important of all, his preparation of America’s rise to become a world power.

T. R. made many contributions to the domestic area in America.

His efforts paved the way for major changes including Women’s rights and African American’s rights. He helped prepare the country for Martin Luther King to lead the blacks out of their persecution. Roosevelt’s contributions made America finally achieve its dream of equality of all persons. Also he contributed in the industrial area facing monopolies and worker strikes. An example, was when the miners set out a strike and caused a decreased amount of much needed coal. Roosevelt provided immediate action threatening to work the mines using the Army if the owners of the company did not negotiate with the miner’s union. Also Roosevelt renewed the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 and brought over thirty corporations into the Supreme Court. T.R. realized that if this nation would have to have its domestic problems solved before it could progress in other areas.

Conservation is Theodore Roosevelt’s second great contribution. Although some historians consider this to be his most important achievement, it falls short in his preparation of building America’s defense forces up. No matter what anyone says, human lives are far more important that the conservation of forests. However, the conservation of this nation’s forests and environment is incredibly important and Roosevelt foresaw the rise of industrial waste. Immediately T.R. started protecting forests in National Parks. By the time he was done he had increased the protected forests from 43000 acres to 194 million acres.

Also Roosevelt set aside natural wonders, historic sites, and prehistoric structures. He protected and claimed 18 national monuments, more than any president until Bill Clinton. Roosevelt protected the Grand Canyon, naming it the Grand Canyon National Monument. He said this about the canyon, ” Leave it as it is. You cannot improve upon it, not a bit. What you can do is keep it for your children, your children’s children, for all who come after you.” America can thank T.R. for the fact that all these national monuments, forests, and parks exist today.

Preparing America to become a world power and building the nations defense up is no doubt the most important thing Theodore Roosevelt did. Upon entering office the single greatest problem he faced was war. War was now more destructive, consequential, and widespread than it had ever been in generations past. It had become such a problem it was threatening the United States itself. Realizing that there would be destructive wars in the 20th century, and perhaps even foreseeing the World Wars, Roosevelt built up the nations defense. No other president had made such strides to prepare America for war before his presidency or after, until Franklin D. Roosevelt.

His first contribution was to build up the navy. He turned a small size of ships into one second only the to the British Fleet. When Roosevelt left office, and the first World War crept closer, Roosevelt’s incredible fleet of ships was ready. Also T.R. realized that the best policy would be to avoid war whenever possible. As a diplomat he received the Nobel Peace Prize for his assistance in ending the Russo-Japanese War. In 1906, he prevented war again this time it was between Germany and France. T.R. once said, “speak softly but carry a big stick.” His successors have held fast to this idea resulting in victories in the Cold War and World War II.

Roosevelt’s most important contribution as president was preparing America for its place as a world power, although his conservation efforts and domestic efforts were both important also. Roosevelt was truly an amazing president that was able to foresee the issues America would have in the future and prepare America for them. All of his contributions were important and they all helped America be what it is today.

Zinn, Howard. A People’s History of the United States: 1492 – Present, 2005

Theodore Roosevelt’s 3 Major Contributions Essay