Ways to Reduce Global Warming Essay

Global Warming refers to the gradual increase in the Earth’s temperature as a result of the growing concentration of human induced green house gases which are carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons and hydro fluorocarbon in our atmosphere. Global warming can be caused by the use of fossil fuels, and industrial or agricultural processes. Man-made emissions are adding to the amount of carbon dioxide already being naturally released. These harmful processes have been leading to a large increase in the buildup of “greenhouse gases,” which are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons, and water vapors.

Global warming is an extremely severe problem facing the world today. Its effects and causes have been on the rise and people need to do something about it before the problem gets any worse. There are several ways to reduce the effects of global warming. The first way is you can choose vegetarian meals. Choosing vegetarian foods can be drastically reduces agricultural water consumption and land use, and favorably impacts biodiversity.

Vegetarian diets also have been shown to promote good health and in most developed countries, eliminating meat from one’s diet is as easy as making responsible choices at stores and restaurants.

If one eats meat it should always be from a local source. It is better, if you eat what you have planted. You can lessen your negative global warming impacts by eating food that is grown in your area, instead of choosing foods that have been shipped halfway around the world. It is because, food transportation is a major cause of air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. So, using foods which require less transportation helps the environment and at the same time reduce global warming problem.

The second way is you can change your lamp with compact fluorescent bulb. According to a research in America, replace three frequently used light bulbs with compact fluorescent bulbs can save 300 lbs. of carbon dioxide and US$60 per year. A standard compact fluorescent bulb will save around one third of a tonne of greenhouse gas, along with the cost of six or more incandescent globes. You can use compact fluorescent bulb even more in your houses or offices and if you want, you can give them as ifts to family and friends. It is better if you can donate a set to a local charity to refit their office with compact fluorescent lights. In other hand, you must remember that compact fluorescent light bulbs do contain small amounts of toxic mercury. Therefore, proper disposal (recycling) is necessary to prevent any additional landfill contamination. In addition, you can also start looking into light emitting diode bulbs (LED light bulbs) which have started to crop up recently because they are even more efficient.

So, the choosing to make the decision to reduce the global warming effects is in your hand. Last but not least, you can also use public transportation. Taking the bus, the train, the subway or other forms of public transportation lessens the load on the roads and reduces one’s individual greenhouse gas emissions by an average of 1600 pounds per year. Taking public transport also removes the stress of long road commutes and gives you a great opportunity to read, think, and relax.

You also save on parking money and time wasted looking for parking spaces you can also have car-pooling with your officemates or neighbours. If you can’t live without a car, then use it in a way that minimizes global impact. You can also make a good choice by buying a hybrid car. ‘ The average driver could save 16,000 lbs. of carbon dioxide and a lot total of money by driving a hybrid. Moreover, plug-in hybrids can save even more and one day may be able to give cash back. You can also pretend to buy a fuel efficient car.

It can save up to 20,000 lbs. of carbon dioxide per year using a more fuel efficient car. Buying fuel efficient cars not only reduce the amount of carbon dioxide release but also encourage companies to continue making and improving them owing to increased demand. So, let’s take this simple way to reduce global warming effects. In conclusion, the several ways to reduce the effects of global warming are choose vegetarian meals, change your lamp with compact fluorescent bulb, and use public transportation or hybrid and fuel efficient car.

I think, all people in the world can take these simple ways in their daily lives. Although it is very difficult to reverse once the process is started, global warming has to be stopped if we want to live like we are now. If it is not controlled, problems such as the drastic rise of sea levels, increasing of temperature rapidly, melting of glacier and along with others, will definitely disrupt our living patterns. So, let us not put our finger to others, but we must start from ourselves and take the ways to reduce the effects of global warming.

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Tomorrow when the war began Essay

Tomorrow when the war began, written by John Marsden is an action genre book. The main themes are survival, change, relationships, friendships, courage, self-discovery and morality. The brief storyline is that Ellie and 6 friends go camping in a secret place for a week, and when they return a war/invasion has started in their hometown of Wirrawee.

Throughout the rest of the book Ellie and her friends, Homer, Fi, Corrie, Kevin, Lee and Robyn make plans and take action against the war/invasion as they are the only few people left uncaptured.

Some of the key points in the novel are Ellie and her friends going camping, Lee gets shot, Ellie, Homer, Lee and Fi blow up a tanker under a bridge to stop the enemy from sending more of their troops into the area, and Corrie and Kevin go to the hospital because Corrie gets shot.

I think the authors intensions were to make everyone think about what they would do in a similar situation.

Positive aspects of the book are that it might give the readers ideas about what to do in a situation such as this. Negative points are the author did not make the book very easy to understand as he kept jumping from place to place, like it went from Ellie and Fi sitting in the tanker waiting for the signal from Homer and Lee, and then it would jump to Homer and Lee with the cattle in the paddock. Also the story line could have been better.

The themes are very easy to identify though, which is good for writing essays, also all the themes identified related to storyline well. In conclusion my overall thoughts on the novel “Tomorrow when the war began” were mainly negative as the storyline is a vital piece in a novel. Also if you can’t understand a book it make s you want to stop reading it, which is why I wanted to stop because I was getting confused as to what was going on where.

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Global Warming Essay

Planet earth has an abundance of natural resources, which makes it unique and perfect for life to exist. However our use of these natural resources is creating a bit of a problem for us. Global warming is affecting our world in a negative way and mankind is exacerbating this problem. Today I am here to tell you what global warming is, why it is a problem and how we can solve it. Global warming is the increase in average temperature of earth’s land, sea and atmosphere.

This is caused by the greenhouse effect, which is when greenhouse gases let sunlight in to the lower atmosphere which warms the earth and then blocks the heat from leaving. The greenhouse effect is a natural occurrence mostly caused by water vapors. Mankind is contributing to this problem by creating large amounts of greenhouse gases, mostly by burning fossil fuels. The burning of fossil fuels disrupts the natural balance of the earth’s temperature and as a result, the earth warms.

When the earth warms it causes glaciers to melt like in Greenland. Global warming is melting the last edge of Greenland’s ice sheet and is adding billions of tons of water which is resulting in rising sea levels. This causes more frequent flooding, and very low lands could be submerged completely. Rising sea level can also harm important ecosystems such as forests and coral reefs.

We can prevent global warming from getting worse by ​ reducing our use of burning fossil fuels, planting trees, and recycling. Now you’re thinking how are we going to do this? Well it’s simple. There are two ways to reduce burning fossil fuels: use less energy and use non polluting energy sources such as solar and wind power. Carbon dioxide is the primary greenhouse gas ​ emitted through human activities. Planting trees is important because trees absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen. Therefore it can slow down or stop global warming. Recycling reduces greenhouse gases by keeping materials out of the landfill and reducing the need of mining.

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What Was the Significance of D-Day to the Outcome of World War 2 Essay

What was the significance of D-Day to the outcome of World War 2? D-Day happened on 6th June 1944 after five years of war with Germany. D-Day was an invasion towards Germany by a massive military force that set out from England towards France. It was going to take over Nazi Germany and Germany’s leader Adolf Hitler because the Nazi’s had nearly taken over the whole of Europe which wouldn’t have happened if appeasement didn’t occur. The allied forces landed on the beaches of Normandy and started to break through the German army’s defences.

They began an attack that lasted for eleven months which took them all the way to the German capital Berlin, to the bunker that was Adolf Hitler’s headquarters. In April 1943 the British General Fredrick Morgan was selected the chief of staff to the supreme allied commander (CASSAC) for the D-Day invasion. He was to draw up blueprints of the attack, Morgan finalized the planning in July 1943 and he had considered both the Pas de Calais and Caen as possible landings areas but although Pas de Calais was closer to southern England it was also heavily defended which is why he opted for Caen as the landing place.

Surprise was crucial, not just to allow the troops to get ashore but also to prevent the Germans from sending significant reinforcements quickly from elsewhere. Britain wanted to trick the Germans into believing that the landings would be in Pas de Calais because the Germans also feared an allied invasion of Norway so they retained a large number of troops there. The Germans had their troops spread out around the coastline which meant a good chance of Britain reaching Hitler’s headquarters.

Morgan’s plans were approved at a conference in Quebec one 17th August 1943 but it wasn’t until the start of December 1934 that Eisenhower (President of the United Sates from 1953 until 1961) was made supreme allied commander in Europe for the invasion which was codenamed “Operation Overload”, two weeks later the attack began. The invasion began when allied planes and warships bombarded German positions along the coastline, this was to damage the defences making it easier for the troops to get ashore.

At the same time planes and gliders dropped tens of thousands of allied soldiers behind the German defences, so they could take control of important roads and bridges to make it harder for the German army to rush extra men towards the areas where the troops were landing. Masses of ships set out from the South coast of England, in total over 6,000 vessels joined the attack and were supported by over 11,000 planes. The naval force crossed the channel overnight, at 6:30 am on June 6 troops started to land on the beaches of Normandy and by the end of D-Day the allies had put 156,000 troops ashore in Normandy.

The troops landed on beaches along an 80km stretch of Normandy coastline in the North of France it’s not the closest part of France to the UK but it was chosen because Hitler was expecting the invasion force to cross the English Channel at its narrowest point. However by making a longer sea voyage they avoided some of the heaviest coastal defences. There were five main landing beaches: Juno, Gold, Omaha, Sword and Utah. The heaviest fighting was on Omaha beach; overall the soldiers suffered about 10,000 casualties (dead or wounded) on D-Day itself.

The allied troops were mainly made up of forces from United Kingdom, Canada and the U. S but there were other countries that helped with the Battle of Normandy including France, Australia, Norway and Poland. The allies landed around 156,000 troops in Normandy. The American forces landed 73,000 troops in Normandy, 23,250 troops on Utah Beach, 34,250 on Omaha Beach and 15,500 airborne troops. In the British and Canadian region 83,115 troops landed of which 61,715 were British; 24,970 on Gold Beach, 21,400 on Juno Beach, 28,845 Sword Beach and 7900 airborne troops.

In the airborne landings on both sides of the beaches 2395 aircraft and 867 gliders of the RAF and USAAF were used on D-day. Operation Neptune involved huge naval forces including 6939 vessels, 1213 naval combat ships, 4126 landing ships and landing craft, 736 ancillary craft and 864 merchant vessels. 195,700 personnel were assigned to Operation Neptune: 52,889 US, 112,824 British and 4988 from the other allied countries. The US lost more troops than any other allies but they had more troops to start with. 3184 were wounded, 1928 missing and 26 captured.

However each country lost a lot of troops that day but US suffered a greater loss than any other, which is one reason why the US wanted to join in World War 2 but when the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbour they realised they had to join. This is one of the outcomes to World War 2. There are many impacts that were caused by D-day and they were social, political and technological impacts. The social impacts were the Americans freeing the French and after the French were free, Paris then became liberated. Another social impact is that Hitler absolutely hated the Jews and Christians because the Jews wrote the bible.

The allied forces later freed the Jews when they started to encounter and release camp prisoners. The political impacts were; when the allied forces released the French government. Also a political impact was when the Germans were forced to retreat because of the U. S. troops crossing the Rhine on the western front. Another impact happened on January 16th 1945 when the battle of the bulge ended with a defeat ad retreat from Germany as their supplies grew short and its forces were overcome by allied forces. There were also technological problems with D-Day. Which were; during the war everything was paid for.

The allied forces began developing new weapons and thanks, Like the M3 Stuart, the M4 Sherman and the M7 priest tank and various other weapons such as pistols and ships. This meant that the new weapons would be able to continue fighting in the wars to come and other countries would have less advantage than others. Germany started World War 2 by invading on September 1st 1939 and then on May 10th 1940 began attacking on Western Europe but started by invading the Low countries, the Low counties consist of; the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg. D-Day was a major turning point in World War 2.

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Warrants Essay

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. (1) These words of the Fourth Amendment give the people protection against unnecessary harassment by local, state and federal law enforcements. Authorities have to go through a process to acquire a warrant to search homes, papers, effects and persons with probable cause.

However, there is a rationale for a warrantless search. This poses the questions: What is the rationale for allowing warrantless searches, are those reasons persuasive and do all such searches require that probable cause exist or are there exceptions? The definition of a warrant is a writ permitting or directing someone to take some action. Often, the term refers to a writ from a judge; permitting law enforcement personnel to take some action, such as: make an arrest, search a location, or seize some piece of property.

(1) There are many different types of warrants.

Some include: a search warrant, an arrest warrant, an anticipatory warrant, and a no-knock warrant. A Search Warrant is an order signed by a judge that directs owners of private property to allow the police to enter and search for items named in the warrant. Judges won’t issue a warrant unless they have been convinced by the police that there is probable cause for the search — that reliable evidence shows that it’s more likely than not that a crime has occurred and that the items sought by the police are connected with it and will be found at the location named in the warrant.

In limited situations, the police may search without a warrant, but they cannot use what they find at trial if the defense can show that they had no probable cause for the search. An Arrest Warrant is a document issued by a judge or magistrate that authorizes the police to arrest someone. Warrants are issued when law enforcement personnel present evidence to judges or magistrates that convince them that it is reasonably likely that a crime has taken place and that the person to be named in the warrant is criminally responsible for that crime.

An Anticipatory Warrant is a warrant that is based on an affidavit that shows probable cause that evidence of a particular crime will be at a specified location at some time in the future. A No-Knock Warrant is a search warrant authorizing police officers to enter certain premises without first knocking and announcing their presence or purpose prior to entering the premises. (2) Each of these warrants must first be approved by a judge or a magistrate and must meet certain requirements. The authorities must go through a process to obtain a warrant. Only judges may issue search warrants.

Search warrants must be specific and reasonable before they are granted by the judge in a court of law. To obtain a warrant, law enforcement officers must show that there is probable cause to believe a search is justified. Probable cause is the amount and quality of information police must have before they can search or arrest without a warrant. (3) Some of the specifics they must include are of the following: If one room of a house is listed on the search warrant than only that room can be searched. If other rooms need to be searched than another warrant must be obtained by law enforcement officials.

If a vehicle needs to be searched on a property, a separate warrant needs to be obtained for the vehicle. And the warrant must be of reasonable inclusivity. (2) If these requirements are not met, then the judge will not grant the warrant. Courts use a reasonableness test when considering whether a search violates the federal Constitution. This reasonableness test preempts other state and federal laws. If a “no-knock” entry is unreasonable at the time police execute a search warrant, they must “knock and announce” their presence, even if they have a no-knock warrant. 4) This is where the Exclusionary Rule comes into play.

The exclusionary rule prevents the government from using most evidence gathered in violation of the United States Constitution. It applies to evidence gained from an unreasonable search or seizure in violation of the Fourth Amendment. It is defined as a rule of evidence that disallows the use of illegally obtained evidence in criminal trials. (4) Warrants must be issued before authorities can search and seize property and if they do not obtain a warrant first they are violating a person’s Miranda Rights.

Although in most cases a warrant is required, there are a few situations in which there are exceptions to needing probable cause for a warrant. A warrant is not needed is in a time of consent. If a police officer stops you and you consent to allowing him to search your car, a warrant is not needed. If anything illegal is found on you or on your property then those items can be confiscated and you can be arrested. Another time is when illegal items are in plain view of an officer during a traffic stop or during a routine police procedure.

Items in plain view can be drugs, weapons, or stolen goods. However, plain view only comes into effect when the officer is lawfully on the premises. During a traffic stop, if a police officer arrests the driver of a vehicle, they are then allowed to search the car and its compartments for contraband and weapons without a search warrant. When a person is arrested in their house or their office building the officer is allowed to legally search the room that they arrested the suspect in and perform a protective sweep of the building to check if there are other people hiding in the building.

And most importantly, a search can be conducted without a search warrant when police officers feel that the public is in danger during any emergency situations. (2) When driving onto a military base there is a clear sign that states the standing warrant that if you pass through the gates you are consenting to allowing the Military Police search your car if they feel the need to. And when you drive onto a base you are guaranteed to see at least one random car search every time.

Not every situation calls for a warrant needed to search homes, papers, effects and persons with probable cause. Law enforcement is required to obtain a warrant issued by a magistrate or a judge in a court of law. If said warrant is not issued and authorities still search you, all evidence they find will be thrown out. However, there are certain terms in which a warrant is not required. The words of the Fourth Amendment give the people protection against unnecessary harassment by local, state and federal law enforcements.

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Culinarian Cookware Case Analysis Essay

Culinarian Cookware has a prestigious band image, is a leader in premium cookware market, and delivers an outstanding product. With this said, there are still areas in which the brand could improve, as it still has a much lower brand awareness and market share than industry leaders Star Chef and Kitchen Select. We believe that one way in which Culinarian could combat these issues and push towards completing its strategic objectives is to run a price promotion in 2007.

Though there was dispute as to whether the promotion of 2004 was profitable, due to our analysis of the 2004 promotion and the current state of the cookware market we believe that there is room for a price promotion within Culinarian’s strategic objectives.

First and foremost, we believe that Ms. Brown is correct in her calculations of the profitable nature of the 2004 sale. Ms. Brown’s calculations differ from those of the consultants on two basic points: the way in which they projected the sales for the CX1 model during the sales promotion and the contribution margin which they attributed to each unit.

The consultants argue that, according to the sales numbers of the previous year, the projected sales of the CX1 model should have been 119504. Ms. Brown disagrees, saying that due to the fact that sales were down 24% during the first few months of 2004, the projected sales for the period should be much lower than what the consultants calculated. She says that the projected sales calculations should be 59871. According to Exhibit 1, which outlines the retail sales of cookware across the US, sales for cookware were down 2% during 2004. This information is in line with what Ms.

Brown used in her calculations, as she argued that the projected sales for March through May of 2004 should be significantly lower than usual due to a major decrease in sales during the first few months of 2004. Not only were sales for the year down, but according to Exhibit 2, March, April and May are not higher than average months for sales in 2005. According Exhibit 2, during 2005 6. 9% of sales were in March, 7% of sales were in April and 9. 4% of sales were in May. This information is telling in that it shows that the months that the ales promotion ran in there is no reason to expect higher than average sales.

This is important because, if Ms. Brown is correct in that sales were down 24% during the first few months of 2004, then there is no reason to expect that sales would rise significantly from March to May. The second point in which Ms. Brown’s number’s differed from that of the consultants was the way in which they calculated the contribution margin for each unit of CX1. We found that there was little evidence to support either Ms. Brown’s costing method or the consultants. However, as long as Ms.

Brown was correct in her sales projections, the price promotion would have been profitable even if the consultants were more accurate in their costing method. By multiplying the actual sales numbers (184987) by the actual contribution margin that the consultants calculated (10. 35), then subtracting the normal sales that Ms. Brown calculated (59871) multiplied by the normal contribution margin according to the consultants (19. 95) we found that there would still be a profit of 720189 dollars. This means that even if the consultants were correct in the cannibalization impact costs and the contribution margin calculations, as long as Ms.

Brown was more correct in her sales projections then there would still have been a significant net profit. Therefore due to the fact that we find Ms. Brown’s projections of the sales for the period to be more consistent with the information provided for us in Exhibits 1 and 2, we also find that she is likely more correct in saying that the price promotion was profitable for the company. Not only would the price promotion be profitable regardless of costing method, but the consultant’s cannibalization impact estimation seems unfounded as there was still a 21% increase in growth of the DX1 product sales from Spring 2003 to Spring 2004.

This is only about 3% down from the growth rate from 2002 to 2003, which lead us to believe that a major cannibalization impact from the sales promotion was improbable. This evaluation of Ms. Brown’s profitable calculations, the strategic objectives the Ms. Roux outlines for Culinarian and our analysis of the cookware market lead us to believe that a price promotion in 2007 would be a good move for Culinarian. As we will discuss below, Ms. Roux’s strategic priorities for the company included not only growing revenue but also aintaining the prestigious brand image and increasing its share of the premium cookware market segment.

We would argue that running another price promotion during 2007 would be the first step in achieving all of these strategic objectives. The price promotion run during 2004 was, according to our calculations, profitable and was able to drastically increase sales for that period in the CX1 model. According to Exhibit 4, sales of the CX1 model rose 57% from the spring of 2003 to the spring of 2004. This is a huge increase, especially when compared to a 30% increase from spring of 2002 to spring of 2003.

According to surveys done after the price promotion, 70% of customers who bought the CX1 said that the promotion was important in their buying decision. This information, coupled with the Orion study which concluded that 30% of cookware buyers would be motivated by a price discount to buy cookware, tells us that many cookware consumers are highly interested in price promotions. Though customers are highly interested in the price promotion, to better understand how the promotion would fit into Culinarian’s overall strategic objectives we must look at how the cookware market functions as a whole.

The U. S. cookware industry is divided into categories of low-end, mid-level, and premium products based on price, quality, and material. The market is thus segmented based on several demographic, socioeconomic, and psychographic variables. But primarily the market is segmented based on age, occupation, gender, and most importantly income. Market research conducted by Culinarian found that of its own customers 75% were between the ages of 30 and 55, 82% were women, 70% had household incomes over $75,000 annually, and 60% of previous customers considered cooking to be their favorite hobby.

Cookware is purchased either in sets of between 5 to 14 pieces or open stock by piece. Consumers in the cookware category almost always make planned purchases according to responses from the Orion Market Research Study. If there were to be an unplanned purchase it would generally be a single piece, opposed to a boxed set, and motivated because of a discount or promotion. According to the survey, in households with income over $75,000 only 30% of respondents were swayed by price discount and a promotional incentive, such as free gift with purchase, only affected the purchasing decisions of 20%.

In addition to being planned, sales of cookware are often seasonal because it is frequently purchased as gifts for weddings and holidays. The implications for a push versus pull strategy in the cookware industry depend on the category of product (low-end, mid-level, or premium) and the brand’s history and image (how long have they been in the cookware industry and its’ positioning). The pull strategy should be used when trying to recruit new consumers, expand market share, or publicize a promotion.

Premium brands often experience more success with the pull strategy than low-end and mid-level brands do, which often requires that they use a combination of the pull and push strategy with consumers and distributors and their approach will change with the growth of the brand. The push strategy is essential in getting new channels to stock a company’s products, so if the company’s goal to enter a new distribution channel or to widen its’ distribution network the push strategy should be implemented.

But Culinarian Cookware and other high-end brands that are very selective in their distribution can use the pull strategy with both consumers and their distribution base. Consumers of the Culinarian brand regarded product performance and durability as the most important features in selecting cookware. By creating demand and loyalty amongst consumers, retailers will continue to request to sell the product. The corporate objectives suggest that the company has a strong business that tailors itself to the segments that we found above.

The first objective is to widen its distribution network, which is always a great way to create new distribution channels and to grow for the company. The push strategy would be used to gain more distribution channels. Right now, Culinarian only has three specialty stores by widening its distribution they would branch out and increase their customer base. By increasing their customer base, Culinarian could segment their customers more efficiently and also increase their segment base. The pull strategy would be used for new products and for gaining a larger customer base.

The second objective is to increase the market share of the premium cookware segment. Le Gourmand their main competitors possesses 4% while Robusto has only 3%. Even though, Culinarian already has a 6. 5% of the market, they are behind the mid to low level manufacturers as Star Chef has 18% and Kitchen Select obtains 14%. By increasing the market share Culinarian would increase their revenue and also acquire a stronger brand name in the market. This leads to the next objective, every strong business posses a prominent image.

As a leader in the premium cookware market Culinarian wants to preserve its prestigious image. Its customers are high income and 50% of them favor a brand that they recognize, which means in order for Culinarian to attract the high-income customers the company must maintain the strong brand and the prestigious image it possesses. Lastly, in order for Culinarian to thrive and be a successful business it must cover cost and capture a revenue growth of 15% while maintaining the pre-tax earnings of 12%.

According to this information about the cookware market, we believe that if Culinarian ran a similar price promotion to the one it ran in 2004 on the CX1, while changing the timing and distribution method, then it would help Culinarian gain greater revenue and market share while not damaging their brand image. The CX1 model seems like the best model to run a promotion on because by running a promotion on the cheapest and lowest quality line of products, Culinarian would be more likely to gain new consumers while still maintaining its brand image.

The CX1 model has a normal retail price of 150 dollars, making it significantly cheaper than any other product line that Culinarian offers. By reducing this price by the same 20% that was offered in 2004, the price drops to 120, which would make it 40% cheaper than the next cheapest model, SX1. We feel that this drop in price is ideal as it was obviously enough to lead to a huge increase in sales in 2004 while still making the product line profitable.

Though we would run the promotion on the same product line with the same price reduction, we would change the timing and distribution method of the price promotion. We believe that running the promotion in the fall, from August to October, would be more beneficial to the company as it represents a time when normal sales are down after the summer months and before those of the holidays. If Culinarian ran promotions during this period, it might be able to buoy sales and allow them to gain a stronger hold on the market just before the holiday season.

During the 2004 promotion 20% of customers who bought the CX1 model were new to the Culinarian brand. An increase in new customers might be most beneficial before the Holiday season, as according to exhibit 3, 55% of people surveyed in the Orion Market Research study said that they either bought cookware as a gift or received it as a gift. Exhibit 3 also mentions that 50% of consumers are more likely to buy a brand that they recognize, which shows that increasing brand awareness during the time before the biggest cookware buying season could be incredibly beneficial to boost sales.

Another change that we would make to the price promotion is the way in which the promotion was distributed. According to the case, only about half of the retailers passed the full sale on to the customers. This represents a major problem for Culinarian, as they want customers to receive the full sale to entice more current customers to buy and more new customers to switch brands. Our recommendation would be to advertise coupons available online by putting coupon codes in their advertisements in magazines and newspapers.

In those advertisements they could publicize the price promotion and urge consumers to get coupons online to buy in stores. This would make the retailers pass the full sales discount onto consumers. Not only would this method of delivery allow customers to get the full discount, but it would also increase traffic to the Culinarian’s site. As of now, only about 5% of sales come from the company’s website, which shows a major lack of traffic. By putting the price promotion coupon online, the company could get more web traffic and increase the sales through their site.

Thus a well done price promotion could help Culinarian move towards meeting many of its major strategic objectives. Not only would it increase revenue by buoying sales and increasing brand awareness before the Holidays, but, through increased sales, it could also help them capture more of the premium cookware market. By running the price promotion infrequently and only on the lowest quality product line, there would be no damage to the brand’s prestigious image. This price promotion would vault the brand into more consumers’ consideration set and allow them to expand their brand toward the future.

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Cold War Essay Essay

To what extent was Germany the cause of East/West disagreements between 1943 and 1963? (2000) 5. Analyze the role of Germany in the origin and development of the Cold War. (2002) 6. In what ways, and with what results, was Germany the key focus of the early stages of the Cold War? (2005) 7. Compare and contrast the policies of the USA and the USSR towards Korea between 1945 and 1955. (2004) 8. Also: NATO, Soviet policies, Sovietization of Central and Eastern Europe, COMECON, Stalin, Truman

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To Sin by Silence When They Sould Protest Makes Cowards of Men Essay

“To sin by silence when they should protest makes cowards of men” “Never be afraid to raise your voice for honesty and truth and compassion against injustice and lying and greed. If people all over the world…would do this, it would change the earth” said William Faulkner. Being suppressed by an entity powerful then us we lose the courage to use our tongue and that is the thing what makes us a coward. When an individual refrains from voicing his/her beliefs and becomes a passive observer of endless oppression he/she is as guilty of the crime as the oppressor.

Standing your ground for what is right is, thus, our moral obligation and efforts which are taken in distress are never gone in vain. Injustices in the world would never be hindered if there was no one to stop them. Take a look around and see innumerous people suffering, some being killed because of sectarian differences, some being crucified like goats because of the greed of power.

Thousands have been killed in Quetta, million lives have been shattered and they have been forced to spend their whole lives to shoulder a heavy burden which is not theirs to carry.

Acceptance of their misery is perverse when there is a way out. Individuals who are uninvolved witnesses to their heartache are obliged to speak up and help the victims attain their rights. As Shakespeare commented,” in the time of crisis, I was not hurt by the harsh words of my enemies, but by the silence of my friends. ” (Simple secrets to a positive attitude) . Stepping up for someone is not just supported by the heartwarming words of a thousand minds but also by the legal system, which tells us that the court trial requires witnesses without which a criminal doesn’t get the penalty he/she deserves.

Without anyone courageous enough to testify against a crime justice can never be rise. The oppressor would continue with the transgression unhindered. “Silence becomes cowardice when occasion demands speaking out the whole truth and acting accordingly” said Gandhi. History embarks us with a series of intense and astonishing events which enlightens us with what the strength of our voice can achieve if we stand as one. It all started in 1977 when a body of people initiated the demonstrations to overthrow the Pahlavi Dynasty under Shah Mohammad Raza Pahlavi.

Tired of watching their rights being snatched out of their hands and their assets being taken away by their hypocrite leader to feed America and United Kingdom whose support he had. The movement turned into a campaign of civil resistance, it intensified in 1978 and with their determined leader, Ayatollah Khomeini, they were able to overthrow the existing government in 1979 and Ayatollah Khomeini emerged as a victorious leader. The Shah left Iran in January 1979 and the era of falsehood and injustice dissolved. An entire nation got their fundamental rights because the witnesses to the oppression weren’t apathetic enough to let this injustice prevail.

Despite the pernicious circumstances a voice which is raised to call out for justice has never gone feckless. Justice is a long and beautiful road. Being scared of the fact that your call for help would never reach the ears of the considerate is just an excuse we use to sneak through the blames for being equally responsible for the prevailing injustice around us. It makes us equally responsible for the situation up surging around us and As Leonardo Da Vinci summed it, “Nothing strengthens authority so Much as silence”.

Being so threatened by the fear of being suppressed, we ignore how the enemy stumbles each time we raise our voice, drowned in this hopelessness makes us ignore the shaking authority of the enemy. Realizing the strength of your voice is the first step towards justice, no matter if at the end you are bruised you should realize that the enemy is not in its best shape either and if you can put them in this hideous situation and break their pride, that is nothing short than a victory. No step taken for the right act has ever become a lost cause.

The public needs to express the disapproval of the biased policies in order to make way for new concepts and that can only be done by getting on the road of justice, which can never go to waste. The revolutions and protests which were, though, unable to achieve their destined aim were able to smash the authority of enemy into pieces. Many Czechs might recall the events of 1968 with brackishness and as a defeat by the soviet tanks, and the uprising’s reformist leader, Alexander Dubcek. But agreed by many, it was a political awakening.

Standing as one in a wave of protests, that great of global rebellion, the demonstration was a cry for liberty, both raw and sophisticated, by the people against the forces of Moscow. Prague, an activist, reporting on this event stated, “a tank was a tank no matter what color it wore and our moment was a color of liberty against whomsoever it pitched itself, communist or capitalist” (Prague spring and uprising 1968). Though, many would agree that enduring the pain is the key to freedom. But for how long can you seal your lips when you know you are being wronged?

Unlimited patience is not a virtue that most humans can withstand. The anger would keep building inside you until you reach your limit of patience and burst. The feeling of anger and revenge can lead to individual taking innumerous regrettable steps. History sheds light on the French Revolution which is looked at as, by many, an event which was won by the revolution yet the humanity lost at that very instance. It was the bloodiest shift from monarchy to democracy where every leader was beheaded on the guillotine by the poor and oppressed factions of society.

Hundreds of innocent men were killed. To prevent such situations from arising people should be given a chance to express their feelings right from the beginning and planned protests should be carried out to promote amongst the people a sense of freedom of expression. Knowing one has a safety valve to vent the steam a build-up of pressure and a violent outburst is unlikely to occur. Dictatorships where protests are banned are overthrown through revolutions whereas democracies evolve overtime where individuals have freedom of expression and freedom to vote.

However there are exceptions to this idea. The Stockholm syndrome highlighted that there are some individuals who develop affectionate feelings toward their oppressors as a gradual acceptance of their situation settles in. Though this approach ignores the psychological impact these people suffers. Their judgment abilities are affected and they might not even be able to distinguish between what is beneficial for them and what is harmful. They tend to lack confidence in all aspects of life and are always shy when it comes to expressing themselves.

Such people can be deteriorated by anyone and will never be able to work out their true rights. They might become less human as our thinking ability is what makes us human in the first place. For instance, we can’t conceive the immense psychological breakdown a women of lower class endures in Pakistan. A woman facing constant abuse from her husband would gradually accept it as her fate. As it is hammered in her head that it is her duty, being a woman, to praise that.

She would never speak up no matter what is done to disrupt her life and she would even lose the courage to help the victims floating on the same boat as her. Thus confidence and freedom of expression along with awareness is essential in making an individual a positive contributor to the society. It is believed by many that the best defense to oppression is the patience to endure the hardships. No harm would be done and no wars will break out. But what is the worth of this meaningless life when the sole purpose of the life itself is taken away from you?

When even if you are breathing there is a little part of you that is dying inside. Each day you get off the bed, you lose the courage and the guts to speak your heart out. Setting someone right and standing for what you deserve is worth fighting for. Dying is better than living a life miserably. Not standing up for what we truly believe in is what makes us a coward and we will always gain from being vocal instead of covering our eyes when injustice and the immoral practices prevail. As Bob Marley said it in his own style , “get up stand up, stand up for your right, get up stand up don’t give up the fight”.

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Hardware vs Software Routing Essay

A router can be defined as a device that connects two or more than two computer networks and selectively exchanges packets of data among them. Every packet data encompasses address information that a router can use to find out whether the destination and source are on the same network, or if the packet data must be transmitted from one network to another.

Through projecting routing needs and network traffic centered on the types and number of applications and hardware devices used in environment, one can better choose whether to use a software router, a hardware router, or a combination of both.

When talking about hardware and software router, there are numerous advantages hardware router has over software router. Few of them are mentioned below. Hardware router has higher throughput as compared to software router and computer solutions particularly Windows based.

Hardware router is very reliable and runs easily once you set it up and does not require any attention, while software router are unreliable and does not run easily (Haverkort, Bohnenkamp & Smith, 2000).

Hardware-based routers handle heavy routing demands perfectly, whereas software routers can only handle lighter routing loads. Hardware router does not require a PC to be running to permit access for other computers.

In addition, hardware router does not contain any software or files that can be deleted, harmed, copied, stolen, etc. whereas, there is a risk in software router. A software router can be very perfect on a segmented and small network with comparatively light traffic between subnets as it cannot bear much load and traffic. However, hardware-based routers can bear heavy traffic and enterprise network environments that have a huge quantity of network divisions and an extensive range of performance desires use range of hardware routers in order to perform various roles throughout the network.

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Hardware Components Essay

There are several types of hardware storage devices invented and designed to facilitate encoded and retrieved data storage in computers. Some of the examples of these storage devices include the ff. : the hard disk, floppy disk, RAM, CD ROM, and tape. Furthermore, these storage devices together with hardware component of clock speed play their distinct roles to determine the speed and speed rate of a computer (MSD, 2006).


First, introduced in 1956 and developed during 1973, by the IBM company, the hard disk, or “hard disk drive” as mentioned, is one example of a stable and reliable secondary hardware storage device that efficiently facilitates speed.

It functions as some kind of an optimal and purposeful storeroom which saves accumulated and encoded numeric and digital data, and it is also appropriate for running application programs on spinning magnet-plated platters that is performed by execution and command by the user. Hard disk drives were created for personal computer usage.

It has features like audio playing, video gaming, video recording, etc (MSD, 2006).

Second, the role of hard disks in determining the speed of a computer is very significant because with the use of hard disk, it can makes the access of files easier and faster as it runs or rotates. The bigger the platters or dishes used by the hard disk to run, the faster its speed and the smaller the platters, the lower the capacity of the computer to run, work, or access files faster. The number of disks in a specific computer may vary at a minimum number of 3 disks to a maximum number of 5 running disks revolving 60 per second.

Most hard disk drives make use of removable cartridges while some do not. Most people create back up from the files they saved from the disk since the recent hard disk is created with such a sensitive feature. It can store data from 20 M up to 40 M (MSD, 2006). Third, a floppy disk coming in two sizes: 5 ? and 3 ? inches, is a detachable or unfixed storage device which is already obsolete. It is secondary as compared to the huge capacity of hard disk when it comes to data storage memory. The uses of floppy disks though, become popular for it is much cheaper than the cost of a hard disk.

Moreover, it is more convenient to carry floppy disks wherever you go and save data for the use of backup purposes. Moreover, floppy disks make use of the delicate, magnetic and bendable disk which is film-like in color and enclosed in a protective plastic shield or case. The roles of floppy disks portray no role in determining the speed of a computer—speed is determined by the Central Processing unit and its memory rather. For practical reasons, hard disks are favored over floppy disks especially when the cost of the first (hard disks) becomes more inexpensive than the latter.

Further, floppy disks are really essentially slower and more sensitive than hard disk that is why it is more prone to damage (MSD, 2006). Fourth, random access memory (RAM) is the primarily appropriate for storage of data that occurs in the computer’s memory and is stored directly at the computer’s Central Processing Unit (CPU). The two types of RAM are the SRAM and the DRAM. SRAM stands for Static RAM and the latter meaning, Dynamic RAM (DRAM). With the use of RAM, user can program the CPU to read, write, and locate data.

The role of RAM is to carry out and execute calculations at high speed which is made possible by the said feature of RAM or computer memory that operates random to locate items or applications in the computer system (MC, 2008). Fifth, with the use of compact disks, the CD-ROM operates and exemplifies the use of read-only memory for sharing and sending applications like music files, games, and other multimedia files and desktop applications. The capacity of CD-ROM when it comes to data storage is up to 650 M.

Recently, CD-ROMs tend to be much cheaper than other storage devices. CD-ROM is appropriate for expansion of one’s personalized computer system. In addition, CD-ROM does not play a role in determining the speed of a computer. In fact, user retrieves data slower than any other available data computer storage device in the market if the computer is not supported by CD-ROM’s “data transfer speed (MSD, 2006). ” Sixth, tape is a thin strip of plastic, magnetic coated device used mainly for recording and it is known to be appropriate for secondary data storage or backup.

Moreover, this tape is most appropriate for the purpose of calculations or “personal computing. ” There is a no role that a tape plays in order to determine speed in a particular computer; further, data access is slower than expected together with its inconvenience for the required retrieval of data in orderly and chronological manner (MSD, 2006). Lastly, clock speed—as measured in megahertz (MHz), is the “speed of the internal clock of microprocessor. ” Clock speed is appropriate for functioning in operation in the internal processing of a computer.

The clock speed plays an important role in determining the speed of a computer and it affects the overall performance of the computer (MSD, 2006). Conclusion Several types of hardware storage devices are invented for data storage in computers: the hard disk, floppy disk, RAM, CD ROM, and tape. All mediums except for the floppy disks, CD-ROM, and tape play a role in determining the speed of a computer. These devices except for the other three are hardware components that determine the speed and performance of a computer.

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